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Sample records for east asia part

  1. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-03

    JPRS-SEA-90-023 3 AUGUST 1990 !■■■■■ !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS 91$ East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 139...DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 4 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-90-023 CONTENTS 3 A UGUST1990 INDONESIA East Timor Governor Describes Province’s...Sam Neua District. This did not include the small shops in front of houses. In one month they were able to collect 500,000 kip in taxes . The tax

  2. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-25

    JPRS-SEA-90-022 25 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia 19990510 141 REPRODUCED BY U.S...Burmese have been forcibly resettled to new towns from densely-populated areas of Rangoon and Mandalay , often without running water and elec- tricity... settlement of some 100,000 people in bamboo houses. Situated in what were rice fields, the town suffers from flooding in the current monsoon season

  3. Surface wave group velocity tomography of East Asia, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Francis T.

    1993-07-01

    Group velocities of both Rayleigh and Love waves are used in a tomographic inversion to obtain group velocity maps of East Asia (60 deg E-140 deg E and 20 deg N-50 deg N). The period range studied is 30-70 seconds. For periods longer than 40 seconds, a high group velocity gradient clearly exists along longitude 105 deg E; the velocities are noticeably higher east of this longitude than west of this longitude. The Tibetan Plateau appears as a prominent low velocity (about 15%) structure in this area; central Tibet appears as the area with the lowest velocity. The North China Plain is an area of high velocities, probably as a result of thin crust. The variability of deep crustal and upper mantle structures underneath the different tectonic provinces in the study can clearly be seen. In a separate study, using the dataset above and that from the former Soviet Union, we have derived the Rayleigh tomographic images of a larger area (40 deg E-160 deg E and 20 deg N-70 deg N). While the Tibetan plateau still remains to be the most prominent low velocity features, two other features are also clear, a very high velocity Siberian platform and a high velocity ridge extending from Lake Baikal to Central Mongolia. These studies are useful in delineating tectonics.

  4. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  5. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  6. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  7. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  8. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-14

    JPRS-SEA-90-017 14 JUNE 1990 JPRS Report— East Asia Southeast Asia REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION ...Rangoon THE WORKING PEOPLE’S DAILY in English 31 Mar 90 pp 12, 4, 6 [Excerpts] Yangon, 30 March—The Information Com- mittee of the State Law and Order...is found that rooms for tourists are insufficient. Hence, the Ministry of Trade is making arrangements for building new hotels in Yangon, Mandalay

  10. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-13

    are a number of knowledgeable and well-educated people who don’t dare give their views. They are afraid of being branded as bad. They are afraid...exempts the eldest sons of war dead families), the children of Class-1 and Class-2 disabled veterans and Class-1 ill soldiers, and people with blood...19980515 091 East Asia Southeast Asia JPRS-SEA-91-003 CONTENTS 13 February 1991 BURMA Report on Border Area Development [THE WORKING PEOPLES DAILY

  11. Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-14

    to be signed by the State of Palestine and the Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan? What is more serious is that under the provision of general principles...conclusions under the headings, "Our Most Important Accomplishments in Madrid," "The Washington Round," and "The Coming Talks." This part reflects the...the Palestinian delegation under the PLO leadership. The United States allowed a degree of balance by inviting a delegation formed of 14

  12. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  13. Karaoke and Interpersonal Communication in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ringo

    An exploratory study investigated the interpersonal meaning of karaoke to its participants in East Asia. Current research suggests that the popularity of karaoke in East Asia is associated with the cultural value of harmony and the indirect mode of communication in this region. Subjects, 51 East Asian undergraduate-level students who had…

  14. Cholera outbreaks in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, S K

    2014-01-01

    This chapter highlights the cholera situation in South Asia and the Bay of Bengal region, the original 'homeland' of cholera. A detailed discussion of cholera outbreaks in individual countries in South-East Asia follows. The countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) SEARO (South-East Asia Region) region are discussed first, followed by discussions about the other countries in South-East Asia that do not fall within the purview of the WHO SEARO classification of the member countries of the region. Therefore, the chapter attempts to provide a comprehensive yet precise outline of the major cholera outbreaks that have occurred in the region over the years.

  15. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-15

    Louangphachit [PASASON 18 Nov] ...., 21 MALAYSIA ECONOMIC Proton To Start Plant in Chile [BERITA HARIAN 14 Nov] 22 THAILAND MILITARY Opinion...Minister of Defense and Security] L.B. Murdani said that sociocultural problems are latent throughout the Asia Pacific area, including Southeast...can learn that the country disintegrated because of sociocultural problems and not because of military, sociopolitical, or socioeconomic issues. He

  16. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-23

    interests of socialism and peace and stability in the region and the world over." /12913 CSO: 4209/663 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA KAMPUCHEA...will be further strengthened and developed for the social development of each country and for peace and stability in the region and the world. [Text...contributed to the safeguarding of peace and stability in Indochina, Southeast Asia and the world. We are very proud of these successes and consider

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Management 7 PASASON Sees Need for Enterprises To Adopt Capitalist Expertise 7 MALAYSIA Mahathir Hands Over $100,000 to PLO 9 Libyan...Diplomats in Malaysia Spearhead Asia-Pacific ’Offensive’ 9 Mahathir Warns Japanese Investors About ’Western Media Distortion’ 10 Negotiations To...9604 JPRS-SEA-88-033 10 August 1988 FIJI Study of Nation’s Leadership 42130148a Kuala Lumpur UTUSAN MALAYSIA in Malay 2 Jun 88 p 6 [Article by

  18. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    facilities, facilities which have proven to be reliable and far less expensive. And to sweeten the pot the Soviet Union also offered to let...interior of Sichuan Province, and this facility has even launched a U.S. artificial satellite. The AsiaSat 1 satellite was launched there recently...rockets to launch its artificial satellites. Its concern has been that sophisticated satellite technology will fall into the hands of an enemy. JPRS

  19. Transport: Shipping emissions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James

    2016-11-01

    Large growth in East Asia's sea-borne trade has increased premature deaths and atmospheric warming in the region. New legislation could reduce these impacts in areas around China, but joint efforts are needed for region-wide benefits.

  20. Psychogeriatrics in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chiu, H F; Ng, L L; Nivataphand, R; Yong, K C; Lengkong, Y; Buenaventura, R D; Li, S W

    1997-10-01

    A common phenomenon in South-East Asia is ageing of the population. This article describes the various stages of development of psychogeriatrics in Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. It is only in the last few years that more systematic development of psychogeriatric services has begun under the pressure of an ageing population. The model of service delivery in Hong Kong can serve as an example of development of psychogeriatric services in South-East Asia.

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-NEA-92-030 19 MARCH 1992 SFOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -:PRS Report "Near East & South Asia MOROCCO 19980113 275 REPRODUCED BY U.S...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Near East & South Asia MOROCCO JPRS-NEA-92-030 CONTENTS 19 March 1992...NEA-92-030 19 March 1992 POLITICAL 1 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS "Fish should not poison relations between the EEC and Morocco . It is up to the competent

  2. East Asia: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillin, Donald; And Others

    This bibliography, similar to others on Asia and Africa, contains over 2000 titles relevant to the study of East Asia. Book, journal, and a few government citations -- the majority of which have been published within the last twenty years -- emphasize the humanities and social studies. Intended as a book selection guide, entries are graded as to…

  3. JPRS Report, East Asia: Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Toll Road is for supporting transportation of products from the Bandung area to Tanjung Priok. The Umbulan Drinking Water Project in Pasuruan will...in Increase of Imports [KOMPAS 10 Oct] 4 Metal Corrosion Expense 1 Percent of GNP [KOMPAS 9 Oct] 5 MALAYSIA ECONOMIC Vietnamese Officials...Region), the Cikampek-Padalarang Toll Road, the Umbulan Drinking Water Project (East Java), and the Single Buoy Mooring Project at Cilacap (Central

  4. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  5. East Asia: The Yale Outreach Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    The East Asian Outreach Program at Yale University seeks to promote increased understanding of the countries of East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) through educational and cultural programming for educators, businesses, community organizations, and the general public on a national basis. In addition to information concerning the services,…

  6. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-03

    exempted from taxes for between 6 months and 1 year. Families who work part - time to increase their incomes are exempted from all taxes. With regard...Zainon Ahmad; NEW STRAITS TIMES , 18 Apr 87) 39 Prem Urged To Resign To Solve Image Problem (Editorial; SIAM RAT, 7 May 87) ^2 43 Fisheries...Ho Chi Minh City Regulation on Business, Part 3 (SAIGON GIAI PHONG, 10 Apr 87) 85 Ho Chi Minh City Autonomy Regulation, Part 4 (SAIGON GIAI

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-23

    East & South Asia JPRS-NEA-88-021 CONTENTS 23 MARCH 1988 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Egyptian Foreign Policy Advisor Offers Views on Uprising 1 PALESTINIAN...Calls For Clear, Honest Party Policies 13 LIBYA Libya Detains Crew of Tunisian Fishing Vessel [AL-DUSTUR, 7 Mar 88] 14 MOROCCO World Bank...88] il JPRS-NEA-88-021 23 March 1988 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Egyptian Foreign Policy Advisor Offers Views on Uprising 44040123a Jerusalem AL-QUDS 18

  8. The rise of methamphetamine in Southeast and East Asia.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Kozel, Nicholas; Douglas, Jeremy; Ali, Robert; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Lund, Johannes; Li, Jih-Heng

    2008-05-01

    Southeast and East Asia has become a global hub for methamphetamine production and trafficking over the past decade. This paper describes the rise of methamphetamine supply and to what extent use of the drug is occurring in the region. The current review uses data collected through the Drug Abuse Information Network for Asia and the Pacific (DAINAP) and other available sources to analyse retrospectively methamphetamine trends within Southeast and East Asia. Southeast and East Asia has experienced a methamphetamine epidemic in the past decade which began around 1997 and peaked in 2000-2001. While the situation has since stabilised in many countries, methamphetamine trafficking and use are still increasing in parts of the Mekong region and there is evidence of large-scale manufacture in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Methamphetamine is typically smoked or ingested, but injection of the drug is apparent. While the peak of the methamphetamine epidemic has passed in parts of Southeast and East Asia, attention is needed to minimise the potential consequences of spreading methamphetamine production, trafficking and use in the Mekong region and in the peninsular and archipelago of Southeast Asia.

  9. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    20,000 a day. To cut on costs, the consortium will apply a directional drilling from the Libro production platform using the hack-up rig. Total... Libro platform that is part of the Matinloc reef com- plex. Drilling is expected to take 36 days. This prospect has actually been drilled in 1981 by

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-06

    only did not improve but actually became worse, as when the Chinese Navy pro- voked more disputes in the Truong Sa and Hoang Sa islands of the SRV 2...Sa and Hoang Sa islands , as well as other border disputes (according to official letters for 17 and 23 March 1988). The SRV also proposed that "both...May 1988 the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs had issued a circular on the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa islands of the SRV which said in part that "China

  11. Cloud Microphysical Characteristics over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Wang, D.; Zhai, G.

    2012-04-01

    A survey of the existing literature on in-situ measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical properties was undertaken. Then, a database was established to contain microphysical properties for raindrop, cloud droplet, fog, ice nuclei (IN), snow crystal, as well as the relationship between radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall rate (R). The time span of the in-situ probe measurements ranges from 1960 to 2008 over East Asia and from 1940 to 2008 in the other regions (which is defined as those include the Americas, Europe, and Australia). From the datasets, dividing the data coverage into East Asia and the other regions, several parameters are presented, including mean concentration of hydrometeor particles, liquid water content (LWC), as well as functional fit parameters of particles size distributions. The main properties of hydrometeor particles were presented, and the functional fitted parameters of particle size distributions over East Asia have been compared with those over the other regions. Note that the all measurements taken in other regions do not mean that all cloud systems in the other regions are similar. Our main method of the present study is to put all measurement results taken in different regions over the world together. If the cloud systems over East Asia have their own characteristics, it will be grouped together. Thus, the difference between East Asia and other regions is readily discernible. The results show that there are differences, sometimes even large differences, between East Asia and the other regions in terms of these cloud-precipitation microphysical characteristics. More specific conclusions are as follows: (1) Both exponential- and gamma-size distributions are used to fit RSD of rains originating from stratiform clouds. Average intercept N0 of exponential-size distribution over East Asia is one order of magnitude smaller than that over the other regions, and average slope λ is slight smaller. As for gamma-size distributions, the

  12. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part I. Model evaluation and intercomparison with MM5/CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the application of the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.3.1 is evaluated over East Asia for January, April, July, and October 2005 and compared with results from a previous application of an offline model system, i.e., the Mesoscale Model and Community Multiple Air Quality modeling system (MM5/CMAQ). The evaluation of WRF/Chem is performed using multiple observational datasets from satellites and surface networks in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. WRF/Chem simulates well specific humidity (Q2) and downward longwave and shortwave radiation (GLW and GSW) with normalized mean biases (NMBs) within 24%, but shows moderate to large biases for temperature at 2-m (T2) (NMBs of -9.8% to 75.6%) and precipitation (NMBs of 11.4-92.7%) for some months, and wind speed at 10-m (WS10) (NMBs of 66.5-101%), for all months, indicating some limitations in the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme, the Purdue Lin cloud microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme. WRF/Chem can simulate the column abundances of gases reasonably well with NMBs within 30% for most months but moderately to significantly underpredicts the surface concentrations of major species at all sites in nearly all months with NMBs of -72% to -53.8% for CO, -99.4% to -61.7% for NOx, -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9% to 33.3% for PM10, and aerosol optical depth in all months except for October with NMBs of -38.7% to -16.2%. The model significantly overpredicts surface concentrations of O3 at most sites in nearly all months with NMBs of up to 160.3% and NO3- at the Tsinghua site in all months. Possible reasons for large underpredictions include underestimations in the anthropogenic emissions of CO, SO2, and primary aerosol, inappropriate vertical distributions of emissions of SO2 and NO2, uncertainties in upper boundary conditions (e.g., for O3 and CO), missing or inaccurate model representations (e

  13. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  14. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-10

    customs tariffs is being contemplated by Dubayy. JPRS-NEA-89-019 10 March 1989 34 NEAR EAST The Financial Adviser to Dubayy government, W. R . Duff...JPRS-NEA-89-019 10 MARCH 1989 !■■■■! ■■■■■I Miff/ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JP/?S Report— Near East & South Asia REPRODUCED...JPRS-NEA-89-019 CONTENTS 10 MARCH 1989 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Iranian-Palestinian Relations Discussed [London AL-SHARQ AL-A WSAT 5 Feb] 1 Trade Talks

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-28

    JPRS-NEA-90-035 28 JUNE 1990 ■■■■■■ i%^ M W M0A FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Near East & South Asia 19980515 116 REPRODUCED...SOUTH ASIA 31 your opinion can stop all that and save the country?" Without hesitation he said, "King Zahir Shah." At first, I was taken by surprise...but I soon remembered what President Najibullah himself had told me when I inter- viewed him. Najibullah told me, "His Majesty King Zahir Shah

  17. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  18. A comparison of the taxonomic richness of temperate plants in East Asia and North America.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong

    2002-11-01

    The taxonomic richness of seed plants at different taxonomic levels was compared between temperate East Asia and North America at both continental and semi-continental scales. In each comparison, land area and latitude range were adjusted to a comparable level between the two continental regions. East Asia is significantly more diverse than North America. In general, differences in taxonomic diversity arise at and below the genus level. At the continental scale, East Asia has 1.3 and 1.5 times as many genera and species, respectively, as North America. The northern part of East Asia has 1.1 times as many species as the northern part of North America. At the genus level, the northern part of East Asia is less diverse than the northern part of North America by a factor of 0.94. This pattern indicates that the diversity bias between the two continental regions results from the flora of southern East Asia. The diversity differences between East Asia and North America are not homogenously distributed across different plant groups. At the species level, East Asia had significantly more species than expected in magnoliids, alismatids, Liliidae, ranunculids, and rosids and had significantly less species in the Commelinidae, Caryophyllidae, and euasterids than North America.

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    JPRS-NEA-89-008 1 FEBRUARY 1989 JPRS ill Approved for pubär^i^p I Distribution Unlimited j Near East & South Asia DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1...system of haphaz- ardly set quotas, combined with structural inadequacies ( storage space, the flow through distribution channels, and so on...margarine piled up in the cold storage rooms. It appears that margarine is hard to swallow! And people are not aware of its use. Questioned as to the cause

  20. Multi-year application of WRF-CAM5 over East Asia-Part II: Interannual variability, trend analysis, and aerosol indirect effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; He, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of WRF-CAM5 in Part I, Part II describes analyses of interannual variability, multi-year variation trends, and the direct, indirect, and total effects of anthropogenic aerosols. The interannual variations of chemical column and surface concentrations, and ozone (O3)/particulate matter (PM) indicators are strongly correlated to anthropogenic emission changes. Despite model biases, the model captures well the observed interannual variations of temperature at 2-m, cloud fraction, shortwave cloud forcing, downwelling shortwave radiation, cloud droplet number concentration, column O3, and column formaldehyde (HCHO) for the whole domain. While the model reproduces the volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited regimes of O3 chemistry at sites in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) and the degree of sulfate neutralization at the EANET sites, it has limited capability in capturing the interannual variations of the ratio of O3 and nitrogen dioxide (O3/NO2) and PM chemical regime indicators, due to uncertainties in the emissions of precursors for O3 and secondary PM, the model assumption for ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4) as well as lack of gas/particle partitioning of total ammonia and total nitrate. While the variation trends in multi-year periods in aerosol optical depth and column concentrations of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and NO2 are mainly caused by anthropogenic emissions, those of major meteorological and cloud variables partly reflect feedbacks of chemistry to meteorological variables. The impacts of anthropogenic aerosol indirect effects either dominate or play an important role in the aerosol total effects for most cloud and chemical predictions, whereas anthropogenic aerosol direct effects influence most meteorological and radiation variables. The direct, indirect, and total effects of anthropogenic aerosols exhibit a strong interannual variability in

  1. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  2. Multi-year application of WRF-CAM5 over East Asia-Part I: Comprehensive evaluation and formation regimes of O3 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Chen, Ying; Leung, L. Ruby; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Meng; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2017-09-01

    Accurate simulations of air quality and climate require robust model parameterizations on regional and global scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry version 3.4.1 has been coupled with physics packages from the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) (WRF-CAM5) to assess the robustness of the CAM5 physics package for regional modeling at higher grid resolutions than typical grid resolutions used in global modeling. In this two-part study, Part I describes the application and evaluation of WRF-CAM5 over East Asia at a horizontal resolution of 36-km for six years: 2001, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2011. The simulations are evaluated comprehensively with a variety of datasets from surface networks, satellites, and aircraft. The results show that meteorology is relatively well simulated by WRF-CAM5. However, cloud variables are largely or moderately underpredicted, indicating uncertainties in the model treatments of dynamics, thermodynamics, and microphysics of clouds/ices as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. For chemical predictions, the tropospheric column abundances of CO, NO2, and O3 are well simulated, but those of SO2 and HCHO are moderately overpredicted, and the column HCHO/NO2 indicator is underpredicted. Large biases exist in the surface concentrations of CO, NOx, and PM10 due to uncertainties in the emissions as well as vertical mixing. The underpredictions of NO lead to insufficient O3 titration, thus O3 overpredictions. The model can generally reproduce the observed O3 and PM indicators. These indicators suggest to control NOx emissions throughout the year, and VOCs emissions in summer in big cities and in winter over North China Plain, North/South Korea, and Japan to reduce surface O3, and to control SO2, NH3, and NOx throughout the year to reduce inorganic surface PM.

  3. Some cooperative activities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaifu, Norio

    We report the activity of continued and sequential cooperation among Asian countries/regions, especially in East Asia. Such efforts started in 1990 from a small-size China-Korea-Japan meeting on starforming regions. Being aware of the importance of cooperation among those neighboring countries, participants agreed to hold sequential "East Asian Meetings for Astronomy (EAMA)". The 1992 meeting entitled "Millimeter-Wave and Infrared Astronomy" was held in Japan, and the 1999 meeting entitled "Observational Astrophysics in Asia and its Future" was held in China. These meetings achieved quite high activity with 100-200 participants, each. An important product of those meetings was active exchange between young astronomers, including graduate students. The primary aim of these meetings/activities was to promote small but practical cooperation in the field of astronomical instrumentation, as well as to widen the contact among Asian astronomers. An East-Asian co-experiment to search for good sites for a possible "Asian Observatory" was among such efforts. The close cooperation between Japan, China (Peoples' Republic and Taipei) and Korea, on millimeter and sub-millimeter wave technology is another good example of joint developments of new instruments.

  4. Relative Travel Time Tomography for East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. J.; CHO, S.

    2016-12-01

    Japan island region is one of the most seismically active region in the world. As a large number of earthquakes have recently occurred along circum-Pacific belt called the ring of fire, concern over earthquakes is increasing in South Korea close to Japan. In this study, we perform seismic imaging based on relative S-wave travel-times to examine S-wave velocity upper mantle structure of East Asia. We used teleseismic events recorded at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) network and F-net network operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Relative travel-time residuals were obtained by a multi-channel cross-correlation method designed to automatically determine accurate relative phase arrival times. The resulting images show high-velocity anomalies along East and South side of Japan island region. These anomalies may indicate subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates, respectively. The velocity structure beneath southwest Japan is revealed very complex because the two slabs interact with each other there. Velocity structure of East Asia is useful to understand the tectonic evolution and the mechanism of earthquakes that occur in this region.

  5. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  6. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  7. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  8. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  10. What's happening to marriage in East Asia?

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1998-07-01

    This article presents an overview of marriage patterns in East Asia. Globally, marriage patterns are changing. In East Asia, cultural patterns are slowing the changes in attitude toward marriage that are occurring in the West. There are implications of changing attitudes for government planners. This issue of Asia-Pacific Population and Policy is based on a series of studies of marriage and family life in Japan, South Korea, and the US. Data were obtained from the 1994 Japan Survey on Work and Family Life; the 1994 South Korea Survey on the Quality of Life; and the 1992-94 US Survey of Families and Households. Findings are reported on marriage age, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes post-marriage, and work patterns during marriage. Both Japan and South Korea have below replacement level fertility and traditional gendered division of labor in the household. In South Korea, women who work 35 or more hours/week spend 31 hours/week on housework, while husbands contribute 14 hours/week. In the US, the equivalent figures were 26 hours for full-time working wives and 9 hours for husbands. In Japan, wives spent 30 hours on housework, while husbands spent 3 hours. Full-time work outside the home involved 57% of married women in Japan, 27% in South Korea, and 66% in the US. Notwithstanding the double burden, women in South Korea and Japan experience pressure from competitive school systems for their children. After-school academic programs are expensive. The trend is for greater reluctance to marry. Replacement level fertility is unlikely unless full equality is achieved in the family.

  11. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  12. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  13. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  14. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  15. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  16. Redefining second modernity for East Asia: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Jin; Shim, Young-Hee

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which the concept of second modernity and reflexive modernization proposed by Beck and Grande is relevant to East Asia. Concepts such as driving forces, human agency, objective-structural versus cultural-discursive dimensions, radicalizing versus deficiencies aspects of modernity, push versus pull factors are used to clarify the basic conditions of this historical transformation. Utilizing these conceptual schemes, this paper has advanced the following central claims: 1) Second modernity and reflexive modernization, as a global trend, affects East Asia as deeply as it does in the West, especially when we see this as a structurally conditioned historical transformation; 2) Global risks, as a driving force of second modernity, are more relevant in East Asia because, as a result of the side-effects of the rush-to development, East Asian countries face complex risks of far greater intensity than in the West; 3) The action-mediated pull factor of second-modern transformation in East Asia, expressed through the cultural-discursive articulation of collective desire and aspiration, differs significantly from the West. Consequently, the East Asian pathways to individualization display distinctive characteristics despite the common structural background where push factors operate; 4) East Asia also differs from the West in terms of the normative vision anchored in second modernity; 5) Nevertheless, concrete pathways to second modernity within East Asia differ from one country to another. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-15

    to "hear no evil", "see no evil" and "speak no Factories boss Maj. Gen. Mahmood Ali Durrani, an evil" are secretly decided in advance by mutual...nuclear technology, especially to the Middle East..." [Text] Whether the recent meeting between Pakistan’s Federal Minister, Chaudhry Nisar Ali , who...Nisar Ali , On his part, gave Mr Warren Christopher every obtain Russian cyrogenic [as published] rocket engines assurance that Pakistan was opposed

  18. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, D. M.; Stephenson, F. R.; Fang, Huiping

    2007-03-01

    1880-1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

  19. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  20. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  1. Preliminary Bibliography on East Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

    This classified bibliography on East Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and South Asia (LI 000 061) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its…

  2. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  3. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  4. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is

  5. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; ...

