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Sample records for east asia part

  1. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  2. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  3. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  4. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  5. Summertime land-sea thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation over East Asia in a warming climate—Part I: Past changes and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    Land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) contrast, an index of tropospheric thermodynamic structure and dynamical circulation, has shown a significant increase in recent decades over East Asia during the boreal summer. In Part I of this two-part paper, observational data and the results of transient warming experiments conducted using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed to examine changes in land-sea thermal contrast and the associated atmospheric circulation over East Asia from the past to the future. The interannual variability of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East for 1950-2012 was found to be tightly coupled with a characteristic tripolar pattern of tropospheric circulation over East Asia, which manifests as anticyclonic anomalies over the Okhotsk Sea and around the Philippines, and a cyclonic anomaly over Japan during a positive phase, and vice versa. In response to CO2 increase, the cold northeasterly winds off the east coast of northern Japan and the East Asian rainband were strengthened with the circulation pattern well projected on the observed interannual variability. These results are commonly found in GCMs regardless of future forcing scenarios, indicating the robustness of the East Asian climate response to global warming. The physical mechanisms responsible for the increase of the land-sea contrast are examined in Part II.

  6. South East Asia to America: Links in a Chain (Part Two).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Peter I.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the transfer of Indochinese refugees from Southeast Asia to the United States, their stay in interim refugee camps, the voyage by plane, bureaucratic problems, and their first encounter with American life. Provides an anecdotal account of one family's experiences and reactions. (GC)

  7. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  8. East and Southeast Asia assessment.

    PubMed

    Suyono, H

    1984-06-01

    The people of East and Southeast Asia, despite societal differences and varied economic successes, share 1 cultural value, i.e., the love of children and the importance of family. The small family norms espoused by family planning programs, the goal in some nations of 1- or 2-child families, the concept that 2 children are enough regardless of their sex -- all these ideas contradict the basic cultural appreciation for children in most countries and the preference for sons in many. Yet, demographic realities give Asia no alternative. It is necessary to work against cultural values to increase the opportunities for individuals, their families, their countries, and the region as a whole. All the countries of this region have had family planning programs since at least the 1970s, and some have been very successful. It may be well into the 21st century before the populations of most East and Southeast countries stabilize. Stabilization will take longer for those countries which are without successful family planning policies and programs. Each national family planning program requires the full and positive political and financial commitment of its government. Programs also need the freedom to try all new approaches. The appropriateness and acceptability of a particular mehtod should be decided by program managers and personnel in consultation with potential users, rather than by politicians. Future family planning programs will need to be even more innovative. Family planning service delivery must be brought closer to the client so it will be available in all communities and work places and at all potential public and private places. Other basic services such as nutrition, income-generating schemes, and general and maternal/child health must be integrated into the programs. The responsibility for managing programs must be assumed by the community in order to create a very strong and broad base of national commitment.

  9. The genus Leucophenga (Diptera, Drosophilidae), part VI: the argentata species group from the East Asia, with morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Chen, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Six species of the Leucophenga argentata species group from East Asia are examined (including one known and five new ones): L. argentata (de Meijere, 1914); L. bicuspidata sp. nov.; L. fuscivena sp. nov.; L. longipenis sp. nov.; L. quadricuspidata sp. nov.; L. tricuspidata sp. nov.; the diagnoses for Asian species of the argentata group and a key to these species are provided. A total of 44 DNA sequences of the mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) gene with BOLD process ID and GenBank accession numbers are provided for these species. The intra- and interspecific pairwise p-distances are summarized. The NJ (Neighbor-joining) and the Bayesian analyses are used to conduct a molecular phylogenetic analysis for the above-mentioned species. The molecular data are used as complementary evidence for the identification of the argentata group species with sexually dimorphic abdominal tergites. PMID:27615924

  10. East Asia: A Bibliography for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillin, Donald; And Others

    This bibliography, similar to others on Asia and Africa, contains over 2000 titles relevant to the study of East Asia. Book, journal, and a few government citations -- the majority of which have been published within the last twenty years -- emphasize the humanities and social studies. Intended as a book selection guide, entries are graded as to…

  11. South East Asia as a part of an Ordovician Gondwanaland—a palaeobiogeographic test of a tectonic hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrett, Clive; Stait, Bryan

    1985-10-01

    The hypothesis that Thailand and Malaysia (the Sibumasu block) were adjacent to Australia in the Early Palaeozoic has been tested by an examination of the Ordovician sequences and faunas of Sibumasu and Australia. The relatively stenogeographic nautiloids of the two areas are remarkably similar and have a Simpson Index of 0.92 at the generic level. Two new genera of discosorids are restricted to the two blocks and Georgina and Mesaktoceras are found elsewhere only in Tibet. Very close affinities are also evident between the gastropod, polyplacophoran and rostroconch molluscs. The Ordovician brachiopod faunas are also very close including the genus Spanodonta. Other very close similarities are found between the Upper Cambrian trilobite faunas and the Ordovician conodonts and stromatoporoids. No Ordovician faunas younger than Upper Whiterockian were found during this study in either northern Australia or Sibumasu and a stratigraphic gap probably exists from the Upper Whiterockian to the Upper Ordovician over most of the two blocks. These remarkably close faunal similarities are good evidence in favour of the hypothesis that Sibumasu was adjacent to Australia during the Early Palaeozoic. Similarly close faunal relationships between North China, South East Asia, Tibet and Australia may also suggest close proximity of those blocks during the Early Palaeozoic.

  12. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  13. Cloud Microphysical Characteristics over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Wang, D.; Zhai, G.

    2012-04-01

    A survey of the existing literature on in-situ measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical properties was undertaken. Then, a database was established to contain microphysical properties for raindrop, cloud droplet, fog, ice nuclei (IN), snow crystal, as well as the relationship between radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall rate (R). The time span of the in-situ probe measurements ranges from 1960 to 2008 over East Asia and from 1940 to 2008 in the other regions (which is defined as those include the Americas, Europe, and Australia). From the datasets, dividing the data coverage into East Asia and the other regions, several parameters are presented, including mean concentration of hydrometeor particles, liquid water content (LWC), as well as functional fit parameters of particles size distributions. The main properties of hydrometeor particles were presented, and the functional fitted parameters of particle size distributions over East Asia have been compared with those over the other regions. Note that the all measurements taken in other regions do not mean that all cloud systems in the other regions are similar. Our main method of the present study is to put all measurement results taken in different regions over the world together. If the cloud systems over East Asia have their own characteristics, it will be grouped together. Thus, the difference between East Asia and other regions is readily discernible. The results show that there are differences, sometimes even large differences, between East Asia and the other regions in terms of these cloud-precipitation microphysical characteristics. More specific conclusions are as follows: (1) Both exponential- and gamma-size distributions are used to fit RSD of rains originating from stratiform clouds. Average intercept N0 of exponential-size distribution over East Asia is one order of magnitude smaller than that over the other regions, and average slope λ is slight smaller. As for gamma-size distributions, the

  14. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part I. Model evaluation and intercomparison with MM5/CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the application of the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.3.1 is evaluated over East Asia for January, April, July, and October 2005 and compared with results from a previous application of an offline model system, i.e., the Mesoscale Model and Community Multiple Air Quality modeling system (MM5/CMAQ). The evaluation of WRF/Chem is performed using multiple observational datasets from satellites and surface networks in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. WRF/Chem simulates well specific humidity (Q2) and downward longwave and shortwave radiation (GLW and GSW) with normalized mean biases (NMBs) within 24%, but shows moderate to large biases for temperature at 2-m (T2) (NMBs of -9.8% to 75.6%) and precipitation (NMBs of 11.4-92.7%) for some months, and wind speed at 10-m (WS10) (NMBs of 66.5-101%), for all months, indicating some limitations in the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme, the Purdue Lin cloud microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme. WRF/Chem can simulate the column abundances of gases reasonably well with NMBs within 30% for most months but moderately to significantly underpredicts the surface concentrations of major species at all sites in nearly all months with NMBs of -72% to -53.8% for CO, -99.4% to -61.7% for NOx, -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9% to 33.3% for PM10, and aerosol optical depth in all months except for October with NMBs of -38.7% to -16.2%. The model significantly overpredicts surface concentrations of O3 at most sites in nearly all months with NMBs of up to 160.3% and NO3- at the Tsinghua site in all months. Possible reasons for large underpredictions include underestimations in the anthropogenic emissions of CO, SO2, and primary aerosol, inappropriate vertical distributions of emissions of SO2 and NO2, uncertainties in upper boundary conditions (e.g., for O3 and CO), missing or inaccurate model representations (e

  15. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  16. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  17. Inferring human history in East Asia from Y chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    East Asia harbors substantial genetic, physical, cultural and linguistic diversity, but the detailed structures and interrelationships of those aspects remain enigmatic. This question has begun to be addressed by a rapid accumulation of molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia, especially by Y chromosome studies. The current Y chromosome evidence suggests multiple early migrations of modern humans from Africa via Southeast Asia to East Asia. After the initial settlements, the northward migrations during the Paleolithic Age shaped the genetic structure in East Asia. Subsequently, recent admixtures between Central Asian immigrants and northern East Asians enlarged the genetic divergence between southern and northern East Asia populations. Cultural practices, such as languages, agriculture, military affairs and social prestige, also have impacts on the genetic patterns in East Asia. Furthermore, application of Y chromosome analyses in the family genealogy studies offers successful showcases of the utility of genetics in studying the ancient history. PMID:23731529

  18. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 2): Asian Subcontinent and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bhikoo, Riyaz; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Moss, David; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential. PMID:24212815

  19. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  20. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  2. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  3. What's happening to marriage in East Asia?

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1998-07-01

    This article presents an overview of marriage patterns in East Asia. Globally, marriage patterns are changing. In East Asia, cultural patterns are slowing the changes in attitude toward marriage that are occurring in the West. There are implications of changing attitudes for government planners. This issue of Asia-Pacific Population and Policy is based on a series of studies of marriage and family life in Japan, South Korea, and the US. Data were obtained from the 1994 Japan Survey on Work and Family Life; the 1994 South Korea Survey on the Quality of Life; and the 1992-94 US Survey of Families and Households. Findings are reported on marriage age, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes post-marriage, and work patterns during marriage. Both Japan and South Korea have below replacement level fertility and traditional gendered division of labor in the household. In South Korea, women who work 35 or more hours/week spend 31 hours/week on housework, while husbands contribute 14 hours/week. In the US, the equivalent figures were 26 hours for full-time working wives and 9 hours for husbands. In Japan, wives spent 30 hours on housework, while husbands spent 3 hours. Full-time work outside the home involved 57% of married women in Japan, 27% in South Korea, and 66% in the US. Notwithstanding the double burden, women in South Korea and Japan experience pressure from competitive school systems for their children. After-school academic programs are expensive. The trend is for greater reluctance to marry. Replacement level fertility is unlikely unless full equality is achieved in the family.

  4. Inverse modeling analysis of soil dust sources over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bonyang; Park, Rokjin J.

    2011-10-01

    Soil dust is the dominant aerosol by mass concentration in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. Parts of East Asia, including southern Mongolia, northern China, and the Taklamakan Desert, are important dust source regions. Accurate simulations of dust storm events are crucial for protecting human health and assessing the climatic impacts of dust events. However, even state-of-the-art aerosol models still contain large uncertainties in soil dust simulations, particularly for the dust emissions over East Asia. In this study, we attempted to reduce these uncertainties by using an inverse modeling technique to simulate dust emissions. We used the measured mass concentration of particles less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the surface air over East Asia, in combination with an inverse model, to understand the dust sources. The global three-dimensional GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) was used as a forward model. The inverse model analysis yielded a 76% decrease in dust emissions from the southern region of the Gobi Desert, relative to the a priori result. The a posteriori dust emissions from the Taklamakan Desert and deserts in eastern and Inner Mongolia were two to three fold higher than the a priori dust emissions. The simulation results with the a posteriori dust sources showed much better agreement with these observations, indicating that the inverse modeling technique can be useful for estimation of the optimized dust emissions from individually sourced regions.

  5. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  6. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  7. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  8. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  9. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  10. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  11. Emissions of HFCs in East Asia: Consumption or Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Trebler, A.; Li, S.; Muhle, J.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Kim, S.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies ([Kim et al., 2010], [Li et al., 2011]) have reported significant emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-32 (CH2F2), HFC-125 (CF3CHF2), and HFC-152a(C2H4F2) in East Asia, especially China. Emissions estimates based on consumption patterns (such as the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) inventories) have speculated that HFC emissions from China and Korea would be very low. In this study the East Asian emissions of the HFCs are further investigated using in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases (AGAGE) network. First, the measurements were combined with a regional emission inversion method based on the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The inversion results are in good agreement with previous studies, confirming the large emissions of HFCs in East Asia. The spatial patterns found in the inversion results suggest large point-sources for the HFCs, rather than broad widely-dispersed emission patterns. Furthermore, analysis of interspecies correlation among the HFCs and also with other polluted compounds were found to be very poor. These findings are contrary to the emission patterns expected from their popular use as refrigerant mixtures (HFC-32 and HFC-125), aerosol repellents and/or foam blowing agents (HFC-152a). Our results suggest that the Chinese emissions of HFCs are unlikely to be from actual consumption of these compounds. One possible explanation for these emissions would be fugitive leaks at production sites. Further work in incorporating factory locations directly into the inversions may help further solidify this hypothesis. Nonetheless, our study reaffirms the importance of emissions of HFCs in the global budgets, and suggests that the sources of these emissions may be very different from emissions in other parts of the world.

  12. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  13. [Geographic inequality of death in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia].

    PubMed

    Veron, J

    1993-05-01

    The geography of mortality in South, Southeast and East Asia presents considerable disparities. The range is particularly large between Japan, where life expectancy is one of the highest in the world and Afghanistan or Cambodia, where it reaches only 40 years approximately. Male overmortality varies extensively from one country to another. Male undermortality still occurs in Bhutan (1.5 years); male overmortality reaches 6.4 years in the two Koreas. As elsewhere, the difference between male and female life expectancy increases with life spans. Various levels of development of the countries under consideration (examined through three variables: income per capita, urbanization and education) do not explain spatial inequality of mortality very well. In order to understand the disparities better, the macro-approach should be supplemented by a micro-approach.

  14. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at themore » surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that

  15. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is

  16. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  17. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  18. Teaching about East Asia in North Dakota Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Fredrick E.

    The current practice of teaching about East Asia in North Dakota schools was surveyed. From a list of 607 North Dakota social studies teachers, ranging from grades 7 to 12 in both public and private schools, a target sample of 266 teachers was administered a questionnaire. All regions of the states, with at least one teacher form each school, were…

  19. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  20. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  1. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  2. Global Studies, Grade 9. East Asia-Japan Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the New York State Global Studies syllabus. The materials presented in this guide represent suggested approaches for teaching the unit on East Asia-Japan. The themes addressed are: the physical/historical setting, the dynamics of change, contemporary…

  3. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In addition, as…

  4. [Dengue and other arboviral diseases in South-East Asia].

    PubMed

    Duong, V; Vong, S; Buchy, P

    2009-08-01

    The most medically significant arboviruses causing human illness in south-east Asia belong to the genera Flavivirus (dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin, Zika, etc.) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya, Sindbis, Getah, etc.). All of these arboviral diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue virus is the most prevalent arbovirus in south-east Asia and constitutes a major public health problem. Japanese encephalitis virus is also widespread in the region and symptomatic infection is associated with high mortality and severe neurological morbidity. Chikungunya virus causes mild but extremely painful illness. The number of Chikungunya cases has been increasing since early 2009. Epidemiological data show a steady, sometimes exponential, increase in the number of arbovirus infections in Asia. The spread of these viral infections can be linked to a number of complex factors.

  5. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  6. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  7. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  8. Inverse modeling analysis of soil dust emissions over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, B.; Park, R.

    2009-12-01

    Soil dust is the most important aerosol by mass concentrations in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. East Asia including southern Mongolia and northern China is one of important source regions. Accurate simulations of dust storm outbreak would be thus crucial for protecting human health as well as for better assessing its climatic impacts. However, huge uncertainties in soil dust simulations especially for dust sources in East Asia are still present in the state-of-the-art aerosol models. We here attempt to reduce uncertainty with simulated dust sources by applying inverse modeling technique and gain better understanding on physical processes determining dust mobilization over East Asia. We used a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with DEAD dust mobilization scheme in 2001. In addition we implemented in the model a Shao dust emission scheme which uses different threshold friction velocity as a function of particle sizes. We first evaluated the model by comparing simulated aerosol concentrations against observations in China, Korea, and Japan. The model with the DEAD scheme overestimated PM10 mass concentrations close to dust source regions in China but underestimated observed PM10 in downwind regions such as Korea and Japan during dust storm breaks. These simulated discrepancies, however, were much reduced in the model with Shao scheme resulting from spatial changes in dust sources. To examine determining parameters of dust sources in those two schemes and underlying physical processes we conduct an inverse modeling analysis of dust emissions from 4 source regions (Inner Mongolia, Gobi, Taklamakan desert, Mongolian plateau). Our analysis yields optimized dust sources over East Aisa, which enable us to better quantify spatial and temporal distributions of dust aerosol concentrations and their contributions to both air quality and climate over East Asia.

  9. Capacity-Building for Curriculum Specialists in East and South-East Asia. Final Report of the Training Seminar (Bangkok, Thailand, December 12-16, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorio, Lucille C., Ed.; Byron, Isabel, Ed.

    This report presents topics addressed at the December 2000 seminar on Capacity-Building for Curriculum Specialists from East and South-East Asia. Part 1, "Rethinking the Framework and the Capacities Needed for Curriculum Reform," gives some perspectives on trends and issues in curriculum change for the 21st century, both internationally and within…

  10. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described.

  11. Country watch: South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bagasao, T M

    1996-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and community-based groups working on HIV/AIDS in Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Malaysia, and other countries participated in a February 1991 workshop during which they recognized that human rights are inextricably linked with HIV prevention, the provision of services, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable, marginalized groups. They also noted how rarely environments were supportive with respect to either legal structures or sociocultural norms. The groups resolved to act as a watchdog, an advocacy and lobbying group to monitor legislation, provide public information, and empower people with HIV/AIDS as visible and active partners. Meeting again in 1993 to assess progress, the groups found few gains in addressing human rights violations such as the denial of medical services to people with HIV/AIDS and the deportation of HIV-positive migrant workers. The Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations (APCASO) responded by developing a pilot documentation, monitoring, and reporting system in the region to record HIV-related human rights violations. That system is described. PMID:12347180

  12. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia. PMID:21904623

  13. Food in health security in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, Le Danh

    2009-01-01

    With a global economic crisis, undernourished peoples in South East Asia, as elsewhere, face even greater food insecurity. Future challenges to food availability include increasing food prices, increasing population size and climate change. National policies are required which emphasise improved intersectoral coordination, enhanced government credibility and accountability, as well as a shift in food aid to investment in agriculture and the empowerment of independent institutions. PMID:19965337

  14. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  15. Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, R X; Potts, R; Pan, Y X; Yao, H T; Lü, L Q; Zhao, X; Gao, X; Chen, L W; Gao, F; Deng, C L

    2008-12-01

    The timing and route of the earliest dispersal from Africa to Eastern Asia are contentious topics in the study of early human evolution because Asian hominin fossil sites with precise age constraints are very limited. Here we report new high-resolution magnetostratigraphic results that place stringent age controls on excavated hominin incisors and stone tools from the Yuanmou Basin, southwest China. The hominin-bearing layer resides in a reverse polarity magnetozone just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai subchron, yielding an estimated age of 1.7Ma. The finding represents the age of the earliest documented presence of Homo, with affinities to Homo erectus, in mainland East Asia. This age estimate is roughly the same as for H. erectus in island Southeast Asia and immediately prior to the oldest archaeological evidence in northeast Asia. Mammalian fauna and pollen obtained directly from the hominin site indicate that the Yuanmou hominins lived in a varied habitat of open vegetation with patches of bushland and forest on an alluvial fan close to a lake or swamp. The age and location are consistent with a rapid southern migration route of initial hominin populations into Eastern Asia. PMID:18842287

  16. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, differing patterns of stroke risk factor profiles have been noted in East Asian countries over the past decades. Even though the prevalence of vascular risk factors has changed, hypertension is still prevalent and the burden of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia will continue to increase. Asia remains a high tobacco-consuming area. Although indicators of awareness and management of vascular risk factors have increased in many East Asian countries, their rates still remain low. Here we review the burdens of traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in East Asia. We will also discuss the different associations between these vascular risk factors and stroke in Asian and non-Asian populations. PMID:27733028

  17. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project entitled…

  18. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  19. Uncertainties in calculating precipitation climatology in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the uncertainty in calculating the fundamental climatological characteristics of precipitation in the East Asia region from multiple fine-resolution gridded analysis data sets based on in situ rain gauge observations and data assimilations. Five observation-based gridded precipitation data sets are used to derive the long-term means, standard deviations in lieu of interannual variability and linear trends over the 28-year period from 1980 to 2007. Both the annual and summer (June-July-August) mean precipitation is examined. The agreement amongst these precipitation data sets is examined using two metrics including the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) defined as the ratio between long-term means and the corresponding standard deviations, and Taylor diagrams, which allow examinations of the pattern correlation, the standard deviation, and the centered root mean square error. It is found that the five gauge-based precipitation analysis data sets agree well in the long-term mean and interannual variability in most of the East Asia region including eastern China, Manchuria, South Korea, and Japan, which are densely populated and have fairly high-density observation networks. The regions of large inter-data-set variations include Tibetan Plateau, Mongolia, northern Indo-China, and North Korea. The regions of large uncertainties are typically lightly populated and are characterized by severe terrain and/or extremely high elevations. Unlike the long-term mean and interannual variability, agreement between data sets in the linear trend is weak, both for the annual and summer mean values. In most of the East Asia region, the SNR for the linear trend is below 0.5: the inter-data-set variability exceeds the multi-data ensemble mean. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of long-term means among these data sets occurs both in the spatial pattern and variability, but the uncertainty for the interannual variability and time trend is much larger in the

  20. Sociocultural factors and local customs related to taeniasis in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1997-11-01

    Taeniasis is an important medical and economic problem in many countries in East Asia. According to our estimation, there is an annual loss of US$18,673,495, US$13,641,021, and US$2,425,500 due to taeniasis in the mountainous areas of Taiwan, Cheju Island of Korea, and Samosir Island of Indonesia, respectively. Although taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium have been reported, T. saginata asiatica is the dominate species in part of the world, especially in the mountainous and remote areas where the inhabitants are fond of eating raw or undercooked meat and/or viscera of domestic or wild animals. Therefore, sociocultural factors and local customs are the determinants in the transmission of taeniasis. In this paper, local customs and sociocultural factors including local dishes, accidental infection during dish preparation, and treatment for anaemia of children in the countries of East Asia were reviewed. PMID:9425862

  1. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  2. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  3. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  4. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  5. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  6. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  7. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  8. World Directory of Energy Information. Volume 2: Middle East, Africa and Asia/Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume 2 of the four-part Directory includes a detailed review of energy resource development of 64 countries, 15 of which are in the Middle East, 30 in Africa, and 19 in the Asia and Pacific area. The volume is divided into four parts: (1) International Framework; (2) Country Reviews; (3) Energy Organizations; and (4) Energy Publications. The organizations and publications information covers both international and by country. Three indices list publications alphabetically, by subject and country, and publishing bodies. 6 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

  9. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  10. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the

  11. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on

  12. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

  13. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  14. Sensitivity of summer precipitation to tropical sea surface temperatures over East Asia in the GRIMs GMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Wu, Renguang

    2013-05-01

    In this study, uncoupled atmospheric general circulation model experiments are conducted to examine the sensitivity of tropical Ocean basins from the Indian Ocean to the tropical Pacific Ocean on the summer precipitation variability over East Asia. It is remarkable that the Indian Ocean basin sea surface temperature (SST) and the tropical Pacific basin SST act on summer precipitation variability over Northeast Asia and southern China quite differently. That is, SST warming in the Indian Ocean largely contributes to the increase in the amount of summer precipitation over East Asia, which is in contrast to the warming of the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Our further analysis indicates that an altered large-scale atmospheric circulation over the western tropical Pacific contributes to contrasting atmospheric motion over East Asia due to the tropics-East Asia teleconnections, which results in changes in the amount of summer precipitation due to the warming of the Indian and western tropical Pacific Oceans.

  15. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  16. Plate tectonic reconstruction of South and East Asia since 43 Ma using seismic tomographic constraints: role of the subducted ';East Asia Sea' (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Renqi, L.; Kanda, R. V.

    2013-12-01

    Lithosphere that subducts at convergent plate boundaries provides a potentially decipherable plate tectonic record. In this study we use global seismic tomography to map subducted slabs in the upper and lower mantle under South and East Asia to constrain plate reconstructions. The mapped slabs include the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and Banda Sea, the Molucca Sea, Celebes Sea, the Philippine Sea and Eurasia, New Guinea and other lower mantle detached slabs. The mapped slabs were restored to the earth surface and used with Gplates software to constrain a globally-consistent, fully animated plate reconstruction of South and East Asia. Three principal slab elements dominate possible plate reconstructions: [1] The mapped Pacific slabs near the Izu-Bonin and the Marianas trenches form a subvertical slab curtain or wall extending down to 1500 km in the lower mantle. The ';slab curtain' geometry and restored slabs lengths indicate that the Pacific subduction zone has remained fixed within +/- 250 km of its present position since ~43 Ma. In contrast, the Tonga Pacific slab curtain records at least 1000 km trench rollback associated with expansion of back-arc basins. [2] West of the Pacific slab curtain, a set of flat slabs exist in the lower mantle and record a major 8000km by 2500-3000km ocean that existed at ~43 Ma. This now-subducted ocean, which we call the ';East Asian Sea', existed between the Ryukyu Asian margin and the Lord Howe hotspot, present-day eastern Australia, and fills a major gap in Cenozoic plate reconstructions between Indo-Australia, the Pacific Ocean and Asia. [3] An observed ';picture puzzle' fit between the restored edges of the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Indian Ocean slabs suggests that the Philippine Sea was once part of a larger Indo-Australian Ocean. Previous models of Philippine Sea plate motions are in conflict with the location of the East Asian Sea lithosphere. Using the mapped slab constraints, we propose the following 43 Ma to 0 plate

  17. Assimilated inversion of NOx emissions over east Asia using OMI NO2 column measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang

    2009-03-01

    Assimilated inversion on a daily basis using OMI tropospheric NO2 columns is developed and applied in a regional chemical transport model (REAM) to constrain fossil fuel (FF) NOx emissions over east Asia in 2007. The iterative nature of the assimilated inversion improves upon the widely used monthly-mean inversion by accounting for the chemical feedbacks of changed NOx emissions and reducing the dependence of the a priori emissions. The assimilated a posteriori emissions from FF combustion over east Asia are 9.5 Tg N/yr comparable to 10.9 Tg N/yr of the a priori. Significant changes in the spatial distribution of FF NOx emissions are found in the assimilated inversion from the a priori or monthly-mean inversion. The assimilated inversion shows that the a priori FF NOx emission inventory tends to overestimate the emissions over the economically developed areas and underestimate over the underdeveloped areas in East China, which may reflect in part FF NOx emission reductions resulting from the urban-centric air quality controls in China.

  18. Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

    2006-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

  19. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  20. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries.

  1. Compulsory drug detention centers in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; McBrayer, John L

    2015-02-01

    Over the last three decades in response to a rise in substance use in the region, many countries in East and Southeast Asia responded by establishing laws and policies that allowed for compulsory detention in the name of treatment for people who use drugs. These centers have recently come under international scrutiny with a call for their closure in a Joint Statement from United Nations entities in March 2012. The UN's response was a result of concern for human rights violations, including the lack of consent for treatment and due process protections for compulsory detention, the lack of general healthcare and evidence based drug dependency treatment and in some centers, of forced labor and physical and sexual abuse (United Nations, 2012). A few countries have responded to this call with evidence of an evolving response for community-based voluntary treatment; however progress is likely going to be hampered by existing laws and policies, the lack of skilled human resource and infrastructure to rapidly establish evidence based community treatment centers in place of these detention centers, pervasive stigmatization of people who use drugs and the ongoing tensions between the abstinence-based model of treatment as compared to harm reduction approaches in many of these affected countries. PMID:25727259

  2. Women's cardiovascular health: perspectives from South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Jeyamalar; Lopez, Eleanor A; Rahajoe, Anna Ulfah; Goh, Ping Ping; Uboldejpracharak, Yingnoi; Zambahari, Robaayah

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an under-recognized major health problem among women in South-East Asia. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, and being overweight or obese has shown a significantly increasing trend among women in the region, with the exception of Singapore. The problem is compounded by low awareness that CVD is a health problem for women as well as for men, by misconceptions about the disease, and by the lack of suitable, locally available health literature. Efforts have been made by the national heart associations and other organizations to increase heart health awareness and promote healthy lifestyles. Singapore initiated these prevention programs in the early 1990s and has been successful in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The governments of the region, in accordance with the Noncommunicable Disease Alliance, have begun implementing appropriate preventive strategies and improving health-delivery systems. However, psychological, social, and cultural barriers to cardiovascular health awareness in women need to be addressed before these programs can be fully and successfully implemented. PMID:22525668

  3. Diabetes in South-East Asia: an update.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Ambady; Snehalatha, Chamukuttan; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan

    2014-02-01

    According to the recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), South East-Asia (SEA) Region consisting of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mauritius and Maldives, is home to more than 72 million adults with diabetes in 2013 and is expected to exceed 123 million in 2035. Nearly 95% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is relatively rare in these countries, its prevalence is also rising. Furthermore, a large number (24.3 million) of people also have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Several characteristic differences are seen in the clinical and immunological presentation of these people when compared with their European counterparts. A sharp increase in the prevalence of T2DM has been observed in the SEA Region, both in urban and rural areas, which is mostly associated with the lifestyle transitions towards urbanisation and industrialisation. Evidence suggests that a large portion of T2DM may be preventable by lifestyle modification. However, morbidity and early mortality occur as a result of inadequate healthcare facilities for early detection and initiation of therapy, as well as suboptimal management of diabetes and associated morbidities. This is largely preventable by primary prevention of diabetes and enhancing awareness about the disease among the public and the healthcare providers. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts by government and non-governmental sectors to implement national programmes aimed at prevention, management and surveillance of the disease.

  4. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45°N, 110-145°E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  5. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  6. Rice Varieties in Archaic East Asia: Reduction of Its Diversity from Past to Present Times.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Kanehara, Masaaki; Shoda, Shin'ya; Fujita, Saburo; Onuki, Shizuo; Ueda, Shintaroh; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, is one of the most important crops feeding more than a third of global population. In spite of the studies for several decades, the origin and domestication history of rice varietal groups, japonica and indica, have not been fully unveiled. Genetic information of ancient rice remains is essential for direct and exclusive insight into the domestication history of rice. We performed ancient DNA analysis of 950- to 2,800-year-old rice remains excavated from Japan and Korea. We found the presence of both japonica- and indica-type varieties in the Yayoi period and the middle ages of Japan and the middle part of Korea Peninsula 2,000 years ago. It is popularly considered that japonica has been exclusively cultivated in northern part of East Asia including Japan and Korea. Our result disclosed unexpectedly wide diversity of rice varieties in archaic East Asia. The present results from ancient rice DNA reveal an exclusive insight for the domestication history of rice which is not provided as far as contemporary rice. PMID:27461246

  7. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  8. Celiac disease screening in southern and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Makharia, Govind K

    2015-01-01

    Until 1970s, celiac disease (CD) was considered to be an uncommon disease except in Western Europe. The global epidemiology of CD continues to evolve with improvement in the diagnostic tests, simplification of the diagnostic criteria and increase in awareness about the disease. The Asian region is currently at the crossroads of the frontier of knowledge and awareness of CD. In many Asian nations, CD is still considered to be either nonexistent or very rare. A notable exception is India, where CD has been well recognized, especially in the northern part, and 2 population-based studies have revealed a prevalence of 0.3-1.04%. Initial reports from Malaysia, China, Japan and Singapore suggest the existence of CD in these countries. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of the predisposing factors predicts a high probability of occurrence of CD in fair numbers in China. There are no formal reports on CD from Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Taiwan and many other nations in this region. With the impending CD epidemic in Asia, there are many challenges. Some of the efforts which are required include determination of prevalence of CD across the region, spreading of awareness among physicians and patients, training of dieticians for proper counseling and supervision of patients, creation of gluten-free food infrastructure in the food supply and creation of patient advocacy organizations. Although the absolute number of patients with CD at present is not very large, this number is expected to increase over the next few years/decades. It is thus appropriate that the medical community across Asia define the extent of the problem and get prepared to handle the impending CD epidemic.

  9. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  10. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  11. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia. Situated on…

  12. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  13. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  14. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  15. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  16. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  17. Growing threat of intense tropical cyclones to East Asia over the period 1977-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Doo-Sun R.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The threat of intense tropical cyclones (TCs) to East Asia has increased in recent decades. Integrated analyses of five available TC data sets for the period 1977-2010 revealed that the growing threat of TCs primarily results from the significant shift that the spatial positions of the maximum intensity of TCs moved closer to East Asian coastlines from Vietnam to Japan. This shift incurs a robust increase in landfall intensity over east China, Korea and Japan. In contrast, an increase of TC genesis frequency over the northern part of the South China Sea leads to a reduction in the maximum TC intensity before landfall, because of their short lifetime; thus, there are no clear tendencies in the landfall intensity across Vietnam, south China and Taiwan. All changes are related to the strengthening of the Pacific Walker circulation, closely linked with the recent manifestation that the warming trend of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific is much higher than that in the central to eastern Pacific.

  18. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  19. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  20. Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji; Kondo, Yutaka

    1996-12-31

    In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

  1. Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yunfei; Lin, Yihua; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Qiang

    2003-07-01

    Precipitation radar data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to study precipitation characteristics in 1998 over East Asia (10° 38°N, 100° 145°E), especially over mid-latitude land (continental land) and ocean (East China Sea and South China Sea). Results are compared with precipitations in the tropics. Yearly statistics show dominant stratiform rain events over East Asia (about 83.7% by area fraction) contributing to 50% of the total precipitation. Deep convective rains contribute 48% to the total precipitation with a 13.7% area fraction. The statistics also show the unimportance of warm convective rain in East Asia, contributing 1.5% to the total precipitation with a 2.7% area fraction. On a seasonal scale, the results indicate that the rainfall ratio of stratiform rain to deep convective rain is proportional to their rainfall pixel ratio. Seasonal precipitation patterns compare well between Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall and TRMM PR measurements except in summer. Studies indicate a clear opposite shift of rainfall amount and events between deep convective and stratiform rains in the meridional in East Asia, which corresponds to the alternative activities of summer monsoon and winter monsoon in the region. The vertical structures of precipitation also exhibit strong seasonal variability in precipitation Contoured Rainrate by Altitude Diagrams (CRADs) and mean profiles in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. However, these structures in the South China Sea are of a tropical type except in winter. The analysis of CRADs reveals a wide range of surface rainfall rates for most deep convective rains, especially in the continental land, and light rain rate for most stratiform rains in East Asia, regardless of over land or ocean.

  2. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  3. Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-09-01

    The variability of soil moisture over East Asia was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.

  4. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  5. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  6. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  7. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  8. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  9. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon and water fluxes in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.

    2014-12-01

    East Asia accounts for 20% of global population, is responsible for 30% of global GHG emissions, and experiences rapid land use changes. These facts are likely to substantially alter terrestrial water and carbon cycles; however, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of carbon and water fluxes in East Asia. In this study, we use the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS) which computes gross primary productivity and evaporation between 2001 and 2013 using a series of MODIS Atmosphere and Land products. We have improved BESS by incorporating chlorophyll fluorescence module, updated module of Ci:Ca, and atmospheric stability. We prepare independent data such as NDVI, EVI, and GOSAT-derived fluorescence to cross-check our spatial and temporal patterns of carbon and water flux maps. We investigate how water and carbon fluxes respond to extreme weather events and land use changes in East Asia.

  11. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  12. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  13. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  14. Sleep patterns in aircrew operating on the polar route between Germany and east Asia.

    PubMed

    Samel, A; Wegmann, H M; Summa, W; Naumann, M

    1991-07-01

    The study was performed as the second part of an investigation to assess sleep behavior and circadian rhythmicity in aircrew operating regular passenger flights between Germany and East Asia via Anchorage (ANC). Continuous records of sleep and ratings of sleep quality were obtained by sleep logs from 101 B747-cockpit crewmembers, starting at least 3 d before commencing flight duty, continuing during days on duty (the duration depending on the flight schedule) and finishing 4 d after return, at the earliest. Regardless of the specific duty roster, sleep deficit occurred mainly after the first flight leg to ANC, presumably due to the 10-h time zone difference and the short layover time. During the layover in the Far East, the sleep deficit diminished partly because of additional naps. Sleep was often disturbed and scattered over days and nights. Another pronounced sleep deficit occurred after the first return flight from South Korea or Japan to ANC. Compared to the outgoing layover period in ANC, the number and duration of naps increased during this layover and, additionally, on the first 2 d after returning home. Poorer sleep quality ratings were associated with accumulated sleep deficit and increased napping, but significant decrements in sleep quality were seen only during two out of the six different duty rosters. All six of the polar route duty rosters may lead to significant sleep disturbances. During some flight schedules the sleep deficit is large enough to raise operational implications.

  15. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Undernutrition remains a major public health problem among children living in Asia. Although the burden is maximal among poorer, rural and Indigenous communities, the problem affects the majority in many Asian countries, especially in South Asia. In order to prevent the pervasive consequences of undernutrition, strategies that address this burden are required. Successful implementation of strategies may be limited by the complex aetiology of undernutrition, including the political setting. Rising food insecurity because of climate change, land use for biofuel production and the recent global financial crisis threaten to exacerbate childhood malnutrition. In this review, we describe the burden of undernutrition among Asian children and discuss contributing factors and potential solutions. PMID:20854320

  16. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  17. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  18. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  19. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  20. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  1. New Index for Winter Temperature of the Korean Peninsula and the East Asia based on the atmospheric teleconnection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. T.; Sohn, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a new index for monitoring and predicting winter temperature of the Korean Peninsula based on dominant atmospheric winter teleconnection modes and the utilization of the index is extended further to representing the East Asia Winter Monsoon (EAWM). Among the teleconnection modes it is found that both East Atlantic (EA) and Western Pacific (WP) modes are most strongly correlated with the Korean winter temperature in a way that the modes are partly associated with change in sea level pressure (SLP) around the Korean Peninsula. Particularly, the EA and WP modes are related with SLP variation over both Siberian High region and the Kuroshio extension region to the east of Japan, respectively. Based on this relationship, the two boxed regions representing the northeast-southwest SLP gradients are determined for the new index, which is found to be related with the EAWM circulation. The SLP gradients control the intensity of surface winds blowing into the Korean Peninsula from the Siberian regions which can transport cold air. The index shows the best performance in representing winter climate not only for the Korean Peninsula but also for the East Asia among the SLP-based EAWM indices. Furthermore, the new index maintains a better correlation with the winter temperature of both the East Asia and Korea over a certain period of years (i.e., running 30 year periods) than other SLP based EAWM indices and also shows good performance in delineating extreme cold/warm winters. The predictability of the new index and its usable potential for winter temperature prediction in coupled climate models are assessed and discussed further.

  2. Energetics and dynamics associated with two typical mobile trough pathways over East Asia in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Cheung, Hoffman Ho-Nam; Zhou, Wen

    2015-03-01

    Two dominant types of East Asian mobile trough (EAMT) are identified by a novel mobile trough detection algorithm. The two major EAMTs likely pass through to the north and the south of Lake Baikal. In this study, both of synoptic and planetary time scales influences on East Asia are studied. For synoptic scale, southern path of mobile trough shows a higher rate of intensification that of northern path. Southern path has stronger impact on Southeast Asia temperature fluctuation because of more southern pathway and stronger magnitude of wave train. But duration of fluctuation is shorter in southern due to the downstream development. For planetary scale, the northern path shows a large warm anomaly over Southeast Asia and a cold anomaly over Northeast Asia, which is associated with the northward shift of the jet stream. The southern path shows a cold anomaly over East Asia due to a northwesterly anomaly. The forcing of high frequency eddy on low frequency eddy is estimated in terms of momentum and energy. The reinforcement of high frequency eddy flux on low frequency variation can be observed in northern path, but not in southern path. The energy difference for two paths is also caused by the variations of barotropic and baroclinic conversion. The energy tendency of interaction between two frequency eddies is only responsible for sustention of energy anomaly over southwestern Japan.

  3. The zonal movement of the Indian-East Asian summer monsoon interface in relation to the land-sea thermal contrast anomaly over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Lan, Guangdong; Su, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Based on atmospheric circulation reanalysis, global gridded precipitation, and outgoing longwave radiation datasets, this study reveals the physical process through which the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia interrelates with the variability of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon (IIE). The results indicate that the release of latent heating exerted by the low-frequency variability of anomalous land-sea thermal contrast is one of the most important physical processes correlating with the zonal movement of the IIE, in which the release of latent heating over eastern East Asia makes the greatest contribution. When a lower apparent moisture sink occurs over the South China Sea but a higher one over southern China, an anomalously positive land-sea thermal contrast is formed. An anomalous convergent zone in relation to the positive land-sea thermal contrast, located in the eastern part of the IIE, will favor the IIE to move more eastward than normal, and vice versa. An anomalous divergent zone located in the eastern part of the IIE will benefit the IIE to shift more westward than normal. Experiments using a linear baroclinic model confirm the physical processes revealed by the observational analysis.

  4. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  5. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  6. A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

  7. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  8. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  9. A Study of XML in the Library Science Curriculum in Taiwan and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Naicheng; Huang, Yuhui; Hopkinson, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the current XML-related courses available in 96 LIS schools in South East Asia and Taiwan's 9 LIS schools. Also, this study investigates the linkage of library school graduates in Taiwan who took different levels of XML-related education (that is XML arranged as an individual course or XML arranged as a section unit…

  10. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  11. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  12. Application of DNA barcodes in wildlife conservation in Tropical East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Lee, Ping-Shin; Wee, Alison K S

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, Tropical East Asia has lost more biodiversity than any tropical region. Tropical East Asia is a megadiverse region with an acute taxonomic impediment. DNA barcodes are short standardized DNA sequences used for taxonomic purposes and have the potential to lessen the challenges of biodiversity inventory and assessments in regions where they are most needed. We reviewed DNA barcoding efforts in Tropical East Asia relative to other tropical regions. We suggest DNA barcodes (or metabarcodes from next-generation sequencers) may be especially useful for characterizing and connecting species-level biodiversity units in inventories encompassing taxa lacking formal description (particularly arthropods) and in large-scale, minimal-impact approaches to vertebrate monitoring and population assessments through secondary sources of DNA (invertebrate derived DNA and environmental DNA). We suggest interest and capacity for DNA barcoding are slowly growing in Tropical East Asia, particularly among the younger generation of researchers who can connect with the barcoding analogy and understand the need for new approaches to the conservation challenges being faced.

  13. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  14. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  15. University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B.

    The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs…

  16. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  17. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  18. A Synthesis of Reviews of Research on Principal Leadership in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Hallinger, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to synthesize findings from five systematic reviews of research on principal leadership in East Asia contained in this special issue. The goal is to identify commonalities as well as differences concerning both approaches to research and the enactment of school leadership within this rapidly developing and…

  19. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  20. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth.

  1. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  2. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  3. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  4. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  5. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

  6. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  7. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  8. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  9. Promoting Learner Autonomy: Student Perceptions of Responsibilities in a Language Classroom in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Shien; Takagi, Akiko; Chu, Man-Ping

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of communicative language teaching in East Asia, the idea of learner autonomy has become a topic of discussion and a goal among language teachers. The idea of autonomy raises important questions that need to be further explored, particularly in terms of students taking responsibility for learning. While examining the English…

  10. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

  11. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  12. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  13. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  14. Publicly-funded biobanks and networks in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhee; Jung, Paul Eunil; Lee, Yeonhee

    2016-01-01

    With the enactment of the Nagoya Protocol, international competitions to secure biological resources are intensifying. Biobanking is one of the many attempts to preserve biological resources and their information for the use in future research and development. Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea are very active in biobanking activities under the strategic plans coordinated by their governments. They also proactively established networks for biobanks of Asia to facilitate resource and expertise sharing. Biobanks of these countries should furthermore standardize operating procedures and diversify funding sources for establishing stable operation systems. PMID:27462528

  15. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia are changing rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight into the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for the period 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and the Beijing municipality, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  16. Regional nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-07-01

    Due to changing economic activity, emissions of air pollutants in East Asia change rapidly in space and time. Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides derived from satellite observations provide valuable insight in the evolution of anthropogenic activity on a regional scale. We present the first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emissions of short-lived atmospheric constituents on a~mesoscopic scale (~ 0.25° × 0.25°). The algorithm is used to construct a monthly NOx emission time series for 2007-2011 from tropospheric NO2 observations of GOME-2 for East Chinese provinces and surrounding countries. The new emission estimates correspond well with the bottom-up inventory of EDGAR v4.2, but are smaller than the inventories of INTEX-B and MEIC. They reveal a strong positive trend during 2007-2011 for almost all Chinese provinces, related to the country's economic development. We find a 41% increment of NOx emissions in East China during this period, which shows the need to update emission inventories in this region on a regular basis. Negative emission trends are found in Japan and South Korea, which can be attributed to a combined effect of local environmental policy and global economic crises. Analysis of seasonal variation distinguishes between regions with dominant anthropogenic or biogenic emissions. For regions with a mixed anthropogenic and biogenic signature, the opposite seasonality can be used for an estimation of the separate emission contributions. Finally, the non-local concentration/emission relationships calculated by the algorithm are used to quantify the direct effect of regional NOx emissions on tropospheric NO2 concentrations outside the region. For regions such as North Korea and Beijing province, a substantial part of the tropospheric NO2 originates from emissions elsewhere.

  17. Validation of MODIS aerosol retrievals and evaluation of potential cloud contamination in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang-Ao; Chen, Hong-Bin; Wang, Pu-Cai

    2004-01-01

    MODIS aerosol retrievals onboard Terra/Aqua and ground truth data obtained from AERONET (Aerosol Robtic Network) solar direct radiance measurements are collocated to evaluate the quality of the former in East Asia. AERONET stations in East Asia are separated into two groups according to their locations and the preliminary validation results for each station. The validation results showed that the accuracy of MODIS aerosol retrievals in East Asia is a little worse than that obtained in other regions such as Eastern U.S., Western Europe, Brazil and so on. The primary reason is due to the improper aerosol model used in MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm, so it is of significance to characterize aerosol properties properly according to long-term ground-based remote sensing or other relevant in situ observations in order to improve MODIS retrievals in East Asia. Cloud contamination is proved to be one of large errors, which is demonstrated by the significant relation between MODIS aerosol retrievals versus cloud fraction, as well as notable improvement of linear relation between satellite and ground aerosol data after potential cloud contamination screened. Hence, it is suggested that more stringent clear sky condition be set in use of MODIS aerosol data. It should be pointed out that the improvement might be offset by other error sources in some cases because of complex relation between different errors. Large seasonal variation of surface reflection and uncertainties associated with it result in large intercepts and random error in MODIS aerosol retrievals in northern inland of East Asia. It remains to be a big problem to retrieve aerosols accurately in inland characterized by relatively larger surface reflection than the requirement in MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm.

  18. A Survey of Automated Activities in the Libraries of Asia and the Far East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinostro, Frank S., Comp.; And Others

    This volume is concerned with providing a cross-view of library automation developments in the Orient and throughout Southeast Asia. The first part provides an overview of computer and information developments in Southeast Asia which relate to library services. Various aspects of regional cooperation are described, and the advancement of…

  19. Simulating Aerosol-cloud-radiation Feedbacks Over East Asia Using WRF-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in climate change through their impact on the radiative balance and hydrological cycle of the atmosphere. Recently much effort has been put into studying the radiative forcing of aerosols in East Asia. In this study, we apply the regional chemistry and transport model, WRF-Chem, to study aerosol radiative forcing over eastern Asia. Four model simulations have been conducted to ascertain the direct and indirect (cloud albedo and cloud lifetime) effects of aerosols on radiation and precipitation. The time period of interest is from Feb 22, 2005 to March 31, 2005 when there were extensive measurements of radiation, trace gases, and aerosol properties available from EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment ). Measurements from EAST-AIRE site Xianghe, MODIS, CERES, and AERONET are used to assess the performance of the base simulation. The base run shows good agreement with observations, although the model underestimates the aerosol loading in East Asia, especially over highly polluted regions. We compare the base run with the sensitivity runs and investigate the difference in short wave radiation at the surface and the top of atmosphere, cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud condensation nuclei, effective radius, and liquid water path), and precipitation patterns. Preliminary results indicate that short wave radiation at the surface is reduced by 28 W m-2 at Xianghe site due to the aerosol direct effect.