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at themore » surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that

  6. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part I. Comprehensive Model Evaluation and Trend Analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with

  7. The Rising Powers and Collective Security in South East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE RISING POWERS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN SOUTH EAST ASIA BY COLONEL MICHAEL MAHY Australian...U.S. Army War College CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA 17013 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel Michael Mahy TITLE: The Rising Powers and...Asia has proved that she can do the economics. Can she also do the politics that come with power? 1 -Shivshankar Menon, India‘s National

  8. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia. Korea: KULLOJA, No. 12, December 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-23

    JPRS-AKU-90-004 23 JULY 1990 ffSBBBl ■■■■■« L.%^^ W J’#’A FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No...QUALITY DJSPMJTED 3 East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 12, December 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-004 CONTENTS 23 JULY 1990 [This report is a translation of the table...of contents and selected articles from the monthly theoretical journal of the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party, published in Pyongyang

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 10, October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fatherland’s Reunification Reality and Must change Its Policy on Korea 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean No 10, Oct 89...STATEMENT A Approved for public reiecse; Distribution Unlimited East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 IXHC QUÄLET* INSPECTED $ 󈨥SOS7? /3<g...East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-002 CONTENTS 11 APRIL 1990 [This report is a translation of the table of contents and

  11. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  12. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    play an effective role in this regard. He said the BJMC [Bangladesh Jute Mills Corporation] and BJMA [expansion unknown] would play a more JPRS-NEA...90-059 17 OCTOBER 1990 SOUTH ASIA active role for export of jute goods specially gunny bags to meet the additional requirement under the present

  13. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  14. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  15. Variations in the power dissipation index in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kin Sik; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the variability of the power dissipation index (PDI) for different regions of the East Asia region during the period 1960-2013. The annual PDI (APDI) in the region is calculated as the sum of the PDI, defined as the cube of the maximum sustained wind speed at landfall of each tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall at that region. Upward and downward trends in APDI are found in the northern and southern parts of East Asia respectively, suggesting a possible northward shift in TC landfall locations. Interdecadal variations of the APDI can also be found in some regions. The APDI in various regions show a close relation with the PDI distribution over the western North Pacific (WNP) with three characteristic patterns. The ENSO and basin-wide mode represents the PDI patterns associated with ENSO events and the overall PDI over the WNP. The east-west dipole mode and the north-south dipole mode denote the east-west and north-south shifts of PDI respectively. Based on the steering flow (average winds within the 850-300 hPa layer) near the East Asian coast, a three-cell model for TC landfall in East Asia is proposed, which corresponds to three major modes of the atmospheric circulation in the WNP. Each of these modes shows an anomalous circulation located east of Taiwan, east of Japan and the South China Sea, respectively and each of which has a significant impact on the APDI in some regions along the coast of East Asia. A northward shift in the APDI along the East Asian coast is identified in the period 1997-2013 as a result of the change in steering flow pattern, northward shift in TC genesis location and weaker vertical wind shear over the ocean near the coastal areas.

  16. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 1, January 1989 %

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 xmcQuiim Brazil ) 1 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 1 January...regions. Tobacco accounts for 17 percent of the area and 32 percent of the yield. Jute accounts for 14 percent of the yield. Coconuts account for 90...Besides this, Seaprodex helped the Nam Can joint ven- ture import 558 generators of various sizes, 458 "may thuy" [ water machines] of various

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: Tap Chi Cong San, No. 6, June 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 3 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 6, June 1990...1980, volume 1, page 10] According to President Ho, confidence in the masses was one of the basic qualities of communists. That was one of the...34 "Riches could not seduce him, poverty and suf- fering could not change him, and military power could not force him to submit." He resolutely overcame

  18. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  19. State and change of Dryland East Asia (DEA)

    Treesearch

    Jiquan Chen; Ranjeet John; Guanghua Qiao; Ochirbat Batkhishig; Wenping Yuan; Yaoqi Zhang; Changliang Shao; Zutao Ouyang; Linghao Li; Ke Guo; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Dry land East Asia (DEA) refers to a region with 4.81 million square kilometers (km²) and includes Mongolia and four provinces/regions in Northern China (hereafter called "administrative units" ): Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, and Xinjiang. This introduction chapter provides an overview of the DEA region from three perspectives: 1) geography,...

  20. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  1. Adolescent Suicide and Academic Competition in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Kangmin; Le Tendre, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    Uses recent data and new theoretical perspectives to reexamine hypothesized links between academic competition and adolescent suicide in East Asia, particularly Japan. Finds no direct connection, discusses possible indirect effects on individual motives, and suggests a more complicated model. Analyzes how cultural and historical factors may…

  2. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In…

  3. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  4. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  5. Teaching about East Asia in North Dakota Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Fredrick E.

    The current practice of teaching about East Asia in North Dakota schools was surveyed. From a list of 607 North Dakota social studies teachers, ranging from grades 7 to 12 in both public and private schools, a target sample of 266 teachers was administered a questionnaire. All regions of the states, with at least one teacher form each school, were…

  6. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  7. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-11

    the Muslim leader in Central Asia from his position after it was established that he is an alcoholic and that he does not pray regularly. Although...the reported decision by the council of Asyut University to incorporate a " behavior " item into the temporary graduation diplo- mas of students of the...circumstances of a 20-year-old and his behavior remain all his life without alteration? What is the solu- tion for a student who graduates a moderate and

  8. South and East Asia Report No. 1180

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-17

    Kalimantan border. The Spanish firm once made a study in this area. On the other hand Conoco, in cooperation with AGIP [National Italian Oil...THE PAKISTAN TIMES, 16 Jul 82) 20 - a - . [Ill - ASIA - 107] Bar Council Amendment Criticized (Murtaza Malik; THE MUSLIM, 19 Jul 82) 26... Bar Association Criticizes Amendments (THE MUSLIM, 20 Jul 82) 27 Reactions To Bar Act Amendment Reported (THE MUSLIM, 22 Jul 82) 28 Senior

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    guarded secrets from out- siders." The author is a former Indian ambassador to the Soviet Union /9274 CSOs 4600/1804 57 INDIA SOUTH ASIA...countries". Report on Moscow Talks Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA in English 7 Jun 87 p 10 [Text] MOSCOW, June 6 (UNI). INDIA and the Soviet Union today... UNION TERRITORY Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA in English 17 Jun 87 p 19 democratic process in small areas and allow them to maintain their distinct

  10. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Indian -Made Jaguar Delivered to Air Force 46001245 Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA in English 21 Jan 88 p 9 [Text] Bangalore, January 20—The first...raised his voice, the project might be shelved. 07310 Pakistan Arrests of Indian Ships Questioned 46001231 Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA in English 19...CONTENTS 3 MARCH 1988 SOUTH ASIA INDIA U.S.-Sri Lanka Pact Brings on Indian Commitment 1 ’Knowledgeable Circles’ Say Gorbachev May Visit 2 UK

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-24

    Marketing Problems Reviewed 13 TUNISIA Bank Governor To Renew Loans From Financial Backers [JEUNE AFRIQUE ECONOM1E, Jan 88] Tax System for 1988...Financial Law Explained Abu Dhabi Fund Grants Agricultural Loan Irrigation System To Benefit Ksar Ghilene Oasis Eight Integrated Farm...Projects Planned in Kairouan Unemployed Youths Seek Entrance to Libya To Find Work SOUTH ASIA INDIA Indo-Soviet Protocol on Defense Aviation Signed

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-17

    Projects Described [Beirut AL- ANWAR 24 Dec] 40 SOUTH ASIA INDIA Government Criticized For Not Promoting Hindi as National Language [JANSATTA 1...44040236A Beirut AL- ANWAR in Arabic 24 Deep 7 [Article: "In the Coming Year the Emirates Will See Huge Projects in the Communications Field"] [Text...promulgated by the British rulers in 1862 to ensure "better government of India". Advocate Kamil Shaikh (also Secretary-General, Prisoners Aids

  13. Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Su, B

    2000-11-01

    East Asia is one of the few regions in the world where a relatively large number of human fossils have been unearthed--a discovery that has been taken as evidence for an independent local origin of modern humans outside of Africa. However, genetic studies conducted in the past ten years, especially using Y chromosomes, have provided unequivocal evidence for an African origin of East Asian populations. The genetic signatures present in diverse East Asian populations mark the footsteps of prehistoric migrations that occurred tens of thousands of years ago.

  14. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-19

    ft.’V’» i KR B&3 BSQ604 W I •aw«K**%. .> JPRS-NEA-91-013 CONTENTS 19 February 1991 NEAR EAST REGIONAL AFFAIRS Egyptian Envoy on Palestinian...Parliamentary Seats Discussed [AL-SHIRA’ 17, 24 Dec, 7 Jan] 30 JPRS-NEA-91-013 19 February 1991 2 MOROCCO AL-’ALAM Comments on 1991 Draft...Census Procedures Criticized [DAWN31 Dec] • • 55 JPRS-NEA-91-013 19 February 1991 NEAR EAST REGIONAL AFFAIRS Egyptian Envoy on Palestinian

  15. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Corps of Engineers and that there are two new cities that theSe- cond Army is building by its own efforts, one of them east of the [Suez] Canal...civil aircraft!! Shim’on Perez , who is said to be a dove, described the American decision to hold a dialogue with the PLO as a "black day in

  17. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  18. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  19. JPRS Report: Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-15

    English 11 Aug 90 p 3 [Article by Mushahid Hussain : "America’s Farewell to Arms"] [Text] The United States has finally decided to end the last...was resolved through Loya Jirga. They were of the view that majority of Afghans supported former king Zahir Shah. 20 SOUTH ASIA JPRS-NEA-90-058...8217Credible’ Poll Urged 90AS0444E Lahore THE NATION in English 19Aug90p6 [Article by Mushahid Hussain : "Pointers to a Bumpy Political Path"] [Text

  20. Near East/South Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Safety (AL-RA’Y AL-’AMM, 29 Jul 85) 95 Briefs Woman Elected in al-Bayda’ 97 SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH Membership in Cabinet Numbered at 32 (THE...of democracy, self -sufficiency and justice. We also tell them that the law is the final judge vis-a-vis any excess. Egyptian Labor [Question] We...the citizen in commodity production and in housing, thus achieving self -sufficiency in food and producing an industrial output that meets a large

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-23

    THE HINDU 24 Aug] 39 Expected Effects of Middle East Crisis Outlined [THE TELEGRAPH 22 Aug] 40 CPI- M Politburo Condemns U.S. Actions in Gulf...Brings Dissension 47 Consensus Not Reached [THE HINDU 4 Sep] 47 Congress-I Stand [THE HINDU 31 Aug] 49 CPI- M Position [THE HINDU 31 Aug] 49...Gulbuddin Hikmatyar has vehemently dismissed any future role for Zahir Shah in Afghanistan, he has further discounted the possibility of elections

  2. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-09

    vampirize this entire petroleum-rich region, [passage omitted] It is 1500 hours on 29 April. The bus that has been provided to take the delegation to the...as follows: 1. In 1957, several forces in Hungary attempted to eliminate the communist regime there. Zionist groups, including a number of prominent...all Zionist organizations in the world to bring international pressure to bear on the East European countries. After Hungary and Czechoslo- vakia

  3. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-23

    REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED I Near East & South... technical cooperation between the Egyptian technical cooperation fund for Africa and the Ethiopian Government. Butrus Ghali said the sum total of these...transportation, etc. Economists familiar with the situation say that a simple analysis of this condition and of the 13.4 percent depreci- ation in the

  4. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Aug] ........................... 54 QATAR Bank Manager Says Financial Climate Returns to Normal [London AL-SHARQ AL-A WSAT 24 Aug... risk , contrary to some observers’ expectations, a JPRS-NEA-91-065 2 NEAR EAST 18 September 1991 withdrawal from negotiations. This is especially the...be linked. However, unlike from protracted negotiations devoid of progress. These the assumption underlying the first scenario, in which risks are

  5. Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-06-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied.

  6. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    about milk , especially the journalists: Is there a shortage or poor distribution? It is true there are periods of reduced production , due to the heat...EAST 17 [Djabellah] That is true. We received 1,400 tons of dried milk , and it was a very high-quality product , this can be verified. We refused it...8217 [ALGERIE ACTUALITE 21-27 May] 12 ’Les Freres et la Mosquee’ [ALGERIE ACTUALITE 21-27 May] 14 Milk Shortages Reported; Causes Debated [LE

  8. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    into a one-day review. In my opinion, the main problem are other plans to prevent the export of arms in general is that the Shamir government does not...I do not believe East region. Is that because Moscow requires hard cur- that it is optimistic. rency, which is generated by arms sales? [AL-SHARQ AL...this a Soviet threat? further on these matters, because it wants to torpedo the conference in general . It does not want a conference. [Gerasimov] It is

  9. Potential vorticity regimes over East Asia during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Ruyan; Wang, Bin; Wright, Jonathon S.; Yang, Zifan; Ma, Wenqian

    2017-02-01

    Nine potential vorticity (PV) regimes over East Asia are identified by applying a Self-Organizing Map and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification regime analysis to the daily PV reanalysis fields on the 300 K isentropic surface for December-March 1948-2014. According to the surface temperature anomalies over East Asia, these nine regimes are further classified into three classes, i.e., cold class (three regimes), warm class (four regimes), and neutral class (two regimes). The PV-based East Asian winter monsoon index (EAWMI) is used to study the relationship between PV distributions and the temperature anomalies. The magnitude of cold (warm) anomalies over the land areas of East Asia increases (decreases) quasi-linearly with the EAWMI. Regression analysis reveals that cold temperature anomalies preferentially occur when the EAWMI exceeds a threshold at ˜0.2 PVU (where 1 PVU ≡ 10-6 m2 K kg-1 s-1). PV inversion uncovers the mechanisms behind the relationships between the PV regimes and surface temperature anomalies and reveals that cold (warm) PV regimes are associated with significant warming (cooling) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. On average, cold regimes have longer durations than warm regimes. Interclass transition probabilities are much higher for paths from warm/neutral regimes to cold regimes than for paths from cold regimes to warm/neutral regimes. Besides, intraclass transitions are rare within the warm or neutral regimes. The PV regime analysis provides insight into the causes of severe cold spells over East Asia, with blocking circulation patterns identified as the primary factor in initiating and maintaining these cold spells.

  10. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described.

  11. Near East/South Asia Report, No. 2777

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    244082 JPRS 83814 I July 1983 Near East/South Asia Report No. 2777 Approved lor public reikis^"" I >&stribtjtJoia Unlimited 19980716...171 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE 3?XXC $u JIXIS1 1H0P1CT1B 8 lx: "t’/ i 4: /" NOTE JPRS publications contain information...be addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS 83814 I July 1983 Near East/South

  12. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

  13. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.

  14. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    have been assigned to for it in hard currency like any foreign buyer . But in fact, complete a portion of the required information, the government, for...this compulsion that is preventing the in the cooperative scandal were presumed to be part of government from focusing too much attention on the the

  16. Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; Lü, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

    2008-12-01

    The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia.

  17. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  18. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-10

    THE NEW NATION, 16 Jan 88] 29 INDIA CPI- M Chief Defends Communist Role in Freedom Movement [PATRIOT, 24 Jan 88] 29 FRG Reported To Violate...at Machine Tools Factory Celebration 46001257 Dhaka THE BANGLADESH OBSERVER in English 17 Jan 88 pp 1, 8 [Excerpt] President Hussain Muhammad...the Awami League, BNP and Jamaat-e-Islami, took part in the conference held at the Sangsad Club. President Hussain Mohammad Ershad who is Chairman

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Maverick missiles it had requested, and an announce- ment to that effect was made at the time . Regarding the second part of the question, let me...from the standpoint of time , energy and cogitation, [passage omitted] As for the second question, I maintain that what hap- pened at al-Ubayyid was...Angered Over Accusatory Letter [HA ’ARETZ 24 Apr] 29 Watches Set According To ’Palestine Time ’ Reportedly Smashed [THE JERUSALEM POST 25 Apr] 29

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-24

    my part that his identity would not be revealed. [Smadar Peri] A few moments ago, you sat with the members of the Syrian delegation. I approached...pres- ident , be entrusted with full supervision of the election process from the moment the door of candidacy is opened to the moment the outcome...the 1984 elections. It changed its identity and threw itself into the embrace of the Islamic current, turning its back on socialism and social

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-10

    organization with respect to its objectives and an elite organization in terms of composition . [JEUNE AFRIQUE] What is the League doing to abolish...consulting services for the third phase of development, which includes the construction of two desalination units at the Abu Fantas generating and...end of 1990. With respect to the al-Karbanah unit, which is consid- ered an integrated part of the water treatment unit in the Ra’s Abu Fantas

  2. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-17

    lentil , detergents, butter, beans , meat, chicken, cheese, home grown rice and eggs fell while imported vegetable oil, split peas, sugar, and imported...were among the first to advo- cate reaping economic benefits from communist China’s enormous size. How far have you gone in pursuing your advocacy...the part of the economic sectors that stand to benefit from the effort aimed at expediting and facilitating the movement of goods, cap- ital and

  3. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ourselves forced to question the demic said. government as part of our sensitivity to citizens’ con- cerns, so as to alert managers to the need to keep up...cover a financial deficit, a [Belkhadim] I think the responsibility is joint. We are production shortfall, or bad management . not evading it. However...organically connected to real How do you view the present situation of the reforms? wages. In the context of dealing with workers, managers

  4. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    must not undermine stability, manufacturers working as subcontractors; the estab- and consequently it is necessary to lower the standard of lishment of a...products and partly because of its non-development expenditure from its revenues, competition (e.g. those manufacturing ghee, packing tea, There will be a...after the lapse of a and cosmetics, footwear, bathroom fittings, butter, number of years. Yet they afford no assurance of sta- yogurt , confectionary etc

  5. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project…

  6. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  7. East Asia Review, 1973. 1. Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, P

    1974-05-01

    Developments in the field of population and family planning during 1973 in Hong Kong are reviewed. The most significant event of the year was the start of the government family planning program. Hong Kong $2.4 million has been allocated to cover the cost of the government's participation in a phased program to integrate family planning services into its maternal and child health program. 4 part-time clinics run by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong became the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department in October 1973. In January 1974, 4 full-time clinics will be taken over, and the remaining clinics in maternal and child health centers will be turned over beginning April 1974. This should 3e completed by the end of 1974. The crude annual birth rate for 1973 was 19.8 per thousand. In 1972 it was 19.7. The death rate remained at around 5. The population growth rate increased to around 3%, of which about half was due to immigration from China. There was a 5.8% increase in new acceptors from January 1973 to November 1973. The Association increased its use of the mass media, particularly radio and television. In 1972, the Association conducted a "Study of the Impact of Industrialization on Fertility in Hong Kong" in conjunction with the Social Research Center of the Chinese University. It was determined that industrialization has affected fertility in a number of interrelated ways. Higher education levels, better employment opportunities (particularly for women), urbanization, desire for improved living standards, and postponement of marriage, which are the primary effects of industrialization, have resulted in changing attitudes toward children and childbearing as reflected in the finding that the percentage of people using contraceptives rose from 44% in 1967 to 48% in 1972. In the future, the Association will establish new clinics in those parts of the colony not presently being reached, and it will develop services to reach such groups as working

  8. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tehsin, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  9. An overview of mineral dust modeling over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Kang, Litai; Yang, Ben; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yuzhi; Yuan, Tiangang; Wang, Tianhe; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-08-01

    East Asian dust (EAD) exerts considerable impacts on the energy balance and climate/climate change of the earth system through its influence on solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud properties, and precipitation efficiency. Providing an accurate description of the life cycle and climate effects of EAD is therefore critical to better understanding of climate change and socioeconomic development in East Asia and even worldwide. Dust modeling has undergone substantial development since the late 1990s, associated with improved understanding of the role of EAD in the earth system. Here, we review the achievements and progress made in recent decades in terms of dust modeling research, including dust emissions, long-range transport, radiative forcing (RF), and climate effects of dust particles over East Asia. Numerous efforts in dust/EAD modeling have been directed towards furnishing more sophisticated physical and chemical processes into the models on higher spatial resolutions. Meanwhile, more systematic observations and more advanced retrieval methods for instruments that address EAD related science issues have made it possible to evaluate model results and quantify the role of EAD in the earth system, and to further reduce the uncertainties in EAD simulations. Though much progress has been made, large discrepancies and knowledge gaps still exist among EAD simulations. The deficiencies and limitations that pertain to the performance of the EAD simulations referred to in the present study are also discussed.

  10. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations and data assimilations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation data sets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation data sets is examined using two metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams, which allow examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis data sets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high-density observation networks. The regions of large inter-data-set variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extremely high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreement between data sets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5: the inter-data-set variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these data sets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the

  11. Ecological and meteorological drought monitoring in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Um, M. J.; Kim, Y.; Chae, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to how well the ecological drought index can capture the drought status in the East Asia. We estimated the drought severe index (DSI), which uses the evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggested by Mu et al. (2013) to define the ecological drought. In addition, the meteorological drought index, which is standardized precipitation and evapotranspiration index (SPEI), are estimated and compared to the DSI. The satellite data by moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to analyze the DSI and the monthly precipitation and temperature data in the climate research unit (CRU) are applied to estimate the SPEI for 2000-2013 in the East Asia. We conducted the statistical analyses to investigate the drought characteristics of the ecological and meteorological drought indices (i.e. the DSI and SPEI, respectively) and then compared those characteristics drought indices depending on the drought status. We found the DSI did not well captured the drought status when the categories originally suggested by Mu et al. (2013) are applied to divide the drought status in the study area. Consequently, the modified categories for the DSI in this study is suggested and then applied to define the drought status. The modified categories in this study show the great improvement to capture the drought status in the East Asia even though the results cannot be acquired around Taklamakan desert due to the lack of the satellite data. These results illustrate the ecological drought index, such as the DSI, can be applied for the monitoring of the drought in the East Asia and then can give the detailed information of drought status because the satellite data have the relatively high spatial resolutions compared to the observations such as the CRU data. Reference Mu Q, Zhao M, Kimball JS, McDowell NG, Running SW (2013) A remotely sensed global

  12. Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

    1979-01-01

    5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems.

  13. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  14. HIV-1 variants in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, H; Saraswathy, T S; Sinniah, M; Vijayamalar, B; Maniar, J K; Monzon, O T; Santana, R T; Paladin, F J; Wasi, C; Thongcharoen, P

    1995-01-01

    HIV spread in South and South-East Asia is most alarming, and genetic variability of HIV-1 is an important consideration in vaccine development. In this study, we examined the third variable (V3) region of env gene of HIV-1 variants prevalent in Thailand, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. By phylogenetic tree analyses, an HIV-1 variant from an injecting drug user (IDU) in Thailand belonged to subtype B, and HIV-1 variants from 2 IDUs in Malaysia were classified into 2 subtypes, B and E. One HIV-1 variant from a male homosexual in the Philippines belonged to subtype B. Out of 8 HIV-1 variants from sexually transmitted disease patients in India, 7 belonged to subtype C, and one to subtype A. Although the total number of individuals examined in this study was limited, 4 HIV-1 subtypes were found in South and South-East Asia and large international movements of HIV-1-infected individuals in this region could induce global dissemination of these HIV-1 variants.

  15. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  16. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  17. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  18. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; ...

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the

  19. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on

  20. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part II. Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Parameterizations and Dust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O3, SO42-, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2 over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and

  1. Beyond Forward Naval Presence Asserting American Military Power in East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    Microsoft Encarta 2007, “East Asia,” http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/mapcenter/map.aspx? refid =701516672 (accessed on 07 April 2007). 13 anti...Affairs 84, (September/October 2005): 49-61. Microsoft Encarta 2007. “East Asia.” http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/mapcenter /map.aspx? refid

  2. Evaluation of GOCI Aerosol Products over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is a one of sensors onboard Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) launched in June 2010. Located at geostationary orbit, GOCI can provide hourly images, total 8 times in daytime covering East Asia over 2500 km × 2500 km centered at 130°E and 36°N with 500 m spatial resolution. Using 8 channels in visible and near-infrared from 412 to 865 nm of GOCI both in high temporal and spatial resolution, the GOCI aerosol property retrieval algorithm has been developed and updated. Latest GOCI aerosol products consist of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550nm, single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440nm, Angstrom exponent (AE) between 440-870nm, and aerosol type according to FMF and SSA.In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of GOCI aerosol products using ground-based AERONET Level 2.0 products from total 14 East Asia sites and satellite-based MODIS-Aqua aerosol C6 products. The period of assessment is 3 years from March 2011 to February 2014. Comparison results show that a correlation coefficient between the AODs at 550 nm of AERONET and GOCI is 0.922, and RMSE is 0.179 over total sites with regression equation of AOD (GOCI) = 0.959 * AOD (AERONET) - 0.027. Difference of GOCI AOD and the AERONET is analyzed according to scattering angle, surface reflectance, and season. Validation of AE shows high correlation in spring season. It also shows good agreement with MODIS-Aqua aerosol products. Preliminary results show that the correlation coefficient and RMSE between GOCI and MODIS DT AOD are 0.826 and 0.196, respectively. With MODIS DB AOD, these values are 0.776 and 0.335, respectively. The trend of 3-year GOCI AOD over East Asia shows decreasing except for Korea peninsula. During Feb, 2014, highest AOD was detected from GOCI and AERONET over the Korea peninsula.