  20. Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in East Asia are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in East China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with

  1. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  2. Trade in labour services and migrant worker protection with special reference to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the migrant worker protection policy of the East Asian international labor market. The labor-exporting countries of East Asia provide an onerous proportion of low-skilled migrant workers to the region and are responding to the perceived edge of a policy of labor export. Conversely, the movement of highly skilled and professional workers is the result of globalization and internationalization of education, training and professions, rather than the result of explicit labor export of certain countries. In view of the need of international bilateral arrangements for the protection and facilitation of low-skilled workers, the labor-exporting countries have introduced a number of policies aimed at protecting and promoting the welfare of the overseas workers. Thus, various policy measures are suggested to advance the cause of migrant worker protection in East Asia.

  3. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur. PMID:12295213

  4. On mobility and fertility transitions in east and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between fertility and mobility is examined with reference to Zelinsky's [1971] mobility transition hypothesis. Five Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, China) at different stages of development and mobility transition are compared with respect to shifting sectoral patterns of migration and changing levels of fertility. National trends suggest that the development sequence proposed by Zelinsky on the basis of the European experience does not generally apply to Asia. In four out of five cases examined, fertility declined before substantial urbanization took place. Zelinsky's sequence of mobility change should be modified to fit the experience of developing countries, but the importance of the interrelations hip between fertility decline and mobility change remains PMID:12343909

  5. Globalisation and inequality in urban South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J D

    1998-05-01

    Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are the only countries in southeast Asia with binding and well-functioning social contracts. The legitimacy of the governments and state bureaucracies in Thailand and Indonesia, and to a certain extent also of those in the Philippines, has been based upon nationalism, high economic growth, and the promotion of social order through coercion or cooptation. However, in order for the management of a city to be successful, its policies need to be conducive to social sustainability, defined as development compatible with the emergence of a social contract which both fosters an environment which will help to harmonize relations between the city's culturally and socially diverse groups, yet encourages social integration and an improvement in the lives of all of its citizens. These concerns are discussed with regard to Jakarta, Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur.

  6. On the regional distributions of background carbon monoxide concentrations observed in East Asia during 1991-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Tans, P. P.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations observed at Mt. Waliguan in China (WLG), Ulaan Uul in Mongolia (UUM), Tae-ahn Peninsula in Korea (TAP) and Ryori in Japan (RYO) were analysed between 1991 and 2008. The average annual concentration of CO, a toxic air pollutant, was the highest at TAP (235±44 ppb), followed by RYO (169±35 ppb), UUM (154±27 ppb) and WLG (138±24 ppb). These data obtained in East Asia were also compared with CO data from Mauna Loa, Hawaii. CO tends to be highest in spring and lowest in summer in East Asia, with the exception of WLG. TAP had the highest CO concentrations in all seasons compared with WLG, UUM and RYO, and displays a wide short-term variability in concentration. This is caused by large-scale air pollution owing to its downwind location, close to continental East Asia. CO concentrations observed at TAP were analysed as follows: according to the origin of the isentropic backward trajectory and its transport passage; as continental background airflows (CBG); regionally polluted continental airflows (RPC); oceanic background airflows (OBG); and partly perturbed oceanic airflows (PPO). The high concentrations of CO at TAP are because of the airflow originating from the East Asian continent, rather than the North Pacific. RPCs, which pass through eastern China, appear to have high CO concentrations in spring, autumn and winter. It is noteworthy that the overall trend at TAP does not show an increase despite the fact that energy use in China approximately doubled from 1991 to 2008. OBGs, however, are affected by North Pacific air masses with low CO concentrations in summer.

  7. Evaluation of aerosol optical properties of GEOS-Chem over East Asia during the DRAGON-Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, D. S.; Park, R.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    A nested version of 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-02) is evaluated over East Asia during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia 2012 campaign period, focusing on fine-mode aerosol optical depth (fAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). Both are important to assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. We compare the daily mean simulated optical properties of aerosols with the observations from DRAGON-Asia campaign for March-May, 2012 (provided in level 2.0: cloud screened and quality assured). We find that the model reproduces the observed daily variability of fAOD (R=0.67), but overestimates the magnitude by 30%, which is in general consistent with other global model comparisons from ACCMIP. However, a significant high bias in the model is found compared to the observed SSA at 440 nm, which is important for determining the sign of aerosol radiative forcing. In order to understand causes for this gap we conduct several sensitivity tests by changing source magnitudes and input parameters of aerosols, affecting the aerosol optical properties under various atmospheric conditions, which allows us to reduce the gap and to find the optimal values in the model.

  8. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  9. Three new species of Annulipalpia (Trichoptera) from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, J.; Morse, J.

    2005-05-01

    A new species of Kisaura (Philopotamidae) and a new species of Psychomyia (Psychomyiidae) are described from Japan and a new species of Ceratopsyche (Hydropsychidae) is described from Far East Russia. The new species of Kisaura is closest to Kisaura aurascens (Martynov, 1934), but the inferior appendages are shaped differently. The new species of Psychomyia resembles Psychomyia minima (Martynov, 1910), but the shape of tergum X is radically different. The new species of Ceratopsyche looks rather like Ceratopsyche setensis (Iwata, 1927), except that tergum X and the lateral spines of the phallus are different.

  10. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  11. Climate change and food security in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Yuan; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Climate change causes serious food security risk for East Asian countries. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recognized that the climate change will impact agriculture and all nations should prepare adaptations to the impacts on food security. This article reviews the context of adaptation rules and current policy development in East Asian region. The UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol have established specific rules for countries to develop national or regional adaptation policies and measurements. The current development of the ASEAN Strategic Plan on food security is inspiring, but the commitments to implementation by its members remain an issue of concern. We suggest that the UNFCCC enhances co-operation with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and other international organizations to further develop methodologies and technologies for all parties. Our findings suggest that agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors in terms of risks associated with climate change and distinct programmatic initiatives are necessary. It's imperative to promote co-operation among multilateral organizations, including the UNFCCC, FAO, World Health Organization, and others.

  12. Sub-decadal increase of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric total suspended particles in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.; Lee, M.; Tachibana, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Jang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are good tracers to evaluate the chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and are important precursors for the production of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in aqueous phase. Here we report seasonal and interannual variations of aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal over sub-decadal scale (2001-2008) in ambient aerosols collected at Gosan, Jeju Island in the East China Sea. Glyoxal concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 106 ng m-3, with a peak in January. Concentrations of methylglyoxal ranged from 0.05 to 110 ng m-3 with a peak in April. The glyoxal peak is related with carbon monoxide and levoglucosan whereas methylglyoxal peak aligns with ozone. These results suggest an elevated combustion sources of glyoxal in January and secondary sources of methylglyoxal in April. A pronounced seasonal variation was observed for methylglyoxal to glyoxal ratios with maximum in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter, suggesting methyglyoxal to glyoxal ratio is an effective proxy to evaluate the strength of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources of organic aerosol in East Asia. Overall, concentrations of glyoxal from 2001 to 2008 increased by at least 29% per year in winter and 83% per year in spring, being consistent with the increase of ozone, carbon monoxide, and biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs in East Asia. We propose that the increased glyoxal and methylglyoxal could be related to an enhanced SOA production by their reactive uptake in aqueous phase over East Asia.

  13. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  14. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  15. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  16. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  17. Solar cycle modulation of the ENSO impact on the winter climate of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study examines how the East Asian winter climate response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) varies with the 11-year solar cycle. The results indicate that the ENSO and East Asian climate relationship is robust and significant during winters with low solar (LS) activity, with evident warming in the lower troposphere over East Asia, which can be closely linked to the decreased pressure gradient between the cold Eurasian continent and the warm Pacific. Moreover, during the LS and El Niño winters, there is a typical rainfall response in Southeast Asia, with wet conditions over South China and dry conditions over the Philippines, Borneo, Celebes, and Sulawesi, which can be explained by the anticyclone over the western North Pacific (WNP). However, during high solar activity winters, both the surface temperature and rainfall anomalies are much less closely associated with the ENSO. The possible mechanism for this solar modulation of the ENSO-related East Asian climate anomalies may be the change in the tropospheric circulation with the ENSO in both tropical and extratropical regions. Particularly, in the LS cases, an anomalous WNP anticyclone is intensified and a noticeable cyclone occupies northern Northeast Asia, resulting from the changing location and strength of the large-scale Walker circulation induced by the more pronounced sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO. Further investigation with long historic data confirms that the relationship between the ENSO and the East Asian winter climate anomalies depends on the phases of 11 year solar cycle, with enhanced East Asian climate variation during the LS winters.

  18. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species.

  1. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  2. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  3. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

  4. Impact of particle nonsphericity on the development and properties of aerosol models for East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Cheng, Tianhai; Gu, Xingfa; Wu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of aerosol nonsphericity information on the classification of aerosol models and the associated radiative properties over East Asia are investigated. The radiance measurements and inversions of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) are used. Four aerosol models over East Asia are obtained by adding the shape information to the clustering analysis. These four aerosols are identified on the basis of their optical properties. Compared to the results without sphericity parameter, adding the sphericity parameter in the clustering process contributes to the extraction of a strongly absorbing aerosol. Furthermore, the effect of the physical and optical properties of the aerosol on the top of atmospheric (TOA) total reflectance and polarized reflectance are investigated. The results indicate that the addition of the sphericity parameter in the clustering process leads to a change in the total reflectance by up to 16% and a change in the polarized reflectance by up to 100%.

  5. Inverse estimation of radon flux distribution for East Asia using measured atmospheric radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Hirao, S; Hayashi, R; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Tohjima, Y; Mukai, H

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the (222)Rn flux density distribution at surface was estimated in East Asia with the Bayesian synthesis inversion using measurement data and a long-range atmospheric (222)Rn transport model. Surface atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations measured at Hateruma Island in January 2008 were used. The estimated (222)Rn flux densities were generally higher than the prior ones. The area-weighted mean (222)Rn flux density for East Asia in January 2008 was estimated to be 44.0 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The use of the estimated (222)Rn flux density improved the discrepancy of the model-calculated concentrations with the measurements at Hateruma Island.

  6. [Emerging viral infections in South East Asia and the Pacific region].

    PubMed

    Barboza, P; Tarantola, A; Lassel, L; Mollet, T; Quatresous, I; Paquet, C

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiology of several viral diseases underwent profound changes in South-East Asia and Oceania over the past decades. This was due to several factors, including the geographical distribution of vectors and the viruses they transmit; increasing traveling and trade; increasing ecological and demographic pressure. We reviewed the current state of knowledge based on published sources and available epidemiological data. The review was limited to potentially emerging viruses in Southeast Asia and the Pacific reported in human cases. Dengue, Chikungunya, and Japanese Encephalitis viruses have recurred on a yearly basis with a steady increase in these regions. Ross River and Barmah viruses now appear regularly in Australia, in an increasing number of cases. Nipah virus strikes regularly with limited but deadly epidemics in Southeast Asia. Finally, infections by lyssaviruses, Kunjin, Murray Valley, or Zika viruses were also reviewed.

  7. Derivation of regression coefficients for sea surface temperature retrieval over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Sohn, Eun-Ha; Hwang, Byong-Jun; Chung, Chu-Yong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2006-05-01

    Among the regression-based algorithms for deriving SST from satellite measurements, regionally optimized algorithms normally perform better than the corresponding global algorithm. In this paper, three algorithms are considered for SST retrieval over the East Asia region (15° 55°N, 105° 170°E), including the multi-channel algorithm (MCSST), the quadratic algorithm (QSST), and the Pathfinder algorithm (PFSST). All algorithms are derived and validated using collocated buoy and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) observations from 1997 to 2001. An important part of the derivation and validation of the algorithms is the quality control procedure for the buoy SST data and an improved cloud screening method for the satellite brightness temperature measurements. The regionally optimized MCSST algorithm shows an overall improvement over the global algorithm, removing the bias of about -0.13°C and reducing the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) from 1.36°C to 1.26°C. The QSST is only slightly better than the MCSST. For both algorithms, a seasonal dependence of the remaining error statistics is still evident. The Pathfinder approach for deriving a season-specific set of coefficients, one for August to October and one for the rest of the year, provides the smallest rmsd overall that is also stable over time.

  8. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  9. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  10. Transboundary air pollution in East/Southeast Asia and geostationary measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, K.; Kasai, Y.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Miyazaki, K.; Takigawa, M.; Noguchi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accompanying with recent development of industry and economy in countries in Eastern/Southern/Southeastern Asia, emissions of air pollutants have been increasing significantly. Long-range, transboundary transport of these pollutants probably affects the atmospheric environment and the regional climate in this region. In Japan, although concentrations of ozone precursors have been decreasing in 1990s-2000s, surface ozone concentration has been gradually increasing and photochemical smog sometimes occurs not only in urban regions but also in remote areas. One of the causes of this ozone increase is considered to be transboundary transport of polluted air masses in East Asia. Geostationary (GEO) satellite observation of air pollutants over Asia is expected to contribute to understanding the photochemical and transport processes as well as the spatial and temporal variation of their emissions in this region. It can play crucial rolls for monitoring and predicting the transboundary pollution events. In this talk, some examples of transboundary pollution in East and Southeast Asia will be presented, and the detection possibility of these pollution events from GEO satellite will be discussed. Possible improvement of the model prediction of these pollution events by assimilating GEO satellite data will be also presented.

  11. 18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, FROM A POINT ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  13. 7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM EAST FRONT LEADING TO CENTRAL CAMPUS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  14. Multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

    2015-04-01

    Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 ± 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 ± 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China.

  15. Tree-ring reconstructed summer temperature anomalies for temperate East Asia since 800 C.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Edward R.; Krusic, Paul J.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki

    2013-12-01

    We develop a summer temperature reconstruction for temperate East Asia based on a network of annual tree-ring chronologies covering the period 800-1989 C.E. The East Asia reconstruction is the regional average of 585 individual grid point summer temperature reconstructions produced using an ensemble version of point-by-point regression. Statistical calibration and validation tests indicate that the regional average possesses sufficient overall skill to allow it to be used to study the causes of temperature variability and change over the region. The reconstruction suggests a moderately warm early medieval epoch (ca. 850-1050 C.E.), followed by generally cooler `Little Ice Age' conditions (ca. 1350-1880 C.E.) and 20th century warming up to the present time. Since 1990, average temperature has exceeded past warm epochs of comparable duration, but it is not statistically unprecedented. Superposed epoch analysis reveals a volcanic forcing signal in the East Asia summer temperature reconstruction, resulting in pulses of cooler summer conditions that may persist for several years. Substantial uncertainties remain, however, particularly at lower frequencies, thus requiring caution and scientific prudence in the interpretation of this record.

  16. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive ‘species pumps’ particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10–17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region. PMID:23446524

  17. Sulfur distribution and transport studies in East Asia using eulerian model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zifa; Huang, Meiyuan; He, Dongyang; Xu, Huaying; Zhou, Ling

    1996-08-01

    A three-dimensional regional Eulerian model of sulfur deposition and transport is developed. Processes treated in the model include emission, transport, diffusion, gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemical process, dry deposition, rainout and washout of sulfur. A “looking up table” method is provided to deal with the gas-phase chemical process including sulfur transfer. Dry-depositon velocity considers the influence of underlying surface, wind, degree of stability by parameterization. Model calculated values reasonably agrees with observation. Distribution of sulfur deposition and transport in East Asia are also analyzed in this paper. Some amount of sulfur emission of different countries transport across boundaries, but the main origin of sulfur deposition in each country in East Asia is from itself. Furthermore, some transport paths on different layers and outlet or inlet zones are found. According to sulfur balance and budget we concluded that sulfur outlets are bigger than inlets across boundary and emissions are more than deposition in most places of East Asia.

  18. Emissions of halogenated compounds in East Asia determined from measurements at Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Mühle, Jens; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Stohl, Andreas; Kang, Dong-Jin; Arnold, Tim; Harth, Christina M; Salameh, Peter K; Weiss, Ray F

    2011-07-01

    High-frequency in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) during November 2007 to December 2008 have been combined with interspecies correlation analysis to estimate national emissions of halogenated compounds (HCs) in East Asia, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds. Our results suggest that overall China is the dominant emitter of HCs in East Asia, however significant emissions are also found in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan for HFC-134a, HFC-143a, C(2)F(6), SF(6), CH(3)CCl(3), and HFC-365mfc. The combined emissions of CFCs, halon-1211, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, and SF(6) from all four countries in 2008 are 25.3, 1.6, 135, 42.6, 3.6, and 2.0 kt/a, respectively. They account for approximately 15%, 26%, 29%, 16%, 32%, and 26.5% of global emissions, respectively. Our results show signs that Japan has successfully phased out CFCs and HCFCs in compliance with the Montreal Protocol (MP), Korea has started transitioning from HCFCs to HFCs, while China still significantly consumes HCFCs. Taiwan, while not directly regulated under the MP, is shown to have adapted the use of HFCs. Combined analysis of emission rates and the interspecies correlation matrix presented in this study proves to be a powerful tool for monitoring and diagnosing changes in consumption of HCs in East Asia. PMID:21649439

  19. Model intra-comparison of transboundary sulfate loadings over springtime east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Ohara, T.; Nakajima, T.; Takemura, T.; Kajino, M.; Dai, T.; Matsui, H.; Takami, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Aoki, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Shimizu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over east Asia, a spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols from source to outflow regions has not fully evaluated by simulations. In the present study, we executed a global aerosol-transport model (SPRINTARS) during April 2006 to investigate the spatial gradient of sulfate aerosols using multiple measurements including surface mass concentration, aerosol optical thickness, and vertical profiles of extinction coefficients for spherical particles. We also performed sensitivity experiments to estimate possible uncertainties of sulfate mass loadings caused by macrophysical processes; emission inventory, dynamic core, and spatial resolution. Among the experiments, although a difference in the surface sulfate mass concentrations over east Asia was large, none of the simulations in the present study as well as regional models reproduced the spatial gradient of the surface sulfate from the source over China to the outflow regions in Japan. The sensitivity of different macrophysical factors to the surface sulfate differs from that to sulfate loadings in the column especially in the marine boundary layers (MBL). Therefore, to properly simulate the transboundary air pollution over east Asia is required to use multiple measurements in both the source and outflow regions especially in the MBL during the polluted days.

  20. Modeling study of surface ozone source-receptor relationships in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yang, Wenyi; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Huansheng; Hu, Bo; Li, Jianjun.; Sun, Yele.; Fu, Pingqing; Zhang, Yuqia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone source-receptor relationships over East Asia have been quantitatively investigated using a chemical transport model including an on-line tracer-tagged procedure, with a particular focus on the source regions of different daily ozone mixing ratios. Comparison with observations showed that the model reproduced surface ozone and tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column densities. Long-range transport from outside East Asia contributed the greatest fraction to annual surface ozone over remote regions, the Korean peninsula, and Japan, reaching 50%-80% of total ozone. Self-contributions accounted for 5%-20% ozone in the Korean peninsula and Japan, whereas the contribution of trans-boundary transport from photochemical production in China was less than 5%-10%. At extra-high ozone levels, self-contributions reached 50%-60% in the Korean peninsula. Ozone source-receptor relationships showed high seasonal variability over East Asia. Significant transport was also found between sub-regions in China, which presents a great challenge to policy-makers because most current control strategies are confined to specific regions.

  1. The Impacts of Land Degradation on the Summer Climate over East Asia and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Xue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There were serious land degradations over East Asia during the past several decades and have identified Tibet Plateau (TP), Northwest China (NWC) and Inner Mogonial (IM) were among areas with severe land degradation. The GCMs with a natural vegetation map and a land degradation map were used to assess the possible impact of land cover change on the summer circulation over the East Asia. In the IM land degradation study, it shows the land degradation caused dry conditions in North China and wet conditions in southern China. Because in the desertification area the reduction in evaporation dominants the changes in the local surface energy budget, and the reduction in convective latent heating above the surface layer enhanced sinking motion. In the TP and NWC study, it shows that land cover change from vegetated land to bare ground over TP and NWC decreased radiation absorbed by the surface and leads to weaker surface thermal effects, which lead to lower atmospheric temperature over, as well as weaker vertical ascending motion, low-layer cyclonic, upper level anticyclonic over TP. These changes in circulation cause a decrease in the precipitation in the southeastern TP. In NWC, especially in northern Xinjiang and surrounding areas, less latent heating causes stronger anomalous lower-level anticyclonic circulation and upper-level cyclonic circulation, leading to less summer precipitation and higher surface temperature. Coincidentally, the East Asia summer monsoon circulation was weakened and the precipitation is reduced due to the land degradation over three areas.

  2. Dust storms and cyclone tracks over the arid regions in east Asia in spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemi, Tetsuya; Seino, Naoko

    2005-09-01

    It has been argued that frequent dust storm developments in east Asia in spring are closely related to midlatitude synoptic-scale cyclone activity. This study investigates the relationship of springtime dust storms and other dust-related phenomena in east Asia to the tracks and locations of synoptic-scale cyclones by conducting statistical analyses of surface weather data, cyclone track data, and satellite data. Through these analyses, we discuss the role of cyclone activity on dust weather phenomena in east Asia. In the Gobi Desert and northeast China regions, strong cyclonic winds associated with strong cyclones are responsible for the dust weather developments, and the dust weather preferably occurs in the southwestern sector of the cyclone, where frontal activity and cold air action are significant. Despite the extremely dry climate, the formation of frontal cloud systems is evident particularly over the Gobi Desert, which will contribute to the higher frequency of severer dust weather. On the other hand, in the Taklamakan Desert severe dust weather (i.e., dust storm) is not so much affected by synoptic-scale cyclones, but weaker dust phenomena such as dust haze occur around the centers of cyclones that do not propagate farther eastward out of the Taklamakan region.

  3. Marine incursion into East Asia: a forgotten driving force of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Hou, Zhonge; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-04-22

    Episodic marine incursion has been a major driving force in the formation of present-day diversity. Marine incursion is considered to be one of the most productive 'species pumps' particularly because of its division and coalescence effects. Marine incursion events and their impacts on diversity are well documented from South America, North America and Africa; however, their history and impacts in continental East Asia largely remain unknown. Here, we propose a marine incursion scenario occurring in East Asia during the Miocene epoch, 10-17 Ma. Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platorchestia talitrids revealed that continental terrestrial populations (Platorchestia japonica) form a monophyletic group that is the sister group to the Northwest Pacific coastal species Platorchestia pacifica. The divergence time between the two species coincides with Middle Miocene high global sea levels. We suggest that the inland form arose as a consequence of a marine incursion event. This is the first solid case documenting the impact of marine incursion on extant biodiversity in continental East Asia. We believe that such incursion event has had major impacts on other organisms and has played an important role in the formation of biodiversity patterns in the region.

  4. Multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Stohl, A; Yokouchi, Y; Kim, J; Li, S; Saito, T; Park, S; Hu, J

    2015-04-01

    Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. HFC-23 emissions in East Asia, especially in China, are currently thought to represent the majority of global HFC-23 emissions. This study provides both a bottom-up emission inventory and the multiannual top-down estimate of HFC-23 emissions in East Asia during 2007-2012. The new bottom-up inventory yields improved simulated HFC-23 mixing ratios compared to previous bottom-up inventories. The top-down estimate uses inverse modeling to further improve the model-measurement agreement. Results show that China contributed 94-98% of all HFC-23 emissions in East Asia. Annual a posteriori emissions from China were around 6.3 Gg/yr during the period 2007-2010 after which they increased to 7.1 ± 0.7 Gg/yr in 2011 and 8.8 ± 0.8 Gg/yr in 2012. For the first time, this study also provides a top-down estimate of HFC-23/HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2) coproduction ratios in non-CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) HCFC-22 production plants as well as in all HCFC-22 production plants in China. PMID:25785483

  5. Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2008-01-01

    Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region

  6. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  7. Simulating Aerosol-cloud-radiation Feedbacks over East Asia Using Wrf-chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols play an important role in climate change through their impact on the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Recently much effort has been put into studying the radiative forcing of aerosols in East Asia. In this study, we apply the regional chemistry and transport model, WRF-Chem, to study aerosol radiative forcing over eastern Asia. Version 3.3 of the model is used with the CBMZ chemical mechanism and the MOSAIC aerosol treatment. The time period of interest is Feb 21, 2005 to April 12, 2005, since there were extensive measurements of radiation, trace gases, and aerosol properties available from EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment ) campaign during that period. We conduct model simulations with and without aerosol forcing and compare the results to measurements. We investigate the aerosol radiative forcing as well as aerosol direct and indirect effects by analyzing the differences between short wave flux, temperature, and cloud fraction from these two runs. We evaluate our model simulated incoming short wave radiation at the surface with in situ measurements from EAST-AIRE site Xianghe (70 km southeast of Beijing, China). We find that shortwave radiation decreases when aerosols are added lessening the high-bias between model-calculated and observed short wave radiation. We further compare the model simulated cloud fraction from two runs with MODIS Level 2 retrievals, demonstrating aerosol indirect effects in cloud formations.