  3. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  4. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  5. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  6. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

  7. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  8. Food in health security in North East Asia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was compared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world's population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 and 3000 Kcal of energy. Regarding health status, two extreme problems exist. One is malnutrition in North Korea and China and the other is chronic degenerative disease in Japan, South Korea and China. Because quality, quantity and safety of the food supply have to be secured for health security, some topics are selected and discussed. 1) World food price can have an effect on food security for countries with a low food self sufficiency rate such as Japan and Korea; specially, for the urban poor. 2) Population aging can increase the number of aged people without food security. An aged population with less income and no support from their off-spring, because of disappearing traditional values, may have food insecurity. 3) Population growth and economic growth in this region may worsen food problems. Since a quarter of the world's population resides in this region, populations will continue to increase. With economic growth, people will consume more animal products. 4) Climate change generates food production problems. As the progress of industry continues, there will be less land for food and more pollutants in the environment. 5) Political instability will cause food insecurity and conflict will cause problems with regard to food aid.

  9. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  10. New sedimentary evidence reveals a unique history of C4 biomass in continental East Asia since the early Miocene.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Bird, Michael; Zheng, Hongbo; Zhang, Enlou; Wurster, Christopher M; Xie, Luhua; Taylor, David

    2017-03-13

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) and n-alkane data from sediments in the northern South China Sea reveal variations in material from C4 plants in East Asia over the last ~19 Ma. These data indicate the likely presence of C4 taxa during the earliest part of the record analysed, with C4 species also prominent during the mid and late Miocene and especially the mid Quaternary. Notably the two records diverge after the mid Quaternary, when PyC data indicate a reduced contribution of C4 taxa to biomass burning, whereas plant-derived n-alkanes indicate a greater abundance of C4 plants. This divergence likely reflects differences in the predominant source areas of organic materials accumulating at the coring site, with PyC representing a larger source area that includes material transported in the atmosphere from more temperate (relatively cooler and drier) parts of East Asia. Variations in the relative abundances of C3 and C4 taxa appear to be linked to a combination of environmental factors that have varied temporally and geographically and that are unique to East Asia. A major expansion of C4 biomass in warmer subtropical parts of eastern Asia from ~1 Ma and particularly from ~0.4 Ma is later than other parts of the world.

  11. Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

    2006-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

  12. Intercomparison of NOx emission inventories over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jieying; Miyazaki, Kazuyuki; van der A, Ronald Johannes; Mijling, Bas; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Cho, SeogYeon; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; Felicitas Levelt, Pieternel

    2017-08-01

    We compare nine emission inventories of nitrogen oxides including four satellite-derived NOx inventories and the following bottom-up inventories for East Asia: REAS (Regional Emission inventory in ASia), MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research). Two of the satellite-derived inventories are estimated by using the DECSO (Daily Emission derived Constrained by Satellite Observations) algorithm, which is based on an extended Kalman filter applied to observations from OMI or from GOME-2. The other two are derived with the EnKF algorithm, which is based on an ensemble Kalman filter applied to observations of multiple species using either the chemical transport model CHASER and MIROC-chem. The temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of the inventories are compared on a national and regional scale. A distinction is also made between urban and rural areas. The intercomparison of all inventories shows good agreement in total NOx emissions over mainland China, especially for trends, with an average bias of about 20 % for yearly emissions. All the inventories show the typical emission reduction of 10 % during the Chinese New Year and a peak in December. Satellite-derived approaches using OMI show a summer peak due to strong emissions from soil and biomass burning in this season. Biases in NOx emissions and uncertainties in temporal variability increase quickly when the spatial scale decreases. The analyses of the differences show the importance of using observations from multiple instruments and a high spatial resolution model for the satellite-derived inventories, while for bottom-up inventories, accurate emission factors and activity information are required. The advantage of the satellite-derived approach is that the emissions are soon available after observation, while the strength of the bottom-up inventories is that they include detailed information of

  13. Lithospheric analysis of satellite geopotential anomalies of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Li

    Satellite gravity and magnetic anomalies are used to study the lithosphere of East Asia. Free-air gravity anomalies are decomposed into terrain-correlated, mantle/core and intracrustal components by spectral correlation analysis of the free-air gravity anomalies and terrain gravity effects. Compensated terrain gravity anomalies are obtained by removing the terrain-correlated free-air gravity anomalies. They are used to estimate the Moho undulation and crustal thickness by Gauss-Legendre quadrature (GLQ) inversion techniques assuming a Airy-Heiskanen model of crustal compensation. These results are used to develop enhanced reduction procedures to generate an improved Magsat magnetic anomaly map for East Asia. A degree 12 core field is removed from the data that are updated for the crustal components in the core field differences between degree 14 and 12. These components are estimated by using spectral correlation analysis to compare the Magsat anomalies to the magnetic effect of the crust that is available from the first vertical derivative of the terrain-correlated free-air gravity anomalies via Poisson's theorem. External field effects are separated using pass-by-pass correlation analysis of the dusk and dawn data sets and their spectral reconstruction. Coherent components in the dusk and dawn maps are combined to estimate the magnetic anomalies of the lithosphere. Long wavelength magnetic features related to lower crustal thickness variations are converted into effective magnetization contrasts by a new GLQ inversion technique. Effective magnetization contrasts of the lower crust range over ±4 A/m in accordance petrological studies. Finally, a new GLQ integration formula for triangular wedge sources is derived for modeling of satellite-altitude geopotential field anomalies from arbitrarily shaped sources. Detailed magnetization and density contrasts for central India, the Tibetan Plateau, and the Bengal Gulf region are modeled by this new formula. Positive

  14. Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z

    2011-01-01

    modern human settlement in East Asia, there are ancient contributions, though limited, from WE, which partly explain the genetic divergence between current southern and northern East Asian populations.

  15. Long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants from mainland East Asia to western Japan.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Oro, Tadashi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust events, transport of dust particles from arid and semi-arid areas in China and Mongolia to the east by prevailing westerlies, are often observed in Japan in spring. In recent decades, consumption of fossil fuels has markedly increased in mainland East Asia with rapid economic growth, and severe air pollution has occurred. A part of air pollutants including mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generated in mainland East Asia are thought to be transported to Japan by the prevailing westerlies, like Asian dust, and winter monsoon. The objective of this study was to clarify the long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants in East Asia. Thus, we collected total suspended particles (TSP) at a rural town in western Japan, namely, Yurihama in Tottori Prefecture, for 1 year (June 2012-May 2013), and investigated their chemical constituents and mutagenicity. Many TSP collected from January to March showed high mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with and without S9 mix, and high levels of lead (Pb) and sulfate ions (SO4 (2-)), which are indicators of transboundary air pollutions from mainland East Asia, were detected in those TSP. A large amount of iron, which is an indicator of sand, was found in highly mutagenic TSP collected in March, but not in TSP collected in January and February. High levels of PAHs were detected in highly mutagenic TSP collected from January to March. The ratios of the concentration of fluoranthene to those of fluoranthene and pyrene suggested that the main source of PAHs in TSP collected in winter and spring was coal and biomass combustion. Backward trajectories of air masses on days when high levels of mutagenicity were found indicated that these air masses had traveled from eastern or northern China to Yurihama. These results suggest that high levels of mutagens were transported from mainland East Asia to western Japan, and this transportation accompanied Asian dust in March, but not in

  16. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45°N, 110-145°E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  17. Rice Varieties in Archaic East Asia: Reduction of Its Diversity from Past to Present Times.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Kanehara, Masaaki; Shoda, Shin'ya; Fujita, Saburo; Onuki, Shizuo; Ueda, Shintaroh; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, is one of the most important crops feeding more than a third of global population. In spite of the studies for several decades, the origin and domestication history of rice varietal groups, japonica and indica, have not been fully unveiled. Genetic information of ancient rice remains is essential for direct and exclusive insight into the domestication history of rice. We performed ancient DNA analysis of 950- to 2,800-year-old rice remains excavated from Japan and Korea. We found the presence of both japonica- and indica-type varieties in the Yayoi period and the middle ages of Japan and the middle part of Korea Peninsula 2,000 years ago. It is popularly considered that japonica has been exclusively cultivated in northern part of East Asia including Japan and Korea. Our result disclosed unexpectedly wide diversity of rice varieties in archaic East Asia. The present results from ancient rice DNA reveal an exclusive insight for the domestication history of rice which is not provided as far as contemporary rice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Correlation between total precipitable water and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Wangho; Lim, Gyu-Ho

    2017-04-01

    The precipitation rate(PR) and the total precipitable water(TPW) interact with various physical mechanisms. The correlation of two variables changes with difference of domain resolution and characteristics of the region. This poster analyzes the correlation between PR and TPW over East Asia using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function(CSEOF) which is one of the PCA analysis. The CSEOF is useful to search a periodic pattern of the data. The anomalies which is subtracted climatological mean from the original data are used to represent annual cycles. Two variances of ERA-Interim Monthly Total Column Water vapor and GPCP monthly precipitation amounts with 372 time since January, 1984 to December, 2014 are decomposed into several modes separately. The first mode which explain largest variance are used in analysis. PC of both PR and TPW increase recently on mean value and amplitude, and they show considerable correlation on phase. The correlation coefficient of PR and TPW is 0.61 and maintains the same values by month. The result of harmonic analysis shows 2 to 6 year oscillations. As result of decomposed modes of two variables, there is the relationship between TPW PC series and horizontal moisture gradient. The Horizontal moist gradient can change affect moisture flux convergence which is one of important variable of rainfall events.

  19. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  20. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2014-09-01

    This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of Σ19ClPAHs and Σ9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively.

  2. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  3. Sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer using the ECCC monthly forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ping; Lin, Hai

    2017-04-01

    A useful sub-seasonal forecast is of great societal and economical value in the highly populated East Asian region, especially during boreal summer when frequent extreme events such as heat waves and persistent heavy rainfalls occur. Despite recent interest and development in sub-seasonal prediction, it is still unclear how skillful dynamical forecasting systems are in East Asia beyond 2 weeks. In this study we evaluate the sub-seasonal prediction over East Asia during boreal summer in the operational monthly forecasting system of Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC).Results show that the climatological intra-seasonal oscillation (CISO) of East Asian summer monsoonis reasonably well captured. Statistically significant forecast skill of 2-meter air temperature (T2m) is achieved for all lead times up to week 4 (days 26-32) over East China and Northeast Asia, which is consistent with the skill in 500 hPa geopotential height (Z500). Significant forecast skill of precipitation, however, is limited to the week of days 5-11. Possible sources of predictability on the sub-seasonal time scale are analyzed. The weekly mean T2m anomaly over East China is found to be linked to an eastward propagating extratropical Rossby wave from the North Atlantic across Europe to East Asia. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are also likely to influence the forecast skill of T2m at the sub-seasonal timescale over East Asia.

  4. Impact of Siberian forest fires on tropospheric ozone in East Asia during May 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J.; Park, R.

    2007-12-01

    Forest fire is one of the major sources of CO, VOC, NOx and aerosols in the atmosphere. During the spring of 2003, intensive forest fires occurred in Siberia, the largest seen in the last 10 years. The smoke plumes from these forest fires heavily affected East Asia as indicated by aerosol optical depth retrieved from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Previous studies showed a significant influence of those fires on aerosol concentrations in surface air over East Asia. However, influences of them on O3 concentrations on monthly and daily time scales have not been quantified yet. We use a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data to examine the impact of Siberian forest fires on O3 concentrations in East Asia. The model simulations use a global biomass burning emission inventory constrained by satellite observations in 2003. Fire influence on O3 concentrations in East Asia is determined by the difference between the baseline and sensitivity simulations without Siberian fire emission. A model evaluation is also conducted using O3 observations at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in East Asia. Simulated increase in O? concentrations due to fire emissions in the model appears to be consistent with an observed increase in O3 concentrations in May 2003 relative to other years. Fire emissions and their long-range transport thus could be important for the year-to-year variability of seasonal O3 concentrations over East Asia. Continuing increases in forest fires as a result of climate warming may have a significant impact on future air quality in East Asia.

  5. Nitrate transboundary heavy pollution over East Asia in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Osada, Kazuo; Kamiguchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Tamura, Kei; Wang, Zhe; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kanaya, Yugo

    2017-03-01

    contrast, for type S, the production of SO42- led to the decomposition of NH4NO3, and more SO42- was transported. Notably, the type N transport pattern was limited to western Japan, especially the island of Kyushu. Transboundary air pollution dominated by SO42- (type S) has been recognized as a major pattern of pollution over East Asia. However, our study confirms the importance of transboundary air pollution dominated by NO3-, which will help refine our understanding of transboundary heavy PM2. 5 pollution in winter over East Asia.

  6. Aerosol-Chemistry Interactions: Biomass burning events in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintyre, H.; Bian, H.; Steenrod, S. D.; Chin, M.; Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The abundance of many atmospheric pollutants (such as methane, ozone, CO, sulfate and some organic compounds) is controlled by emissions and the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. As well as being a pollutant, ozone is also a precursor to the hydroxyl radical, a powerful tropospheric oxidant. Large biomass burning events emit substantial amounts of particles and ozone precursors into the atmosphere, and can thus impact chemical processes, air quality, and climate. Aerosol particles can influence chemical processing in the atmosphere through altered rates of photolysis (affecting ozone production and OH concentrations), as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions to occur upon. South East Asia experiences significant biomass burning events each year, and is also in the proximity of substantial and growing anthropogenic emissions from other parts of Asia. A global model of chemistry, aerosol and transport (the GMI model) is used to investigate the impact of emissions from biomass burning events in SE Asia on chemical processes in the troposphere. The effects of aerosols via heterogeneous uptake of gases, and also through altered rates of photolysis are separated and quantified. Subsequent impacts on photochemical processing of pollutants and air quality are discussed.

  7. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  8. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  9. Tomgraphic Structure of East Asia: Data and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhao, D.; Yin, A.; Ning, J.; Chen, X.

    2004-12-01

    P-wave arrival times within the study area of 20ºN-55ºN and 100ºE-145ºE, were selected from three sources, including the ISC Bulletin of 1964-2001, the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes of 1985-1998, and the Temporary Report of Chinese Earthquakes of 1999 to 2001. We also collected several thousands of P-wave arrival times recorded by Chinese regional networks in northeast China to improve the ray coverage there. Selection of earthquakes was based on the criteria that an individual teleseismic event has to be recorded not only by at least 10 stations but also by at least one station of the Chinese Seismic Networks. In total, we had selected 400,000 P-wave arrival times from 8002 regional earthquakes and 370,000 P-wave arrival times from 9000 teleseismic events. The combination of travel time residuals of regional earthquakes and relative travel time residuals of teleseismic events were used simultaneously in the tomographic inversion to determine the 3-D P-wave velocity structure above 1000 km depth. Moho depth variations in the region obtained from deep seismic reflection studies were incorporated in the tomographic inversion. Most important findings of this regional tomography are as follows. (1) No fast P-wave velocity anomalies can be related to subducted oceanic slabs beneath the 660-km discontinuity; instead the subducted oceanic slabs become flattened and stagnant in the transition zone. (2) The western end of the flat stagnant slabs is located ~ 1500 km west of the active trench in the western Pacific, which is correlated with the prominent surface topographic break in eastern China along the NNE-trending Taihang Mountain Range (~105°E). (3) Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100-250 km below the active volcanic arc and the East Asia.

  10. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  11. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  12. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  13. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  14. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia.…

  15. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia.…

  16. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  17. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  18. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  19. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  20. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change.

  1. Model study on acidifying wet deposition in East Asia during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya

    A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in East Asia in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in Asia in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in East Asia in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (⩾5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.

  2. Winter monsoon variability and its impact on aerosol concentrations in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaein I; Park, Rokjin J

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between winter aerosol concentrations over East Asia and variability in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) using GEOS-Chem 3-D global chemical transport model simulations and ground-based aerosol concentration data. We find that both observed and modeled surface aerosol concentrations have strong relationships with the intensity of the EAWM over northern (30-50°N, 100-140°E) and southern (20-30°N, 100-140°E) East Asia. In strong winter monsoon years, compared to weak winter monsoon years, lower and higher surface PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% are shown over northern and southern East Asia, respectively. Analysis of the simulated results indicates that the southward transport of aerosols is a key process controlling changes in aerosol concentrations over East Asia associated with the EAWM. Variability in the EAWM is found to play a major role in interannual variations in aerosol concentrations; consequently, changes in the EAWM will be important for understanding future changes in wintertime air quality over East Asia.

  3. Sustainability Issues of the Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific (AEESEAP) Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Nasrudin Abdul; Said, Suhana Mohd

    The Association for Engineering Education in Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific was established with the aim to improve the education of engineers and technologists in its member countries. This paper will give an overview of AEESEAP objectives and its current activities, coordinated by the current secretariat based in Malaysia. The main issue being dealt with throughout the existence of AEESEAP is the issue of sustainability of the association. This paper will highlight the objectives and current activities of AEESEAP, with regards to sustaining this association.

  4. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  5. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  6. Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji; Kondo, Yutaka

    1996-12-31

    In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

  7. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  8. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  9. Impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhou, Wen; Wenig, Mark; Yang, Liangui

    2017-01-01

    Model simulations and hydrological reanalysis data for 2007 are applied to investigate the impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia. Results are analyzed from Hong Kong and Shanghai, which are two representative coastal cities of East Asia. Long-range desert dust transport impacts mainly spring and summer clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia. In spring, clouds and precipitation come mainly from large-scale condensation and are impacted mainly by dust from the Gobi, Sahara, and Thar deserts. These desert dusts can participate in the precipitation within and below the clouds. At lower latitudes, the dust particles act mainly as water nuclei. At higher latitudes, they act as both water nuclei and ice nuclei. The effect of Gobi, Sahara, and Thar dust on large-scale clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at higher latitudes. In summer, clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia come mainly from convection and are impacted mainly by dust from the Taklamakan, Arabian, and Karakum-Kavir deserts. Most Taklamakan dust particles can participate in precipitation within convective clouds as ice nuclei, while Arabian and Karakum-Kavir dust particles participate only as water nuclei in precipitation below the clouds. The effect of Taklamakan dust on convective clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at lower latitudes. Of all the desert dusts, that from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts has the relatively largest impact. Gobi dust impacts climate change in coastal East Asia by affecting spring water clouds at higher latitudes.

  10. Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

    2013-07-01

    Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric

  11. Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-09-01

    The variability of soil moisture over East Asia was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.

  12. Impact of aerosol indirect effect on surface temperature over East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chameides, William L.

    2006-01-01

    A regional coupled climate–chemistry–aerosol model is developed to examine the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on surface temperature and precipitation over East Asia. Besides their direct and indirect reduction of short-wave solar radiation, the increased cloudiness and cloud liquid water generate a substantial downward positive long-wave surface forcing; consequently, nighttime temperature in winter increases by +0.7°C, and the diurnal temperature range decreases by −0.7°C averaged over the industrialized parts of China. Confidence in the simulated results is limited by uncertainties in model cloud physics. However, they are broadly consistent with the observed diurnal temperature range decrease as reported in China, suggesting that changes in downward long-wave radiation at the surface are important in understanding temperature changes from aerosols. PMID:16537432

  13. Evolution of a lidar network for tropospheric aerosol detection in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Jin, Yoshitaka; Kim, Sang-Woo; Wang, Zifa; Batdorj, Dashdondog; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2017-03-01

    A regional elastic-scattering lidar network called Asian dust and aerosol lidar observation network (AD-Net) has operated for 15 years (since 2001) in East Asia. In this network, the extinction coefficient of aerosols below an altitude of 9 km is continuously obtained when conditions are clear; the coefficient is divided into two parts: dust extinction and spherical extinction coefficients. The dust extinction coefficient has been compared with several parameters measured by other instruments and utilized by various studies, including studies on the epidemiology of Asian dust. Recent expansion of the lidar system at some observatories allows more optical parameters to be retrieved at those observatories. All AD-Net products are used for monitoring global environmental change as an activity of global atmospheric watch lidar observation network.

  14. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  15. Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yunfei; Lin, Yihua; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Qiang

    2003-07-01

    Precipitation radar data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to study precipitation characteristics in 1998 over East Asia (10° 38°N, 100° 145°E), especially over mid-latitude land (continental land) and ocean (East China Sea and South China Sea). Results are compared with precipitations in the tropics. Yearly statistics show dominant stratiform rain events over East Asia (about 83.7% by area fraction) contributing to 50% of the total precipitation. Deep convective rains contribute 48% to the total precipitation with a 13.7% area fraction. The statistics also show the unimportance of warm convective rain in East Asia, contributing 1.5% to the total precipitation with a 2.7% area fraction. On a seasonal scale, the results indicate that the rainfall ratio of stratiform rain to deep convective rain is proportional to their rainfall pixel ratio. Seasonal precipitation patterns compare well between Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall and TRMM PR measurements except in summer. Studies indicate a clear opposite shift of rainfall amount and events between deep convective and stratiform rains in the meridional in East Asia, which corresponds to the alternative activities of summer monsoon and winter monsoon in the region. The vertical structures of precipitation also exhibit strong seasonal variability in precipitation Contoured Rainrate by Altitude Diagrams (CRADs) and mean profiles in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. However, these structures in the South China Sea are of a tropical type except in winter. The analysis of CRADs reveals a wide range of surface rainfall rates for most deep convective rains, especially in the continental land, and light rain rate for most stratiform rains in East Asia, regardless of over land or ocean.

  16. Prostate cancer in East Asia: evolving trend over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yao; Wang, Hong-Kai; Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is now becoming an emerging health priority in East Asia. Most of our current knowledge on Prostate cancer has been generated from studies conducted in Western population; however, there is considerable heterogeneity of Prostate cancer between East and West. In this article, we reviewed epidemiologic trends, risk factors, disease characteristics and management of Prostate cancer in East Asian population over the last decade. Growing evidence from East Asia suggests an important role of genetic and environmental risk factors interactions in the carcinogenesis of Prostate cancer. Exposure to westernized diet and life style and improvement in health care in combination contribute substantially to the increasing epidemic in this region. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines in East Asia are largely based on Western knowledge. Although there is a remarkable improvement in the outcome over the last decade, ample evidence suggests an inneglectable difference in diagnostic accuracy, treatment efficacy and adverse events between different populations. The knowledge from western countries should be calibrated in the Asian setting to provide a better race-based treatment approach. In this review, we intend to reveal the evolving trend of Prostate cancer in the last decade, in order to gain evidence to improve Prostate cancer prevention and control in East Asia. PMID:25080928

  17. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  18. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  19. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  20. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  1. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  2. East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of

  3. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  4. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  5. The origin of Europeans is not rooted in the Middle East but in southern east Asia.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D

    1998-01-01

    The study of tooth crown variables has proven useful in the assessment of human origin and dispersal. I show that multivariate analysis of quantified total tooth structure from dental X-rays is a powerful phylogenetic methodology. From an analysis of the complex global dental phenotype ("GDP," composed of approximately 30 root, pulp, crown, and enamel variables per tooth), a representative Western European population was found to associate with Southeast Asians, while Mongolians formed a tight cluster with all Native Americans. The results suggest that either an emigrant wave, or waves, of modern humans emerged from Africa and with time segregated into at least three groups: Australian aborigines, Europeans, and Southeast Asians, or less likely due to genetic and archaeologic observations, a southern Asia origin of all modern humans from an emigrant African hominid. Both hypotheses portend an early evolution of the European genotype and support the argument that Europeans are principally derived from Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and thus Middle East Neolithic people did not have a major genetic impact on Europeans.

  6. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  7. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and

  8. A(H5N1) Virus Evolution in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Naughtin, Monica Jane; Horm, Srey Viseth; San, Sorn; Buchy, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus in South East Asia, the reassortment events leading to high genetic diversity in the region, and factors responsible for virus spread. The virus has evolved with genetic variations affecting virulence, drug-resistance, and adaptation to new host species. The constant surveillance of these changes is of primary importance in the global efforts of the scientific community. PMID:21994553

  9. African origin of modern humans in East Asia: a tale of 12,000 Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y; Su, B; Song, X; Lu, D; Chen, L; Li, H; Qi, C; Marzuki, S; Deka, R; Underhill, P; Xiao, C; Shriver, M; Lell, J; Wallace, D; Wells, R S; Seielstad, M; Oefner, P; Zhu, D; Jin, J; Huang, W; Chakraborty, R; Chen, Z; Jin, L

    2001-05-11

    To test the hypotheses of modern human origin in East Asia, we sampled 12,127 male individuals from 163 populations and typed for three Y chromosome biallelic markers (YAP, M89, and M130). All the individuals carried a mutation at one of the three sites. These three mutations (YAP+, M89T, and M130T) coalesce to another mutation (M168T), which originated in Africa about 35,000 to 89,000 years ago. Therefore, the data do not support even a minimal in situ hominid contribution in the origin of anatomically modern humans in East Asia.