  8. Observations of Light-Absorbing Carbonaceous Aerosols in East and South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, S.; Choi, W.

    2013-05-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), brown carbon and mineral dust, typically constitute a small fraction of ambient particle mass but can contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer. Besides the direct radiative effect, the heating can evaporate clouds and change the atmospheric dynamics. In this study, we investigate the optical and radiative properties of light-absorbing aerosols from ground-based and aircraft measurements in East and South Asia within the framework of UNEP Atmospheric Brown Cloud-Asia (ABC-Asia) project and Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) campaign (December 2012 ~ February 2013). BC mass concentration, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients measurements and radiative forcing calculations were performed at four sites: Gosan (Korea), Anmyeon (Korea), Hanimaadhoo (Maldives) and Pyramid (Nepal). No significant seasonal variations of aerosol properties, except for summer due to wet scavenging by rainfall, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at Hanimaadhoo during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (absorption coefficient/extinction coefficient) at 550 nm at Gosan and Anmyeon is higher than that in Hanimaadhoo due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly, solar absorption efficiency at Pyramid is 0.14, which is two times great than that in Hanimaadhoo and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at Pyramid is the lowest among four sites. Throughout the unmanned aerial vehicle experiment in Jeju, Korea during August-September 2008, long-range transport of aerosols from

  9. Climate oscillation during the Quaternary associated with landscape heterogeneity promoted allopatric lineage divergence of a temperate tree Kalopanax septemlobus (Araliaceae) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Shota; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Liu, Yi-Hui; Qi, Xin-Shuai; Kim, Sea-Hyun; Han, Jingyu; Takeuchi, Yayoi; Worth, James R P; Yamasaki, Michimasa; Sakurai, Shogo; Isagi, Yuji

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the biogeographic history of Kalopanax septemlobus, one of the most widespread temperate tree species in East Asia, using a combined phylogeographic and palaeodistribution modelling approach. Range-wide genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellites (G'(ST) = 0.709; 2205 samples genotyped at five loci) and chloroplast DNA (G(ST) = 0.697; 576 samples sequenced for 2055 bp at three fragments) was high. A major phylogeographic break in Central China corresponded with those of other temperate species and the spatial delineation of the two temperate forest subkingdoms of East Asia, consistent with the forests having been isolated within both East and West China for multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. Evidence for multiple glacial refugia was found in most of its current range in China, South Japan and the southernmost part of the Korean Peninsula. In contrast, lineage admixture and absence of private alleles and haplotypes in Hokkaido and the northern Korean Peninsula support a postglacial origin of northernmost populations. Although palaeodistribution modelling predicted suitable climate across a land-bridge extending from South Japan to East China during the Last Glacial Maximum, the genetic differentiation of regional populations indicated a limited role of the exposed sea floor as a dispersal corridor at that time. Overall, this study provides evidence that differential impacts of Quaternary climate oscillation associated with landscape heterogeneity have shaped the genetic structure of a wide-ranging temperate tree in East Asia.

  10. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  11. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J

    2014-02-01

    There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century.

  12. SSA 01-1 HYPERTENSION SUBTYPES IN RAPIDLY AGING EAST ASIA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Fortunately, cardiovascular mortality has been decreasing in high-income countries, but the rate is still increasing in some middle-income and low-income countries. Even within the Asian region, cardiovascular disease mortality is decreasing in some countries but increasing in others. However, population ageing is common to all Asian countries, and East Asia is among the most aged region in the world. Accordingly, cardiovascular disease prevention in the elderly is becoming more and more important public health issue in East Asia. Hypertension control is the key strategy for decreasing cardiovascular disease, because hypertension is the most contributing and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is defined as elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Thus it can be further classified into three subtypes; isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH). It is known that relative frequency of ISH is increasing with age, because of progressively increasing SBP and decreasing SBP after age 60. It has been shown that SBP is more closely associated with cardiovascular risk than DBP. Moreover, there has been some evidence showing that the linear relationship between SBP and cardiovascular disease is more prominent in East Asian people than in Caucasian populations. In spite of our efforts to prevent hypertension, the absolute number of older people with hypertension, especially ISH, is expected to increase in East Asia because of the rapid population ageing. Future study of hypertension needs to be performed to find subtype-specific prevention and management strategies. PMID:27642867

  13. Off to a good start: A comparative study of changes in men's first job prospects in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin; Chiu, Chi-Tsun

    2015-01-01

    Research on young adults’ transition to the labor market rarely investigates how nation-level institutional arrangements shape changes over time. In particular, a systematic comparison of shifts in young adults’ job opportunities in East Asia is virtually absent. Using comparable data from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, we examine cohort differences in the timing, quality, and stability of men's first jobs. The results indicate overall declines in first occupational attainment for men in all three countries, but the main driving force for the decrease in Japan differs from that in Korea and Taiwan. Whereas macroeconomic pressure fully explains the decline in Japanese men's first occupational attainment, educational expansion accounts for a considerable part of the declines for men in Korea and Taiwan. Moreover, educational expansion has eroded better-educated men's advantages in speedily transitioning from school to work in Taiwan, but it has not had a similar effect on Japanese men. We argue that Japan's employment system, coupled with a fair amount of institutional ties between schools and firms, has shielded young men from the pressure of educational expansion, making the trends about their early-career outcomes different from those of their counterparts in Korea and Taiwan. The different degrees to which firm internal labor markets have been adopted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also explain how increasing macroeconomic pressure has different impacts on men's first job stability in East Asia. PMID:25999637

  14. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  15. Evaluation of modeled vertical aerosol distributions over east-Asia using in-situ and satellite data during summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quennehen, Boris; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Ancellet, Gérard; Bazureau, Ariane; Daskalakis, Nikos; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Zhu, Tong; Pelon, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    As part of the EU ECLIPSE project, which aims to quantify the climate impact of short lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including aerosols, black carbon and ozone, regional models are being used to evaluate global model performance for specific case studies. Here, we present results using regional WRF-Chem simulations over east-Asia. Results are compared to data from field campaigns which took place in summer 2008 and from long-term measurement stations. This study will, in a first step, evaluate the ability of the model to simulate aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, with a focus on pollution layers. In a second step, the radiative impact of such layers over east-Asia will be investigated as a function of their position relative to clouds. The WRF-Chem regional model was run using MOZART gas phase chemistry and the MOSAIC aerosol scheme and was evaluated against available measurements for the period August to September 2008. The model was run using ECLIPSE anthropogenic and GFEDv3.1 fire emissions for 2008, while initial and boundary conditions were specified from the TM4 global chemical transport model. The radiative impact of pollution aerosol layers has already been investigated but less is known about the influence of vertical layering in the atmosphere. Such layers might have different radiative impacts whether they are below or above clouds and in that sense, a better understanding of their spatial extent is critical. Information about pollution aerosol layers and clouds optical properties and positions over East-Asia are determined using observations from CALIPSO. The radiative impact of these layers is simulated and compared to the observations. In addition to satellite observations, model results are evaluated against trace gas and aerosol data from aircraft campaigns over eastern Asia in summer 2008 (e.g., CAREBEIJING and CAPMEX) and ground-based measurements (e.g., NIES and ABC). In this study, we assess aerosol total concentrations and size

  16. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  17. Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie

    2016-01-01

    Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and East Asia. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.

  18. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  19. A palaeo-hydrogeological model for arsenic contamination in southern and south-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Gordon

    2005-12-01

    An argument is presented in which areas of natural arsenic contamination of modern groundwaters throughout Asia have a common origin. Arsenic originally accumulated in oceanic ferro-manganoan sediments of the eastern Palaeo-Tethys. This was further concentrated through oceanic crustal extinction in what later became the south-east Chinese accreted mineralised terrain. Proto-Himalayan uplift of this area created the palaeo-drainage systems of the Ganges - Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Mekong, and Red Rivers, with consequent headwater erosion of arsenic-rich sediments. Their downstream deposition as immature and easily redistributed Neogene sandstones, silts, and iron-rich clays has created secondary and tertiary reservoirs of adsorbed and authigenic arsenic, from which the current arsenic-rich groundwaters have evolved. Considering river basins within the above palaeo-hydrogeological framework provides a basis for assessing the risk of arsenic in groundwater basins of south and south-eastern Asia.

  20. Improvement of PM10 prediction in East Asia using inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the East Asia region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in East Asia. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia.

  1. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2016-05-01

    An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over East Asia, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in East Asia in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.

  2. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  3. Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in East Asia. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in East Asia, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.

  4. Past and future direct radiative forcing of nitrate aerosol in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiandong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan

    2015-08-01

    Nitrate as a rapidly increasing aerosol species in recent years affects the present climate and potentially has large implications on the future climate. In this study, the long-term direct radiative forcing (DRF) of nitrate aerosol is investigated using State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) and the aerosol dataset simulated by a chemical transport model with focus on East Asia. The DRF due to other aerosols, especially sulfate, is also evaluated for comparisons. Although the chemical transport model underestimates the magnitudes of nitrate and sulfate aerosols when compared with Chinese site observations, some insights into the significances of nitrate climate effects still emerge. The present-day global annual mean all-sky DRF of nitrate is calculated to be -0.025 W m-2 relative to the preindustrial era, which is much weaker than -0.37 W m-2 for sulfate. However, nitrate DRF may become increasingly important in the future especially over East Asia, given the expectation that decreasing trend in global sulfate continues while the projected nitrate maintains at the present level for a mid-range forcing scenario and even be a factor of two larger by the end of the 21st century for high emission scenarios. For example, the anthropogenic nitrate DRF of -2.0 W m-2 over eastern China could persist until the 2050s, and nitrate is projected to account for over 60 % of total anthropogenic aerosol DRF over East Asia by 2100. In addition, we illustrate that the regional nitrate DRF and its seasonal variation are sensitive to meteorological parameters, in particular the relative humidity and cloud amount. It thus remains a need for climate models to include more realistically nitrate aerosol in projecting future climate changes.

  5. Aerosol variability over East Asia as seen by POLDER space-borne sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Goloub, P.; Chiapello, I.; Chen, H.; Ducos, F.; Li, Z.

    2010-12-01

    This paper is devoted to analysis of aerosol distribution and variability over East Asia based on PARASOL/POLDER-3 aerosol products over land. We first compared POLDER-3 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with fine mode AOD (particles radius ≤ 0.30 μm) computed from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) inversions over 14 sites. The rather good correlation (R ≈ 0.92) observed over land demonstrates the remarkable sensitivity of POLDER-3 retrievals to the smaller fraction of fine particles, mostly originating from anthropogenic sources. We analyzed the characteristics and seasonal variation of aerosol distribution over East Asia by considering 4 years of POLDER-3 Level 2 data (March 2005 to February 2009). Our study shows that the spatial distribution of fine-mode aerosols over East Asia, as retrieved from POLDER-3, is highly associated with human activities. Our work also evidenced a strong variability of seasonal fine-mode AOD patterns with geographical locations. Finally, the interannual variation during 2003-2009 periods of summer fine-mode AOD over North China, in particular the Beijing City region, was analyzed for the contribution to evaluating the regional impact of emission reduction enforced in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. We found that the summer average of fine-mode AOD exhibited relatively higher values in 2003, 2007, and 2008. The interannual variation patterns of monthly averaged AOD (June to August) shows that June generally exhibits the strongest variation and varies similarly to July, but differs from August. As a reference point, measured total AOD and fine-mode AOD computed from AERONET inversions in summer are also discussed for the Beijing City region.

  6. Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh

    2009-08-01

    It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods. PMID:19394085

  7. Arsenic in groundwater: a threat to sustainable agriculture in South and South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh; Ravenscroft, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The problem of arsenic pollution of groundwater used for domestic water supplies is now well recognised in Bangladesh, India and some other countries of South and South-east Asia. However, it has recently become apparent that arsenic-polluted water used for irrigation is adding sufficient arsenic to soils and rice to pose serious threats to sustainable agricultural production in those countries and to the health and livelihoods of affected people. This paper reviews the nature of those threats, taking into account the natural sources of arsenic pollution, areas affected, factors influencing arsenic uptake by soils and plants, toxicity levels and the dietary risk to people consuming arsenic-contaminated rice.

  8. Education and training of medical physicists in South East Asia: accomplishments and challenges†

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, BJ

    2011-01-01

    John Cameron has made significant contributions to the field of Medical Physics. His contributions encompassed research and development, technical developments and education. He had a particular interest in the education of medical physicists in developing countries. Structured clinical training is also an essential component of the professional development of a medical physicist. This paper considers aspects of the clinical training and education of medical physicists in South-East Asia and the challenges facing the profession in the region if it is to keep pace with the rapid increase in the amount and technical complexity of medical physics infrastructure in the region. PMID:22279500

  9. WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4

  10. Mitigation of arsenic contamination in irrigated paddy soils in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Hugh

    2009-08-01

    It has recently become apparent that arsenic-contaminated groundwater used for irrigation in several countries of South and South-east Asia is adding arsenic to soils and rice, thus posing a serious threat to sustainable agricultural production and to the health and livelihoods of affected people in those countries. This paper describes the many environmental, agricultural and social factors that determine practical mitigation strategies and research needs, and describes possible mitigation measures that need to be tested. These measures include providing alternative irrigation sources, various agronomic measures, use of soil amendments, growing hyperaccumulator plants, removing contaminated soil and using alternative cooking methods.

  11. Evaluation of simulated precipitation: Recent trends in extreme indices over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yhang, Yoo-Bin

    2014-05-01

    Climate research, particularly application studies for water, agriculture, forestry, fishery and energy management require fine scale multi-decadal information of meteorological, oceanographic and land states. Unfortunately, spatially and temporally homogeneous multi-decadal observations of these variables in high horizontal resolution are non-existent. Some long term surface records of temperature and precipitation exist, but the number of observation is very limited and the measurements are often contaminated by changes in instrumentation over time. Some climatologically important variables, such as soil moisture, surface evaporation, and radiation are not even measured over most of East Asia. Regional climate models (RCMs) are able to provide valuable regional finescale information, especially in regions where the climate variables are strongly regulated by the underlying topography and the surface heterogeneity. We investigated the ability of a regional climate model to provide the characteristics of East Asian climate focusing on summer and winter monsoon using the Global/Regional Integrated Model system [GRIMs; Hong et al. 2013]. The model can reproduce large scale features associated the East Asian summer and winter monsoon in terms of 30-year (1979-2008) seasonal mean climate. However, accurate prediction of monsoon precipitation is still a challenging task. Precipitation is one of the most important results generated during the model simulation. It is also generally the most difficult variable to simulate correctly in a regional model. Therefore, we will focus on precipitation to examine variability and uncertainty over East Asia in terms of extreme indices. The assessment of simulated precipitation is expected to provide the high-quality data that can be used in various application areas such as hydrology or environmental model forcing.

  12. Impact of Land Surface Parameters on the Evaluation of East Asia Monsoon Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, Y.; Guo, W.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface has crucial impact on air movement through momentum, energy and mass exchange. Leaf area index (LAI), one of important variable in the land surface processes, involves in canopy radiative transfer, momentum transfer, precipitation interception loss, and transpiration, which affect on land surface energy and water partition processes. Therefore, it crucially affects the ability of models to adequately simulate land-surface interaction. In this study, Long-term Global Mapping LAI (GLOBMAP LAI) and its corresponding land cover and greenness fraction are introduced into WRF_NMM/SSiB2. Compared with the control simulation based on the original specified LAI that is based on limited survey. The simulation with GLOBMAP LAI produced better precipitation distribution and rain belt movement. The improvements of the East Asia monsoon precipitation simulation are mainly attributed to the correction of the position of subtropical high. The north edge of subtropical high is related to the position of East Asia Westerly Jet. In the control simulation, weak westerlies lead subtropical high to move northward. Therefore compared with observations, more precipitation is in high latitudes. With imposed remote sensing LAI, the model produces larger meridional temperature gradient in surface and upper air, leading to stronger thermal westerlies. The Southward of Westerly Jet blocks the subtropical high, which amends the position of monsoon rain belt. This study directly takes advantage of recently available remote sensing products, and attributes the improved regional model simulation to proper LAI specification, which leads to adequate land/atmosphere interactions.

  13. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  14. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    As the climate change occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  15. Decreasing emissions of NOx relative to CO2 in East Asia inferred from satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilboll, A.; Richter, A.; Schneising, O.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    At present, global CO2 emission inventories are mainly based on bottom-up estimates that rely, for example, on reported fossil fuel consumptions and fuel types. The associated uncertainties propagate into the CO2-to-NOx emission ratios that are used in pollution prediction and monitoring, as well as into biospheric carbon fluxes derived by inverse models. Here we analyse simultaneous and co-located satellite retrievals from SCIAMACHY (ref. ; SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) of the column-average dry-air mole fraction of CO2 (refs , ) and NO2 (refs , , ) for the years 2003-2011 to provide a top-down estimate of trends in emissions and in the ratio between CO2 and NOx emissions. Our analysis shows that the CO2-to-NOx emission ratio has increased by 4.2 +/- 1.7% yr-1 in East Asia. In this region, we find a large positive trend of CO2 emissions (9.8 +/- 1.7% yr-1), which we largely attribute to the growing Chinese economy. This trend exceeds the positive trend of NOx emissions (5.8 +/- 0.9% yr-1). Our findings suggest that the recently installed and renewed technology in East Asia, such as power plants, transportation and so on, is cleaner in terms of NOx emissions than the old infrastructure, and roughly matches relative emission levels in North America and Europe.

  16. Model analysis of seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lijie; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei

    2009-03-01

    Temporal-spatial variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations over East Asia in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2004 were simulated by using the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with meteorological fields calculated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The simulated concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide were compared with ground level observations at two remote sites, Ryori (39.03°N, 141.82°E) and Yonagunijima (24.47°N, 123.02°E). The comparison shows that the model reproduces their seasonal variation patterns reasonably well, and simulated ozone levels are generally in good agreement with the observed ones, but carbon monoxide concentrations are underestimated. Analysis of horizontal distributions of monthly averaged ozone mixing ratios in the surface layer indicates that ozone concentrations have noticeable differences among the four seasons; they are generally higher in the spring and summer while lower in the winter, reflecting the seasonal variation of solar intensity and photochemical activity and the fact that the monsoons over East Asia are playing an important role in ozone distributions.

  17. Regional Climate Simulations of Summer Diurnal Rainfall Variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-R.; Chan, J. C. L.

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluates the simulations of summer (June-August) precipitation over East Asia by the Regional Climate Model Version 3 (RegCM3), with emphasis on the diurnal variations of precipitation over Southeast China (PSEC) during the 1998-2002 summer seasons. The evaluation focuses on the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations in PSEC as proposed by previous observational studies. It is found that the diurnal variations of PSEC are sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs). In particular, the Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption (GFC) produces reasonable diurnal variations of PSEC. Other CPSs such as the Emanuel scheme produces a weaker late-afternoon maximum of PSEC, and the Kuo scheme as well as the Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption (GAS) is unable to simulate the occurrence of the late-afternoon maximum of PSEC. The simulations show that the adoption of the GFC scheme reproduces the large-scale land-sea breeze circulation and the moisture flux convergence that have been documented by previous studies as the maintenance mechanisms of the diurnal variations of PSEC. This feature illustrates the importance of convective cloud feedback at the diurnal timescale in maintaining the large-scale circulation. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  18. The improvement of dust model applying modified soil component of dust source over East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, D. H.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asia region is the world's most populous area with a rapidly growing economy resulting in large air pollutant emissions. Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. These mineral aerosols PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 um in diameter) concentration frequently exceeds the daily ambient air quality standards of 100μgm-3, and the number of exceedance days of daily PM10 reached about 40 times annually. The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency to underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. This is partially due to the uncertainty of fugitive dust emissions. This study is aim to improve dust model(ADAM2 - Asian Dust Aeorosol Model 2) by changing soil component over source regions using Harmonized World Soil Database. ADAM2 has four dust components of the Gobi Desert, sand dsert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil. The soil components, however, should be updated as current and detailed soil components. Therfore, we apply updated dust model with CTM(Chemical Transport Model), CMAQ(Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model) to simulate dust concentration over East Asia. It is found that dust concentration with updated dust model is better agreement with observation during dust event periods, compared with standard dust model.

  19. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  20. Source contributions of sulfate aerosol over East Asia estimated by CMAQ-DDM.

    PubMed

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Kim, Soontae

    2012-06-19

    We applied the decoupled direct method (DDM), a sensitivity analysis technique for computing sensitivities accurately and efficiently, to determine the source-receptor relationships of anthropogenic SO(2) emissions to sulfate aerosol over East Asia. We assessed source contributions from East Asia being transported to Oki Island downwind from China and Korea during two air pollution episodes that occurred in July 2005. The contribution from China, particularly that from central eastern China (CEC), was found to dominate the sulfate aerosols. To study these contributions in more detail, CEC was divided into three regions, and the contributions from each region were examined. Source contributions exhibited both temporal and vertical variability, largely due to transport patterns imposed by the Asian summer monsoon. Our results are consistent with backward trajectory analyses. We found that anthropogenic SO(2) emissions from China produce significant quantities of summertime sulfate aerosols downwind of source areas. We used a parametric scaling method for estimating anthropogenic SO(2) emissions in China. Using column amounts of SO(2) derived from satellite data, and relationships between the column amounts of SO(2) and anthropogenic emissions, 2009 emissions were diagnosed. The results showed that 2009 emissions of SO(2) from China were equivalent to 2004 levels. PMID:22642816

  1. Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over East Asia via data assimilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over East Asia simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over East Asia.

  2. Predicting the potential distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sachiko; Tominaga, Atsushi; Irwin, Kelly J; Freake, Michael J; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2015-04-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is the pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, a disease that is associated with a worldwide amphibian population decline. In this study, we predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia based on limited occurrence data. Our goal was to design an effective survey area where efforts to detect the pathogen can be focused. We generated ecological niche models using the maximum-entropy approach, with alleviation of multicollinearity and spatial autocorrelation. We applied eigenvector-based spatial filters as independent variables, in addition to environmental variables, to resolve spatial autocorrelation, and compared the model's accuracy and the degree of spatial autocorrelation with those of a model estimated using only environmental variables. We were able to identify areas of high suitability for Bd with accuracy. Among the environmental variables, factors related to temperature and precipitation were more effective in predicting the potential distribution of Bd than factors related to land use and cover type. Our study successfully predicted the potential distribution of Bd in East and Southeast Asia. This information should now be used to prioritize survey areas and generate a surveillance program to detect the pathogen.

  3. An HIV Vaccine for South-East Asia-Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; O'Connell, Robert J; Kim, Jerome H; Excler, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in HIV vaccine development along with a better understanding of the immune correlates of risk have emerged from the RV144 efficacy trial conducted in Thailand. Epidemiological data suggest that CRF01_AE is still predominant in South-East Asia and is spreading in China with a growing number of circulating recombinant forms due to increasing human contact, particularly in large urban centers, tourist locations and in sites of common infrastructure. A vaccine countering CRF01_AE is a priority for the region. An Asia HIV vaccine against expanding B/E or BCE recombinant forms should be actively pursued. A major challenge that remains is the conduct of efficacy trials in heterosexual populations in this region. Men who have sex with men represent the main target population for future efficacy trials in Asia. Coupling HIV vaccines with other prevention modalities in efficacy trials might also be envisaged. These new avenues will only be made possible through the conduct of large-scale efficacy trials, interdisciplinary teams, international collaborations, and strong political and community commitments. PMID:26344118

  4. Is the global atmospheric model MRI-AGCM3.2 better than the CMIP5 atmospheric models in simulating precipitation over East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    The reproducibility of precipitation over East Asia (110-150°E, 20-50°N) by the Meteorological Research Institute-Atmospheric General Circulation Model version 3.2 (MRI-AGCM3.2) was investigated and compared with those by global atmospheric models participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The 20, 60 and 180-km grid size version of this model were used to evaluate the dependence of model performance on horizontal resolution. The dependence of cumulus convection scheme on model performance was also investigated. All the MRI-AGCM3.2 models and the CMIP5 models were forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures for the period 1979-2003 (25 years). The reproducibility of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models is higher or comparable to that of the CMIP5 models for seasonal average precipitation, the seasonal March of rainy zone and extreme precipitation events. Especially in summer, the advantage of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models over the CMIP5 models is striking in terms of various skill measures. This is partly due to the higher horizontal resolution of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models, but the performance of models is also sensitive to and depends on cumulus convection scheme. The better simulation of summer precipitation over East Asia by the MRI-AGCM3.2 models can be partly attributed to the better simulation of precipitation, the West Pacific Subtropical High and the local Hadley circulation in the tropics. This study highlights that higher reproducibility of summertime precipitation over East Asia requires proper simulation not only for tropical circulation but also for the strong dynamical linkage between precipitation over East Asia and tropical circulation.

  5. Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in East Asia: from source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei

    2015-04-01

    River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in Asia, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in East Asia, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in East Asia and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).

  6. Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for East Asia in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over East Asia. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-Asia, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for East Asia. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.

  7. Late Quaternary pollen data collection and application in land-cover reconstruction for East Asia and Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xianyong; Tian, Fang; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The various climatic systems and vegetation zones in the East Asia cause the numerous open questions concerning the evolution of the Asian Monsoon and vegetation change on various time-scales. Fossil pollen is one of the most spatially extensive terrestrial palaeoenvironmental proxies during the late Quaternary, and the multi-record fossil pollen synthesis is a potential solution for the open questions in palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology. We collected and selected 274 pollen records from eastern continental Asia (70°135°E and 18°55°N). After pollen percentage recalculations, taxonomic homogenization, age-depth model revision, and pollen abundance linear interpolation, a taxonomically harmonized and temporally standardized fossil pollen dataset established at a 500-year resolution covering the last 22 ka. In addition, we also established a modern pollen dataset including 2626 modern pollen data from China and Mongolia. We used the calibration-set based on modern pollen and satellite-based Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations of woody cover, to reconstruct woody cover for the 274 fossil pollen records. The spatial range of forest has not noticeably changed in eastern continental Asia during the last 22 ka, although woody cover has, especially at the margin of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and in the forest-steppe transition area of north-central China. Vegetation was sparse during the LGM in the present forested regions, but woody cover increased markedly at the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød period (B/A; ca. 14.5 ka BP) and again at the beginning of the Holocene (ca. 11.5 ka BP), and is related to the enhanced strength of the East Asian Summer Monsoon. Forest flourished in the mid-Holocene (ca. 8 ka BP) possibly due to favourable climatic conditions. In contrast, cover was stable in southern China (high cover) and arid central Asia (very low cover) throughout the investigated period. Forest cover increased in the north

  8. Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.

    2014-12-01

    A rapid economic growth in China and other East Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and

  9. Connections between Eurasian teleconnection and concurrent variation of the upper-level jets over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, N.

    2015-12-01

    The variation of East Asian jet streams (EAJS) associated with the Eurasian teleconnection (EU) pattern is investigated using 60-yr NCEP/NCAR daily reanalysis dataset over the period (1951-2010). The EAJS consists of three components: the polar front jet (PFJ), the plateau subtropical jet (PSJ), and the ocean subtropical jet (OSJ). Of the three jets over East Asia, the EU pattern exhibits significant influence on the PFJ and OSJ. There is a simultaneous negative correlation between the EU pattern and PFJ. A significant positive correlation is found between the EU pattern and OSJ with the EU leads the OSJ by about 5 days. There is no obvious correlation between the EU pattern and PSJ. The positive EU phase is accompanied by a weakened and poleward shifted PFJ, which coincides with an intensified OSJ. Meanwhile, the PFJ also moves westward while the OSJ migrates eastward. In negative EU phase, the PFJ is unusually strong and moves more southward, merging with the PSJ. A possible mechanism for the variation of EAJS during different EU phases is explored via analyzing the effects of 10-day high- and low-frequency eddy forcing. The zonal wind tendency due to high-frequency eddy forcing contributes to the simultaneous negative correlation between the EU and PFJ as well as the northward/southward shift of PFJ. Low-frequency eddy forcing is responsible for the westward/eastward shift of PFJ in company with the evolution of EU. High- and low-frequency eddy forcing are both responsible for the positive correlation between the EU and OSJ but only high-frequency eddy contributes to the lagged variation of the OSJ relative to EU. The negative correlation between the EU and temperature/precipitation anomalies in northern/eastern China sustains only when the PFJ and OSJ are out of phase with each other. Thus, the EAJS plays an important role in transmitting the EU signal to temperature and precipitation anomalies in East Asia.

  10. A new urban landscape in East-Southeast Asia, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

    2015-03-01

    East-Southeast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the East-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in East-Southeast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

  11. A New Automatic Method of Urban Areas Mapping in East Asia from LANDSAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XU, R.; Jia, G.

    2012-12-01

    Cities, as places where human activities are concentrated, account for a small percent of global land cover but are frequently cited as the chief causes of, and solutions to, climate, biogeochemistry, and hydrology processes at local, regional, and global scales. Accompanying with uncontrolled economic growth, urban sprawl has been attributed to the accelerating integration of East Asia into the world economy and involved dramatic changes in its urban form and land use. To understand the impact of urban extent on biogeophysical processes, reliable mapping of built-up areas is particularly essential in eastern cities as a result of their characteristics of smaller patches, more fragile, and a lower fraction of the urban landscape which does not have natural than in the West. Segmentation of urban land from other land-cover types using remote sensing imagery can be done by standard classification processes as well as a logic rule calculation based on spectral indices and their derivations. Efforts to establish such a logic rule with no threshold for automatically mapping are highly worthwhile. Existing automatic methods are reviewed, and then a proposed approach is introduced including the calculation of the new index and the improved logic rule. Following this, existing automatic methods as well as the proposed approach are compared in a common context. Afterwards, the proposed approach is tested separately in cities of large, medium, and small scale in East Asia selected from different LANDSAT images. The results are promising as the approach can efficiently segment urban areas, even in the presence of more complex eastern cities. Key words: Urban extraction; Automatic Method; Logic Rule; LANDSAT images; East AisaThe Proposed Approach of Extraction of Urban Built-up Areas in Guangzhou, China

  12. Methane emissions in East Asia for 2000-2011 estimated using an atmospheric Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, H.; Nisbet, E. G.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present methane (CH4) emissions for East Asia from a Bayesian inversion of CH4 mole fraction and stable isotope (δ13C-CH4) measurements. Emissions were estimated at monthly resolution from 2000 to 2011. A posteriori, the total emission for East Asia increased from 43 ± 4 to 59 ± 4 Tg yr-1 between 2000 and 2011, owing largely to the increase in emissions from China, from 39 ± 4 to 54 ± 4 Tg yr-1, while emissions in other East Asian countries remained relatively stable. For China, South Korea, and Japan, the total emissions were smaller than the prior estimates (i.e., Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 4.2 FT2010 for anthropogenic emissions) by an average of 29%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. For Mongolia, Taiwan, and North Korea, the total emission was less than 2 Tg yr-1 and was not significantly different from the prior. The largest reductions in emissions, compared to the prior, occurred in summer in regions important for rice agriculture suggesting that this source is overestimated in the prior. Furthermore, an analysis of the isotope data suggests that the prior underestimates emissions from landfills and ruminant animals for winter 2010 to spring 2011 (no data available for other times). The inversion also found a lower average emission trend for China, 1.2 Tg yr-1 compared to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in the prior. This trend was not constant, however, and increased significantly after 2005, up to 2.0 Tg yr-1. Overall, the changes in emissions from China explain up to 40% of the increase in global emissions in the 2000s.

  13. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.

  14. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  15. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiewi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-14

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m-2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m-2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  16. Tobacco control challenges in East Asia: proposals for change in the world's largest epidemic region

    PubMed Central

    Katanoda, Kota; Jiang, Yuan; Park, Sohee; Lim, Min Kyung; Qiao, You-Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2014-01-01

    East Asia is one of the world's largest tobacco epidemic regions. Although several international studies have evaluated the status of tobacco control in this region, the findings have not been integrated with knowledge on domestic activities at the national and municipal levels. We analysed the current tobacco control situation in three East Asian countries, Japan, China and the Republic of Korea, using both international and domestic data sources. We collected data between 2008 and 2011 in each country according to the framework of WHO's MPOWER (Monitoring, Protect, Offer, Warn, Enforcement and Raise) approach for guiding implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Analysis revealed that 37–53% of adult men were current smokers and that smoking prevalence among middle-aged men reached 63%. Less than 20% of male smokers plan to quit and the use of nicotine replacement drugs was 14% at maximum. Forty-six percent or more of men and 20% or more of women were exposed to passive smoking at workplaces and at home, respectively. Many tobacco industry activities remain unrestricted and prevalent. Our findings indicate an urgent need for the following set of policies: raise cigarette prices to increase the quit attempt rate, particularly among adult men; develop a multi-component quitting assistance system to provide adequate assistance for smoking cessation; implement effective smoke-free policies in workplaces and public places to reduce exposure to passive smoking; and rebuild the administrative structure to denormalise tobacco industry activities. The importance of these standard approaches should be reaffirmed by all tobacco control policymakers in East Asia. PMID:23596197

  17. Heart Failure Clinical Trials in East and Southeast Asia: Understanding the Importance and Defining the Next Steps.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; Roessig, Lothar; Greenberg, Barry H; Sato, Naoki; Shinagawa, Kaori; Yeo, Daniel; Kwok, Bernard W K; Reyes, Eugenio B; Krum, Henry; Pieske, Burkert; Greene, Stephen J; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Kelly, Jacob P; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing global public health problem. In Asia, aging populations and recent increases in cardiovascular risk factors have contributed to a particularly high burden of HF, with outcomes that are poorer than those in the rest of the world. Representation of Asians in landmark HF trials has been variable. In addition, HF patients from Asia demonstrate clinical differences from patients in other geographic regions. Thus, the generalizability of some clinical trial results to the Asian population remains uncertain. In this article, we review differences in HF phenotype, HF management, and outcomes in patients from East and Southeast Asia. We describe lessons learned in Asia from recent HF registries and clinical trial databases and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions among scientists, clinical trialists, industry representatives, and regulatory representatives at the CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Asia Forum in Singapore on July 4, 2014.

  18. Source identification and apportionment of halogenated compounds observed at a remote site in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Mühle, Jens; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Jo, Chun Ok; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    The sources of halogenated compounds in East Asia associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compounds and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from November 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed by a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concentrations of halogenated compounds observed at Gosan and corresponding concentration-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum production explaining 37% of total concentration enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC production with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory analysis was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum production, solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout East Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF analysis results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compounds identified in this study help improve our understanding of the East Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compound emissions. PMID:24298975

  19. The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO’s target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

  20. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the East Asia during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the East Asia.

  1. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 2. EAST PART OF SOLIDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST PART OF SOLIDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING 274 AND PLUMMER STREET, FROM BALL DIAMOND IN SOUTHEAST CORNER. (Panoramic view 2/2). - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. 17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to north. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  5. 16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  6. East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near the Greek theater. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 2. VIEW LOOKING EAST ACROSS A WIDE PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING EAST ACROSS A WIDE PART OF THE PROVO RIVER, SHOWING GENERAL TERRAIN THROUGH WHICH THE RAILROAD PASSES - Heber Creeper Railroad Line, Following course of Provo River, between Provo & Heber City, Provo, Utah County, UT

  8. View towards east of interior wall structure with parts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards east of interior wall structure with parts of coffee despulpadora in foreground - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  9. North and part of the east sides of the wing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and part of the east sides of the wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-East Asia: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougard, C.; Montuire, S.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian faunal studies have provided various clues for a better reconstruction of hominid Quaternary paleoenvironments. In this work, two methods were used: (1) the cenogram method, based on a graphical representation of the mammalian community structure, and (2) the species richness of murine rodents to estimate climatic parameters. These methods were applied to Middle and Late Pleistocene mammalian faunas of South-East Asia, from South China to Indonesia. Special emphasis was laid on a fauna from north-east Thailand dated back to approximately 170,000 years (i.e. a glacial period). This Thai fauna seems characteristic of a slightly open forested environment intermediate between those of present-day central Myanmar and the northern part of South China. In the Thai fauna, the occurrence of both cool-loving mammalian taxa, currently living further north, and species of larger body size than their living counterparts, indicates cooler and probably drier climatic conditions than present-day climates in Thailand. These results are quite consistent with Middle Pleistocene palynological records from South China and eastern Java. From other less well-documented Pleistocene faunas, taken into account in this work, humid climatic conditions of interglacial periods were revealed from large mammalian taxa.

  11. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  12. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180

  13. Modeling drought variability in the water scarce Middle East and Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan

    2016-04-01

    The ability to simulate drought variability across the water scarce Middle East and Southwest Asia [40-80E,10-45N] is examined in terms of the seasonal precipitation variability simulated in a suite of different atmospheric models forced with observed sea surface temperatures. Several, but not all, of the models are able to capture key circulation changes known to be associated with large-scale forcing of severe drought in the region. Simulation skill also varies across the region. The model differences and skill areas have important implications for seasonal prediction of regional drought, which is explored both in general and for specific regional drought events, including 1999-2001, 2007-2008, and 2014-2015. The societal impact of the drought variability is considered in terms of the occurrence of drought disasters, as recorded in the CRED EM-DAT database.

  14. The next generation of public health approaches to asthma in Asia and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, David

    2010-07-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases now affect more than half a billion people worldwide and their importance as a global health problem has risen dramatically in recent years, prompting intense epidemiological investigation and the launch of numerous initiatives. Across Asia and the Middle East, a variety of environmental exposures increase the risk for the onset or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease, resulting in a considerable burden of morbidity and mortality. This article outlines new possibilities for public health surveillance of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory disease built around an emerging model of participatory public health: a decentralized approach that involves citizens in the collection and analysis of data, harnesses pervasive technology such as mobile phones and distributed sensors, and provides an open platform for public-private collaboration.

  15. Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  16. Variability of East Asia dust events and their long-term trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Mingxia; Higuchi, Kaz

    In order to examine the decadal variations of the dust events over East Asia, we analyze surface observations from 701 meteorological stations for the period 1960-2004 to obtain spatial and temporal distributions of dust events. Since the Taklamakan Desert in western China and the Gobi Desert in Inner Mongolia are the two major sources of dust storms, we have defined two dust indices, one for the Taklamakan Desert Index (TDI) and one for the Gobi Desert Index (GDI), to characterize the statistical nature of the dust events over these two regions. Both of these indices are well correlated with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI). TDI and GDI time series exhibit a decreasing trend since the mid-1980s, and is likely caused by an enhanced geopotential height over the Mongolian plateau and the middle Siberian region, as well as by an anomalous shift in the phase and intensity of the stationary wave over.

  17. The Culex pipiens fatigans problem in South-East Asia with special reference to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Singh, D

    1967-01-01

    In South-East Asia in recent years urbanization has proceeded rapidly. Because of limited financial resources it has seldom been possible to provide sufficient sanitation; this has led to conditions favourable to the breeding of Culex pipiens fatigans. The density of C. p. fatigans is higher in urban areas than in rural ones. Differences in infection and infectivity rates in C. p. fatigans seem to be due to differences in infection rates in the human population rather than to differences in the life-span of the mosquito. Precipitin tests have shown that the species feeds predominantly on man. It breeds in almost any type of stagnant water with organic contamination. Filariasis problems in India have been classified according to the duration of established transmission.

  18. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570

  19. Summer insolation is the primary driver for orbital-scale dust storm variability in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serno, Sascha; Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kienast, Stephanie S.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2016-04-01

    Eolian dust plays an important role in the global climate system through its influence on radiation, albedo and precipitation properties, and through delivering micronutrients like iron to the oceans. Glacial periods of Earth's climate are recognized to be dustier than interglacials, but the conditions leading to greater dust mobilization are poorly defined. We present a high-resolution dust flux record based on 230Th-normalised 4He flux from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 882 in the Subarctic North Pacific covering the last 170,000 years. Today, dust storms in the vast dry regions of East Asia are almost exclusively springtime phenomena, due to a specific set of climate conditions driven by the seasonal evolution of the meridional temperature gradient between high and low latitudes. The dust flux record points to high dust storm activity in East Asia during cold periods, with highest dust flux during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5d. We interpret periods of higher dust supply as the result of an expansion of the dust season into the summer, primarily controlled by reduced summer insolation at high latitudes and resulting lower air temperatures in Siberia over orbital timescales. Changes in the extent of the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in North America and Fennoscandinavia, and atmospheric teleconnections, act as a secondary control. On millennial timescales, the occurrence of Heinrich Stadials 1 and 11 signals during the last two terminations in Subarctic North Pacific dust records indicates that dust flux variability over millennial timescales was influenced by climate changes in the North Atlantic.

  20. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  1. Inter-Annual Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia during 2000-2011 summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols degrade air quality, perturb atmospheric radiation, and impact regional and global climate. Due to a rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, aerosol loading over East Asia (EA) is markedly higher than other industrialized regions, motivating a need to characterize the evolution of aerosols and understand the associated drivers. Based on the MISR satellite data during 2000-2011, a wave-like inter-annual variation of summertime aerosol optical depth (SAOD) is observed over the highly populated North China Plain (NCP) in East Asia. Specifically, the peak to trough ratio of SAOD ranges from 1.4 to 1.6, with a period of 3-4y. This variation pattern differs apparently from what has been seen in EA emissions, indicating a periodic change in regional climate pattern during the past decade. Investigations on meteorological fields over the region reveal that the high SAOD is generally associated with enhanced Philippine Sea Anticyclone Anomaly (PSAA), which weakens southeasterlies over northeastern EA and depresses air ventilation. Alternatively, a higher temperature or lower relative humidity is found to be coincident with reduced SAOD. The behavior of PSAA has been found previously to be modulated by the El Niño southern oscillations (ENSO), which thereby could disturb the EA SAOD as well. Rather than changing coherently with the ENSO activity, SAOD peaks over the NCP are found to be accompanied by the rapid transition of El Niño warm to cold phases developed four months ahead. An index measuring the ENSO development during January-April is able to capture the inter-annual variability of NCP SAOD during 2000-2011. This indicates a need to integrate the consideration of large-scale periodic climate variability in the design of regional air quality policy.

  2. A modeling study of seasonal variation of atmospheric aerosols over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawei; Han, Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a regional air quality model system (RAQMS) was applied to investigate the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of atmospheric aerosols in 2006 over East Asia. Model validations demonstrated that RAQMS was able to reproduce the evolution processes of aerosol components reasonably well. Ground-level PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm) concentrations were highest in spring and lowest in summer and were characterized by three maximum centers: the Taklimakan Desert (˜1000 µg m-3), the Gobi Desert (˜ 400 µg m-3), and the Huabei Plain (˜ 300 µg m-3) of China. Vertically, high PM10 concentrations ranging from 100 µg m-3 to 250 µg m-3 occurred from the surface to an altitude of 6000 m at 30°-45°N in spring. In winter, the vertical gradient was so large that most aerosols were restricted in the boundary layer. Both sulfate and ammonium reached their highest concentrations in autumn, while nitrate reached its maximum level in winter. Black carbon and organic carbon aerosol concentrations reached maximums in winter. Soil dust were strongest in spring, whereas sea salt exerted the strongest influence on the coastal regions of eastern China in summer. The estimated burden of anthropogenic aerosols was largest in winter (1621 Gg) and smallest in summer (1040 Gg). The sulfate burden accounted for ˜42% of the total anthropogenic aerosol burden. The dust burden was about twice the anthropogenic aerosol burden, implying the potentially important impacts of the natural aerosols on air quality and climate over East Asia.

  3. Metamorphic Core Complex dynamics and structural development: Field evidences from the Liaodong Peninsula (China, East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Nicolas; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Chen, Yan; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Zhu, Rixiang

    2012-08-01

    Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCC) constitute remarkable features within wide rifts. Based on analogue and numerical modelling, MCC dynamics and structural development are mainly controlled by first geothermal gradient, second the compositional layering, and after the strain rate and partial melting. In the Late Mesozoic, continental extension occurred in East Asia leading to the development of MCC, magmatism and extensional sedimentary basins. Based on an integrated study (i.e. structural and finite strain analysis, petrofabrics, Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and U/Pb on zircon dating), this paper aims at constraining the tectonic evolution and deformation mechanisms in the South Liaodong Peninsula (NE China). The Gudaoling massif is identified as a "migmatitic" MCC developed from Upper Jurassic (ca. 157-154 Ma) to Early Cretaceous (ca. 128-113 Ma). Intrusion of the Yinmawanshan synkinematic pluton (Early Cretaceous) to the south of the dome marks out the final stages of shearing along the Gudaoling detachment zone and of exhumation of the MCC into the upper crust. The Gudaoling MCC and the Yinmawanshan pluton stay in line with the coeval South Liaodong MCC, to the south, all making a ~ 140 × 30 km wide extensional band formed during a regional E-W to NW-SE crustal stretching. The area shows a bi-phased development with a "slow" and a "fast" stage which corresponds to (1) crustal necking and (2) dome amplification/exhumation stages according to published thermo-mechanical modelling results. Finally, the Gudaoling MCC lower unit almost exclusively displays migmatites and anatectic granitoids of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, respectively. Occurrence of partial melting during earlier stages of extension seems controlling the initiation of MCC (as a soft anomaly within the lower crust). In East Asia, a regional-scale thermal event, during Jurassic-Cretaceous times, may have significantly reduced the bulk lithosphere strength and locally induced

  4. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii

    2007-05-15

    To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Synergistic impacts of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on summer surface O3 in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yu; An, Junling; Li, Jian

    2013-03-01

    A factor separation technique and an improved regional air quality model (RAQM) were applied to calculate synergistic contributions of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs), biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to daily maximum surface 03 (O3DM) concentrations in East Asia in summer (June to August 2000). The summer averaged synergistic impacts of AVOCs and NOx are dominant in most areas of North China, with a maximum of 60 ppbv, while those of BVOCs and NOx are notable only in some limited areas with high BVOC emissions in South China, with a maximum of 25 ppbv. This result implies that BVOCs contribute much less to summer averaged O3DM concentrations than AVOCs in most areas of East Asia at a coarse spatial resolution (1 degree x 1 degree) although global emissions of BVOCs are much greater than those of AVOCs. Daily maximum total contributions of BVOCs can approach 20 ppbv in North China, but they can reach 40 ppbv in South China, approaching or exceeding those in some developed countries in Europe and North America. BVOC emissions in such special areas should be considered when 03 control measures are taken. Synergistic contributions among AVOCs, BVOCs and NOx significantly enhance O3 concentrations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and decrease them in some areas in South China. Thus, the total contributions of BVOCs to O3DM vary significantly from day to day and from location to location. This result suggests that 03 control measures obtained from episodic studies could be limited for long-term applications.

  6. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  7. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  8. Adolescent fertility and family planning in East Asia and the Pacific: a review of DHS reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancy has significant health and socio-economic consequences for women, their families and communities. Efforts to prevent too-early pregnancy rely on accurate information about adolescents' knowledge, behaviours and access to family planning, however available data are limited in some settings. Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) reports are recognised as providing nationally representative data that are accessible to policymakers and programmers. This paper reviews DHS reports for low and lower middle income countries in East Asia and the Pacific to determine what information regarding adolescent fertility and family planning is available, and summarises key findings. Methods The most recent DHS reports were sought for the 33 low and lower middle income countries in the East Asia and Pacific region as defined by UNICEF and World Bank. Age-disaggregated data for all indicators relevant to fertility and current use, knowledge and access to family planning information and services were sought to identify accessible information. Reported data were analysed using an Excel database to determine outcomes for adolescents and compare with adult women. Results DHS reports were available for eleven countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu and Vietnam. Twenty seven of 40 relevant DHS indicators reported outcomes for adolescent women aged 15-19 years. There were limited data for unmarried adolescents. A significant proportion of women commence sexual activity and childbearing during adolescence in the context of low contraceptive prevalence and high unmet need for contraception. Adolescent women have lower use of contraception, poorer knowledge of family planning and less access to information and services than adult women. Conclusion DHS reports provide useful and accessible data, however, they are limited by the failure to report data for unmarried

  9. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  10. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally.

  11. Quality Assurance of Joint Degree Programs from the Perspective of Quality Assurance Agencies: Experience in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Yung-Chi; Ince, Martin; Tsai, Sandy; Wang, Wayne; Hung, Vicky; Lin Jiang, Chung; Chen, Karen Hui-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Joint degree programs have gained popularity in East Asia, due to the growth of transnational higher education in the region since 2000. However, the external quality assurance (QA) and accreditation of joint degree programs is a challenge for QA agencies, as it normally involves the engagement of several institutions and multiple national…

  12. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  13. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  14. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  15. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.