  10. Validation and improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Productivity in typical forest ecosystems of East Asia based on eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; He, M.; Ju, W.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle plays an important role in global climate change. As a key component of terrestrial carbon cycle, gross primary productivity (GPP) is a major determinant of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Because of the large spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystems, it is a challenge to estimate GPP at global or regional scales. 8-day MODIS GPP product provides a real time estimate of global GPP. However, many previous studies indicated that MODIS GPP has large uncertainties, which was partly caused by biases in maximum light use efficiency and meteorological data inputs, including VPD, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this study, MODIS GPP of six typical forest ecosystems in East Asia was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements. The validation indicated that MODIS GPP was significantly underestimated in the forest ecosystems of East Asia. The underestimation is generally more serious in growing seasons than in non-growing seasons and becomes more obvious from the south to the north. By using observed meteorological data, smoothed fPAR and optimized maximum light use efficiency (ɛmax), predicted GPP with MOD17 algorithm consistently matched well with measured GPP. Smoothed fPAR definitely reduced underestimation of annual GPP, and the optimized ɛmax improved annual GPP more significantly, indicating that the errors in MODIS GPP of forest ecosystems in East Asia can be mainly attributed to the uncertainties of ɛmax. Optimized ɛmax are generally higher than that used for producing MODIS GPP product. The optimized ɛmax changes significantly with forest types. It even exhibits distinct seasonal variations for a specific forest. Key words: Gross Primary Productivity, MODIS, Maximum light use efficiency, East Asia, Forest ecosystem Correspondence author:Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  11. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  12. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau’s climate system and its impact on East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the “Third Pole” of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on “water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology” multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored. PMID:28287648

  13. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau's climate system and its impact on East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-03-13

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the "Third Pole" of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on "water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology" multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored.

  14. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau’s climate system and its impact on East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the “Third Pole” of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on “water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology” multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored.

  15. 17. SOUTH SIDE, EAST HALF, PART 3, SHOWING THE EASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SOUTH SIDE, EAST HALF, PART 3, SHOWING THE EASTERN PART OF THE OFFICES AND BUILDING NO. 12 IN THE DISTANCE BEYOND THE EAST END. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  16. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  17. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  18. Wet plume atop of the flattening slab: Insight into intraplate volcanism in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijuan

    2017-08-01

    Geophysical observations imply the intraplate volcanism in East Asia is related to dehydration of slab stagnating in the transition zone. To better understand the dynamics of such process, a thermochemical mantle convection model is constructed to simulate numerically the thermal evolution of slab and the transportation of water in the process of slab downgoing, flattening and stagnation. Equation of water transfer is included, and water effects on density and viscosity are considered. Model results indicate the warming of slab by surrounding mantle is rather slow. Water could be successfully dragged into the transition zone if the reference viscosity of the hydrous layer (with initial water of 2 wt%) is higher than 1017 Pa s and that of mantle is 1021 Pa s. Wet plumes could then originate in the flat-lying part of the slab, relatively far from the trench. Generally, the viscosity of the hydrous layer governs the initiation of wet plume, whereas the viscosity of the overlying mantle wedge controls the activity of the ascending wet plumes - they are more active in the weaker wedge. The complex fluid flow superposed by corner flow and free thermal convection influences greatly the water transport pattern in the upper mantle. Modeling results together with previous modeling infer three stages of water circulation in the big mantle wedge: 1) water is brought into the mantle transition zone by downward subducting slab under some specific thermo-rheological conditions, otherwise water is released at shallow depth near wedge tip; 2) wet plume generates from surface of the flattening slab warmed by surrounding mantle, and 3) water spreads over the big mantle wedge. Wet plume from the flattening Pacific Plate arrives at the lithospheric base and induces melting, which can explain the intraplate Cenozoic volcanoes in East Asia.

  19. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  20. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  1. Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Oliver G; Barnes, Eleanor; Taggart, Rachel; Lemey, Philippe; Markov, Peter V; Rasachak, Bouachan; Syhavong, Bounkong; Phetsouvanah, Rattanaphone; Sheridan, Isabelle; Humphreys, Isla S; Lu, Ling; Newton, Paul N; Klenerman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), which currently infects an estimated 3% of people worldwide, has been present in some human populations for several centuries, notably HCV genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa and genotype 6 in Southeast Asia. Here we use newly developed methods of sequence analysis to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the epidemic and evolutionary history of HCV in Asia. Our analysis includes new HCV core (n = 16) and NS5B (n = 14) gene sequences, obtained from serum samples of jaundiced patients from Laos. These exceptionally diverse isolates were analyzed in conjunction with all available reference strains using phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent methods. We performed statistical tests of phylogeographic structure and applied a recently developed "relaxed molecular clock" approach to HCV for the first time, which indicated an unexpectedly high degree of rate variation. Our results reveal a >1,000-year-long development of genotype 6 in Asia, characterized by substantial phylogeographic structure and two distinct phases of epidemic history, before and during the 20th century. We conclude that HCV lineages representing preexisting and spatially restricted strains were involved in multiple, independent local epidemics during the 20th century. Our analysis explains the generation and maintenance of HCV diversity in Asia and could provide a template for further investigations of HCV spread in other regions.

  2. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  3. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  4. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  5. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  6. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  7. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  8. Psychological Treatments for Chronic Pain in East and Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Yin; McCracken, Lance M; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2016-08-01

    Psychological treatments are recognised as generally effective for chronic pain. However, little is known about the evidence for psychological treatments for chronic pain in Asia. This study aimed (1) to identify all treatment outcome studies in the area of psychological approaches to chronic pain in adult populations of East Asia and Southeast Asia and (2) to evaluate the treatment types, the evidence for treatment outcomes and research design quality with regard to these studies. We identified all psychologically based treatment outcome studies for chronic pain in East and Southeast Asia by searching CENTRAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, MEDLINE (via Ovid), Global Health and Web of Science from the beginning of each abstracting service until December 2014 (week 4). Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria including a total of N = 1,890 participants. Four were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), five controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and eight cohort studies. Treatment outcomes included pain, disability, depression and anxiety. Overall, the studies included in this review showed small to medium within-group effect sizes for all four outcomes. A majority of the studies were rated as weak in design quality. Three RCTs were found to be of strong quality, one of moderate quality and only one CCT of moderate quality. The current available literature on psychological treatments for chronic pain in East and Southeast Asia is generally small in scale, mostly preliminary and lags behind on some developments occurring in North America and Europe. Further development of treatment methods and research designs is warranted.

  9. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  11. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  12. Application of DNA barcodes in wildlife conservation in Tropical East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Lee, Ping-Shin; Wee, Alison K S

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, Tropical East Asia has lost more biodiversity than any tropical region. Tropical East Asia is a megadiverse region with an acute taxonomic impediment. DNA barcodes are short standardized DNA sequences used for taxonomic purposes and have the potential to lessen the challenges of biodiversity inventory and assessments in regions where they are most needed. We reviewed DNA barcoding efforts in Tropical East Asia relative to other tropical regions. We suggest DNA barcodes (or metabarcodes from next-generation sequencers) may be especially useful for characterizing and connecting species-level biodiversity units in inventories encompassing taxa lacking formal description (particularly arthropods) and in large-scale, minimal-impact approaches to vertebrate monitoring and population assessments through secondary sources of DNA (invertebrate derived DNA and environmental DNA). We suggest interest and capacity for DNA barcoding are slowly growing in Tropical East Asia, particularly among the younger generation of researchers who can connect with the barcoding analogy and understand the need for new approaches to the conservation challenges being faced.

  13. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  14. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  15. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth.

  16. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  17. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  18. A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

  19. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  20. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  1. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  2. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  3. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  4. Modeling Mineral Dust and Accessing Its Impact on Radiative Forcing over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.

    2015-12-01

    East Asia dust storm has been investigated with revised WRF/CMAQ modeling system in this study. Taklamkan and Gobi deserts in China and Mongolia are the major contributors for East Asia dust storm, which significantly affect air quality and regional climate over downwind areas in China, Japan and Korea. Understanding the mixing of dust and intensive anthropogenic emissions would require a regional chemistry transport model which can simulate both the emission and transport of the natural and anthropogenic particles, and also their chemical interactions as well as the particles evolutions. In this study, we conducted model development of the WRF/CMAQ modeling system by revising the dust emission scheme and implementing source-dependent speciation profiles of dust aerosol and heterogeneous chemistry. With the revised modeling system, East Asia dust impact on atmospheric chemistry and regional climate has been investigated for the period of March and April from 2006 to 2010. The revised modeling system has been demonstrated to greatly improve model's capability of reproducing dust emission and transport over East Asia by comparing with surface measurements and satellite observations.

  5. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  6. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  7. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4)…

  8. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  9. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  10. University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B.

    The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs…

  11. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  12. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  13. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  14. Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jin Ho

    2009-01-01

    Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education…

  15. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  16. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  17. Impacts of Global Change on Water Resources in Dryland East Asia

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Xiaoming Feng; Jingfeng Xiao; Alex Shiklomanov; Shengping Wang; Zhiqiang Zhang; Nan Lu; Shuai Wang; Liding Chen; Bojie Fu; Yaning Chen; Jiquan Chen

    2013-01-01

    The vast Dryland East Asia (DEA) area consists of several large geographic regions including the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loess Plateau, and Mongolia Plateau. T he region is of great importance to the functioning of the earth system under a changing climate. In the past three decades, due to the unprecedented land use/land cover change, urbanization, industrialization...

  18. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  19. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  20. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

  1. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  2. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  3. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  4. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  5. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  6. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4)…

  7. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  8. Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of East Asia (2). Study of a collection sample deposited at the Russian Academy of Sciences, with descriptions of new species and a checklist.

    PubMed

    Rocienė, Agnė; Stonis, Jonas R

    2013-01-01

    Over the few couple of decades, the Nepticulidae of East Asia have been the subject of continuing investigation. Male genitalia of the nepticulid species described from Primorskiy Kray (the Russian Far East) were re-examined in the preceding paper in this journal. The present paper continues our study on the diversity and systematics of the Nepticulidae of East Asia based on a sample of specimens collected in 1974-1990 at various sites of the southern part of Primorskiy Kray and treats 35 species: two new taxa (Ectoedemia ortiva sp. nov. and E. species 219) and 33 other species. Seventeen of them are briefly discussed and illustrated with photographs of male genitalia. Two new synonyms are proposed, and three new distribution records are provided. We also provide an updated checklist of the Nepticulidae of East Asia, which comprises 105 species; 67 species occur in the Russian Far East and 53 in Japan (20 of which occur both in Japan and Russia). Species with Euro-East Asiatic distribution currently comprise 11% of the Japanese fauna and 16% of the continental fauna of the Russian Far East, Primorskiy Kray.

  9. Future Changes in Heat Stress over East Asia Resulting from Different Target Temperature Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Min; Min, Seung-Ki

    2017-04-01

    In assessing the impact of global warming, it is very important to understand the change in comprehensive heat stress as a function of several variables, rather than only temperature. Furthermore, in order to assess and implement the target temperature goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement, it is essential to have effective and scientifically valid information to predict and measure regional impact. In this study, the future changes in summer heat stress over East Asia were examined based on the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using CMIP5 multimodel simulations (historical and RCP scenario simulations), and differences in heat stress changes were assessed between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds. Future boreal summer heat stress of land regions over East Asia, in excess of the 50-year return value, shows a rapid and nonlinear increase from the 2000s, and it is expected that severe heat stress will occur in the overall East Asia region by the 2040s. In particular, extreme heat stress events were found to occur much more frequently than summer mean intensity of heat stress. Comparisons of the increase in heat stress between 1.5-degree and 2-degree warmer worlds indicated a 20% decrease in the area experiencing severe heat stress over East Asia, and relatively large benefits (i.e. less frequent and less severe heat stress) were found in the southeastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan compared to other regions. Further, the equilibrium scenarios showed a larger increase in heat stress over East Asia than the transient scenarios, particularly in case of the 1.5-degree warmer world, which was found due to warmer water in the northwestern North Pacific in the equilibrium scenarios.

  10. Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in East Asia are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in East China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with

  11. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  12. Connection between the Silk Road Pattern in July and the following January temperature over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shengping; Liu, Yang; Wang, Huijun

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates a cross-seasonal influence of the Silk Road Pattern (SRP) in July and discusses the related mechanism. Both the reanalysis and observational datasets indicate that the July SRP is closely related to the following January temperature over East Asia during 1958/59-2001/02. Linear regression results reveal that, following a higher-than-normal SRP index in July, the Siberian high, Aleutian low, Urals high, East Asian trough, and meridional shear of the East Asian jet intensify significantly in January. Such atmospheric circulation anomalies are favorable for northerly wind anomalies over East Asia, leading to more southward advection of cold air and causing a decrease in temperature. Further analysis indicates that the North Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) might play a critical role in storing the anomalous signal of the July SRP. The significant SSTAs related to the July SRP weaken in October and November, re-emerge in December, and strengthen in the following January. Such an SSTA pattern in January can induce a surface anomalous cyclone over North Pacific and lead to dominant convergence anomalies over northwestern Pacific. Correspondingly, significant divergence anomalies appear, collocated in the upper-level troposphere in situ. Due to the advection of vorticity by divergent wind, which can be regarded as a wave source, a stationary Rossby wave originates from North Pacific and propagates eastward to East Asia, leading to temperature anomalies through its influence on the large-scale atmospheric circulation.

  13. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  14. Security Architecture in East Asia: The U.S. Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-14

    Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia, New Zealand APEC U.S., Canada, Russia...Hong Kong, Chile, Mexico , Peru Table 1: Multilateral Institutions The Association of the South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) has led efforts to build...Pacific Economic Cooperation ( APEC ). These initiatives have encouraged a cooperative approach to address regional issues such as energy security

  15. Seismic Attenuation Studies in the Middle East and Southern Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in which tectonic activity has occurred since the Mesozoic era. These include the East African rift zone (the most prominent feature on the Q map...affected by process occurring during the spreading of the Red Sea. Low Q’s in the Siberian craton lie in a region that was deformed during the Mesozoic

  16. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  17. Health and climate impacts of ocean-going vessels in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-11-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  18. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  19. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  20. Trade in labour services and migrant worker protection with special reference to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the migrant worker protection policy of the East Asian international labor market. The labor-exporting countries of East Asia provide an onerous proportion of low-skilled migrant workers to the region and are responding to the perceived edge of a policy of labor export. Conversely, the movement of highly skilled and professional workers is the result of globalization and internationalization of education, training and professions, rather than the result of explicit labor export of certain countries. In view of the need of international bilateral arrangements for the protection and facilitation of low-skilled workers, the labor-exporting countries have introduced a number of policies aimed at protecting and promoting the welfare of the overseas workers. Thus, various policy measures are suggested to advance the cause of migrant worker protection in East Asia.

  1. 7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM EAST FRONT LEADING TO CENTRAL CAMPUS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  2. 15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  3. 18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, FROM A POINT ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Numerical study of 1998 late summer flood in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Yih; Min, Ki-Hong; Chern, Jiun-Dar

    2011-02-01

    The Purdue Regional Model (PRM) is applied to study the evolution of regional climate and weather systems during the heavy precipitation over Korea and China between 30 July and 18 August 1998. The results show that heavy rainfall along the Mei-yu and Changma front was due to the combination of: (1) an anomalous 850 hPa subtropical high, (2) a stronger baroclinicity around 40°N over eastern Asia and a low pressure located to the north of the front, and (3) an excessive evaporation from abnormal wet, warm land. The precipitation ended by 18 August when the subtropical high had retreated and the low pressure in Mongolia moved away from Asia continent. The model reproduced in great detail the observed baroclinic waves to the north, subtropical high and low-level jet to the south, and the front with heavy precipitation extending from southern China, and the Korean peninsula to Japan. High correlations are found for mass, momentum, and moisture fields between model simulation and the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis for the 20-day means.

  5. Moving East: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis regimen in Asia.

    PubMed

    Houssiau, Frédéric A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of lupus nephritis is more evidenced-based than ever. Yet many areas of uncertainty persist. The article by Rathi et al. brings a piece to the puzzle by comparing, in a group of Indian patients, the Euro-Lupus low-dose i.v. cyclophosphamide regimen with mycophenolate mofetil. Although some caveats must be raised, the results suggest that, after crossing the Atlantic, the Euro-Lupus regimen may well be moving East.

  6. Modeling study of ozone seasonal cycle in lower troposphere over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Gao, Chao; Pochanart, Pakpong; Wang, Xiquan

    2007-11-01

    On the basis of three mountain sites (Mount Tai, Hua and Huang) newly founded in east-central China and several other sites from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia (EANET) and WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), we investigate seasonal cycle of ozone over east Asia and its budgets in east-central China by using a regional chemical transport model (NAQPMS). The observations show a striking ozone pattern of two sharp peaks in May-June and September-October at three mountain sites in east-central China which are higher than those observed at other mountain sites in Europe and North America. Ozone budgets analysis by the model confirms that maximum of net photochemical productions reaches 31.8, 15.1, and 11.4 ppbv/d at Mount Tai, Hua, and Huang, respectively. The net photochemical production dominates the formation of ozone maximums at Mount Tai and Hua in June, and the importing transport also plays a comparable importance at Mount Huang. In comparison with those in the western North Pacific, east-central China shows stronger net photochemical productions, which are comparable to anthropogenic sources regions in Europe and North America.

  7. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  8. Investigation on aerosol optical properties over East Asia: From LEO to GEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. H.; Park, M.; Park, R.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOP) have been regarded as good proxy indicators of the levels of particulate air pollutants such as PM2.5 and PM10, and have also been widely used for estimating direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols. Up to date, the AOP have been retrieved mainly from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites such as terra- and aqua-MODIS. However, the critical limitation of the AOP products from the LEO satellites is relatively long temporal resolution of one to several days. In order to overcome this critical limitation, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite-retrieved data is begun to be used recently. Therefore, in this study, several topics related to the fore-mentioned issues are introduced: (i) current status of the AOP retrieval from the LEO satellites and the AOP calculations from chemistry-transfer model (CTM) simulations over East Asia; (ii) the uses of the AOP data for estimating particulate pollution and DRF by aerosols in East Asia; (iii) preliminary AOP data retrieved from a geostationary sensor (GOCI: Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) on a Korean GEO satellite (COMS: Communication Ocean Meteorology Satellite); and (iv) possible improvements of the GEO-retrieved AOP data, combining them with the AOP data calculated from the CTM simulations over East Asia via a data assimilation technique. Regarding the AOP data retrievals from the COMS-GOCI sensor, two Korean aerosol retrieval algorithms are also introduced briefly: (i) Yonsei algorithm and (ii) GSTAR (GIST Aerosol Retrieval) algorithm. It is also discussed that these researches are being carried out with long-term research goals, aiming at the future applications of the AOP data, which is expected to be available from the world-first Korean environmental GEO sensors (GEMS: Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Sensor and GOCI-2) scheduled to be launched in 2017 or 2018, to the investigations onto the particulate air pollution and the DRF estimation by aerosols over East Asia (as

  9. Evaluation of aerosol optical properties of GEOS-Chem over East Asia during the DRAGON-Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, D. S.; Park, R.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    A nested version of 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-02) is evaluated over East Asia during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia 2012 campaign period, focusing on fine-mode aerosol optical depth (fAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). Both are important to assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. We compare the daily mean simulated optical properties of aerosols with the observations from DRAGON-Asia campaign for March-May, 2012 (provided in level 2.0: cloud screened and quality assured). We find that the model reproduces the observed daily variability of fAOD (R=0.67), but overestimates the magnitude by 30%, which is in general consistent with other global model comparisons from ACCMIP. However, a significant high bias in the model is found compared to the observed SSA at 440 nm, which is important for determining the sign of aerosol radiative forcing. In order to understand causes for this gap we conduct several sensitivity tests by changing source magnitudes and input parameters of aerosols, affecting the aerosol optical properties under various atmospheric conditions, which allows us to reduce the gap and to find the optimal values in the model.

  10. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  11. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  12. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians.

  13. Hard science is essential to restoring soft-sediment intertidal habitats in burgeoning East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shing Yip; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    Intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems such as mangrove, saltmarsh, and tidal flats face multiple stresses along the burgeoning East Asia coastline. In addition to direct habitat loss, ecosystem structure, function, and capacity for ecosystem services of these habitats are significantly affected by anthropogenic loss of hydrologic connectivity, introduction of invasive exotic species, and chemical pollution. These dramatic changes to ecosystem structure and function are illustrated by four case studies along the East Asian coast: the Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong, the Yunxiao wetlands in Fujian, China, and the Lake Sihwa and Saemangeum tidal flats in Korea. While investment in restoration is increasing significantly in the region, the lack of key basic knowledge on aspects of the behaviour of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems, particularly those in Asia, impairs the effectiveness of these efforts. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function for relatively species-poor mangrove, seagrass, and saltmarsh systems has implications for restoration targeting monospecific plantations. The trajectory of recovery and return of ecosystem function and services is also poorly known, and may deviate from simple expectations. As many introduced species have become established along the East Asian coast, their long-term impact on ecosystem function as well as the socio-economics of coastal communities demand a multidisciplinary approach to assessing options for restoration and management. These knowledge gaps require urgent attention in order to inform future restoration and management of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems in fast-developing East Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sub-decadal increase of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric total suspended particles in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.; Lee, M.; Tachibana, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Jang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are good tracers to evaluate the chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and are important precursors for the production of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in aqueous phase. Here we report seasonal and interannual variations of aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal over sub-decadal scale (2001-2008) in ambient aerosols collected at Gosan, Jeju Island in the East China Sea. Glyoxal concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 106 ng m-3, with a peak in January. Concentrations of methylglyoxal ranged from 0.05 to 110 ng m-3 with a peak in April. The glyoxal peak is related with carbon monoxide and levoglucosan whereas methylglyoxal peak aligns with ozone. These results suggest an elevated combustion sources of glyoxal in January and secondary sources of methylglyoxal in April. A pronounced seasonal variation was observed for methylglyoxal to glyoxal ratios with maximum in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter, suggesting methyglyoxal to glyoxal ratio is an effective proxy to evaluate the strength of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources of organic aerosol in East Asia. Overall, concentrations of glyoxal from 2001 to 2008 increased by at least 29% per year in winter and 83% per year in spring, being consistent with the increase of ozone, carbon monoxide, and biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs in East Asia. We propose that the increased glyoxal and methylglyoxal could be related to an enhanced SOA production by their reactive uptake in aqueous phase over East Asia.

  15. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  17. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in δ13C-WSOC. This is

  18. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  19. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  20. Clinical nutrition in East Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Darnton-Hill, I; Cavalli-Sforza, L T; Volmanen, P V

    1992-03-01

    Identifying the nutrition problems of Asia and the Pacific is made difficult by the enormous geographic, socioeconomic and cultural diversity that exists in these areas. With increasing longevity and reduced infant mortality, the more chronic diseases are becoming increasingly important. For almost 90% of the countries that keep such data in the Western Pacific Region of WHO, at least three of the five leading causes of death are noncommunicable diseases. Nevertheless undernutrition is still the most important nutritional problem in the Region. Even though there have been some encouraging declines in the proportion of malnourished under 5-year-olds, increasing populations have meant the actual numbers have not declined. Vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency anaemia remain major public health problems in many countries. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is appearing in countries in which it has not previously been a problem. New challenges are occurring, such as childhood obesity, the susceptibility of undernourished populations to the human immunodeficiency virus and the increase in noncommunicable diseases. The three arms of clinical nutrition: therapeutic, research and public health will need to work closely to meet the considerable and continuing threat posed by the nutrition-related diseases.

  1. What caused a recent increase in dust outbreaks over East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yasunori; Shinoda, Masato; Mikami, Masao

    2011-06-01

    A decadal change in the frequency of dust outbreaks for April over East Asia using World Meteorological Organization (WMO) synoptic data was identified. The causes of the decadal change can be defined in terms of aeolian erosivity (i.e., ability of wind to cause erosion represented by wind speed) and erodibility (i.e., susceptibility of soil and land surface to wind erosion represented by the threshold wind speed for dust outbreak). Dust outbreak frequency (fDO) increased at many stations in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China, and the Hexi Corridor from the 1990s to the 2000s. Especially, remarkable increases were observed for Mongolia. Strong wind frequency (fu>ut5%) decreased or changed little over the period of study, and the 5th percentile of the threshold wind speed for dust outbreak (ut5%) decreased at many stations in Mongolia, eastern Inner Mongolia, and northeastern China. This suggests changes in erodibility factors increased fDO in these regions. There are stations where fu>ut5% increased and ut5% remained relatively constant in western Inner Mongolia and the Hexi Corridor. This suggests changes in the erosivity factor increased fDO at these locations. The change in erodibility is linked, in part, to the effect of dead leaves of grasses in spring, which are the residue of vegetation in summer from the previous year, which can cause an increase in the threshold wind speed.