  16. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  17. Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

    This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie E.…

  18. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  19. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  20. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; Sonsthagen, Sarah A; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Donnelly, Tyrone; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds. PMID:25827532

  1. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  2. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Arts and Crafts of East Asia. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daisy

    This teaching guide focuses on four forms of arts and crafts popular in China, Korea, and Japan, and explores the effects, if any, on American culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to help students understand and appreciate East Asian calligraphy, haiku,…

  3. Aerial observations of air masses transported from East Asia to the Western Pacific: Vertical structure of polluted air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Shiro; Ikeda, Keisuke; Hanaoka, Sayuri; Watanabe, Izumi; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Bandow, Hiroshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi; Zhang, Daizhou; Okuyama, Kikuo; Ogi, Takashi; Fujimoto, Toshiyuki; Seto, Takafumi; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Takami, Akinori

    2014-11-01

    There has been only limited information about the vertical chemical structure of the atmosphere, so far. We conducted aerial observations on 11, 12, and 14 December 2010 over the northern part of the East China Sea to analyze the spatial distribution of atmospheric pollutants from East Asia and to elucidate transformation processes of air pollutants during the long-range transport. On 11 December, a day on which Asian dust created hazy conditions, the average PM10 concentration was 40.69 μg m-3, and we observed high concentrations of chemical components such as Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, Al, Ca, Fe, and Zn. The height of the boundary layer was about 1200 m, and most species of pollutants (except for dust particles and SO2) had accumulated within the boundary layer. In contrast, concentrations of pollutants were low in the boundary layer (up to 1000 m) on 12 December because clean Pacific air from the southeast had diluted the haze. However, we observed natural chemical components (Na+, Cl-, Al, Ca, and Fe) at 3000 m, the indication being that dust particles, including halite, were present in the lower free troposphere. On 14 December, peak concentrations of SO2 and black carbon were measured within the boundary layer (up to 700 m) and at 2300 m. The concentrations of anthropogenic chemical components such as NO3-, NH4+, and Zn were highest at 500 m, and concentrations of both anthropogenic and natural chemical components (SO42-, Pb, Ca2+, Ca, Al, and Fe) were highest at 2000 m. Thus, it was clearly indicated that the air above the East China Sea had a well-defined, layered structure below 3000 m.

  4. Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the East Asia region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over East Asia, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over East Asia from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia. Further details of inverse modeling

  5. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges.

  6. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges. PMID:23830970

  7. Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

  8. A comparative evaluation of the glycaemic potential of commercial breads consumed in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, Viren; Henry, C Jeya K

    2013-03-01

    Bread has become a widely consumed staple food in South-east Asia. However, there is very little data on the glycaemic potential of local commercial breads. The objective of this study was to comparatively assess the glycaemic potential of some commonly consumed commercial breads using a validated in vitro model. Sixteen types of breads representing the most popular brands and types were evaluated. The results showed that white and enriched white breads had a greater glycaemic potential than wholemeal breads (rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content >450 mg of glucose/g of sample). The lowest glycaemic potential was observed for wholegrain breads (RDS content < 375 mg of glucose/g of sample). The glycaemic impact of some specialty breads such as pandan bread, milk bread and corn loaf was also examined. Whist the data show that South-east Asian breads have notably differential effects on glycaemia, it highlights the need to formulate Asian dietary guidelines for bread which will enable better food choice and glycaemic control.

  9. Future changes in propagating and non-propagating diurnal rainfall over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, S.-Y. Simon

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of diurnal rainfall in the East Asian continent consist of a propagating regime over the Yangtze River and a non-propagating regime in southeast China. Simulations of these two diurnal rainfall regimes by 18 CMIP5 models were evaluated from the historical experiment of 1981-2005. The evaluation led to the identification of one model, the CMCC-CM that replicated the key characteristics of diurnal rainfall regimes including the propagation of moisture convergence. Using the CMCC-CM to assess the future (2076-2100) change of diurnal evolution and propagation projected by the RCP4.5 experiment, it was found that propagating diurnal rainfall will enhance and expand southward into the non-propagating regime in southeast China. This change in diurnal rainfall is attributed to the intensification of diurnal land-sea thermal contrast over eastern China and the southward shift of the upper-level jet stream over 20°-30°N. Similar projected changes in diurnal rainfall and associated large-scale dynamical mechanisms were also depicted by four other models (GFDL-ESM2G, GFDL-ESM2M, MRI-CGCM3, and MRI-ESM1) showing a higher skill in representing the diurnal rainfall regimes over East Asia. If such model projection holds true, southeast China will experience an increase in the eastward propagating diurnal rainfall, which could further impact Taiwan.

  10. Regional climate simulations of summer diurnal rainfall variations over East Asia and Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Au-Yeung, Andie Y. M.

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluates the performance of RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model Version 3) in simulating the East Asian rainfall, with emphasis on the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China during the 1998-2002 summer (June-August) seasons. The evaluation focuses on the sensitivity of the choice of cumulus parameterizations and model domain. With the right setup, the spatial and temporal evolution of diurnal rainfall over Southeast China, which has not been well simulated by past studies, can be accurately simulated by RegCM3. Results show that the Emanuel cumulus scheme has a more realistic simulation of summer mean rainfall in East Asia, while the GFC (Grell scheme with the Frisch-Chappell convective closure assumption) scheme is better in simulating the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China. The better performance of these two schemes [relative to the other two schemes in RegCM3: the Kuo scheme and the GAS (Grell scheme with the Arakawa-Schubert closure assumption) scheme] can be attributed to the reasonable reproduction of the major formation mechanism of rainfall—the moisture flux convergence—over Southeast China. Furthermore, when the simulation domain covers the entire Tibetan Plateau, the diurnal variations of rainfall over Southeast China are found to exhibit a noticeable improvement without changes in the physics schemes.

  11. The genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 (Coleoptera, Cleroidea: Malachiidae) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tshernyshev, Sergei E

    2016-07-22

    South-East Asian species of the genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 and several species provisionally attributed to Hadrocnemus Kraatz, 1895 are studied, and their taxonomic position is specified. Three new species are described from the Philippines: D. subflabellatus Tshernyshev, sp. n., D. restrictus Tshernyshev, sp. n. and D. subtilis Tshernyshev, sp. n. Seven species are transferred from Hadrocnemus to Dromanthomorphus, D. apoensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. blaisei (Pic, 1926) comb. n., D. chiangensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. depressicornis (Pic, 1919) comb. n., D. gravieri (Pic, 1923) comb. n., D. javanus (Wittmer, 1989) comb. n. and D. tonkineus (Pic, 1919) comb. n. Three species are transferred from Dromanthomorphus to Oculapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, O. ranuensis Wittmer 1990 comb. n., O. saigonensis (Pic, 1951) comb. n. and O. suttoni Wittmer, 1995 comb. n., and two species from Dromanthomorphus to Mimapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, M. cingalensis (Champion, 1921) comb. n. and M. dolokensis Wittmer, 1999 comb. n. Illustrations of male external appearance, metathoracic appendage, urites and genitalia, and distribution maps are provided. A determination key to all species of Dromanthomorphus from South-East Asia is also proposed.

  12. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  13. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  14. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2014-05-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

  15. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

  16. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam. PMID:21219640

  17. 12. SOUTH INSIDE FACTORY ALONG EAST WALL TO PARTS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH INSIDE FACTORY ALONG EAST WALL TO PARTS STORAGE SHELVES AND BINS OUTSIDE PARTITION WALL OF OFFICE. THE SOUTH PARTITION WALL IN THIS AREA IS FITTED WITH SHELVES COVERED WITH BOXES CONTAINING MANUSCRIPT COMPANY RECORDS. THE BENCH IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND WAS USED FOR ATTACHING WROUGHT IRON CONNECTIONS TO THE ENDS OF WOODEN SUCKER RODS; THE WOODEN RODS WERE STORED ON THE RACKS ALONG THE EAST WALL OF THIS AREA. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  18. Transport and deposition of PAHs in East Asia using Regional Emission Inventory in ASia and Regional Air Quality Model for POP version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Y.; Kajino, M.; Keiichi, S.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.; Hiromasa, U.; Tang, N.; Hayakawa, K.; Tsuyoshi, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    We developed a new emission inventory for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (9PAHs; fluorene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) in ASia (Regional Emission inventory in Asia for POP version, REAS-POP) at 0.5x0.5 grid for the period from 2000 to 2005. By using the REAS-POP, spatial distributions of PAHs in East Asia were simulated by Regional Air Quality Model for POP version (RAQM-POP). In REAS-POP, estimated annual emission of 9PAHs in East Asia was increased from 7.61 Gg yr-1 in 2000 to 10.79 Gg yr-1 in 2005. The China is the dominant PAHs emission country in East Asia during this period. Area where considerable high emissions as well as rapid increase rate was found in the northern central region, North China Plain, Guizhou, Sichuan Basin, and North East in China. The contribution from various sources for PAHs emission was different by each country. In the developing country (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Russia), dominant sources of PAHs were domestic coal, domestic biofuel, and other transformation of coal including cokes production, although contribution from open biomass burning was relatively large in Russia and Mongol. In Japan and Taiwan, the road traffic source was identified as the major source for the 9PAHs emissions. At Beijing, China, simulated PAHs concentrations were quantitatively agreed with the measured concentrations during the period from 8 March to 26 May, 2005. In the case of Wajima, coastal site of the Sea of Japan in Japan, it was observed clear seasonal variation with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer in 2005. The measured seasonal variations were also simulated well. Results with analysis by model simulation revealed that higher concentrations in winter were due to the high emission in China in winter and long-range transport from the Asian continent toward the Japanese

  19. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S.; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105

  20. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105

  1. Assembly of forest communities across East Asia – insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across East Asia, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an East Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the East Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in East Asia. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420

  2. Assembly of forest communities across East Asia--insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-03-23

    Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across East Asia, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an East Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the East Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in East Asia. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure.

  3. Assembly of forest communities across East Asia--insights from phylogenetic community structure and species pool scaling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Mi, Xiangcheng; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Jin, Guangze; Sang, Weiguo; Lu, Zhijun; Wang, Xihua; Li, Xiankun; Li, Buhang; Sun, Ifang; Ma, Keping; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Local communities are assembled from larger-scale species pools via dispersal, environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and local stochastic demographic processes. The relative importance, scaling and interplay of these assembly processes can be elucidated by comparing local communities to variously circumscribed species pools. Here we present the first study applying this approach to forest tree communities across East Asia, focusing on community phylogenetic structure and using data from a global network of tropical, subtropical and temperate forest plots. We found that Net Relatedness Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI) values were generally lower with geographically broad species pools (global and Asian species pools) than with an East Asian species pool, except that global species pool produced higher NTI than the East Asian species pool. The lower NRI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool may indicate an important role of intercontinental migration during the Neogene and Quaternary and climatic conservatism in shaping the deeper phylogenetic structure of tree communities in East Asia. In contrast, higher NTI for the global relative to the East Asian species pool is consistent with recent localized diversification determining the shallow phylogenetic structure. PMID:25797420

  4. Phylogeography of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia: Pleistocene isolation, population expansion and secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawu; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou

    2009-07-01

    We examined the impact of Pleistocene glacial cycles on geographical distribution and genetic structure of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia using sequence variation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b gene segments. Phylogenies revealed four distinct but shallow structured lineages in Eriocheir s. s. Three lineages dominated the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the South China Sea on the margins of the region, and one lineage occurred on Okinawa Island. This geographical distribution represents a general phylogeographic pattern in East Asia, which is closely associated with the fluctuations of marginal seas and islands during the Pleistocene. The four lineages are estimated to have diverged during the mid-Pleistocene. Demographic expansions were observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period in the marginal sea lineages ( approximately 70-130ka) and within the last glacial period in the Okinawa lineage ( approximately 25-80ka). Expansions have probably taken place northward along the coast of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, following the rise of sea levels. Centered on the southern Korean Peninsula, expansions have likely occurred northward along the west coast and eastward along the south coast of the Sea of Japan. Each marginal sea has served as a single refugium during glacial periods. Two secondary contact regions were identified, one of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and South China Sea lineages, and another of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and Sea of Japan lineages. Phylogeography of Eriocheir s. s. provides insights into the evolutionary history and mechanism for generating biodiversity in East Asia.

  5. Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

    2014-06-24

    Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase

  6. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  7. Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on gross primary productivity in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saigusa, N.; Ichii, K.; Murakami, H.; Hirata, R.; Asanuma, J.; den, H.; Han, S.-J.; Ide, R.; Li, S.-G.; Ohta, T.; Sasai, T.; Wang, S.-Q.; Yu, G.-R.

    2009-09-01

    Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing. From July to August 2003, an active rain band stayed in the mid-latitude in East Asia for an unusually long period. Under the influence of the rain band, the gross primary production (GPP) of temperate forests was 20-30% lower in the 2003 summer than in other years due to significant reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The GPP of a cool-temperate forest in the north of the rain band was slightly enhanced by the higher PPFD; however, the GPP of a sub-tropical forest located in the south of the rain band was reduced by drought stress due to extremely hot and dry conditions. The correlation coefficients for the year-to-year changes in the PPFD and GPP during mid-summer were calculated, and the spatial distribution was examined. The spatial pattern of the PPFD was calculated by satellite data, and that of the GPP was estimated by a regression-type model, which was trained and tested by ground observation data. The correlation was positive in the mid- and high-latitudes since light was an essential factor of the summer GPP. On the other hand, a negative correlation appeared in the lower latitudes, suggesting that the water limitation was much more important than the PPFD in the region. Our study illustrated that the integration of flux data from wide areas by combining satellite remote sensing data can help us gain an understanding of the ecosystem responses to large-scale meteorological phenomena.

  8. Impact of meteorological anomalies in the 2003 summer on Gross Primary Productivity in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saigusa, N.; Ichii, K.; Murakami, H.; Hirata, R.; Asanuma, J.; den, H.; Han, S.-J.; Ide, R.; Li, S.-G.; Ohta, T.; Sasai, T.; Wang, S.-Q.; Yu, G.-R.

    2010-02-01

    Northern Eurasia experienced anomalous weather conditions in the 2003 summer. We examined how forest ecosystems responded to the meteorological anomalies during the period using the dataset collected at flux monitoring sites in Asia, including a boreal forest in Mongolia, temperate forests in China and Japan, and a sub-tropical forest in China, as well as the dataset from satellite remote sensing. From July to August 2003, an active rain band stayed in the mid-latitude in East Asia for an unusually long period. Under the influence of the rain band, the Gross Primary Production (GPP), of temperate forests was 20-30% lower in the 2003 summer than in other years due to significant reduction in the Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD). The GPP of a cool-temperate forest in the north of the rain band was slightly enhanced by the higher PPFD; however, the GPP of a sub-tropical forest located in the south of the rain band was reduced by drought stress due to extremely hot and dry conditions. The correlation coefficients for the year-to-year changes in the PPFD and GPP during mid-summer were calculated, and the spatial distribution was examined. The spatial pattern of the PPFD was calculated by satellite data, and that of the GPP was estimated by a regression-type model, which was trained and tested by ground observation data. The correlation was positive in the mid- and high-latitudes since light was an essential factor of the summer GPP. On the other hand, a negative correlation appeared in the lower latitudes, suggesting that the water limitation was much more important than the PPFD in the region. Our study illustrated that the integration of flux data from wide areas by combining satellite remote sensing data can help us gain an understanding of the ecosystem responses to large-scale meteorological phenomena.

  9. Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

    2014-06-24

    Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase

  10. A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy.

  11. A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

    2002-08-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy. PMID:12184826

  12. Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over East/Southeast Asia on the ENSO time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai

    2016-03-01

    The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over East/Southeast Asia was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both East China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over East China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over East China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower

  13. Identification of possible intense historical geomagnetic storms using combined sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, D. M.; Armstrong, G. M.; Ault, C. E.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2005-03-01

    Comprehensive catalogues of ancient sunspot and auroral observations from East Asia are used to identify possible intense historical geomagnetic storms in the interval 210 BC-AD 1918. There are about 270 entries in the sunspot catalogue and about 1150 entries in the auroral catalogue. Special databases have been constructed in which the scientific information in these two catalogues is placed in specified fields. For the purposes of this study, an historical geomagnetic storm is defined in terms of an auroral observation that is apparently associated with a particular sunspot observation, in the sense that the auroral observation occurred within several days of the sunspot observation. More precisely, a selection criterion is formulated for the automatic identification of such geomagnetic storms, using the oriental records stored in the sunspot and auroral databases. The selection criterion is based on specific assumptions about the duration of sunspot visibility with the unaided eye, the likely range of heliographic longitudes of an energetic solar feature, and the likely range of transit times for ejected solar plasma to travel from the Sun to the Earth. This selection criterion results in the identification of nineteen putative historical geomagnetic storms, although two of these storms are spurious in the sense that there are two examples of a single sunspot observation being associated with two different auroral observations separated by more than half a (synodic) solar rotation period. The literary and scientific reliabilities of the East Asian sunspot and auroral records that define the nineteen historical geomagnetic storms are discussed in detail in a set of appendices. A possible time sequence of events is presented for each geomagnetic storm, including possible dates for both the central meridian passage of the sunspot and the occurrence of the energetic solar feature, as well as likely transit times for the ejected solar plasma. European telescopic

  14. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from East Asia. The air-sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (-455 ± 245 pg/m(2)/day) than in the North Pacific (-241 ± 158 pg/m(2)/day). Air-sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.

  15. On Estimating Crop Coefficients and Decoupling Factors of Forest Ecosystems in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Kim, J.; Kwon, H.; Hirano, T.; Saigusa, N.; Takagi, K.; Yu, G.

    2012-12-01

    For effective water management, the quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) is imperative. Considering the difficulty of measurement and adequate simulation of ET in large areas, the crop coefficients (Kc=ETc adj/ETo/Ks; where ETc adj is the adjusted evapotranspiration, ETo is the reference crop evapotranspiration estimated by the FAO56-PM method, and Ks is the water stress coefficient) and the decoupling factors (Ω=ETa/ETp; where ETa is the actual evapotranspiration, and ETp is the potential evapotranspiration estimated by the Penman-Monteith equation) are valuable information for the assessment of regional ET. In this study, we determined the Kc and Ω of seven forest ecosystems in East Asia (i.e., temperate and coniferous forests in Gwangneung, Korea, GDK and GCK, respectively; cool temperate forests in Changbaishan, China, CBS, in Takayama and Teshio, Japan, TKY and TSE, respectively; subtropical forest in Xishuangbanna, Southern China, BNS; tropical forest in Palangkaraya, Indonesia, PDF) using the multi-year observed ET by eddy covariance technique. Annual ETo ranged from 443 mm at the TKY site to 1368 mm at the PDF site. Annual ETp ranged from 835 mm at the TSE site to 2466 mm at the PDF site. The Kc and Ω for the (cool) temperate forests showed a clear seasonality with the minimum (~0.3 of Kc and ~0 of Ω) in winter and the maximum in summer or early autumn. The maxima of Kc were different among the sites and ranged from 0.6 at the TSE site to 1.2 at the BNS site. Unlike the maximum Kc, the maxima of Ω were similar among the temperate forests (0.4~0.5) and between the tropical forests (~0.6). Implications of the results are discussed in terms of usefulness and accuracy of using Kc and Ω. Acknowledgement - This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3030. The flux database was provided by CarboEastAsia - A3 Foresight Program and KoFlux.

  16. EAST PART OF THE RAYMOND PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Federspiel, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The east part of the Raymond Peak Roadless Area, Alpine County, California encompasses about 58 sq mi along the crest and eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. Based on a mineral survey there are demonstrated silver-gold resources at five properties within a large area of probable silver-gold potential in the east part of the area. A small area with probable mineral-resource potential for skarn-type tungsten resources occurs at the north end of the roadless area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified in the study.

  17. Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

  18. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes.

  19. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as “FODMAPs” and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food commonly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937

  20. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26896161

  1. Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-16

    A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

  2. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937

  3. Climate effects of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia based on modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Makiko

    The increasing emission of anthropogenic aerosols causes serious air pollution episodes and various effects on the climate by the aerosols interacting with the radiation budget by directly absorbing and scattering the solar radiation, and by them indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of clouds. In East Asia anthropogenic aerosol concentrations are rapidly increasing. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of anthropogenic aerosols upon the radiative forcing in this region. For this purpose we utilize an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with an aerosol transport and radiation model and an ocean mixed-layer model. The model in this study was a three-dimensional aerosol transport-radiation model (SPRINTARS), driven by the AGCM developed by CCSR (Center for Climate System Research), NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies), and FRCGC (Frontier Research Center for Global Change). This model incorporates sulfate, carbonaceous, sea salt, and mineral dust aerosols, the first three of which are assumed to acts as cloud condensation nuclei that generate cloud droplets whose number increases with the number of nuclei. We assumed sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol from fuel burning for anthropogenic aerosol. And the model simulations of equilibrium experiments were performed to investigate the impact of anthropogenic aerosols based on present-day emission data and the preindustrial-era emission data. Our simulation results showed that copious anthropogenic aerosol loading causes significant decrease in the surface downward shortwave radiation flux (SDSWRF), which indicates that a direct effect of aerosols has the greatest influence on the surface radiation. It is found from our model simulations that low-level clouds increase but convective clouds decrease due to reduced convective activity caused by surface cooling when anthropogenic aerosol increases. It was also found that the contributions of aerosols to the radiation

  4. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  5. Improvement of satellite-based gross primary production through incorporation of high resolution input data over east asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haemi; Im, Jungho; Kim, Miae

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis of plants is the main mechanism of carbon absorption from the atmosphere into the terrestrial ecosystem and it contributes to remove greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Annually, 120 Gt of C is supposed to be assimilated through photosynthetic activity of plants as the gross primary production (GPP) over global land area. In terms of climate change, GPP modelling is essential to understand carbon cycle and the balance of carbon budget over various ecosystems. One of the GPP modelling approaches uses light use efficiency that each vegetation type has a specific efficiency for consuming solar radiation related with temperature and humidity. Satellite data can be used to measure various meteorological and biophysical factors over vast areas, which can be used to quantify GPP. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program provides Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived global GPP product, namely MOD17A2H, on a daily basis. However, significant underestimation of MOD17A2H has been reported in Eastern Asia due to its dense forest distribution and humid condition during monsoon rainy season in summer. The objective of this study was to improve underestimation of MODIS GPP (MOD17A2H) by incorporating meteorological data-temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation-of higher spatial resolution than data used in MOD17A2H. Landsat-based land cover maps of finer resolution observation and monitoring - global land cover (FROM-GLC) at 30m resolution were used for selection of light use efficiency (LUE). GPP (eq1. GPP = APAR×LUE) is computed by multiplication of APAR (IPAR×fPAR) and LUE (ɛ= ɛmax×T(°C)scalar×VPD(Pa)scalar, where, T is temperature, VPD is vapour pressure deficit) in this study. Meteorological data of Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55, 0.56° grid, 3hr) were used for calculation of GPP in East Asia, including Eastern part of China, Korean peninsula, and Japan. Results were validated using flux tower-observed GPP

  6. What Is Inner Asia? Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinor, Denis

    This pamphlet is the first of a series aimed at helping college and high school teachers incorporate facts pertaining to Inner Asia into their courses. Written in a narrative style, the pamphlet defines Inner Asia as a "cultural concept," part of the Eurasian continent lying outside the boundaries of Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia,…

  7. Future summer precipitation changes over CORDEX-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model: A comparison to the stand-alone RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-03-01

    Climate changes under the RCP8.5 scenario over the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX)-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model Flexible Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Land System (FROALS) are compared to those downscaled by the corresponding atmosphere-only regional climate model driven by a global climate system model. Changes in the mean and interannual variability of summer rainfall were discussed for the period of 2051-2070 with respect to the present-day period of 1986-2005. Followed by an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high and an intensified East Asian summer monsoon, an increase in total rainfall over north China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan but a decrease in total rainfall over southern China are observed in the FROALS projection. Homogeneous increases of extreme rainfall amounts were found over the CORDEX-East Asia domain. A predominant increase in the interannual variability was evident for both total rainfall and the extreme rainfall amount. The spatial patterns of the projected rainfall changes by FROALS were generally consistent with those from the driving global model at a broad scale due to similar projected circulation changes. In both models, the enhanced southerlies over east China increased the moisture divergences over southern China and enhanced the moisture advection over north China. However, the atmosphere-only regional climate model (RCM) exhibited responses to the underlying sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies that were too strong, which induced an anomalous cyclone over the north South China Sea, followed by increases (decreases) of total and extreme rainfall over southern China (central China). The differences of the projected changes in both rainfall and circulation between FROALS and the atmosphere-only RCM were partly affected by the differences in the projected SST changes. The results recommend the employment of a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model in the

  8. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Fayle, Tom M; Newton, Rob J; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2011-11-27

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority.

  9. The analysis of anthropogenic factors in regional temperature change over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over different types of regions in East Asia are studied by using observation data from 1980-2012 under fast developing in economic. We found that the warming trends of the semi-arid regions are higher than other lands, which have increased 2.42°C as compared to the global annual mean temperature increase of 1.13°C over land. To investigate the causes of Enhanced Semi-Arid Warming (ESAW), we used an advanced dynamic-adjusted method proposed by Wallace et al. (2012) to analyse the adjusted temperature change. Our results point that the aerosol maybe takes the main role in adjusted temperature, especially in cold season. The anthropogenic-warming peak over semi-arid region plays the main role in the ESAW. Such anthropogenic-warming peak may be related to the long wave radiation change induced by aerosol in the air or the reduction of snow cover due to black carbon (BC) emission by fuels for winter residential heating. Besides the impact of aerosol over semi-arid region, the agricultural mulch creation, wind farms and other types of human activities may also make attribution to local SAT changes that need to be further studied.

  10. Relationships between Changes in Urban Characteristics and Air Quality in East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Andrew; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Hystad, Perry

    2016-09-01

    Characteristics of urban areas, such as density and compactness, are associated with local air pollution concentrations. The potential for altering air pollution through changing urban characteristics, however, is less certain, especially for expanding cities within the developing world. We examined changes in urban characteristics from 2000 to 2010 for 830 cities in East Asia to evaluate associations with changes in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution. Urban areas were stratified by population size into small (100 000-250 000), medium, (250 000-1 000 000), and large (>1 000 000). Multivariate regression models including urban baseline characteristics, meteorological variables, and change in urban characteristics explained 37%, 49%, and 54% of the change in NO2 and 29%, 34%, and 37% of the change in PM2.5 for small, medium and large cities, respectively. Change in lights at night strongly predicted change in NO2 and PM2.5, while urban area expansion was strongly associated with NO2 but not PM2.5. Important differences between changes in urban characteristics and pollutant levels were observed by city size, especially NO2. Overall, changes in urban characteristics had a greater impact on NO2 and PM2.5 change than baseline characteristics, suggesting urban design and land use policies can have substantial impacts on local air pollution levels.

  11. Relationships between Changes in Urban Characteristics and Air Quality in East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Andrew; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Hystad, Perry

    2016-09-01

    Characteristics of urban areas, such as density and compactness, are associated with local air pollution concentrations. The potential for altering air pollution through changing urban characteristics, however, is less certain, especially for expanding cities within the developing world. We examined changes in urban characteristics from 2000 to 2010 for 830 cities in East Asia to evaluate associations with changes in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution. Urban areas were stratified by population size into small (100 000-250 000), medium, (250 000-1 000 000), and large (>1 000 000). Multivariate regression models including urban baseline characteristics, meteorological variables, and change in urban characteristics explained 37%, 49%, and 54% of the change in NO2 and 29%, 34%, and 37% of the change in PM2.5 for small, medium and large cities, respectively. Change in lights at night strongly predicted change in NO2 and PM2.5, while urban area expansion was strongly associated with NO2 but not PM2.5. Important differences between changes in urban characteristics and pollutant levels were observed by city size, especially NO2. Overall, changes in urban characteristics had a greater impact on NO2 and PM2.5 change than baseline characteristics, suggesting urban design and land use policies can have substantial impacts on local air pollution levels. PMID:27442110

  12. New Sources for Comparative Social Science: Historical Population Panel Data From East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hao; Campbell, Cameron; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison and comparability lie at the heart of any comparative social science. Still, precise comparison is virtually impossible without using similar methods and similar data. In recent decades, social demographers, historians, and economic historians have compiled and made available a large number of micro-level data sets of historical populations for North America and Europe. Studies using these data have already made important contributions to many academic disciplines. In a similar spirit, we introduce five new microlevel historical panel data sets from East Asia, including the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) 1749–1909, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset– Shuangcheng (CMGPD-SC) 1866–1913, the Japanese Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho Population Register Database–Shimomoriya and Niita (NAC-SN) 1716–1870, the Korea Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Tansung (KMGPD-TS) 1678–1888, and the Colonial Taiwan Household Registration Database (CTHRD) 1906–1945. These data sets in total contain more than 3.7 million linked observations of 610,000 individuals and are the first such Asian data to be made available online or by application. We discuss the key features and historical institutions that originally collected these data; the subsequent processes by which the data were reconstructed into individual-level panels; their particular data limitations and strengths; and their potential for comparative social scientific research. PMID:26001625

  13. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W

    2005-08-01

    In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities.

  14. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  15. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  16. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease.

  17. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements.

  18. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, I

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

  19. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

  20. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Fayle, Tom M; Newton, Rob J; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2011-11-27

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  1. Epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in the Western Pacific and South East Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Gust, I D

    1996-01-01

    The Western Pacific and South East Asia regions are the largest and most populous of the six World Health Organisation regions and include more than 40 countries. More than 75% of the world's estimated 350 million carriers are located here. The region has therefore provided many insights into the epidemiology, natural history, and control of hepatitis B infection and has been home to the first national control programmes. Hepatitis B is hyperendemic in most countries of the region, with carrier rates ranging from 5-35% except in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, where the mean carrier rate is less than 2%. Patterns of infection vary considerably from country to country, city to city, and even village to village, and can change with time. Most infections are acquired early in childhood or in early adult life. A variety of control measures are in place and many countries in the region have introduced widespread or universal childhood immunisation policies with significant success. While it is theoretically possible that hepatitis B infection could be eradicated by universal childhood immunisation, there are several biological and practical issues that make this extremely difficult, suggesting that, for the foreseeable future, control may be a more realisable goal. PMID:8786047

  2. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  3. Age and climate contribution to observed forest carbon sinks in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Donghai; Li, Zheng; Wu, Hao; Du, Ling; Luo, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The observed forest carbon sink, i.e. positive net ecosystem productivity (NEP), in East Asia reported by the eddy covariance flux tower network is an integrated result of forests themselves (e.g. age) and abiotic factors such as climate. However the relative contribution of climate alone to that sink is highly uncertain and has been in debate. In this study we de-trended a primary effect of forest age on carbon sinks by a statistical regression model between NEP and forest ages. Then, modeled residual NEP was regressed against climate factors again so that its relative contribution could be evaluated appropriately in the region. The analysis for data from the 2000s showed that forest age appeared to be the primary impact factor on the carbon sink of the region (R 2 = 0.347), and the mean annual temperature (MAT) was the second (R 2 = 0.23), while the mean annual precipitation effect might not be as apparent as MAT. Particularly for forests in China, climate might contribute to about 31.7% of the total NEP of 0.540 Pg C yr-1. Given that forests in China are relatively young under current climate conditions, we predicted that they would be capable of atmospheric carbon sequestration in the near future.

  4. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Berger, S Dar; Chadha, S S; Singh, R J; Lal, P; Tonsing, J; Harries, A D

    2015-03-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012-both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere.

  5. The ionospheric response to the Saint Patrick storm over South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Di Mauro, D.; Pezzopane, M.; Cesaroni, C.; Povero, G., Sr.; Pini, M., Sr.; Dovis, F., Sr.; Romero, R.; Linty, N.; Abadi, P.; Nuraeni, F.; Husin, A.; Huy Le, M.; La The, V.; Pillat, V. G.; Floury, N.

    2015-12-01

    ERICA, a project funded by the European Space Agency, aims at characterizing the ionospheric variability of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly in the South East Asia. In particular, ERICA focuses on the variation of the plasma electron density in the southern and northern crests of the anomaly and over the dip equator identified by the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough. To achieve this goal, an ad hoc measurements campaign is on-going with ground-based instruments located in the footprints of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly and of the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough in Vietnam and Indonesia.The campaign started on the 1st of March 2015, timing to monitor the Saint Patrick storm effects on the ionosphere by means of ionosondes, double frequency hardware and software defined radio GNSS receivers, ground based and spaceborne magnetometers and Langmuir probe. Such multi-instrumental and multi-parametric observations of the region enables an in-depth investigation of the ionospheric response to the largest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle. The observations record positive and negative ionospheric storms, sporadic E layer and spread F conditions, scintillations enhancement and inhibition, TEC gradients. The ancillary information on the local magnetic field allows to highlight the variety of ionospheric perturbations happened during the main and the long recovery phase of the storm.The paper presents the outcomes of the investigation evidencing the peculiarities of a region not yet extensively reported in the open literature.

  6. Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

  7. Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Gosan background site in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, S.-D.; Kim, Y. P.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2012-03-01

    The seasonal intensive field measurements of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out at the Gosan international background site from November 2001 to August 2003. The annual average concentrations of gaseous and particulate PAHs are 1.4 ng m-3 and 2.9 ng m-3 (∑14PAH), respectively. Distinct seasonal variations exist with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest concentration in summer. In comparison with other places in Korea and other countries, the most distinguishing features at Gosan are the significantly low concentrations of low-molecular weight gaseous PAHs. In addition, noticeably high particulate PAH concentrations measured at urban and background areas in Korea could represent the regional characteristics of East Asia under the influence of high emission from China. The BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) at Gosan, which are based on the US EPA's toxicity equivalency factors for carcinogenic PAHs, are much higher than those at coastal or background sites in USA and Europe, and even comparable with that at urban sites in Europe. The possibility of more aged PAHs in the atmosphere associated with the long range transport of PAHs during winter period was suggested. It was found that larger fraction of non-exchangeable PAHs had strong influence to the gas/particle partitioning of PAHs at Gosan.

  8. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements. PMID:25000779

  9. Interventions to improve the use of antimalarials in south-east Asia: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, M.; Wayling, S.; Pang, L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace. In this article, we describe the outcome of a concerted effort to improve drug compliance and drug quality in an area of multidrug resistance for malaria. These research efforts, guided by the Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials, characterized the problems in drug compliance in South-East Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. Results show that blister packaging worked best to improve drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Drug quality was a major problem in unregulated countries and should be improved. PMID:9763718

  10. Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787

  11. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from canine skin with atopic dermatitis to ketoconazole and itraconazole in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shion; Koike, Anna; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Chen, Charles; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia. PMID:24334863

  12. Cranes in East Asia; Proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, Rey C.

    2001-01-01

    Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell): I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the International Scientific Workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Survey’s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Richard Johnson, an economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meeting.

  13. Detail view of part of east side of building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of part of east side of building showing scorecard and pencil holder - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. Vertical transport and removal of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted at 0-9 km in altitude over East Asia in March-April 2009 to investigate transport and removal processes of aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, and cloud microphysical properties in Asian outflow. In this study, mechanisms of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the A-FORCE campaign using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere (FT) were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

  15. Cenozoic East Asia plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.

    2012-12-01

    Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under East Asia using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE Asia upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic 'East Asia Sea' between east Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the 'East Asia Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.

  16. Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter.

  17. Assessment of the biospheric contribution to surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations over East Asia with a regional chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Xingxia; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Yinghong

    2015-03-01

    A regional chemical transport model, RAMS-CMAQ, was employed to assess the impacts of biosphere-atmosphere C2 exchange on seasonal variations in atmospheric C2 concentrations over East Asia. Simulated C2 concentrations were compared with observations at 12 surface stations and the comparison showed they were generally in good agreement. Both observations and simulations suggested that surface C2 over East Asia features a summertime trough due to biospheric absorption, while in some urban areas surface C2 has a distinct summer peak, which could be attributed to the strong impact from anthropogenic emissions. Analysis of the model results indicated that biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions are comparably important in shaping spatial distributions of C2 near the surface over East Asia. Biospheric flux plays an important role in the prevailing spatial pattern of C2 enhancement and reduction on the synoptic scale due to the strong seasonality of biospheric C2 flux. The elevation of C2 levels by the biosphere during winter was found to be larger than 5 ppm in North China and Southeast China, and during summertime a significant depletion (⩾ 7 ppm) occurred in most areas, except for the Indo-China Peninsula where positive bioflux values were found.

  18. Investigation on the variability of East Asia Boreal Summer Front Frequency and Linkage between Tropical Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunho; Lim, Gyu-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Summer time front is one of the most significant phenomena over East Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Many efforts have been established to understand the nature of front. However, there was no research conducting identifying East Asia summer time fronts objectively. We have established objective front recognition method. The method follows next procedures : 1) We calculate vorticity on 850-hPa surface. 2) Any grid point that have horizontal gradient of equivalent potential temperature (EPT hereafter) on 850-hPa surface less than 4 'c / 100km set to zero. 3) Next, we smooth this field using 9-point smoothing technique. 4) Finally we extract the main axis of closed contour correspond to vorticity of 1.5 10-5s-5. Voronoi diagram used to extract this axis. We define this axis as front on 850-hPa pressure surface. We have applied the method on 1981-2010 ERA-Interim dataset. From the result, front frequency maximums are in around of East China Sea (34N, 122E), north (38N, 136E) and south (34N, 140E) of main island of Japan. Below 30N and above 40N, front frequency tends to decrease maybe due to decrease in the magnitude of gradient of EPT and the frequency of cyclonic weather disturbance. Two main regions affect the variability of East Asia Front Frequency. One is equatorial positive region especially over Taiwan (25N, 120E). The other one is East Sea next to Korea (40N, 135E). Humid warm air transported from southern China (20N-30N, 100E-110E) and dry cold air transported from northern China (30N-40N, 100E-110E) compressed by clockwise high system over Taiwan and counter-clockwise low system over East Sea). This compressed precipitation-making system or front moves by extratropical westerly and transported out to north-western Pacific. It looks like geopotential over Taiwan affected by tropical activity, especially vertical integration of temperature (VIT hereafter) over tropical region (30S-30N). When VIT is higher than normal, geopotential over Taiwan also

  19. Wintertime simultaneous measurement and model analysis of fine- and coarse-mode sulfateand nitrate over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, S.; Uno, I.; PAN, X.; Kuribayashi, M.; Hara, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Shimohara, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate and nitrate aerosols are major component of PM2.5. In East Asia, it is well known that sulfate aerosols are widely distributed due to large-scale trans-boundary air pollution. For nitrate aerosols, it is considered that fine-mode nitrate can be converted into coarse-mode nitrate on reactions with sea-salt aerosols over East China Sea when transported from China to Japan, however, contributions of trans-boundary air pollution on fine-mode nitrate is not clarified. We observed sulfate and nitrate aerosols on the basis of ACSA (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Analyzer; KIMOTO Electric Co., LTD.) in high-temporal resolution (1 hr) on fine- and coarse-mode at Dazaifu, Fukuoka located in western-part of Japan. Two-way nested (81-27 km) simulation in East Asia by WRF-CMAQ modeling system was developed to investigate the source contributions of fine- and coarse-mode nitrate when the trans-boundary air pollution was occurred. Observed monthly mean concentration in January 2014 at Dazaifu site were 3.41 μg/m3 for fine-mode nitrate, 1.51 μg/m3 for coarse-model nitrate, and 3.81 μg/m3 for fine-mode sulfate. Simulation in fine scale resolution can reproduce the observed concentration with 4.79 μg/m3 (r = 0.60) for fine-mode nitrate, 1.24 μg/m3 (r = 0.51) for coarse-model nitrate, and 3.36 μg/m3 (r = 0.46) for fine-mode sulfate. At urban site in Japan, local-scale contributions are also considered to attribute fine-mode nitrate, and in order to further examine the contributions of trans-boundary air pollution, emission sensitivity analysis with switching off the anthropogenic emissions from Japan was conducted. This sensitivity simulation calculated that monthly mean concentration of 1.19 μg/m3 for coarse-mode nitrate and 3.26 μg/m3 for fine-mode sulfate, suggesting the dominance of trans-boundary air pollution for coarse-mode nitrate and fine-mode sulfate. On the other hand, monthly mean concentration was 1.80 μg/m3 for fine-mode nitrate on sensitivity simulation

  20. Impacts of historical climate and land cover changes on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu; Tai, Amos P. K.; Liao, Hong

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of changes in climate, land cover and land use (LCLU), and anthropogenic emissions on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia, we perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data. Our results indicate that climate change alone could lead to a decrease in wintertime PM2.5 concentration by 4.0-12.0 µg m-3 in northern China, but to an increase in summertime PM2.5 by 6.0-8.0 µg m-3 in those regions. These changes are attributable to the changing chemistry and transport of all PM2.5 components driven by long-term trends in temperature, wind speed and mixing depth. The concentration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated to increase by 0.2-0.8 µg m-3 in both summer and winter in most regions of East Asia due to climate change alone, mostly reflecting higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions under warming. The impacts of LCLU change alone on PM2.5 (-2.1 to +1.3 µg m-3) are smaller than that of climate change, but among the various components the sensitivity of SOA and thus organic carbon to LCLU change (-0.4 to +1.2 µg m-3) is quite significant especially in summer, which is driven mostly by changes in biogenic VOC emissions following cropland expansion and changing vegetation density. The combined impacts show that while the effect of climate change on PM2.5 air quality is more pronounced, LCLU change could offset part of the climate effect in some regions but exacerbate it in others. As a result of both climate and LCLU changes combined, PM2.5 levels are estimated to change by -12.0 to +12.0 µg m-3 across East Asia between the two periods. Changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating PM2.5 air quality in East Asia during the study period, but climate and LCLU changes could lead to a substantial

  1. Ambient temperature and mortality: an international study in four capital cities of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joo-Youn; Honda, Yasushi; Hong, Yun-Chul; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Guo, Yue-Leon; Kim, Ho

    2009-12-20

    Extreme ambient temperature has been associated with increased daily mortality across the world. We describe the ambient temperature-mortality association for four capital cities in East Asia, Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, and identify a threshold temperature for each city and the percent increase in mortality. We adapted generalized linear modeling with natural cubic splines (GLM+NS) to examine the association between daily mean apparent temperature (AT) and total mortality, as well as mortality due to respiratory (RD) and cardiovascular (CVD) causes in a threshold model. We conducted a time-series analysis adjusting for day of the week and long-term time trend. The study period differed by city. The threshold temperature for all seasons was estimated to be 30.1-33.5 degrees C, 31.3-32.3 degrees C, 29.4-30.8 degrees C, and 25.2 degrees -31.5 degrees C for Seoul, Beijing, Tokyo, and Taipei, respectively, on the same day. For the mean daily AT increase of 1 degrees C above the thresholds in Seoul, Tokyo, and Taipei, estimated percentage increases in daily total mortality were 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2-3.1), 1.7 (95% CI=1.5-2.0), and 4.3 (95% CI=2.9-5.7), respectively. Beijing provided no total mortality counts. Estimated percentage increases were 2.7-10.5 for RD mortality, 1.1-9.3 for CVD mortality in 4 cities. This study identified increased mortality due to exposure to elevated AT. The importance of effects of AT and city-specific threshold temperatures suggests that analyses of the impact of climate change should take regional differences into consideration.

  2. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity. PMID:27440675

  3. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity.

  4. Acupunctural Afforestation for Desertification Mitigation over Semi-Arid Regions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, B.; Choi, Y.; Park, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    Desertification over the arid/semi-arid regions in East Asia and dust transports from the regions have been serious concerns for the societies not only in adjacent Asian countries but also in the western US. One of the strategies for desertification mitigation is tree planting over the semi-arid areas. However, unless the newly planted vegetation changes the feedback characteristics between land-surface and the atmosphere, the impact is not profound and effective for a long time. Here we show afforestation effects on the coupling strength between the land-surface and atmosphere, measured by the monthly anomalies of precipitation and evapotranspiration. The coupling strength is an important parameter to diagnose the aridity of a region since the stronger coupling strength is indicative of the higher vulnerability of the local climate to droughts. Simulations of a regional vegetation-climate coupled model reveal that afforestation substantially modulates local coupling strength mainly through controlling variability of evapotranspiration. The coupling strength decreases most significantly with an increase of unit vegetation fraction over the northern and central China including Manchurian Plains and highly populated areas of Beijing and Tianjin. The coupling characteristics of these regions are expected to reduce the occurrence of extreme weather events such as droughts by alleviating positive responses of the surface to precipitation deficit. Therefore, afforestation concentrated on these regions, which is called "acupunctural afforestation", may most effectively contribute to desertification mitigation than other regions by attenuating mechanisms maintaining warm season droughts. This study suggests that our attention should be paid to understanding the coupling strength between land and the atmosphere for desertification mitigation.

  5. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  6. Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present.

  7. Atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide and fossil fuel CO2 emissions from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Jocelyn C.; Tans, Pieter P.; Lehman, Scott J.; Baker, David; Conway, Thomas J.; Chung, Y. S.; Gregg, Jay; Miller, John B.; Southon, John R.; Zhou, Ling-Xi

    2011-12-01

    Flask samples from two sites in East Asia, Tae-Ahn Peninsula, Korea (TAP), and Shangdianzi, China (SDZ), were measured for trace gases including CO2, CO and fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, derived from Δ14CO2observations). The five-year TAP record shows high CO2ff when local air comes from the Korean Peninsula. Most samples, however, reflect air masses from Northeastern China with lower CO2ff. Our small set of SDZ samples from winter 2009/2010 have strongly elevated CO2ff. Biospheric CO2 contributes substantially to total CO2variability at both sites, even in winter when non-fossil CO2 sources (including photosynthesis, respiration, biomass burning and biofuel use) contribute 20-30% of the total CO2 enhancement. Carbon monoxide (CO) correlates strongly with CO2ff. The SDZ and TAP far-field (China influenced) samples have CO: CO2ff ratios (RCO:CO2ff) of 47 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 ppb/ppm respectively, consistent with recent bottom-up inventory estimates and other observational studies. Locally influenced TAP samples fall into two distinct data sets, ascribed to air sourced from South Korea and North Korea. The South Korea samples have low RCO:CO2ffof 13 ± 3 ppb/ppm, slightly higher than bottom-up inventories, but consistent with emission ratios for other developed nations. We compare our CO2ff observations with modeled CO2ff using the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model convolved with a bottom-up CO2ff emission inventories. The modeled annual mean CO2ff mole fractions are consistent with our observations when the model inventory includes the reported 63% increase in Chinese emissions from 2004 to 2010, whereas a model version which holds Chinese emissions flat is unable to replicate the observations.

  8. Impact of spectral nudging on regional climate simulation over CORDEX East Asia using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Niu, Xiaorui; Hui, Pinhong; Zong, Peishu; Wang, Xueyuan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the impact of the spectral nudging method on regional climate simulation over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment East Asia (CORDEX-EA) region is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, five continuous simulations covering 1989-2007 are conducted by the WRF model, in which four runs adopt the interior spectral nudging with different wavenumbers, nudging variables and nudging coefficients. Model validation shows that WRF has the ability to simulate spatial distributions and temporal variations of the surface climate (air temperature and precipitation) over CORDEX-EA domain. Comparably the spectral nudging technique is effective in improving the model's skill in the following aspects: (1), the simulated biases and root mean square errors of annual mean temperature and precipitation are obviously reduced. The SN3-UVT (spectral nudging with wavenumber 3 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U, V and T) and SN6 (spectral nudging with wavenumber 6 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U and V) experiments give the best simulations for temperature and precipitation respectively. The inter-annual and seasonal variances produced by the SN experiments are also closer to the ERA-Interim observation. (2), the application of spectral nudging in WRF is helpful for simulating the extreme temperature and precipitation, and the SN3-UVT simulation shows a clear advantage over the other simulations in depicting both the spatial distributions and inter-annual variances of temperature and precipitation extremes. With the spectral nudging, WRF is able to preserve the variability in the large scale climate information, and therefore adjust the temperature and precipitation variabilities toward the observation.

  9. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  10. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  11. An evaluation of simulated particulate sulfate over East Asia through global model intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Daisuke; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Dai, Tie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kajino, Mizuo; Matsui, Hitoshi; Takami, Akinori; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2015-06-01

    Sulfate aerosols simulated by an aerosol module coupled to the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) at a spatial resolution (220 km) widely used by global climate models were evaluated by a comparison with in situ observations and the same aerosol module coupled to the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) over East Asia for January, April, July, and October 2006. The results indicated that a horizontal gradient of sulfate from the source over China to the outflow over Korea-Japan was present in both the simulations and the observations. At the observation sites, the correlation coefficients of the sulfate concentrations between the simulations and the observations were high (NICAM: 0.49-0.89, MIROC: 0.61-0.77), whereas the simulated sulfate concentrations were lower than those obtained by the observation with the normalized mean bias of NICAM being -68 to -54% (all), -77 to -63% (source), and -67 to -30% (outflow) and that of MIROC being -61 to -28% (all), -77 to -63% (source), and -60 to +2% (outflow). Both NICAM and MIROC strongly underpredict surface SO2 over China source regions and Korea-Japan outflow regions, but the MIROC SO2 is much higher than NICAM SO2 over both regions. These differences between the models were mainly explained by differences in the sulfate formation within clouds and the dry deposition of SO2. These results indicated that the uncertainty of the meteorological and cloud fields as well as the vertical transport patterns between the different host climate models has a substantial impact on the simulated sulfate distribution.