  2. Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; Hurles, Matthew E; Yang, Huanming; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2006-04-01

    The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in East Asia, applying a Bayesian full-likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan typed with 45 binary and 16 STR markers from the Y chromosome. According to our analysis, the northern populations examined all started to expand in number between 34 (18-68) and 22 (12-39) thousand years ago (KYA), before the last glacial maximum at 21-18 KYA, while the southern populations all started to expand between 18 (6-47) and 12 (1-45) KYA, but then grew faster. We suggest that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe," while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. © 2013.

  4. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  5. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  6. The low-FODMAP diet in the management of functional dyspepsia in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Victoria P

    2017-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder in East and Southeast Asia where subjects experience post prandial fullness/bloating, early satiety, belching, epigastric pain, and/or burning. A subset of patients with FD experience triggers exclusively related to meals, defined as the post prandial distress syndrome in the Rome IV guidelines. There is significant overlap of symptoms and implicated pathogenic factors with another common functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and in fact, a significant proportion of subjects have FD/IBS overlap. The introduction of the low-FODMAP diet has changed the paradigm of treatment for IBS. Like IBS, dietary management appears to be important to patients with FD and clinicians treating the condition. This review aims to examine the current role of diet in the management of FD in East and Southeast Asia, with an exploration of the likely efficacy and mechanisms of action of the low-FODMAP diet in this region.

  7. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

  8. Inverse estimation of radon flux distribution for East Asia using measured atmospheric radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Hirao, S; Hayashi, R; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Tohjima, Y; Mukai, H

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the (222)Rn flux density distribution at surface was estimated in East Asia with the Bayesian synthesis inversion using measurement data and a long-range atmospheric (222)Rn transport model. Surface atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations measured at Hateruma Island in January 2008 were used. The estimated (222)Rn flux densities were generally higher than the prior ones. The area-weighted mean (222)Rn flux density for East Asia in January 2008 was estimated to be 44.0 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The use of the estimated (222)Rn flux density improved the discrepancy of the model-calculated concentrations with the measurements at Hateruma Island.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome in the 21st century: perspectives from Asia or South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Asian irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) studies not only confirm the truth of this functional disorder but also describe the current disease situation of this continent, with its variable socioeconomic backgrounds. Most Asian community IBS prevalence is within 5-10%, regardless of gender or ethnic character. As well as meeting the main Rome II criteria, Asian IBS subjects also have many minor symptoms. Thus this recommendation remains useful to diagnose Asian IBS. Also, female patients commonly express constipation-predominant (C-) symptoms. Extra-colonic symptoms are common in Asia, for example dyspepsia, insomnia and irritable urinary bladder. Asian IBS subjects do experience psychological disturbances including anxiety, depression, agoraphobia and neuroticism. Accordingly, their quality of life is poor and there is absenteeism leading to excessive physician visits. Abnormal gut motor and sensory functions have been indicated among the Asian IBS subjects. Now, there is evidence of altered colonic neuroimmune function leading to gut hypersensitivity and dysmotility. An Asia-Pacific trial also confirmed tegaserod efficacy on female C-IBS subjects. More than 90% of nurses have very limited IBS knowledge, and are unable even to explain it clearly. In conclusion, Western recommended criteria clearly diagnose Asian IBS and many factors are mutual leading to IBS. Current IBS treatments remain useful but additional reeducation for medical professionals appears to be needed.

  10. Impact of Intercontinental Transport of North American Ozone on Tropospheric Ozone over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ye; Liu, Jane; Wang, Tijian; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Han; Wang, Hengmao; Chang, Yi; Ding, Ke

    2017-04-01

    Ozone is an important trace gas in the troposphere as a major pollutant and greenhouse gas. In this study, we analyzed results from a global 3-dimentional chemical transport, GEOS-Chem, which simulates ozone concentrations from different regions, tracks their transport to each of the regions and thus provides a valuable dataset to study contributions of long-range transport of ozone from different regions to East Asia. With a particular focus on the influence of North American ozone, we compared the simulations with ozonesonde measurements at two sites in USA and found the model can best capture the ozone's interannual variations in the middle and upper troposphere in the region. We also used air parcel trajectory analysis and found that North American ozone can reach the western East Asia within 4-6 days. In the middle and upper troposphere, North American ozone can influence East Asia most significantly in spring and fall. In the lower troposphere, North American ozone's influence is the largest in winter. In fall, the fractional contribution of North American ozone appears to be the largest in the lower troposphere over Europe, while in the upper troposphere it can affect most regions of Eurasia, especially above 30°N. Ozone generated from North American's boundary layer is mainly transported to the west coast of Europe with so-called warm conveyor belts associated with extratropical cyclones, and along with the westerlies to the entire northern hemisphere. It is transported to the lower troposphere with the downdraft in Europe and East Asia. The underlying mechanisms for the seasonal variation on NA ozone influences will be discussed.

  11. GOSAT CO2 retrieval results using TANSO-CAI aerosol information over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, W.; Jung, Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Goo, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the satellite remote sensing of CO2, incorrect aerosol information could induce large errors as previous studies suggested. Many factors, such as, aerosol type, wavelength dependency of AOD, aerosol polarization effect and etc. have been main error sources. Due to these aerosol effects, large number of data retrieved are screened out in quality control, or retrieval errors tend to increase if not screened out, especially in East Asia where aerosol concentrations are fairly high. To reduce these aerosol induced errors, a CO2 retrieval algorithm using the simultaneous TANSO-CAI aerosol information is developed. This algorithm adopts AOD and aerosol type information as a priori information from the CAI aerosol retrieval algorithm. The CO2 retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation method and VLIDORT, a vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. The CO2 algorithm, developed with various state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable results when compared with other dataset. This study concentrates on the validation of retrieved results with the ground-based TCCON measurements in East Asia and the comparison with the previous retrieval from ACOS, NIES, and UoL. Although, the retrieved CO2 concentration is lower than previous results by ppm's, it shows similar trend and high correlation with previous results. Retrieved data and TCCON measurements data are compared at three stations of Tsukuba, Saga, Anmyeondo in East Asia, with the collocation criteria of ±2°in latitude/longitude and ±1 hours of GOSAT passing time. Compared results also show similar trend with good correlation. Based on the TCCON comparison results, bias correction equation is calculated and applied to the East Asia data.

  12. Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Ya; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Yong Pyo; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2012-10-01

    We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia using wet deposition fluxes observed at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging scheme. Typical air quality models, including CMAQ, assume below-cloud scavenging as a simple first-order process with a constant or simple form depending on rain intensity. The scheme used here accounts for the collection efficiency, terminal velocity of raindrops, raindrop-size distributions, and particle-size distributions, which are important factors affecting below-cloud scavenging. We conduct model simulations for spring 2001, including baseline and sensitivity simulations. Our analysis mainly focuses on May 2001 to rule out the effect of dust aerosols. Simulated wet deposition fluxes of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ by the new scheme are increased by 103, 16, and 108%, respectively, relative to the baseline simulation and show better agreement with observations. The effect of below-cloud scavenging on coarse particles is even greater, producing wet deposition fluxes two orders of magnitude higher than the baseline. The resulting changes in the model indicate the considerable impacts of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia, where both anthropogenic emissions and natural sources of aerosols are present throughout the year. An accurate wet scavenging simulation is critical to simulate the atmospheric burden and wet deposition fluxes of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosols over East Asia.

  13. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  14. Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

  15. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  16. Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-10-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in March-April when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K+, OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via long-range transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  17. Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Dong, Yong-Li; Qi, Xue-Bin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Lu-Fang; Tan, Si-Jie; Ma, Runlin Z; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Wells, R Spencer; Jin, Li; Su, Bing

    2008-10-29

    The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000-30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups.

  18. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  19. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  20. Multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

    2015-04-07

    Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 ± 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 ± 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China.

  1. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-03-26

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25-10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia.

  2. Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone source-receptor relationships over East Asia have been quantitatively investigated using a chemical transport model including an on-line tracer-tagged procedure, with a particular focus on the source regions of different daily ozone mixing ratios.Comparison with observations showed that the model reproduced surface ozone and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities.Long-range transport from outside East Asia contributed the greatest fraction to annual surface ozone over remote regions, the Korean peninsula, and Japan, reaching 50%-80% of total ozone.Self-contributions accounted for 5%-20% ozonein the Korean peninsula and Japan, whereas the contribution of trans-boundary transport from photochemical production in China was less than 5%-10%. At extra-high ozone levels, self-contributions reached 50%-60% in the Korean peninsula.Ozone source-receptor relationships showed high seasonal variability over East Asia.Significant transport was also found between sub-regions in China, which presents a great challenge to policy-makers because most current control strategies are confined to specific regions.

  3. Applying satellite retrievals to identify urban emissions of GHG's over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Here we have used satellite retrievals to identify GHG's emissions over East Asia. With multi-year GOSAT CO2/CH4 products (2009 - 2014) and recent OCO-2 retrievals (2014 - 2015), better availability of the data enabled to show the regional/local scale (less than 1° x 1° spatial resolution) urban GHG's emissions. We identified the urban emissions from the enhanced values of xCO2/xCH4 and estimated the correlation of those signals with available GHG's emissions inventory over East Asia. Also, some of those retrievals were compared with ground/aircraft measurements to verify those remotely sensed data. Those efforts are useful to identify regional/local anthropogenic GHG's emissions over East Asia where the GHG's emissions inventories are still uncertain, which can support government policy to mitigate air pollution. In addition, we introduce our efforts to constrain the emissions of CO2 from GOSAT/OCO-2 data using 4-Dvar inverse modeling framework and we show some preliminary results. This study represents the current progress to understand sub-continental scale atmospheric CO2 variabilities and its emissions with recent satellite retrievals and advanced modeling.

  4. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  5. Future Projection of Summer Extreme Precipitation from High Resolution Multi-RCMs over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gayoung; Park, Changyong; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Min, Seung-Ki; Hong, Song-You; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the frequency and intensity of natural hazards have been increasing due to human-induced climate change. Because most damages of natural hazards over East Asia have been related to extreme precipitation events, it is important to estimate future change in extreme precipitation characteristics caused by climate change. We investigate future changes in extremal values of summer precipitation simulated by five regional climate models participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (i.e., HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, MM5, WRF, and GRIMs) over East Asia. 100-year return value calculated from the generalized extreme value (GEV) parameters is analysed as an indicator of extreme intensity. In the future climate, the mean values as well as the extreme values of daily precipitation tend to increase over land region. The increase of 100-year return value can be significantly associated with the changes in the location (intensity) and scale (variability) GEV parameters for extreme precipitation. It is expected that the results of this study can be used as fruitful references when making the policy of disaster management. Acknowledgements The research was supported by the Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government and Development program under grant MPSS-NH-2013-63 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2016M3C4A7952637) for its support and assistant in completion of the study.

  6. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  7. The US Navy and National Strategy in East Asia: An Outlook for the Next Twenty-Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    aeployed to the western Pacific anc East Asia are tne earnest of US Poitical involvement 7n East Asian secur’ty affairs. They teeo regional differences...Security of South Asia: American ana Asian Perspectives, Urbana: University oT i;.incis Press. 1986. . Zra The Ciaialnc Baiance of 3ower. Asian ...Winter 1987. Harries. Owen ’The Rise of American Decline. Asian Defense Jcurna . Seotember 1988, op. 20-32. Hattendorf. john B. ana Jordan, Robert S., eds

  8. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  9. Age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Sanzhong; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    We study the age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia using a high-resolution model of P-wave tomography and paleo-age data of ancient seafloor. Our results show that the lithosphere age of the subducting slab becomes younger from the Japan Trench (∼130 Ma) to the slab's western edge (∼90 Ma) beneath East China, and the flat (stagnant) slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) is the subducted Pacific plate rather than the proposed Izanagi plate which should have already collapsed into the lower mantle. The flat Pacific slab has been in the MTZ for no more than ∼10-20 million years, considerably less than the age of the big mantle wedge beneath East Asia (>110 million years). Hence, the present flat Pacific slab in the MTZ has contributed to the Cenozoic destruction of the East Asian continental lithosphere with extensive intraplate volcanism and back-arc spreading, whereas the destruction of the North China Craton during the Early Cretaceous (∼140-110 Ma) was caused by the subduction of the Izanagi (or the Paleo-Pacific) plate.

  10. JPRS Report. East Asia, Korea: KULLOJA, No. 11, November 1989.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-28

    fatherland that they whiffed the nostalgic fragrance of the fatherland by carrying with them a handful of the fatherland’s soil in their knapsack...survive. I am sending 2 won, my entire property . Please use it as part of the funds of the organization..." This letter is a living example...let his men use his only blanket; and when one of his warrior suffered wounds, the leader would send him the single ginseng root he had kept for

  11. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from

  12. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-17

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  13. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  14. East Asia: A Region of Superlatives in Changing Global Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; van Donkelaar, A.; Geddes, J.; Snider, G.; Weagle, C.; Xu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers a powerful data source to inform East Asian air quality, and to place that information in a global context. Chemical transport models play a critical role in relating those observations of the atmospheric column to ground-level concentrations. Satellite-based estimates of ground-level fine-particulate matter (PM2.5) and NO2 indicate dramatic variation and trends, with implications for public health. The GOCI geostationary satellite instrument provides unprecedented temporal resolution over East Asia. An emerging ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances and future opportunities in combining satellite remote sensing, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of East Asian air quality, and to place that information in a global context.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus among women born in South East Asia: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among women born in South East Asia, now residing in a developed country Established health databases including: SCOPUS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Maternity and Infant Care were searched for journal papers, published 2001-2011. Studies that examined GDM among women born in South East Asia (SEA) were sought. Keywords included gestational diabetes and a search term for Asian ethnicity (Asian, Asia, race, ethnic, and ethnicity). Further searches were based on citations and references found in located articles. Of 53 retrieved publications, five met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and organised under the following headings: GDM rates among women born in SEA; screening for GDM; and characteristics of GDM risk for SEA born women. Study quality was assessed by using the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme) guidelines. This review produced three main findings: (1) compared to combined Asian groups, GDM rates were lower among SEA women; (2) compared to other Asian sub-groups, GDM rates among SEA women were in the intermediate range; and (3) SEA born women demonstrated consistently higher rates of GDM than women from the same ethnic background who were born in countries such as the US, UK or Australia. From this review, it was clear that a 'one size fits all' approach to Asian ethnicity was not useful for estimating GDM rates among SEA women. There was also considerable difference among women of SEA ethnicity born in South East Asia, compared to women of the same ethnic background born in developed countries. Future research should explore the unique characteristics of GDM risk for these women. Such information is necessary for the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of GDM among SEA women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heart Failure in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America: The INTER-CHF study.

    PubMed

    Dokainish, Hisham; Teo, Koon; Zhu, Jun; Roy, Ambuj; AlHabib, Khalid F; ElSayed, Ahmed; Palileo-Villaneuva, Lia; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Karaye, Kamilu; Yusoff, Khalid; Orlandini, Andres; Sliwa, Karen; Mondo, Charles; Lanas, Fernando; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Badr, Amr; Elmaghawry, Mohamed; Damasceno, Albertino; Tibazarwa, Kemi; Belley-Cote, Emilie; Balasubramanian, Kumar; Yacoub, Magdi H; Huffman, Mark D; Harkness, Karen; Grinvalds, Alex; McKelvie, Robert; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-02-01

    There are few data on heart failure (HF) patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America. INTER-CHF is a prospective study that enrolled HF patients in 108 centers in 16 countries from 2012 to 2014. Consecutive ambulatory or hospitalized adult patients with HF were enrolled. Baseline data were recorded on sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, HF etiology and treatments. Age- and sex-adjusted results are reported. We recruited 5813 HF patients: mean(SE) age=59(0.2)years, 39% female, 65% outpatients, 31% from rural areas, 26% with HF with preserved ejection fraction, with 1294 from Africa, 2661 from Asia, 1000 from the Middle-East, and 858 from South America. Participants from Africa-closely followed by Asians-were younger, had lower literacy levels, and were less likely to have health or medication insurance or be on beta-blockers compared with participants from other regions, but were most likely to be in NYHA class IV. Participants from South America were older, had higher insurance and literacy levels, and, along with Middle Eastern participants, were more likely to be on beta-blockers, but had the lowest proportion in NYHA IV. Ischemic heart disease was the most common HF etiology in all regions except Africa where hypertensive heart disease was most common. INTER-CHF describes significant regional variability in socioeconomic and clinical factors, etiologies and treatments in HF patients from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and South America. Opportunities exist for improvement in health/medication insurance rates and proportions of patients on beta blockers, particularly in Africa and Asia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Off to a good start: A comparative study of changes in men's first job prospects in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia. PMID:25999637

  18. Off to a good start: A comparative study of changes in men's first job prospects in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Hsin; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Research on young adults' transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults' job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia.

  19. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J

    2014-02-01

    There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century.

  20. Six years of high resolution of surface solar radiation in East Asia based on MTSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X.; Yang, K.; Tang, W.; Qin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change has become a challenge of the sustainable development in East Asia due to its long coastline, population density, strong dependence of economic on agriculture and resource, extremely vulnerable to climate change impact. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) in this region, which is the highest plateau in the world, has strong interactions among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere. The TP has been experiencing an overall increase in surface air temperature and moistening, solar dimming and wind stilling since the beginning of the 1980s. Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) plays an important role of the hydrological and land process modeling, which particularly contributes more than 90% to the total melt energy for the TP ice melting. The primary motivation for this study is to advance the quality and resolution of currently available information on SSR in East Asia. Six years (2007-2012) of high resolution (hourly; 0.1⁰) of SSR have been recently developed for the main East Asian region (20⁰N-60⁰N; 70⁰E-140⁰E). The SSR estimates have been derived from the optimized geostationary satellite observations - the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT), based on updating an existing physical model, the UMD-SRB (University of Maryland Surface Radiation Budget) which is the basis of the well-known GEWEX-SRB model. The six years of SSR have been evaluated against ground observations and the universal used satellite products (i.e. ISCCP-FD, GEWEX-SRB) in relatively low spatial resolution (0.5⁰-2.5⁰) and temporal resolution (3-hourly, daily, or monthly). Such information is needed to meet the challenge for accurate input into the land process and hydrological models for us to better understand the mechanism of the climate change in East Asia.Bottom of Form

  1. More intensive summer tropical cyclone near 30°N of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi (Ki-Seon Choi), Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Lu, Riyu

    2017-06-01

    The present study revealed that a climate regime shift occurred during the 1988-1991 period involving changes in tropical cyclone (TC) intensity (central pressure, maximum sustained wind speed) during the summer near 30°N in East Asia. Climatologically, TC intensity at 110°-125°E near 30°N (over Mainland China) is the weakest at that latitude while the strongest is found at 125°-130°E (over Korea). The TC intensity during the 1991-2015 (91-15) period had strengthened significantly compared to that of the 1965-1988 (65-88) period. The strengthening was due to a significantly lower frequency of TCs that passed through Mainland China during the 91-15 period. This lower frequency of was due to anomalous northeasterlies blown from the anomalous anticyclonic circulation located over continental East Asia and that had strengthened along the coast. Instead, TCs mainly followed a path from eastern regions in the subtropical western North Pacific to Korea and Japan via the East China Sea due to anomalous cyclonic circulations that had strengthened in the western North Pacific. In addition, low vertical wind shear had formed along the mid-latitude region in East Asia and along the main TC track in the 91-15 period, and most regions in the western North Pacific experienced a higher sea surface temperature state during the 91-15 period than in the previous period, indicating that a favorable environment had formed to maintain strong intensities of TCs at the mid-latitudes. The characteristics of TCs at the lower latitudes caused a strong TC intensity at the time of landfall in Korea and a gradual shifting trend of landing location from the western to southern coast in recent years.

  2. Insular East Asia pig dispersal and vicariance inferred from Asian wild boar genetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Li, K Y; Li, K T; Yang, C H; Hwang, M H; Chang, S W; Lin, S M; Wu, H J; Basilio, E B; Vega, R S A; Laude, R P; Ju, Y T

    2017-04-01

    The Formosan wild boar () is an endemic subspecies in Taiwan. Understanding the origins and spread of the Formosan wild boar could help clarify East Asian wild boar dispersion. Although in situ domestication of the wild boar occurred at a number of domestication centers across East Asia, corroborating archaeological and genetic evidence of pig domestication on Taiwan is lacking, leading to domestication being described as cryptic. This characterization applies to the Lanyu pig-a domestic pig breed found on Taiwan. To better understand pig domestication, this study examines the sympatric Formosan wild boar and domestic Lanyu pig to build a model of potential wild boar domestication on Taiwan and elucidate wild boar domestication patterns in the region. To this end, a comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Formosan wild boar and the Lanyu pig was conducted on animals sourced from Taiwan, Lanyu, and the Philippines. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using full mitochondrial control-region sequences from 345 wild boars and domestic pigs. These were studied in concert with existing reports on 206 Asian wild boars. Genetic characteristics and Bayesian phylogenetic tree results identified 2 wild boar lineages of remote phylogenetic relationship. These were Formosan wild boar lineage (FWBL) and Formosan wild boar with Lanyu sign lineage (FWBLYL). Molecular clock analyses indicate that FWBLYL diverged earlier than other insular East Asia wild boars and show that FWBLYL and FWBL diverged approximately 0.60 million years ago. This result supports boars of FWBLYL being the earliest wild boars to have spread and become isolated in insular East Asia. In addition, the study proposes 6 Asian wild boar dispersion routes during glacial periods. At least 3 of these events occurred in insular East Asia with subsequent geographical isolation after glacial recession. This isolation potentially led to allopatric differentiation of wild boar subspecies. Also, the similar genetic

  3. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-02-01

    We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under East China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.

  4. Evaluation of modeled vertical aerosol distributions over east-Asia using in-situ and satellite data during summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quennehen, Boris; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Ancellet, Gérard; Bazureau, Ariane; Daskalakis, Nikos; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Zhu, Tong; Pelon, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    As part of the EU ECLIPSE project, which aims to quantify the climate impact of short lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including aerosols, black carbon and ozone, regional models are being used to evaluate global model performance for specific case studies. Here, we present results using regional WRF-Chem simulations over east-Asia. Results are compared to data from field campaigns which took place in summer 2008 and from long-term measurement stations. This study will, in a first step, evaluate the ability of the model to simulate aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, with a focus on pollution layers. In a second step, the radiative impact of such layers over east-Asia will be investigated as a function of their position relative to clouds. The WRF-Chem regional model was run using MOZART gas phase chemistry and the MOSAIC aerosol scheme and was evaluated against available measurements for the period August to September 2008. The model was run using ECLIPSE anthropogenic and GFEDv3.1 fire emissions for 2008, while initial and boundary conditions were specified from the TM4 global chemical transport model. The radiative impact of pollution aerosol layers has already been investigated but less is known about the influence of vertical layering in the atmosphere. Such layers might have different radiative impacts whether they are below or above clouds and in that sense, a better understanding of their spatial extent is critical. Information about pollution aerosol layers and clouds optical properties and positions over East-Asia are determined using observations from CALIPSO. The radiative impact of these layers is simulated and compared to the observations. In addition to satellite observations, model results are evaluated against trace gas and aerosol data from aircraft campaigns over eastern Asia in summer 2008 (e.g., CAREBEIJING and CAPMEX) and ground-based measurements (e.g., NIES and ABC). In this study, we assess aerosol total concentrations and size

  5. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  6. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  7. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years. PMID:28178351

  8. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  9. Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie

    2016-01-01

    Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and East Asia. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.

  10. An upper-mantle S-wave velocity model for East Asia from Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghua; Wu, Qingju; Pan, Jiatie; Zhang, Fengxue; Yu, Daxin

    2013-09-01

    We present a new shear velocity model of the upper mantle beneath the East Asia region derived by inverting Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements between 10 and 145 s combined with previously published Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 150 and 250 s. Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along more than 9500 paths were measured and combined to produce 2D dispersion maps for 10-145 s periods. The group velocity maps benefit from the inclusion of new data recorded by the China National Seismic Network and surrounding global stations. The increase in available data has resulted in enhanced resolution compared with previously published group velocity maps; the horizontal resolution across the region is about 3° for the periods used in this study. The new shear-wave velocity models indicate varying velocity structure beneath eastern China, which yields estimates of a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary depth from around 160 km beneath the Yangtze block to approximately 140 km beneath the western part of the North China Craton (NCC), up to depths of 70-100 km beneath the eastern NCC, Northeast China, and the Cathaysia block. The models reveal the subduction of two opposite-facing continental plates under the southern and northern margin of Tibet. An obvious low-velocity anomaly appears in the top 200 km of the upper mantle beneath northern Tibet, which is inconsistent with the presence of subducted Asian or Indian mantle lithosphere beneath northern Tibet. The Cenozoic volcanism fields in the Mongolian plateau are characterized by an obvious upper mantle negative anomaly, but no signature of deep-seated plume was observed.

  11. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint.

  12. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  13. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  14. Summer rain events in south-east Asia: Spatial and temporal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Ming Chee; Lee, Sze Chung; Lun, Bit Hon; Tanner, Peter A.

    2007-12-01

    During the summer monsoon period in south-east Asia marine airstreams normally prevail at the south China coast. However, when tropical cyclones approach then polluted airmasses from south-eastern China can impart high ionic concentrations and high acidity to rainwater. This is illustrated by two examples and the small-scale horizontal variations in rainwater composition are minor during these episodes. Since long-term quality-assured studies of the composition of rainwater in south-east Asia are scarce, the results at three sampling sites in Hong Kong during summer monsoon periods are compared with previous data from the same season. The results for the mid- to end-1990's show a similar trend to those for the ambient concentrations of sulphate and nitrate in aerosol in Hong Kong, which show flattened trends from 1995 to 1999. A marked increase in acidity is found in the summer monsoon period of 2004 which is attributed to the greater proportion of approaching cyclone weather systems in the dataset, reflecting both the increased local emission sources and the burgeoning economic growth of the Pearl River Delta Region. Comparison of the rainwater composition with that at other south-east Asian cities during the summer monsoon period shows that it is most acidic in Hong Kong.

  15. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dust emissions from the Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia have a major impact on the air quality in the East Asian region. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dusts also modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentration and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia) and satellite measurements over East Asia. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust modules was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The results show that the Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and DEAD are relatively good dust emission schemes in this region and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic emissions over China. Details of modifications of dust emission schemes and annual background PM10 concentrations by the soil fugitive dust in Korea will be discussed in the presentation.

  16. Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population.

  17. Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As part of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in East Asia, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern part of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a part of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural

  18. Terrestrial Water Cycle in South and East Asia: Hydrospheric and Cryospheric Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; Hu, G.; Liu, Q.; Xin, X.; Roupioz, L.; Zheng, C.; Zhou, J.; Li, Z.; Faivre, R.; Ghafarian, H.; Hien, V. P.; Lindenbergh, R.; Li, J.; Wen, J.; Li, L.; Zhao, J.; Dou, B.

    2016-08-01

    The state of the land surface and the water cycle over the South and East Asia can be determined by space observation. New or significantly improved algorithms have been developed and evaluated against ground measurements. V ariables retrieved include land surface properties, i.e. NDVI, LAI, FPAR, albedo, soil moisture, glacier and lake levels. Based on these biophysical parameters derived from microwave and optical remote sensing observations, a hybrid remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) estimation model named ETMonitor was developed and applied to estimate the daily actual ET of the Southeast Asia at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The changes in glaciers and lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, and the drainage links between glaciers and lakes are determined in this climate-sensitive region.

  19. Exploring the combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation and ENSO on the wintertime climate over East Asia using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Ruyan; Yang, Zifan; Wang, Bin; Ma, Wenqian

    2017-09-01

    To examine the combined effects of the different spatial patterns of the Arctic Oscillation (AO)-related sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on the wintertime surface temperature anomalies over East Asia, a nonlinear method based on self-organizing maps is employed. Investigation of identified regimes reveals that the AO can affect East Asian temperature anomalies when there are significant SLP anomalies over the Arctic Ocean and northern parts of Eurasian continent. Analogously, ENSO is found to affect East Asian temperature anomalies when significant SST anomalies are present over the tropical central Pacific. The regimes with the warmest and coldest temperature anomalies over East Asia are both associated with the negative phase of the AO. The ENSO-activated, Pacific-East Asian teleconnection pattern could affect the higher latitude continental regions when the impact of the AO is switched off. When the spatial patterns of the AO and ENSO have significant, but opposite, impacts on the coastal winds, no obvious temperature anomalies can be observed over south China. Further, the circulation state with nearly the same AO and Niño3 indices may drive rather different responses in surface temperature over East Asia. The well-known continuous weakening (recovery) of the East Asian winter monsoon that occurred around 1988 (2009) can be attributed to the transitions of the spatial patterns of the SLP anomalies over the Arctic Ocean and Eurasian continent, through their modulation on the occurrences of the Ural and central Siberian blocking events.

  20. MICS-Asia II: Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an advanced modeling system over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Joshua S.; Jang, Carey J.; Streets, David G.; Li, Zuopan; Kwok, Roger; Park, Rokjin; Han, Zhiwei

    An advanced modeling system with a "one-atmosphere" perspective, Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, driven by MM5/NCEP reanalysis data as the meteorology, and GEOS-Chem outputs as boundary values was applied to simulate the O 3, and other gaseous pollutants (SO 2 and NO 2) evolution among other atmospheric chemicals for July 2001. Comparisons had been made with other models in the MICS-II exercise for the same period. Statistics of both monthly and daily means show that the model skill is very good in reproducing O 3 and SO 2 with small to moderate RMSE. The model species capture the day-to-day and spatial variability of the observations. The same O 3 model concentrations that overpredict most of the EANET observations in the MICS-II study may have underpredicted ones from monitoring networks in Beijing area that is not included in this paper. Vertical O 3 profiles at 4 ozonesonde sites are well predicted in July 2001. In fact, our model is among the best of those MICS-II models within the 2-km surface layer. The meteorology near surface and lower troposphere is well reproduced. Compared to SO 2 and O 3, the NO 2 gas concentrations are simulated less well, but the correlation coefficient is still significant. The choice of reanalysis meteorological fields and different boundary conditions generated by different global models may result in diverse spatial patterns exhibited by MICS-II models and ours. Our spatial distributions of O 3 shows a high concentration patch covering Beijing, a moderate to high pattern across Korea and Japan Sea, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea. Extension of the pattern to southern China coincides with the existence of pollution problems in Guangdong and Taiwan, but overprediction of O 3 over the region deserves further improvement by various factors. One of them can be the grid resolution to resolve the complex orography in or close to the ocean. Another factor

  1. Governments' perceptions and policies of population redistribution in East and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, L A

    1981-01-01

    "This paper is based on the results of the Third Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development carried out in 1977 by the UN Secretariat. It reports on perceptions and policies concerning international migrations, spatial distribution of the national population, internal migration and settlement patterns in fourteen South East and East Asian countries. "It appears that nearly all countries under consideration were concerned with the spatial distribution of population both as a factor related to problems caused by excessive natural increase and as a problem on its own right. The majority of countries were prepared to pursue policies affecting basic trends in internal migration. Most governments declared their willingness to alter patterns of rural or both rural and urban settlement. Only two countries were interested in increasing emigration; the remaining ones were satisfied with the existing levels of international migration."

  2. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

  3. Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in East Asia. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in East Asia, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.

  4. Sensitivity of Drought Processes to Runoff Parameterizations in East Asia with the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. B.; Um, M. J.; Kim, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Drought is one of the most powerful and extensive disasters and has the highest annual average damage among all the disasters. Focusing on East Asia, where over one fifth of all the people in the world live, drought has impacted as well as been projected to impact the region significantly. .Therefore it is critical to reasonably simulate the drought phenomenon in the region and thus this study would focus on the reproducibility of drought with the NCAR CLM. In this study, we examine the propagation of drought processes with different runoff parameterization of CLM in East Asia. Two different schemes are used; TOPMODEL-based and VIC-based schemes, which differentiate the result of runoff through the surface and subsurface runoff parameterization. CLM with different runoff scheme are driven with two atmospheric forcings from CRU/NCEP and NCEP reanalysis data. Specifically, propagation of drought from meteorological, agricultural to hydrologic drought is investigated with different drought indices, estimated with not only model simulated results but also observational data. The indices include the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), standardized runoff index (SRI) and standardized soil moisture index (SSMI). Based on these indices, the drought characteristics such as intensity, frequency and spatial extent are investigated. At last, such drought assessments would reveal the possible model deficiencies in East Asia. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2015R1C1A2A01054800) and the Korea Meteorological Administration R&D Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-6180.

  5. Analysis of ionospheric disturbances associated with powerful cyclones in East Asia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Yue, Jianping; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhen; Guo, Jinyun; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-08-01

    East Asia and North America are the regions most heavily affected by powerful cyclones. In this paper we investigate the morphological characteristics of ionospheric disturbances induced by cyclones in different continents. The global ionosphere map supplied by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), International Reference Ionosphere Model (IRI) 2012, and Wallops Island ionosonde station data are used to analyse the ionospheric variations during powerful typhoons/hurricanes in East Asia and North America, respectively. After eliminating the ionospheric anomalies due to the solar-terrestrial environment, the total electron content (TEC) time series over the point with maximum wind speed is detected by the sliding interquartile range method. The results indicate that significant ionospheric disturbances are observed during powerful tropical cyclones in East Asia and North America, respectively, and that all the ionospheric anomalies are positive. In addition, the extent and magnitude of travelling ionospheric disturbances are associated with the category of tropical cyclone, and the extent of TEC anomalies in longitude is more pronounced than that in latitude. Furthermore, the maximum ionospheric anomaly does not coincide with the eye of the storm, but appears in the region adjacent to the centre. This implies that ionospheric disturbances at the edges of cyclones are larger than those in the eye of the winds. The phenomenon may be associated with the gravity waves which are generated by strong convective cells that occur in the spiral arms of tropical cyclones. This comprehensive analysis suggests that the presence of powerful typhoons/hurricanes may be a possible source mechanism for ionospheric anomalies.

  6. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2016-05-01

    An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over East Asia, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in East Asia in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.

  7. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  8. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes over East Asia through AsiaFlux and improved MODIS gross primary production data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miae; Im, Jungho; Lee, Junghee; Shin, Minso; Lee, Sanggyun

    2014-05-01

    data, upstream data of MODIS land cover use, FPAR, LAI, and model parameters. MODIS GPP data was improved using enhanced input variables by using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological data with high spatial resolution instead of DAO data, reflecting topographic characteristics over East Asia. GPP estimated using the enhanced input variables was compared with original MODIS GPP and in situ GPP to analyze the degree of improvements. Finally, improved GPP data were incorporated into the machine learning empirical models to estimate NEE. The spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon fluxes (GPP and NEE) over East Asia were also examined considering vegetation type and topography.

  9. An epidemiological study of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Central and South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Takeshi

    1966-01-01

    The author has investigated the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer in several different countries and localities in Central and South-East Asia. From comparisons of the various countries and areas and from detailed case studies among oral-cancer groups and control groups, the author has obtained strong supportive evidence for the association of the disease with the habit of chewing tobacco. He has also found a less marked association with smoking, the drinking of alcohol, and vegetarian dietary customs. PMID:5295564

  10. Projections of summertime ozone concentration over East Asia under multiple IPCC SRES emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Bum; Cha, Jun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Chul; Choi, Jin-Young; Myoung, Ji-Su; Park, Rokjin J.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Ho, Changhoi; Han, Jin-Seok; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-04-01

    We have developed the Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling System (ICAMS) through the one-way nesting of global-regional models to examine the changes in the surface ozone concentrations over East Asia under future climate scenarios. Model simulations have been conducted for the present period of 1996-2005 to evaluate the performance of ICAMS. The simulated surface ozone concentrations reproduced the observed monthly mean concentrations at sites in East Asia with high R2 values (0.4-0.9), indicating a successful simulation to capture both spatial and temporal variability. We then performed several model simulations with the six IPCC SRES scenarios (A2, A1B, A1FI, A1T, B1, and B2) for the next three periods, 2016-2025 (the 2020s), 2046-2055 (the 2050s), and 2091-2100 (the 2090s). The model results show that the projected changes of the annual daily mean maximum eight-hour (DM8H) surface ozone concentrations in summertime for East Asia are in the range of 2-8 ppb, -3 to 8 ppb, and -7 to 9 ppb for the 2020s, the 2050s, and the 2090s, respectively, and are primarily determined based on the emission changes of NOx and NMVOC. The maximum increases in the annual DM8H surface ozone and high-ozone events occur in the 2020s for all scenarios except for A2, implying that the air quality over East Asia is likely to get worse in the near future period (the 2020s) than in the far future periods (the 2050s and the 2090s). The changes in the future environment based on IPCC SRES scenarios would also influence the change in the occurrences of high-concentrations events more greatly than that of the annual DM8H surface ozone concentrations. Sensitivity simulations show that the emissions increase is the key factor in determining future regional surface ozone concentrations in the case of a developing country, China, whereas a developed country, Japan would be influenced more greatly by effects of the regional climate change than the increase in emissions.

  11. WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4

  12. Ethnomyocological data from Siberia and North-East Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Saar, M

    1991-02-01

    The paper includes literary data on the use of Amanita muscaria in Siberia and North-East Asia as well as information collected from ethnographers investigating these areas during the past decades. A survey is given on the cases and rules of Amanita muscaria consumption and the ways of its administration. The peoples having the tradition of Amanita muscaria consumption were aware of its different psychotrophic qualities and were able to use for several purposes. The fungus has been used by them as a psychostimulant having a simultaneous effect on several psychic functions.

  13. Arsenic in groundwater: a threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh; Ravenscroft, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The problem of arsenic pollution of groundwater used for domestic water supplies is now well recognised in Bangladesh, India and some other countries of South and South-east Asia. However, it has recently become apparent that arsenic-polluted water used for irrigation is adding sufficient arsenic to soils and rice to pose serious threats to sustainable agricultural production in those countries and to the health and livelihoods of affected people. This paper reviews the nature of those threats, taking into account the natural sources of arsenic pollution, areas affected, factors influencing arsenic uptake by soils and plants, toxicity levels and the dietary risk to people consuming arsenic-contaminated rice.

  14. Aerosol impacts on cloud thermodynamic phase change over East Asia observed with CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Damao; Liu, Dong; Luo, Tao; Wang, Zhien; Yin, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Impacts of aerosols on subfreezing cloud thermodynamic phase change over East Asia are studied by using 4 year combined CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar measurements. The mean occurrence frequencies of supercooled-liquid, mixed-phase, and glaciated clouds over East Asia are 10.4%, 10.3%, and 16.9%, respectively. Over northwest of East Asia (32-44°N, 75-100°E), subfreezing clouds are dominated by glaciated clouds with a mean relative cloud fraction (RCF) of 60% and over southeast (16-32°N, 95-120°E) are dominated by supercooled-liquid clouds with a mean RCF of 50%. Although cloud top temperature (CTT) differences contribute largely to the thermodynamic phase differences, northwest of East Asia has 20% larger glaciated (smaller mixed-phase) RCFs than those of southeast at the same CTT. Seasonal anomalies of glaciated and mixed-phase RCFs correlate well with the seasonal variations of dust occurrence frequency. In addition, subfreezing clouds associated with mineral dust contain approximately 5%, 10%, and 20% larger glaciated (smaller mixed-phase) RCFs than those associated with polluted dust, smoke, and background aerosols at any given CTT. It is suggested that dust impacts on subfreezing clouds over East Asia by providing abundant effective ice nuclei to glaciate mixed-phase clouds, although the impacts of large-scale dynamics and water supply mechanisms cannot be ruled out.

  15. Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yhang, Yoo-Bin

    2014-05-01

    Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

  16. Natural positive selection and north–south genetic diversity in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Chen; Xu, Haiyan; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Ong, Rick TH; Sim, Xueling; Chen, Jieming; Tay, Wan-Ting; Sim, Kar-Seng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien-Yin; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have identified a north–south cline in genetic variation in East and South-East Asia, but these studies have not formally explored the basis of these clinical differences. Understanding the origins of these variations may provide valuable insights in tracking down the functional variants in genomic regions identified by genetic association studies. Here we investigate the genetic basis of these differences with genome-wide data from the HapMap, the Human Genome Diversity Project and the Singapore Genome Variation Project. We implemented four bioinformatic measures to discover genomic regions that are considerably differentiated either between two Han Chinese populations in the north and south of China, or across 22 populations in East and South-East Asia. These measures prioritized genomic stretches with: (i) regional differences in the allelic spectrum for SNPs common to the two Han Chinese populations; (ii) differential evidence of positive selection between the two populations as quantified by integrated haplotype score (iHS) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH); (iii) significant correlation between allele frequencies and geographical latitudes of the 22 populations. We also explored the extent of linkage disequilibrium variations in these regions, which is important in combining genetic association studies from North and South Chinese. Two of the regions that emerged are found in HLA class I and II, suggesting that the HLA imputation panel from the HapMap may not be directly applicable to every Chinese sample. This has important implications to autoimmune studies that plan to impute the classical HLA alleles to fine map the SNP association signals. PMID:21792231

  17. Is the global atmospheric model MRI-AGCM3.2 better than the CMIP5 atmospheric models in simulating precipitation over East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    The reproducibility of precipitation over East Asia (110-150°E, 20-50°N) by the Meteorological Research Institute-Atmospheric General Circulation Model version 3.2 (MRI-AGCM3.2) was investigated and compared with those by global atmospheric models participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The 20, 60 and 180-km grid size version of this model were used to evaluate the dependence of model performance on horizontal resolution. The dependence of cumulus convection scheme on model performance was also investigated. All the MRI-AGCM3.2 models and the CMIP5 models were forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures for the period 1979-2003 (25 years). The reproducibility of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models is higher or comparable to that of the CMIP5 models for seasonal average precipitation, the seasonal March of rainy zone and extreme precipitation events. Especially in summer, the advantage of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models over the CMIP5 models is striking in terms of various skill measures. This is partly due to the higher horizontal resolution of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models, but the performance of models is also sensitive to and depends on cumulus convection scheme. The better simulation of summer precipitation over East Asia by the MRI-AGCM3.2 models can be partly attributed to the better simulation of precipitation, the West Pacific Subtropical High and the local Hadley circulation in the tropics. This study highlights that higher reproducibility of summertime precipitation over East Asia requires proper simulation not only for tropical circulation but also for the strong dynamical linkage between precipitation over East Asia and tropical circulation.

  18. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 2. EAST PART OF SOLIDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST PART OF SOLIDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING 274 AND PLUMMER STREET, FROM BALL DIAMOND IN SOUTHEAST CORNER. (Panoramic view 2/2). - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. View towards east of interior wall structure with parts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards east of interior wall structure with parts of coffee despulpadora in foreground - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  1. 17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to north. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  2. 16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  3. 8. RAIL SPURS AND NORTHEAST PART OF EAST ELEVATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. RAIL SPURS AND NORTHEAST PART OF EAST ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. North and part of the east sides of the wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and part of the east sides of the wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. 25. EAST SIDE, SOUTH PART, SHOWING FOUR SETS OF SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. EAST SIDE, SOUTH PART, SHOWING FOUR SETS OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS ABOVE THE WOOD SHOP, WHICH IS OBSCURED BY STORAGE RACKS OF STEEL. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  7. Understanding the coupled natural and human systems in Dryland East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiaguo; Chen, Jiquan; Wan, Shiqian; Ai, Likun

    2012-03-01

    Stressors including regional climate change, economic development effects upon land use and an increasing demand for food production have resulted in significant impacts on the dryland ecosystems in the East Asia (DEA) region. Ecosystem services, such as its provisional services in providing forage for grazing as well as its functional services in regulating water and carbon fluxes, have been significantly altered over the past three decades. Conversely, changes in the landscape, particularly land cover types, have also been blamed for intensified climatic events such as dust storms and severe and frequent droughts within the region. The interactive nature of climate, ecosystems and society is complex and not fully understood, making it difficult, if not impossible, to develop effective adaptation strategies for the region. A special synthesis workshop on ‘Dryland Ecosystems in East Asia: State, Changes, Knowledge Gaps, and Future’ was held from 18-20 July 2011 in Kaifeng, Henan Province, China, with the aim of identifying knowledge gaps, quantifying impacts and developing a future research agenda for the region. The specific objectives of this workshop were to answer some key socio-environmental questions, including the following. (1) What do we know about the drylands in DEA? (2) What are the knowledge gaps? (3) What are the solutions to these issues? This paper provides a synthesis of the workshop consensus and findings on the state of knowledge and challenges in addressing these science issues for the DEA region.

  8. Dynamic patterns of avian and human influenza in east and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrew W; Glass, Kathryn

    2007-08-01

    The seasonal patterns of human influenza in temperate regions have been well documented; however, much less attention has been paid to patterns of infection in the tropical and subtropical areas of east and southeast Asia. During the period 1997-2006, this region experienced several outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) in hosts including wild and domestic poultry, human beings, and other mammals. H5N1 is thought to be a likely source of a pandemic strain of human influenza. Incidence of both human influenza and avian influenza in human beings shows evidence of seasonality throughout east and southeast Asia, although the seasonal patterns in tropical and subtropical areas are not as simple or as pronounced as those in temperate regions around the world. The possibility of a human being becoming co-infected with both human and avian strains of influenza is not restricted to a short season, although the risks do appear to be greatest during the winter months.

  9. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-08

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen.

  10. Contributions of radiative factors to enhanced dryland warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanting; Guan, Xiaodan; Yu, Haipeng; Xie, Yongkun; Jin, Hongchun

    2017-08-01

    Enhanced near-surface atmospheric warming has occurred over East Asia in recent decades, especially in drylands. Although local factors have been confirmed to provide considerable contributions to this warming, such factors have not been sufficiently analyzed. In this study, we extracted the radiatively forced temperature (RFT) associated with the built-up greenhouse gases, aerosol emission, and various other radiative forcing over East Asia and found a close relationship between RFT and CO2. In addition, using climate model experiments, we explored the responses of temperature changes to black carbon (BC), CO2, and SO4 and found that the enhanced dryland warming induced by CO2 had the largest magnitude and was strengthened by the warming effect of BC. Moreover, the sensitivity of daily maximum and minimum temperature changes to BC, CO2, and SO4 was examined. It showed asymmetric responses of daily maximum and minimum temperature to radiative factors, which led to an obvious change of diurnal temperature range (DTR), especially in drylands. The DTR's response to CO2 is the most significant. Therefore, CO2 not only plays a dominant role in enhanced warming but also greatly affects the decrease of DTR in drylands. However, the mechanisms of these radiative factors' effects in the process of DTR change are not clear and require more investigation.

  11. Cancer epidemiology and control in north-East Asia - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Long, Ne; Moore, Malcolm A; Chen, Wanqing; Gao, Chao-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Park, Sohee; Shin, Hai-Rim; Tajima, Kazuo; Yoo, Keun-Young; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-East Asia are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control.

  12. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    As the climate change occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  13. Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.

    2014-12-01

    East Asia is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of East Asia, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.

  14. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  15. History and current status of bariatric and metabolic surgeries in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Akira; Lee, Wei-Jei; Sasaki, Akira; Wakabayashi, Go

    2015-08-01

    Morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are major public health problems around the world, including in East Asia. Although Asian populations have been shown to have an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia at a relatively lower BMI than Western populations, the Asian perspective on bariatric and metabolic surgeries has not been actively discussed until recently. Bariatric surgery in East Asia has undergone a paradigm shift since the first laparoscopic vertical bariatric surgery was performed in Taiwan in 1998, which was subsequently followed by the introduction of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass. Since 2006, use of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has remarkably increased because of its ease, speed, and safety. With regard to metabolic surgery, a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan demonstrated that laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is more effective than laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for surgical treatment of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In this article, we describe the history of bariatric procedures, revision surgeries, weight-loss effect, and metabolic surgeries in Asian populations, and we also discuss minimally invasive bariatric surgery with some important citations.

  16. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-11-09

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia.

  17. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wu; Jin, Chang-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Qi; Cai, Yan-Jun; Xing, Song; Wu, Xiu-Jie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Pan, Wen-Shi; Qin, Da-Gong; An, Zhi-Sheng; Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xin-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 discovery of fragmentary human remains (two molars and an anterior mandible) at Zhirendong (Zhiren Cave) in South China provides insight in the processes involved in the establishment of modern humans in eastern Eurasia. The human remains are securely dated by U-series on overlying flowstones and a rich associated faunal sample to the initial Late Pleistocene, >100 kya. As such, they are the oldest modern human fossils in East Asia and predate by >60,000 y the oldest previously known modern human remains in the region. The Zhiren 3 mandible in particular presents derived modern human anterior symphyseal morphology, with a projecting tuber symphyseos, distinct mental fossae, modest lateral tubercles, and a vertical symphysis; it is separate from any known late archaic human mandible. However, it also exhibits a lingual symphyseal morphology and corpus robustness that place it close to later Pleistocene archaic humans. The age and morphology of the Zhiren Cave human remains support a modern human emergence scenario for East Asia involving dispersal with assimilation or populational continuity with gene flow. It also places the Late Pleistocene Asian emergence of modern humans in a pre-Upper Paleolithic context and raises issues concerning the long-term Late Pleistocene coexistence of late archaic and early modern humans across Eurasia. PMID:20974952

  18. Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over East Asia via data assimilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over East Asia simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over East Asia.

  19. The application of social impact bonds to universal health-care initiatives in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Belinsky, Michael; Eddy, Michael; Lohmann, Johannes; Georgea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Social impact bonds (SIBs) have the potential to improve the efficiency of government health-care spending in South-East Asia. In a SIB, governments sign a pay-for-performance contract with one or several providers of health-care services, and the providers borrow up-front capital from investors. Governments outside South-East Asia have started to experiment with SIBs in criminal justice, homelessness and health care. Governments of South-East Asia can advance the goal of universal health care by using SIBs to improve the efficiency of health-care service providers and by motivating providers to expand coverage. This paper describes SIBs and their potential application to health-care initiatives in the Region.

  20. An HIV Vaccine for South-East Asia-Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; O'Connell, Robert J; Kim, Jerome H; Excler, Jean-Louis

    2013-08-14

    Recent advances in HIV vaccine development along with a better understanding of the immune correlates of risk have emerged from the RV144 efficacy trial conducted in Thailand. Epidemiological data suggest that CRF01_AE is still predominant in South-East Asia and is spreading in China with a growing number of circulating recombinant forms due to increasing human contact, particularly in large urban centers, tourist locations and in sites of common infrastructure. A vaccine countering CRF01_AE is a priority for the region. An Asia HIV vaccine against expanding B/E or BCE recombinant forms should be actively pursued. A major challenge that remains is the conduct of efficacy trials in heterosexual populations in this region. Men who have sex with men represent the main target population for future efficacy trials in Asia. Coupling HIV vaccines with other prevention modalities in efficacy trials might also be envisaged. These new avenues will only be made possible through the conduct of large-scale efficacy trials, interdisciplinary teams, international collaborations, and strong political and community commitments.

  1. Change in the near future surface air quality over East Asia under different assumptions in the future emissions of SLCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Kurokawa, J.; Sudo, K.; Ohara, T.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examined surface air quality over East Asia in the near future (2030) based on the different future emission scenarios of air pollutants in order to build a near future emission scenario that can get a co-benefit of improvement in air quality in East Asia and mitigation of rapid climate change by controlling air pollutants, in other words, SLCPs (Short-Lived Climate Pollutants) which have large radiative impact in the atmosphere. For this, near future projections of SLCPs done by a global scale chemistry climate model (CHASER model) were further down scaled by a regional chemistry transport model (CMAQ model) in order to focus on the East Asian region. We performed a series of simulations which include standard simulation forced with emissions of air pollutants at the current (year 2005) level and 3 future simulations (year 2030) forced with different future emission scenario each other: 1) Current Legislation (CLE) scenario, 2) CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas stabilized at 450 ppm (450ppm) scenario, 3) Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR) scenario, and 4) Modified 450 ppm (m450ppm) scenario. Then, the changes in air quality over East Asia from 2005 to 2030 for each future scenario were estimated and compared each other. The MFR scenario was estimated to bring a large improvement of air quality over the entire East Asian region, but other two scenarios, CLE and 450 ppm, were very limited in ability to improve the air quality in East Asia. The m450ppm scenario is the scenario based on the 450ppm scenario with more stringent air pollution control in East Asia. Compared with the 450ppm scenario, the m450ppm scenario did not have much impact in annual mean surface ozone but brought large improvement in the summer time ozone and also in the frequency of high ozone concentration events in highly polluted area such as CEC (Central East China) in East Asia. The m450ppm scenario also reduced significantly the amount of PM2.5 in East Asia particularly in the high seasons of PM2

  2. Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in East Asia: from source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei

    2015-04-01

    River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in Asia, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in East Asia, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in East Asia and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).

  3. Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for East Asia in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over East Asia. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-Asia, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for East Asia. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.

  4. Remote sensing evidence of decadal changes in major tropospheric ozone precursors over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Amir Hossein; Choi, Yunsoo; Jeon, Wonbae; Woo, Jung-Hun; Zhang, Qiang; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi

    2017-02-01

    Recent regulatory policies in East Asia reduce ozone precursors, but these changes are spatially and temporally nonuniform. This study investigates variations in the long-term trends of tropospheric NO2, HCHO, and HCHO/NO2 ratios to diagnose ozone sensitivity to changes in NOx and volatile organic compound using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Using an adaptive-degree polynomial filter, we identify extremums of time series of NO2 to determine when and how NO2 change. Due to the regulations in China, trends which were predominantly upward turned downward. The years undergoing these changes primarily happened in 2011 and 2012. OMI column densities, however, suggest that NOx sources in South Korea, the Pearl River Delta (PRD), Taiwan, and Japan have not consistently decreased. Specifically, as Chinese exports of NO2 started subsiding, increasing trends in NO2 columns over several Korean cities, including Seoul, become evident. To quantify the changes in NOx emissions from summertime 2010 to 2014, we conduct a 3D-Var inverse modeling using a regional model with MIX-Asia inventory and estimate NOx emissions (in 2010 and 2014) for the PRD (1.6 and 1.5 Gg/d), the Yangtze River Delta (3.9 and 3.0 Gg/d), north China (15.6 and 14.3 Gg/d), South Korea (1.6 and 1.5 Gg/d), and Japan (2.7 and 2.6 Gg/d). OMI HCHO shows upward trends in East Asia resulting from anthropogenic effects; however, the magnitudes are negative in the PRD, Japan, North Korea, and Taiwan. OMI HCHO/NO2 ratios reveal that while South Korea, Japan, and the south of China have undergone toward more NOx-sensitive regime, areas around the Bohai Sea have become more NOx saturated.

  5. Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.

    2014-12-01

    A rapid economic growth in China and other East Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and

  6. Spatial distributions of aerosol loadings and depositions in East Asia during the year 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soon-Ung

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol Modeling System (AMS) that is consisted of the Asian Dust Aerosol Model2 (ADAM2) and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has been employed to document the geographical distributions of both the annual averaged Asian dust aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosols concentrations and their total depositions in the East Asia region for the year 2010. It is found that AMS simulates quite well the monitored PM10 concentration with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 9.2 μg m-3 and a normalized mean square error (NMSE) of 5.5% in South Korea and the RMSE of less than 33 μg m-3 with a NMSE of less than 7.8% at the monitoring sites in China. The annual mean surface (column integrated) aerosol concentrations in the East Asia region affect in a wide region as a complex mixture of the Asian dust (AD) aerosol and the anthropogenic aerosol (AA), more predominated by the AD aerosol in the Asian dust source region of northern China and Mongolia with the annual mean (column integrated) PM10 concentration of more than 200 μg m-3 (350 mg m-2). Whereas AA is dominated in the high pollutant emission regions of southern and eastern China and northern India with the annual mean surface (column integrated) concentration of more than 110 μg m-3 (140 mg m-2) in eastern China. On the other hand the mixed aerosols (AD + AA) are dominated in the downwind regions of the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, the Korean peninsula, Japan, and the Northwest Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the annual total deposition of aerosols in the model domain is 4.9 × 108 t (3.7 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.2 × 108 t by AA), of which 66% (3.2 × 108 t) is found to be contributed by the dry deposition (3.1 × 108 t by AD aerosol and 1.3 × 107 t by AA) and 34% (1.7 × 108 t) by the wet deposition (1.0 × 108 t by AA and 6.6 × 107 t by AD aerosol), suggesting significant impacts of aerosols on environment and the terrestrial and marine eco-systems in East Asia.

  7. Development of the STEM-mercury model to study the fate and transport of mercury in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li

    In this thesis, the atmospheric mercury distributions in East Asia are studied using methods: model simulations with the backward trajectory analysis; 4D-Var data assimilation approach using adjoint inverse model simulations. The main purposes of this study are to evaluate current estimate of mercury emissions, which inventory have huge uncertainties that lead to model predict which underestimate mercury observations measured over the Yellow Sea and Japan Sea during the ACE-Asia campaign on April 2001. The chemical and physical mechanisms of mercury in the atmosphere are studied in this thesis by developing a detailed chemical box model. Finally mercury mechanisms are incorporated into STEM (Sulfur Transport and dEposition model) to generate STEM-Hg, which is applied to East Asia to estimate mercury ambient concentration distributions, to predict mercury dry and wet depositions and to calculate mercury exports from the East Asia. The results from this work identify that anthropogenic emission emitted from China are three times higher than the estimate. During the month of April, 77% of total emitted mercury is deposited in the East Asia areas due to the quick oxidation reactions of mercury in the gas phase.

  8. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-05

    Chatchai Administration Corruption [NAEO NA 20 Jun] 33 Columnist Urges Appointment of Civilian Defense Minister [ BAN MUANG 19 Jun] 34 Seminar...May in Ban Souansavan Village, Sivilai Canton, Paksan District, the Central Organization of the Lao Women’s Federation officially presented a...administrative committees of Sivilai Canton and Ban Souansavan Village provided 1 hectare of land to the meeting place so that activities could be

  9. Connections between Eurasian teleconnection and concurrent variation of the upper-level jets over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, N.

    2015-12-01

    The variation of East Asian jet streams (EAJS) associated with the Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern is investigated using 60-yr NCEP/NCAR daily reanalysis dataset over the period (1951-2010). The EAJS consists of three components: the polar front jet (PFJ), the plateau subtropical jet (PSJ), and the ocean subtropical jet (OSJ). Of the three jets over East Asia, the EU pattern exhibits significant influence on the PFJ and OSJ. There is a simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and PFJ. A significant positive correlation is found between the EU pattern and OSJ with the EU leads the OSJ by about 5 days. There is no obvious correlation between the EU pattern and PSJ. The positive EU phase is accompanied by a weakened and poleward shifted PFJ, which coincides with an intensified OSJ. Meanwhile, the PFJ also moves westward while the OSJ migrates eastward. In negative EU phase, the PFJ is unusually strong and moves more southward, merging with the PSJ. A possible mechanism for the variation of EAJS during different EU phases is explored via analyzing the effects of 10-day high- and low-frequency eddy forcing. The zonal wind tendency due to high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the simultaneous negative correlation between the EU and PFJ as well as the northward/southward shift of PFJ. Low-frequency eddy forcing is responsible for the westward/eastward shift of PFJ in company with the evolution of EU. High- and low-frequency eddy forcing are both responsible for the positive correlation between the EU and OSJ but only high-frequency eddy contributes to the lagged variation of the OSJ relative to EU. The negative correlation between the EU and temperature/precipitation anomalies in northern/eastern China sustains only when the PFJ and OSJ are out of phase with each other. Thus, the EAJS plays an important role in transmitting the EU signal to temperature and precipitation anomalies in East Asia.

  10. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.

  11. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  12. A new urban landscape in East-Southeast Asia, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

    2015-03-01

    East-Southeast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the East-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in East-Southeast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

  13. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-14

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  14. Methane emissions in East Asia for 2000-2011 estimated using an atmospheric Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, H.; Nisbet, E. G.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present methane (CH4) emissions for East Asia from a Bayesian inversion of CH4 mole fraction and stable isotope (δ13C-CH4) measurements. Emissions were estimated at monthly resolution from 2000 to 2011. A posteriori, the total emission for East Asia increased from 43 ± 4 to 59 ± 4 Tg yr-1 between 2000 and 2011, owing largely to the increase in emissions from China, from 39 ± 4 to 54 ± 4 Tg yr-1, while emissions in other East Asian countries remained relatively stable. For China, South Korea, and Japan, the total emissions were smaller than the prior estimates (i.e., Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 4.2 FT2010 for anthropogenic emissions) by an average of 29%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. For Mongolia, Taiwan, and North Korea, the total emission was less than 2 Tg yr-1 and was not significantly different from the prior. The largest reductions in emissions, compared to the prior, occurred in summer in regions important for rice agriculture suggesting that this source is overestimated in the prior. Furthermore, an analysis of the isotope data suggests that the prior underestimates emissions from landfills and ruminant animals for winter 2010 to spring 2011 (no data available for other times). The inversion also found a lower average emission trend for China, 1.2 Tg yr-1 compared to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in the prior. This trend was not constant, however, and increased significantly after 2005, up to 2.0 Tg yr-1. Overall, the changes in emissions from China explain up to 40% of the increase in global emissions in the 2000s.

  15. Heart Failure Clinical Trials in East and Southeast Asia: Understanding the Importance and Defining the Next Steps

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Robert J.; Roessig, Lothar; Greenberg, Barry H.; Sato, Naoki; Shinagawa, Kaori; Yeo, Daniel; Kwok, Bernard W.K.; Reyes, Eugenio B.; Krum, Henry; Pieske, Burkert; Greene, Stephen J.; Ambrosy, Andrew P.; Kelly, Jacob P.; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; Lam, Carolyn S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing global public health problem. In Asia, aging populations and recent increases in cardiovascular risk factors have contributed to a particularly high burden of HF with similarly poor outcomes compared to the rest of the world. Representation of Asians in landmark HF trials has been variable. In addition, HF patients from Asia demonstrate clinical differences from other geographic regions. Thus, the generalizability of some clinical trials results to the Asian population remains uncertain. In this manuscript, we review differences in the HF phenotype, management and outcomes in patients from East and Southeast Asia. We describe lessons learned in Asia from recent HF registries and clinical trial databases and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions between scientists, clinical trialists, industry representatives and regulatory representatives at the CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Asia Forum on July 4, 2014. PMID:27256745

  16. Trends in mortality from cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, esophagus, and stomach in East Asia: role of nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Zhao, Zijin; Li, Lang

    2012-09-01

    Although substantial nutrition transition, characterized by an increased intake of energy, animal fat, and red meats, has occurred during the last several decades in East Asia, few studies have systematically evaluated temporal trends in cancer incidence or mortality among populations in this area. Therefore, we sought to investigate this question with tremendous public health implications. Data on mortality rates of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, esophagus, and stomach for China (1988-2000), Hong Kong (1960-2006), Japan (1950-2006), Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1963-2006) were obtained from WHO. Joinpoint regression was used to investigate trends in mortality of these cancers. A remarkable increase in mortality rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancers and a precipitous decrease in those of esophageal and stomach cancers have been observed in selected countries (except breast cancer in Hong Kong) during the study periods. For example, the annual percentage increase in breast cancer mortality was 5.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.8, 7.3%) for the period 1985-1993 in Korea, and mortality rates for prostate cancer significantly increased by 3.2% (95% confidence interval: 3.0, 3.3%) per year from 1958 to 1993 in Japan. These changes in cancer mortality lagged ∼ 10 years behind the inception of the nutrition transition toward a westernized diet in selected countries or regions. There have been striking changes in mortality rates of breast, colon, prostate, esophageal, and stomach cancers in East Asia during the last several decades, which may be at least in part attributable to the concurrent nutrition transition.

  17. The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO’s target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

  18. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the East Asia during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the East Asia.

  19. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  20. Post-Cold War East Asia: A Geopolitical Overview With Recommendations for U.S. Force Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    4. Francis Fukuyama , “Security in Asia and American Foreign Policy,” in East Asian Multilateralism: Prospects for Regional Stability, eds. Kent...E. Calder and Francis Fukuyama (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 241. 5. Benjamin J. Cohen, “Finance and Security in East...Prospects for Regional Stability, eds. Kent E. Calder and Francis Fukuyama (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 112. 25

  1. Interannual variations and recent trends of surface ozone in East Asia: Integrated observations and chemical transport model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.; Mukai, H.; Uno, I.; Yamaji, K.

    2006-12-01

    Socio-economic activities are rapidly increasing in many countries of Asia due to a population explosion. The emissions of nitrogen oxides from East Asia have been rising in the past decades, and are now more than those from Europe and North America. Under such circumstances, systematic observational networks with wide spatial and temporal coverage are required to detect current and future changes in air quality (ozone and aerosols). In this work, ground-based measurement data of ozone, PM, and precursors at ~15 remote sites from multiple monitoring networks including operational programs (NIES, JMA, EANET, WMO/GAW) and collaborative research projects (SKYNET) in East Asia are integrated. The idea and basis is that in-situ data are more accurate than satellite and sounding data, though its spatial coverage is limited. The intercomparisons of reference scales in each network make ambient data compatible with each other, and the integration of such traceable data allows us to cover wide latitudinal zones ranging from subtropical to boreal regions in the western Pacific within ~2% uncertainties. The data are further utilized to test multi-year simulations by a regional chemistry transport model (CMAQ). With these efforts, we reproduce "bottom-up" climatology of surface ozone in East Asia during the past 7 years (1998-2004). The data, widely combined in the range of 25-45 deg N in East Asia, show significant latitudinal gradient in surface ozone distributions and seasonal cycles. Interestingly, there are sizable interannual variations (and latitudinal dependences) associated with El Nino/La Nina events, suggesting that changes in regional meteorology (e.g., transport paths, patterns, and efficiency) and/or enhanced precursor emissions from biomass burning may contribute to the anomalies. Trends for 7 years are not visible at boundary layer sites, but are substantial at mountainous sites during continental outflow seasons, possibly due to increasing NOx emissions from

  2. Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-East Asia: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougard, C.; Montuire, S.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian faunal studies have provided various clues for a better reconstruction of hominid Quaternary paleoenvironments. In this work, two methods were used: (1) the cenogram method, based on a graphical representation of the mammalian community structure, and (2) the species richness of murine rodents to estimate climatic parameters. These methods were applied to Middle and Late Pleistocene mammalian faunas of South-East Asia, from South China to Indonesia. Special emphasis was laid on a fauna from north-east Thailand dated back to approximately 170,000 years (i.e. a glacial period). This Thai fauna seems characteristic of a slightly open forested environment intermediate between those of present-day central Myanmar and the northern part of South China. In the Thai fauna, the occurrence of both cool-loving mammalian taxa, currently living further north, and species of larger body size than their living counterparts, indicates cooler and probably drier climatic conditions than present-day climates in Thailand. These results are quite consistent with Middle Pleistocene palynological records from South China and eastern Java. From other less well-documented Pleistocene faunas, taken into account in this work, humid climatic conditions of interglacial periods were revealed from large mammalian taxa.

  3. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Arts and Crafts of East Asia. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daisy

    This teaching guide focuses on four forms of arts and crafts popular in China, Korea, and Japan, and explores the effects, if any, on American culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to help students understand and appreciate East Asian calligraphy, haiku,…

  4. Dust storms are an indication of an unhealthy environment in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Batjargal, Z; Dulam, Jugder; Chung, Y S

    2006-03-01

    Dust storms frequently occur in Mongolia and in northern China. Each year there are 30 to 120 dusty days in source regions of Mongolia and 14-20 dusty days on the Korean Peninsula. Intense sand storms and associated dust falls produce environmental impacts in East Asia. This paper discusses the environmental degradation in Mongolia and the social, economic and atmospheric impacts of dust storms in the sink area. The impact of dust storms on environmental compartments as well as their direct and indirect consequences to basic resources like water and energy demand and supply is explained. Governments are encouraged to take appropriate action in specified regions. For monitoring dust storms there is a need for international cooperation to combat growing environmental and human security concerns.

  5. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-05-04

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia - and in particular the feminisation of these movements - suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents' migration.

  6. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection.

  7. Overview of South‐east Asia land cover using a NOAA AVHRR one kilometer composite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Defourny, Pierre; Pradhan, Udai C.; Vinay, Sritharan; Johnson, Gary E.

    1994-01-01

    A cloud free AVHRR composite of South‐East Asia at one kilometer resolution has been produced from 38 selected daily NOAA‐11 AVHRR images. Geometric accuracy of about 1 pixel is achieved using a two‐step rectification algorithm (orbital model and transformation by ground control points). A spatial and spectral enhancement has been performed, the sea masked out and political boundaries included in the final product. This AVHRR composite is particularly useful for a comprehensive overview of land cover at a regional scale. Qualitative comparison between a monthly composite and the existing forest maps highlights the forest cover change and points out the hot spots where the maps have to be updated.

  8. Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment.

  9. [Alternative medicine, from North America to East Asia: between persistent exclusion and embodied pluralism].

    PubMed

    Monnais, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    At a time of growing interest in integrative approaches to health and care, this article examines, from a historical perspective, the factors underlying the global popularity of so-called complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Focusing on the multiple and changing meanings of the concepts used with reference to CAM since the nineteenth century, it emphasizes the agency of CAM practitioners' and calls into question a linear progression from outright exclusion to gradual inclusion into mainstream health care systems. This analysis concludes that biomedicine and "other" medical systems have mutually defined each other in a process of co-production that has had a significant impact on the medicalization of contemporary societies from North America to East Asia. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  10. Interannual variation, decadal trend, and future change in ozone outflow from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jia; Liao, Hong; Mao, Yuhao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    We examine the past and future changes in the O3 outflow from East Asia using a global 3-D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem. The simulations of Asian O3 outflow for 1986-2006 are driven by the assimilated GEOS-4 meteorological fields, and those for 2000-2050 are driven by the meteorological fields archived by the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 3 under the IPCC SRES A1B scenario. The evaluation of the model results against measurements shows that the GEOS-Chem model captures the seasonal cycles and interannual variations of tropospheric O3 concentrations fairly well with high correlation coefficients of 0.82-0.93 at four ground-based sites and 0.55-0.88 at two ozonesonde sites where observations are available. The increasing trends in surface-layer O3 concentrations in East Asia over the past 2 decades are captured by the model, although the modeled O3 trends have low biases. Sensitivity studies are conducted to examine the respective impacts of meteorological parameters and emissions on the variations in the outflow flux of O3. When both meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions varied from 1986-2006, the simulated Asian O3 outflow fluxes exhibited a statistically insignificant decadal trend; however, they showed large interannual variations (IAVs) with seasonal values of 4-9 % for the absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) and an annual APDM value of 3.3 %. The sensitivity simulations indicated that the large IAVs in O3 outflow fluxes were mainly caused by variations in the meteorological conditions. The variations in meteorological parameters drove the IAVs in O3 outflow fluxes by altering the O3 concentrations over East Asia and by altering the zonal winds; the latter was identified to be the key factor, since the O3 outflow was highly correlated with zonal winds from 1986-2006. The simulations of the 2000-2050 changes show that the annual outflow flux of O3 will increase by 2.0, 7.9, and

  11. The next generation of public health approaches to asthma in Asia and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, David

    2010-07-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases now affect more than half a billion people worldwide and their importance as a global health problem has risen dramatically in recent years, prompting intense epidemiological investigation and the launch of numerous initiatives. Across Asia and the Middle East, a variety of environmental exposures increase the risk for the onset or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease, resulting in a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality. This article outlines new possibilities for public health surveillance of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory disease built around an emerging model of participatory public health: a decentralized approach that involves citizens in the collection and analysis of data, harnesses pervasive technology such as mobile phones and distributed sensors, and provides an open platform for public-private collaboration.

  12. Tomographic Imaging of Pn and Sn Velocities in the Middle East and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, S.; Sun, Y.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    We have obtained Vp and Vs velocity images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Middle East and Central Asia by performing tomographic inversion of both Pn and Sn travel times. In total 654,999 Pn and 121,838 Sn arrivals were selected from the ISC/EHB database and the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes. Average Pn and Sn velocities are 8.04 km/s and 4.60 km/s, respectively with maximum velocity perturbations more than 6%. Pn velocities correlate well with topography. In general, low velocities are found beneath mountains and high velocities are found beneath oceans, basins and plains with low elevation. Tectonic boundaries are clearly outlined in between the high and low Pn velocities. These boundaries include Hellenic arc, Cyprean arc, Zagros suture, Charman fault, Hari Rod fault. The Sn velocities show similar patterns to the Pn velocities.

  13. Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  14. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  15. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  16. Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager: an advanced GEO imager for Japan, East Asia, and the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lowe, Howard A.; Jeter, James W.; Kus, Steven M.; Gilman, David; Rogers, David L.; Hoelter, Roger L.; Ravella, Russ

    2003-06-01

    The Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI) introduces next generation technology geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) imagers for operational meteorological remote sensing. Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing is building JAMI for Space Systems/Loral as the imager subsystem for Japan"s MTSAT-1R system. JAMI represents the best balance between heritage and newer space-qualified technology and meets all Japan Ministry of Transport MTSAT requirements from beginning to end of life with considerable margin, using a simple, inherently low risk design. The advanced technology built into this image benefits operational meteorological imaging for Japan, East Asia and Australia by enabling significantly better radiometric sensitivity and absolute accuracy, higher spatial resolution and faster full disk coverage times than available from current GEO imagers.

  17. Groundwater storage inferred from earthquake activities around East Asia and West Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, David Ching-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater is a necessary and indispensable resource in the gradual depletion of the amount in the world. Groundwater storage is an important indicator to evaluate the capability of volume of water can be released from the aquifer. This research highlights a new assessment to infer the storage of aquifer using earthquakes activated around East Asia and the ring of fire at West Pacific Ocean. Ten significant seismic events are used to evaluate the groundwater storage at an observation station. By analyzing the spectra of groundwater level and seismogram, it is evident that the period varied in 7-25 s of Rayleigh waves significantly dominate propagation from the epicenter of earthquakes to the observation station. The storage coefficient is then shown in the order of 10-4-10-3. The major innovation of this study suggests that to concretely deduce the groundwater storage by earthquake activity has become feasible.

  18. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility among gram-negative isolates collected from intensive care units in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific Rim, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa between 2004 and 2009 as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Xavier; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial is an antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance program that collects gram-positive and gram-negative organisms globally. This analysis reports on antimicrobial susceptibility among 23,918 gram-negative isolates collected from intensive care units globally between 2004 and 2009. MICs and susceptibility were determined according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints were applied against tigecycline). Gram-negative isolates were collected from 6 geographical regions: North America, 8099 isolates; Europe, 9244; Asia-Pacific Rim, 1573; Latin America, 3996; the Middle East, 635; and Africa, 371. North America reported the lowest rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli both overall (12.8% and 4.7%, respectively) and in each year of collection. High rates of ESBL production were reported among K pneumoniae from Latin America (45.5%) and Africa (54.9%) and for E coli from the Middle East (32.4%). Imipenem and tigecycline maintained >90% susceptibility against K pneumoniae, E coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens for all regions. Susceptibility to meropenem was >90% against all K oxytoca and S marcescens. Large regional variations in susceptibility among Acinetobacter baumannii were reported, with the largest variations reported for amikacin (75.2% in North America, 21.8% in the Middle East) and meropenem (60.4% in North America, 15.9% in Africa). MIC(90) values for tigecycline against A baumannii were low (1-2 mg/L) for all regions. Against P aeruginosa, susceptibility to amikacin (97.5% in North America, 67.5% in Latin America) and meropenem (79.1% in North America, 51.4% in Africa) had the largest variations. Antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative intensive care unit isolates was highly variable between geographic regions. The carbapenems were

  20. Quality Assurance of Joint Degree Programs from the Perspective of Quality Assurance Agencies: Experience in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Yung-Chi; Ince, Martin; Tsai, Sandy; Wang, Wayne; Hung, Vicky; Lin Jiang, Chung; Chen, Karen Hui-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Joint degree programs have gained popularity in East Asia, due to the growth of transnational higher education in the region since 2000. However, the external quality assurance (QA) and accreditation of joint degree programs is a challenge for QA agencies, as it normally involves the engagement of several institutions and multiple national…

  1. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  2. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  3. Imagining School Autonomy in High-Performing Education Systems: East Asia as a Source of Policy Referencing in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Yun; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Education reform is increasingly based on emulating the features of "world-class" systems that top international attainment surveys and, in England specifically, East Asia is referenced as the "inspiration" for their education reforms. However, the extent to which the features identified by the UK Government accord with the…

  4. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  5. Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. Directions in Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in East Asia: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of…

  6. Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. Directions in Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in East Asia: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of…

  7. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  8. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven't been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output.

  9. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  10. Quality Assurance of Joint Degree Programs from the Perspective of Quality Assurance Agencies: Experience in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Yung-Chi; Ince, Martin; Tsai, Sandy; Wang, Wayne; Hung, Vicky; Lin Jiang, Chung; Chen, Karen Hui-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Joint degree programs have gained popularity in East Asia, due to the growth of transnational higher education in the region since 2000. However, the external quality assurance (QA) and accreditation of joint degree programs is a challenge for QA agencies, as it normally involves the engagement of several institutions and multiple national…

  11. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.

  12. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  13. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  14. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  15. Population phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in wild boars and domestic pigs revealed multiple domestication events in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Qu, Kai-Xing; Ding, Zhao-Li; Li, Hui; Palanichamy, Malliya G; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Li, Ning; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Previously reported evidence indicates that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple places throughout the world. However, a detailed picture of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia has not yet been reported. Population phylogenomic analysis was conducted in domestic pigs and wild boars by screening the haplogroup-specific mutation motifs inferred from a phylogenetic tree of pig complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. All domestic pigs are clustered into single clade D (which contains subclades D1, D2, D3, and D4), with wild boars from East Asia being interspersed. Three haplogroups within D1 are dominant in the Mekong region (D1a2 and D1b) and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River (D1a1a), and may represent independent founders of domestic pigs. None of the domestic pig samples from North East Asia, the Yellow River region, and the upstream region of the Yangtze River share the same haplogroup status with the local wild boars. The limited regional distributions of haplogroups D1 (including its subhaplogroups), D2, D3, and D4 in domestic pigs suggest at least two different in situ domestication events. The use of fine-grained mtDNA phylogenomic analysis of wild boars and domestic pigs is a powerful tool with which to discern the origin of domestic pigs. Our findings show that pig domestication in East Asia mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River.

  16. Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

    This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie…

  17. Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions: A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West. ICMI Comparative Study. Discussion Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.

    Education is influenced by the social environment as well as cultural effects. This study investigates the differing cultural traditions' role in mathematics education in East Asia and the West. Investigated issues in mathematics education include curriculum, assessment, policy, influences of information and communication technology (ICT) and…

  18. Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

    This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie…

  19. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  20. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  1. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven’t been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Methods: Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. Results: There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). Conclusions: China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output. PMID:27182223

  2. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  3. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  4. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  5. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inter-Annual Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia during 2000-2011 summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols degrade air quality, perturb atmospheric radiation, and impact regional and global climate. Due to a rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, aerosol loading over East Asia (EA) is markedly higher than other industrialized regions, motivating a need to characterize the evolution of aerosols and understand the associated drivers. Based on the MISR satellite data during 2000-2011, a wave-like inter-annual variation of summertime aerosol optical depth (SAOD) is observed over the highly populated North China Plain (NCP) in East Asia. Specifically, the peak to trough ratio of SAOD ranges from 1.4 to 1.6, with a period of 3-4y. This variation pattern differs apparently from what has been seen in EA emissions, indicating a periodic change in regional climate pattern during the past decade. Investigations on meteorological fields over the region reveal that the high SAOD is generally associated with enhanced Philippine Sea Anticyclone Anomaly (PSAA), which weakens southeasterlies over northeastern EA and depresses air ventilation. Alternatively, a higher temperature or lower relative humidity is found to be coincident with reduced SAOD. The behavior of PSAA has been found previously to be modulated by the El Niño southern oscillations (ENSO), which thereby could disturb the EA SAOD as well. Rather than changing coherently with the ENSO activity, SAOD peaks over the NCP are found to be accompanied by the rapid transition of El Niño warm to cold phases developed four months ahead. An index measuring the ENSO development during January-April is able to capture the inter-annual variability of NCP SAOD during 2000-2011. This indicates a need to integrate the consideration of large-scale periodic climate variability in the design of regional air quality policy.

  7. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  8. Summer insolation is the primary driver for orbital-scale dust storm variability in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serno, Sascha; Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kienast, Stephanie S.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2016-04-01

    Eolian dust plays an important role in the global climate system through its influence on radiation, albedo and precipitation properties, and through delivering micronutrients like iron to the oceans. Glacial periods of Earth's climate are recognized to be dustier than interglacials, but the conditions leading to greater dust mobilization are poorly defined. We present a high-resolution dust flux record based on 230Th-normalised 4He flux from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 882 in the Subarctic North Pacific covering the last 170,000 years. Today, dust storms in the vast dry regions of East Asia are almost exclusively springtime phenomena, due to a specific set of climate conditions driven by the seasonal evolution of the meridional temperature gradient between high and low latitudes. The dust flux record points to high dust storm activity in East Asia during cold periods, with highest dust flux during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5d. We interpret periods of higher dust supply as the result of an expansion of the dust season into the summer, primarily controlled by reduced summer insolation at high latitudes and resulting lower air temperatures in Siberia over orbital timescales. Changes in the extent of the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in North America and Fennoscandinavia, and atmospheric teleconnections, act as a secondary control. On millennial timescales, the occurrence of Heinrich Stadials 1 and 11 signals during the last two terminations in Subarctic North Pacific dust records indicates that dust flux variability over millennial timescales was influenced by climate changes in the North Atlantic.

  9. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii

    2007-05-15

    To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Women are key players in the economies of East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B; Mason, A

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the East-West Center's Program on Population investigated the links between population change and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. This document discusses the findings pertaining to women's changing marriage and childbearing patterns, education attainment, and labor force participation as well as changes in family life. In eastern and southeastern Asia, women are delaying marriage and having fewer children as a result of their overwhelming acceptance of modern contraception. Concurrently, women's secondary school enrollment has increased dramatically since 1960, and women have accounted for steadily increasing proportions of total labor force growth. Economic development has led to fewer women employed in agriculture and more in clerical positions. Women continue to be marginalized in low-paying manufacturing jobs and to lose these jobs more frequently than do men. Women's labor force participation continues to be dependent upon their child care responsibilities, but women are beginning to combine both activities with the help of live-in grandparents. Women have made an important contribution to economic growth in Asia. Policies should address job discrimination against married women, wage discrimination, the problems faced by young women who leave home for employment in the manufacturing and service sectors, and the lack of child care facilities.

  11. Fossil wood diversity gradient and Far-East Asia palaeoclimatology during the Late Triassic - Cretaceous interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Changhwan; Legrand, Julien; Kim, Kyungsik; Philippe, Marc; SungPaik, In

    2011-02-01

    Mesozoic fossil floras are distributed over eastern Asia (China, Mongolia, Siberia, Korea and Japan) according to a regular latitudinal pattern. Two floras are usually distinguished, a northern type and a southern type, the distribution of which oscillated during the Mesozoic. In Japan, this regular pattern is disrupted by a sharp inflexion of the boundary between the two floras. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain this disruption. One hypothesis advocates later tectonic motion clouding the original pattern, while the other hypothesis proposes that a warm oceanic current allowed the southern flora to grow much further north in coastal areas. We used fossil wood, a biotic component that has not previously been used, for a palaeobiogeographical study of the region. The observed fossil wood diversity at the generic level does not fit with the hypothesis of a warm oceanic current, unless this hypothesis is modified to include alternating warm northbound and cold southbound oceanic currents. Our results provide new evidence for the palaeoecology of the Mesozoic continental biota in Far-East Asia.

  12. Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the East Asia region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over East Asia, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over East Asia from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia. Further details of inverse modeling

  13. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  14. Future changes in propagating and non-propagating diurnal rainfall over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, S.-Y. Simon

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of diurnal rainfall in the East Asian continent consist of a propagating regime over the Yangtze River and a non-propagating regime in southeast China. Simulations of these two diurnal rainfall regimes by 18 CMIP5 models were evaluated from the historical experiment of 1981-2005. The evaluation led to the identification of one model, the CMCC-CM that replicated the key characteristics of diurnal rainfall regimes including the propagation of moisture convergence. Using the CMCC-CM to assess the future (2076-2100) change of diurnal evolution and propagation projected by the RCP4.5 experiment, it was found that propagating diurnal rainfall will enhance and expand southward into the non-propagating regime in southeast China. This change in diurnal rainfall is attributed to the intensification of diurnal land-sea thermal contrast over eastern China and the southward shift of the upper-level jet stream over 20°-30°N. Similar projected changes in diurnal rainfall and associated large-scale dynamical mechanisms were also depicted by four other models (GFDL-ESM2G, GFDL-ESM2M, MRI-CGCM3, and MRI-ESM1) showing a higher skill in representing the diurnal rainfall regimes over East Asia. If such model projection holds true, southeast China will experience an increase in the eastward propagating diurnal rainfall, which could further impact Taiwan.

  15. Dipole Structure of Interannual Variations in Summertime Tropical Cyclone Activity over East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo-Hong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Park, Seon Ki

    2005-12-01

    The present study examines variations in summertime (July September) tropical cyclone (TC) activity over East Asia during the period 1951 2003. To represent TC activity, a total of 853 TC best tracks for the period were converted to TC passage frequencies (TPFs) within 5° × 5° latitude longitude grids; TPFs are defined as the percentage values obtained by dividing the number of TC appearances in each grid box by the total number of TCs each year. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the TPF showed three leading modes: two tropical modes that represent the long-term trend and the relationship with ENSO and one midlatitude mode that oscillates between south of Korea and southeast of Japan with an interannual time scale. The latter proved to be the most remarkable climatic fluctuation of summertime TC activity in the midlatitudes and is referred to as the East Asian dipole pattern (EADP) in this paper.Anomalous atmospheric flows directly connected to the EADP are an enhanced anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation centering around Japan when the TPF is high south of Korea (southeast of Japan), thereby showing an equivalent barotropic structure in the entire troposphere. This regional circulation anomaly varies in conjunction with the zonally oriented quasi-stationary Rossby wave train in the upper troposphere. This wave train is meridionally trapped in the vicinity of the summer-mean jet stream; therefore, the mean jet stream alters its internal meandering structure according to the phase of the wave train.

  16. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges.

  17. Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

  18. The genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 (Coleoptera, Cleroidea: Malachiidae) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tshernyshev, Sergei E

    2016-07-22

    South-East Asian species of the genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 and several species provisionally attributed to Hadrocnemus Kraatz, 1895 are studied, and their taxonomic position is specified. Three new species are described from the Philippines: D. subflabellatus Tshernyshev, sp. n., D. restrictus Tshernyshev, sp. n. and D. subtilis Tshernyshev, sp. n. Seven species are transferred from Hadrocnemus to Dromanthomorphus, D. apoensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. blaisei (Pic, 1926) comb. n., D. chiangensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. depressicornis (Pic, 1919) comb. n., D. gravieri (Pic, 1923) comb. n., D. javanus (Wittmer, 1989) comb. n. and D. tonkineus (Pic, 1919) comb. n. Three species are transferred from Dromanthomorphus to Oculapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, O. ranuensis Wittmer 1990 comb. n., O. saigonensis (Pic, 1951) comb. n. and O. suttoni Wittmer, 1995 comb. n., and two species from Dromanthomorphus to Mimapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, M. cingalensis (Champion, 1921) comb. n. and M. dolokensis Wittmer, 1999 comb. n. Illustrations of male external appearance, metathoracic appendage, urites and genitalia, and distribution maps are provided. A determination key to all species of Dromanthomorphus from South-East Asia is also proposed.

  19. Intraseasonal responses of the East Asia summer rainfall to anthropogenic aerosol climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxing; Yang, Jing; Bao, Qing; Wang, Wei-Chyung

    2017-04-01

    The WRF Model is used to investigate intraseasonal responses of the summer rainfall to aerosol direct and cloud-adjustment effects over East Asia, where the anthropogenic aerosol loading has been increasing in the past few decades. The responses are evaluated by comparing two cases for each year during 2002-2008: a control case imposing the observed aerosol optical depth of the corresponding year and a sensitivity case having anthropogenic components of the control case reduced by 75%. Analyses of multiple-year simulations reveal that aerosol-induced changes of rainfall and circulation exhibit strong intraseasonal variability, and that the spatial pattern of changes in the monthly rainfall is related to the intensification and westward extension of the western North-Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) by increased aerosols. This perturbation of the WNPSH induces surface air divergence over the southeast China and convergence over regions to the north and west of the WNPSH, causing, respectively, decreased and increased rainfall. As the WNPSH migration path varies year by year, however, the variability of rainfall changes over subregions of the eastern China (e.g., North China) is large within the decade. Meanwhile, the pattern of summer-gross rainfall changes also shows large interannual variation, but the general pattern of wetter in the west and dryer in the east persists. Results also suggest that the aerosol increase tends to reduce the number of Tibet Plateau vortices, which indirectly influence summer rainfall over the eastern China.

  20. Social capital and health and well-being in East Asia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kazue

    2008-02-01

    How individual-level social capital relates to adult health and well-being was examined using data from a cross-sectional interview survey in East Asia (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, five areas in Mainland China, and Taiwan) in 2002-2004. The number of self-reported somatic symptoms, subjective health satisfaction, life satisfaction and social capital indicators, as well as socio-economic status (SES), were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Adjusting for SES, social capital measured by belonging to organizations and weakness in "norms of reciprocity" were related to a greater number of self-reported somatic symptoms (p<0.001 for both). Lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) and of a person to consult (p=0.012) were related to poor health satisfaction. Lower "interpersonal trust" (p=0.016), weakness in "norms of reciprocity" (p<0.001) and lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) were related to poor life satisfaction. Gender inequality was observed across countries, but the relationships varied according to the health indicator. Specifically, self-reported somatic symptoms were more numerous and health satisfaction was worse in women (p<0.001), but life satisfaction was worse in men (p=0.017). The analyses provide evidence that dimensions of social capital are positively associated with self-reported somatic symptoms and overall well-being in East Asian countries.

  1. Epidemiology and ecology of highly pathogenic avian influenza with particular emphasis on South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, V; Sims, L; Lubroth, J; Pfeiffer, D; Slingenbergh, J; Domenech, J

    2006-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recognised as a serious viral disease of poultry since 1878. The number of recorded outbreaks of HPAI has increased globally in the past 10 years culminating in 2004 with the unprecedented outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI involving at least nine countries in East and South-East Asia. Apart from the geographical extent of these outbreaks and apparent rapid spread, this epidemic has a number of unique features, among which is the role that asymptomatic domestic waterfowl and more particularly free-ranging ducks play in the transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1. Field epidemiological studies have been conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization and several collaborative centres to explore the factors that could have led to a change from infection to the emergence of widespread disease in 2003-2004 and 2005. Domestic waterfowl, specific farming practices and agro-ecological environments have been identified to play a key role in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of HPAI. Although there are some questions that remain unanswered regarding the origins of the 2004 outbreaks, the current understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the disease should now lead to the development of adapted targeted surveillance studies and control strategies.

  2. Future changes in propagating and non-propagating diurnal rainfall over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, S.-Y. Simon

    2017-07-01

    The characteristics of diurnal rainfall in the East Asian continent consist of a propagating regime over the Yangtze River and a non-propagating regime in southeast China. Simulations of these two diurnal rainfall regimes by 18 CMIP5 models were evaluated from the historical experiment of 1981-2005. The evaluation led to the identification of one model, the CMCC-CM that replicated the key characteristics of diurnal rainfall regimes including the propagation of moisture convergence. Using the CMCC-CM to assess the future (2076-2100) change of diurnal evolution and propagation projected by the RCP4.5 experiment, it was found that propagating diurnal rainfall will enhance and expand southward into the non-propagating regime in southeast China. This change in diurnal rainfall is attributed to the intensification of diurnal land-sea thermal contrast over eastern China and the southward shift of the upper-level jet stream over 20°-30°N. Similar projected changes in diurnal rainfall and associated large-scale dynamical mechanisms were also depicted by four other models (GFDL-ESM2G, GFDL-ESM2M, MRI-CGCM3, and MRI-ESM1) showing a higher skill in representing the diurnal rainfall regimes over East Asia. If such model projection holds true, southeast China will experience an increase in the eastward propagating diurnal rainfall, which could further impact Taiwan.

  3. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b.

    PubMed

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Yao, Yong-Gang; Mitra, Bikash; Cheng, Yao-Ting; Zhao, Mian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hua-Wei; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Dong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Yang; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-10

    Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  4. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam. PMID:21219640

  5. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  6. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  7. Seasonal source contributions of tropospheric ozone over East Asia based on CMAQ-HDDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

    2013-05-01

    Determining the source contributions of tropospheric ozone concentration is an important issue for East Asia, due to the dramatic and rapid increase in emissions of atmospheric pollutants. To achieve this, the higher-order decoupled direct method (HDDM), a technique for efficient calculation of sensitivities, was applied in this study. Tropospheric ozone concentrations at observation sites located in remote areas of Japan were well-reproduced by Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model simulations, and exhibited a maximum peak in spring, a relatively small peak in autumn and a summer minimum. This seasonal pattern is a reflection of long-range transport and chemical processes, coupled with continental-oceanic air mass exchanges forced by the East Asian monsoon. For the HDDM simulation, we focused on episodic pollution events during each season of 2007 to clarify the seasonal characteristics, and then assessed source contributions paying attention to both precursor emissions (NOx and VOC) and source regions (China, central eastern China, Korea, and Japan). An ozone-sensitive regime (NOx- or VOC-sensitive regime) was also determined based on the HDDM results. This suggested a regime over East Asia that was NOx sensitive in summer, VOC sensitive in winter, and either NOx or VOC sensitive during spring and autumn. At observation sites in remote areas of Japan, by separating the precursor contribution into NOx and VOC components of ozone production, it was found that the contribution of NOx emissions was larger than that of VOC emissions in spring, autumn, and especially summer, therefore, a reduction in NOx emissions could reduce the severity of episodes of tropospheric ozone pollution in downwind areas. Due to the strong VOC-sensitive conditions in winter, NOx emissions enabled a reduction in surface ozone concentrations. In terms of the contributions attributed to source regions, the source contribution of China was relatively high during spring, but local

  8. Assessment of the uncertainty in future projection for summer climate extremes over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Cha, Dong-Hyun

    2017-04-01

    Future projections of climate extremes in regional and local scales are essential information needed for better adapting to climate changes. However, future projections hold larger uncertainty factors arising from internal and external processes which reduce the projection confidence. Using CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) multi-model simulations, we assess uncertainties in future projections of the East Asian temperature and precipitation extremes focusing on summer. In examining future projection, summer mean and extreme projections of the East Asian temperature and precipitation would be larger as time. Moreover, uncertainty cascades represent wider scenario difference and inter-model ranges with increasing time. A positive mean-extreme relation is found in projections for both temperature and precipitation. For the assessment of uncertainty factors for these projections, dominant uncertainty factors from temperature and precipitation change as time. For uncertainty of mean and extreme temperature, contributions of internal variability and model uncertainty declines after mid-21st century while role of scenario uncertainty grows rapidly. For uncertainty of mean precipitation projections, internal variability is more important than the scenario uncertainty. Unlike mean precipitation, extreme precipitation shows that the scenario uncertainty is expected to be a dominant factor in 2090s. The model uncertainty holds as an important factor for both mean and extreme precipitation until late 21st century. The spatial changes for the uncertainty factors of mean and extreme projections generally are expressed according to temporal changes of the fraction of total variance from uncertainty factors in many grids of the East Asia. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development program under grant KMIPA 2015-2083 and the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Ministry of

  9. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

  10. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2014-05-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

  11. Detail view of part of east side of building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of part of east side of building showing scorecard and pencil holder - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A

    2016-01-11

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction.

  13. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S.; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105

  14. A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?

    PubMed Central

    Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826

  15. The Link between ENSO-like Forcing and Hydroclimate Variability of Coastal East Asia during the Last Millennium.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungjae; Han, Jiwoo; Jin, Qiuhong; Bahk, Junbeom; Yi, Sangheon

    2017-08-15

    Inconsistent reconstructions of East Asian hydroclimate for the last millennium significantly limit our understanding of the mechanisms behind climate variability during the medieval climate anomaly (MCA) and little ice age (LIA) in the region. In this study, we present new high-resolution multiproxy records (diatom, δ(13)C, C/N, TS) from the Mulyoungari swamp, Jeju Island, South Korea. Our results indicate that El Niño southern oscillation-like variations caused the dry MCA/wet LIA pattern in the study area. Recent paleo-ENSO studies generally support the hypothesis that the MCA was characterized by more persistent El Niño-like conditions. During El Niño events, the genesis of typhoons affecting coastal East Asia tends to diminish because of warm anomalies of eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) SSTs and downward motions over the western tropical Pacific. Therefore, coastal East Asia likely experienced a decline in typhoon-related precipitation during the MCA, in contrast to monsoon-dominated northern China. Our results additionally imply that SST anomalies in the ETP need to be carefully checked to better understand current hydroclimate variability in coastal East Asia, one of the most populated areas on earth.

  16. The status and prospect of seasonal climate prediction of climate over Korea and East Asia: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Lee, Hyunsoo; Yoo, Jin Ho; Kwon, MinHo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong; Lee, Jun-Yi; Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Hansu; Lee, Woo-Seop; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hyun-kyung

    2017-02-01

    Over the last few decades, there have been startling advances in our understanding of climate system and in modelling techniques. However, the skill of seasonal climate prediction is still not enough to meet the various needs from industrial and public sectors. Therefore, there are tremendous on-going efforts to improve the skill of climate prediction in the seasonal to interannual time scales. Since seasonal to interannual climate variabilities in Korea and East Asia are influenced by many internal and external factors including East Asian monsoon, tropical ocean variability, and other atmospheric low-frequency variabilities, comprehensive understanding of these factors are essential for skillful seasonal climate prediction for Korea and East Asia. Also, there are newly suggested external factors providing additional prediction skill like soil moisture, snow, Arctic sea ice, and stratospheric variability, and techniques to realize skills from underlying potential predictability. In this review paper, we describe current status of seasonal climate prediction and future prospect for improving climate prediction over Korea and East Asia.

  17. A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

    2002-08-07

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy.

  18. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-03

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.

  19. Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over East/Southeast Asia on the ENSO time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai

    2016-03-01

    The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over East/Southeast Asia was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both East China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over East China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over East China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower

  20. Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, D. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Ault, C. E.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2005-03-01

    Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic) solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma. European telescopic