  12. Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present. PMID:23353604

  13. WHO framework convention on tobacco control and its implementation in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dhirendra N; Narain, Jai P; Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    The birth of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took place in response to the global tobacco epidemic and it became the most important global tobacco control instrument. Duly recognizing tobacco use as an important public health problem and in the wake of rising prevalence of and mortality related to tobacco use, almost all Member States of the South-East Asia Region signed and ratified the WHO FCTC. Following the ratification, Member countries have enacted comprehensive national tobacco control laws and regulations. Most countries have covered some important provisions, such as tax and price measures, smoke-free places, health warnings, a ban on tobacco advertising and promotion, and a ban on tobacco sales to minors. In spite of innumerable constraints and challenges, particularly human, infrastructural and financial resources, Member countries have been doing their best to enforce those legislations and regulations as effectively as possible. In order to educate the general public on the harmful effects of tobacco, mass health campaigns have been organized which are being continued and sustained. However, some of the important areas that need attention in due course of time are tax raises, illicit trade, tobacco industry interference and alternate cropping systems. All Member States in the Region are striving harder to achieving the goals and provisions of the Framework Convention through actively engaging all relevant sectors and addressing the tobacco issue holistically, and thus protecting the present and future generations from the devastating health, social, economic and environmental consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke.

  14. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  15. Model analysis of seasonal variation of PM2.5 across Japan and its reginal-scale transport in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kohei; Yamaji, Kazuyo; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Pan, Xiaole; Komazaki, Yuichi; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2013-04-01

    In Japan, an atmospheric environmental standard for PM2.5 was newly introduced in September 2009. According to one year of data observed at ambient air quality monitoring stations in Japan main islands in fiscal 2010, PM2.5 concentrations exceed the environmental standard at the large part of monitoring stations. In particular, concentration levels at almost all the monitoring stations in the western part of Japan exceed the standard value. Besides Japan main islands, PM2.5 concentrations monitored at Fukue Island, a remote island in the most western part of Japan and close to the Asian continent, clearly exceeds the short-term standard value. These results suggest that regional-scale transport in East Asia affects the spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 across Japan. To investigate seasonal variations of PM2.5 and estimate the influence of trans-boundary air pollution in East Asia, we performed emission sensitivity simulations for the full year 2010 by using a chemical transport model (Weather Research and Forecasting model /Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The source regions in East Asia were divided into six areas: Japan, Korean Peninsula, northeast China, central north China, central south China, and south China. In each sensitivity simulation, the anthropogenic emission was reduced by 20% in each source region. The sensitivity of each source region was obtained by taking the difference of simulated PM2.5 concentration between each sensitivity and base run. The model generally well reproduces the seasonal variation pattern of PM2.5 concentrations across Japan; in the western part of Japan, PM2.5 concentration decreases in summer, whereas it increases during summer in the eastern part of Japan. However, the absolute concentrations were underestimated by the model in the entire Japan throughout the year. We estimated the relative contributions from each source region to annual mean PM2.5 concentrations in Japan. The contribution of domestic

  16. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  17. Asthenospheric counterflows beneath the moving lithosphere of Central and East Asia in the past 90 Ma: volcanic and tomographic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Sergei; Chuvashova, Irina; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Asthenospheric counterflows, accompanied motions of the lithosphere in Central and East Asia, are defined on basis of spatial-temporal activity of mantle sources [Rasskazov et al., 2012; Rasskazov, Chuvashova, 2013; Chuvashova, Rasskazov, 2014] and the tomographic model of the Rayleigh wave group velocities [Kozhevnikov et al., 2014]. The opposite fluxes are defined relative to centers of convective instability (low-velocity anomalies), expressed by thinning of the mantle transition layer under Southwestern Gobi (44 °N, 95 °E) and Northern Baikal (52 °N, 108 °E). Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic fields in Southern Gobi are shifted eastwards relative to the former anomaly over 600 km with the opposite sub-lithospheric flux at depths of 150-300 km. Likewise, the Late Tertiary Vitim volcanic field is shifted relative to the latter anomaly over 100-200 km. We suggest that the Gobi and Baikal asthenospheric counterflows contributed to the rollback mechanism of downgoing slab material from the Pacific under the eastern margin of Asia in the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Early-Middle Miocene. The east-west Gobi reverse flux, caused by differential block motions in front of the Indo-Asian convergence, resulted in the oblique Honshu-Korean flexure of the Pacific slab that propagated beneath the continental margin, while the Japan Sea was quickly opening at about 15 Ma. The Baikal N60°W reverse flux, originated due to oncoming traffic between Eurasia and the Pacific plate, entailed the formation of the Baikal Rift Zone and direct Hokkaido Amur slab flexure [Rasskazov et al., 2004]. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 14-05-31328). References Chuvashova I.S., Rasskazov S.V. Magmatic sources in the mantle of the evolving Earth. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2014. 310 p. (in Russian) Kozhevnikov V.M., Seredkina A.I., Solovei O.A. 3D mantle structure of Central Asia from Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion

  18. Estimating absorbing black carbon and organic carbon optical properties from AERONET and MISR data over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Ramanathan, V.; Huang, J.; Zhang, G. J.; Xu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The radiative forcing due to carbonaceous aerosols is one of the largest source of uncertainties in global and regional climate change. Black carbon and organic carbon from biomass and fossil fuel are two major types of carbonaceous aerosols. In this study we use available ground based and satellite observations to infer the optical properties of black and organic carbon. NASA's AERONET and MISR data over East Asia provide the observational basis. We use the spectral variations in the observed aerosol extinction optical depth and absorption optical depth to categorize the optical properties including their mixing state with other aerosols such as dust and other inorganic aerosols. We create 8 different categories of aerosol mixtures: Dust, Biomass Burning, Fossil Fuel, Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Dust with Biomass Burning, Mixed Dust with Aged Fossil Fuel, Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel, and Mixed Dust, Biomass Burning, with Fossil Fuel, over the following 6 regions of East Asia: Nepal, Gobi, North Industrial China, South Industrial China, Southeast Asia, and Korea/Japan. Our results are compared with independent surface observations over China using Aethalometers and Single Particle Soot Photometers.

  19. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. PMID:24954129

  20. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region.

  1. Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in East Asia's mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the East China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to East Asia's mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in East Asia's mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in East Asia's mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies

  2. High Resolution Surface Wave TomographyϤThe Structure of Lithosphere and Dynamics in East Asia and West Pacific Marginal Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Cao, J.; Yan, Z.

    2003-12-01

    The continent of East Asia and West Pacific marginal sea was formed by convergence of a series of micro-plates and blocks in the late Paleozoic (about 250-220 Ma). Since Mesozoic (about 150 Ma) the asthenospheric material upwelling caused the lithosphere extension and thinning, and with strong activities of volcano and magma. In Cenozoic the continental margin continued to develop large scale rifts and marginal sea, a series of extending oceanic ridges and basins appeared. In Paleocene epoch the Indian sub-continent collided with the Eurasian continent causing the crust to be shortened and rapidly uplifted, forming the highest of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and the largest convergent region on the Earth. According to approximately 20,000 long-period digital seismic waveforms from 1200 events (7.0­AM­A5.0) recorded by 60 digital seismic stations from CDSN, GSN, GDSN, and GEOSCOPE network in Eurasia and west Pacific regions, about 6,000 accurate surface wave dispersion curves with periods ranging from 8 to 250 seconds were selected and employed for inversion. The high resolution 3-D shear wave velocity images in this area were constructed by inversion of both dispersion and waveform showing a notable lateral variation in lithosphere and asthenosphere. The images of shear wave velocity indicate that from upper crust to the depth of 70 km, high velocities are displayed in the region of eastern part of East Asia and West Pacific marginal sea, in contrast, extremely low velocities illustrated in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas. The low velocity anomaly chain is located along the convergence belt of Tethys from Mediterranean Sea, through Turkey, Iran, Himalayan orogens, Burma to Indonesian islands. In general it is divided by a boundary at 110"ªE in lateral direction, and divided by depth of 70-85 km in vertical direction, the velocity images show striking differences. The western part mainly features an accumulated and thickened lithosphere caused by

  3. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  4. Are climate and land cover changes in East Asia important factors for dust emission variability in the past 30 years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, R. M. K.; Tai, A. P. K.; Ridley, D. A.; Kok, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral dust is important for climate because it alters the radiation budget, both directly by scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud processes. Studies have shown that the variability of dust emission is greatly affected by local wind speeds and land surface characteristics. Globally, land cover change is mainly driven by vegetation changes that modify the dust sources, which can be represented by changes in leaf area index (LAI), and its effect on East Asian dust emission under the backdrop of changing wind patterns has yet to be quantified. Here we present a study to investigate how climate and land cover changes might have modified dust emission in East Asia during 1982-2010 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. New developments include a dynamic geomorphology-dependent dust emission scheme and better representation of vegetation effect on surface roughness and threshold wind speed. We also implement subgrid wind variability to reduce the resolution dependence of the model. The bias of modeled total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relative to observations is reduced from about -86% to -14%, mostly due to the inclusion of subgrid wind variability, but up to 10% of the emission improvements stem from the revised vegetation dependence. Simulations suggest that about 45 Tg, ~9% of the global dust emission, is from East Asia in spring. Sensitivity studies with changing historical LAI vs. surface wind show that climate variability might be a more important factor than land cover change contributing to dust emission variability and trends over the past 30 years.

  5. Evaluation of MODIS GPP over a complex ecosystem in East Asia: A case study at Gwangneung flux tower in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Changsub; Hong, Jiyoun; Hong, Jinkyu; Kim, Youngwook; Kang, Minseok; Malla Thakuri, Bindu; Kim, Yongwon; Chun, Junghwa

    2014-12-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) gross primary productivity (GPP) has been used widely to study the global carbon cycle associated with terrestrial ecosystems. The retrieval of the current MODIS productivity with a 1 × 1 km2 resolution has limitations when presenting subgrid scale processes in terrestrial ecosystems, specifically when forests are located in mountainous areas, and shows heterogeneity in vegetation type due to intensive land use. Here, we evaluate MODIS GPP (MOD17) at Gwangneung deciduous forest KoFlux tower (deciduous forest; GDK) for 2006-2010 in Korea, where the forests comprise heterogeneous vegetation cover over complex terrain. The monthly MODIS GPP data overestimated the GDK measurements in a range of +15% to +34% and was fairly well correlated (R = 0.88) with the monthly variability at GDK during the growing season. In addition, the MODIS data partly represented the sharp GPP reduction during the Asian summer monsoon (June-September) when intensive precipitation considerably reduces solar radiation and disturbs the forest ecosystem. To examine the influence of subgrid scale heterogeneity on GPP estimates over the MODIS scale, the individual vegetation type and its area within a corresponding MODIS pixel were identified using a national forest type map (∼71-m spatial resolution), and the annual GPP in the same area as the MODIS pixel was estimated. This resulted in a slight reduction in the positive MODIS bias by ∼10%, with a high degree of uncertainty in the estimation. The MODIS discrepancy for GDK suggests further investigation is necessary to determine the MODIS errors associated with the site-specific aerodynamic and hydrological characteristics that are closely related to the mountainous topography. The accuracy of meteorological variables and the impact of the very cloudy conditions in East Asia also need to be assessed.

  6. Virtual vs. physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Koe, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974

  7. Virtual versus physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Koe, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated. PMID:24077974

  8. Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-16

    Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 µg m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of East Asia, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over East Asia and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 µg m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

  9. Genome scan of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia: population differentiation, hybridization and adaptive speciation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiawu; Chu, Ka Hou

    2012-07-01

    We examine the genetic structure and evolutionary history of the mitten crab Eriocheir sensu stricto in East Asia by employing a genome scan - amplified fragment length polymorphism. Population analysis reveals three divergent clades in Eriocheir s. s., which dominate the East China Sea-Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan (plus Okinawa) and the South China Sea, respectively, mostly in agreement with our previous mtDNA analysis. With the tropical South China Sea inferred as the origin, the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan clades in the north diverged successively from the ancestral clade during the mid-Pleistocene. The divergence of the three clades likely resulted from isolation of the three marginal seas caused by sea level change in the Pleistocene. Two sympatric zones, one of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and the South China Sea clades in southeast China and the other of the East China Sea-Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan clades in Vladivostok, are demonstrated to be hybrid zones, with hybridization occurring currently in the former but historically in the latter. Adaptive speciation is observed in the divergence process of the three clades, possibly because of selection from accumulated temperature. Our study indicates that the genetic structure and evolutionary history of Eriocheir s. s. have been primarily affected by Pleistocene glacial cycles, secondarily by divergent selection and drainage isolation, but only minimally by human activities.

  10. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  11. Rainfall variability over South-east Asia - connections with Indian monsoon and ENSO extremes: new perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripalani, R. H.; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    1997-09-01

    Seasonal and annual rainfall data for 135 stations for periods varying from 25 to 125 years are utilized to investigate and understand the interannual and short-term (decadal) climate variability over the South-east Asian domain. Contemporaneous relations during the summer monsoon period (June to September) reveal that the rainfall variations over central India, north China, northern parts of Thailand, central parts of Brunei and Borneo and the Indonesian region east of 120°E vary in phase. However, the rainfall variations over the regions surrounding the South China Sea, in particular the north-west Philippines, vary in the opposite phase. Possible dynamic causes for the spatial correlation structure obtained are discussed.Based on the instrumental data available and on an objective criteria, regional rainfall anomaly time series for contiguous regions over Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia and Philippines are prepared. Results reveal that although there are year-to-year random fluctuations, there are certain epochs of the above- and below-normal rainfall over each region. These epochs are not forced by the El Niño/La Nina frequencies. Near the equatorial regions the epochs tend to last for about a decade, whereas over the tropical regions, away from the Equator, epochs last for about three decades. There is no systematic climate change or trend in any of the series. Further, the impact of El Niño (La Nina) on the rainfall regimes is more severe during the below (above) normal epochs than during the above (below) normal epochs. Extreme drought/flood situations tend to occur when the epochal behaviour and the El Niño/La Nina events are phase-locked.

  12. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30μg/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  13. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  14. Assessment of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Emission Over East Asia : A Bottom-up Inventory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Choi, K. C.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols are mainly affected by meteorological variables and emissions. East Asia is one of important source regions of both anthropogenic and natural air pollutants and GHGs. Therefore, significant environmental changes are expected in the future and air quality modeling is the important methodology to quantitatively evaluate them. Multiple emission inventories with various spatio-temporal resolutions are necessary in support of many different air quality modeling and future climate chage researches. Many emission inventories have been developed for Asia and for Globe, such as TRACE-P, INTEX, REAS, CREATE, MICS-Asia, HTAP, SRES, RCP. Those inventories have been successfully used for many international researches, but also have several limitations including relatively old base year, limited number of pollutants/types, and low transparency of sector/fuel information. Understanding discrepancies and similarities among those intentories would give us a better insights to understand not only present status regional emissions amounts but structures of society and policy that link to the future emissions. To understand these, we; 1) selected several base-year bottom-up anthropogenic emission inventories over East Asia, 2) inter-compare emission inventories with more comprehensive sector/fuel classification, 3) explorer emissions change with more updated acvities, emission factors, and control options. The tentative results show that more than 50% of emission amount could be differ by inventory selection and more than 30% of emissions could be changed by emissions factor and/or control options. More findings regarding to these objectives will be presented on site

  15. Involvement of health professionals in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, S; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use is widely entrenched in the South-East Asia (SEA) Region leading to high morbidity and mortality in this region. Several studies revealed that tobacco use is widespread among youth and school children. Exposure to second-hand smoke was reported as around 50% or more in three countries - Myanmar (59.5%), Bangladesh (51.3%), and Indonesia (49.6%). Health profession students encompassing medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy disciplines, and even qualified health professionals are no exception from tobacco use. While they are regarded as role models in tobacco cessation programs, their tobacco addiction will carry a negative impact in this endeavour. A mere inquiry about the smoking status of patients and a brief advice by doctors or dentists increases quit rates and prompts those who have not thought about quitting to consider doing so. Evidence from some randomized trials suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients could be effective in facilitating cessation of smoking. However, the low detection rate of smokers by many physicians and the small proportion of smokers who routinely receive advice from their physicians to quit have been identified as a matter of concern. This paper describes the role and issues of involvement of health professionals in tobacco control. Data from a variety of sources is used to assess the status. Although there are some differences, tobacco use is widespread among the students and health professional students. Exposure to second hand smoke is also a matter of concern. Tobacco-related problems and tobacco control cut across a vast range of health disciplines. Building alliances among the health professional associations in a vertical way will help synergize efforts, and obtain better outcomes from use of existing resources. Health professional associations in some countries in the SEA region have already taken the initiative to form coalitions at the national level to advance the tobacco control

  16. Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia during 2002-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Zherebtsov, Gelii; Wang, Guojun; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Romanova, Elena; Shi, Jiankui

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130°E during 2002 to 2014 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 80 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days' averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. It's notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. For the TEC data, strong disturbances can be observed simultaneously from high latitude to low latitude during the main phase of some storms. Generally strong/weak storms can cause the negative

  17. Impacts of anthropogenic forcing on regional climate simulation for CORDEX-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for regional climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the East Asia domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant cold biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced cold bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL

  18. A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2014-04-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:24388961

  19. Vertical transport mechanisms of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2013-12-01

    of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign in March-April 2009 using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

  20. Inter-annual variability of air pollutants over East Asia: an integrated analysis using satellite, lidar and numerical model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Kuribayashi, M.; Miyazaki, K.; Nishizawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in East Asia has a drastic temporal and spatial variability. The rapid economic growth in the last three decades enhanced the increase of anthropogenic emission of air pollutions, and caused deterioration of the air quality in both source and downwind regions. The unprecedented heavy PM­2.5 pollution over the central China in January 2013 records the maximum PM2.5 concentration of 996 μg/m3 and raised critical environmental issues (e.g., mortality, human health, social activity and trans-boundary transport, etc.). Recently, efforts to reduce anthropogenic emissions (e.g., emission regulations and improvements of emission factors and removal efficiencies) decelerate their growth rates. In fact, Asian SO2 emission is estimated to be reducing from 2007 [Kurokawa et al., 2013]. However, growth rates other pollutant emissions (e.g., NOx and PM10) still remain in high. To understand the life cycle of pollutants (emission, transport, reaction and deposition) and their temporal and spatial variation, an integrated analysis using observation and numerical model (chemical transport model; CTM) is useful. In this study, we installed a comprehensive observation operator system, which converts model results into observed variables, into the GEOS-Chem CTM. A long-term (2005-2013) full-chemistry simulation over East Asia was performed, and simulation results are translated to tropospheric NO2 and SO2 columns and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient equivalent to satellite measurements and in-situ lidar network observations. Combining CTM and observations, and integrating analyses of aerosols over the downwind region and their precursors over the source region will provide important insights into temporal and spatial variation of air pollutants over East Asia.

  1. Comparative inverse analysis of satellite (MODIS) and ground (PM10) observations to estimate dust emissions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Bonyang; Park, Rokjin J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil dust aerosol is the largest contributor to aerosol mass concentrations in the troposphere and has considerable effects on air quality and climate. Arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia are one of the important dust source regions thus it is crucial to understand dust mobilization and accurately estimate dust emissions in East Asia. However, present dust models still contain large uncertainties with dust emissions that remain a significant contributor to the overall uncertainties in the model. In this study, we attempt to reduce these uncertainties by using an inverse modeling technique and obtain optimized dust emissions. We use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depths (AODs) and groundbased mass concentrations of particles less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) observations over East Asia in May 2007. The MODIS AODs are validated with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) AODs. The inversion uses the maximum a posteriori method and the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) as a forward model. The model error is large over dust source regions including the Gobi Desert and Mongolia. We find that inverse modeling analyses from the MODIS and PM10 observations consistently result in decrease of dust emissions over Mongolia and the Gobi Desert. Whereas over the Taklamakan Desert and Manchuria, the inverse modeling analyses from both observations yield contrast results such as increase of dust sources using MODIS AODs, while decrease of those using PM10 observations. We discuss some limitations of both observations to obtain the optimized dust emissions and suggest several strategies for the improvement of dust emission estimates in the model.

  2. Satellite measurements of the Madden-Julian oscillation in wintertime stratospheric ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuli; Liu, Yi; Liu, Chuanxi; Sofieva, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal in wintertime stratospheric ozone over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia using the harmonized dataset of satellite ozone profiles. Two different MJO indices—the all-season Real-Time multivariate MJO index (RMM) and outgoing longwave radiation-based MJO index (OMI)—are used to compare the MJO-related ozone anomalies. The results show that there are pronounced eastward-propagating MJO-related stratospheric ozone anomalies (mainly within 20-200 hPa) over the subtropics. The negative stratospheric ozone anomalies are over the Tibetan Plateau and East Asia in MJO phases 4-7, when MJO-related tropical deep convective anomalies move from the equatorial Indian Ocean towards the western Pacific Ocean. Compared with the results based on RMM, the MJO-related stratospheric column ozone anomalies based on OMI are stronger and one phase ahead. Further analysis suggests that different sampling errors, observation principles and retrieval algorithms may be responsible for the discrepancies among different satellite measurements. The MJO-related stratospheric ozone anomalies can be attributed to the MJO-related circulation anomalies, i.e., the uplifted tropopause and the northward shifted westerly jet in the upper troposphere. Compared to the result based on RMM, the upper tropospheric westerly jet may play a less important role in generating the stratospheric column ozone anomalies based on OMI. Our study indicates that the circulation-based MJO index (RMM) can better characterize the MJO-related anomalies in tropopause pressure and thus the MJO influence on atmospheric trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, especially over subtropical East Asia.

  3. Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Narain, Jai P; Dash, A P; Parnell, B; Bhattacharya, S K; Barua, S; Bhatia, R; Savioli, L

    2010-03-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which affect the very poor, pose a major public health problem in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Although more than a dozen NTDs affect the region, over the past five years four of them in particular - leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and yaws - have been targeted for elimination. These four were selected for a number of reasons. First, they affect the WHO South-East Asia Region disproportionately. For example, every year around 67% of all new leprosy cases and 60% of all new cases of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide occur in countries of the region, where as many as 850 million inhabitants are at risk of contracting lymphatic filariasis. In addition, several epidemiological, technological and historical factors that are unique to the region make each of these four diseases amenable to elimination. Safe and effective tools and interventions to achieve these targets are available and concerted efforts to scale them up, singly or in an integrated manner, are likely to lead to success. The World Health Assembly and the WHO Regional Committee, through a series of resolutions, have already expressed regional and global commitments for the elimination of these diseases as public health problems. Such action is expected to have a quick and dramatic impact on poverty reduction and to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. This paper reviews the policy rationale for disease control in the WHO South-East Asia Region, the progress made so far, the lessons learnt along the way, and the remaining challenges and opportunities.

  4. Reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations together drove species diversification of slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    South-East Asia covers four of the world's biodiversity hotspots, showing high species diversity and endemism. Owing to the successive expansion and contraction of distribution and the fragmentation by geographical barriers, the tropical flora greatly diversified in this region during the Tertiary, but the evolutionary tempo and mode of species diversity remain poorly investigated. Paphiopedilum, the largest genus of slipper orchids comprising nearly 100 species, is mainly distributed in South-East Asia, providing an ideal system for exploring how plant species diversity was shaped in this region. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of this genus with eight cpDNA regions and four low-copy nuclear genes. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicates that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that vicariance and long-distance dispersal together led to its current distribution. Diversification rate variation was detected and strongly correlated with the species diversity in subg. Paphiopedilum (~80 species). The shift of speciation rate in subg. Paphiopedilum was coincident with sea-level fluctuations in the late Cenozoic, which could have provided ecological opportunities for speciation and created bridges or barriers for gene flow. Moreover, some other factors (e.g. sympatric distribution, incomplete reproductive barriers and clonal propagation) might also be advantageous for the formation and reproduction of hybrid species. In conclusion, our study suggests that the interplay of reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations has promoted the diversification of the genus Paphiopedilum and sheds light into the evolution of Orchidaceae and the historical processes of plant species diversification in South-East Asia.

  5. An evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak reporting in mainland South-East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Madin, Ben

    2011-12-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic throughout mainland South-East Asia (SEA). The South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) campaign is a regional control programme which has been ongoing since 1997. The programme encourages countries to submit reports of outbreaks regularly. This paper evolved from a collaboration with SEACFMD to evaluate 10 years worth of reporting. All publicly available outbreak reports (5237) were extracted from the ASEAN Region Animal Health Information System (ARAHIS) for the period from 2000 to mid 2010. These reports included date, outbreak location (at the province and district level) and serotype (if known) plus information on the outbreak size and affected species. Not all records had complete information on the population at-risk or the number of animals affected. This data was transferred into a spatially enabled database (along with data from other sources) and analysed using R and SaTScan. Outbreak serotype was unknown in 2264 (43%) of reports and some countries had very few laboratory confirmed cases (range <1-86%). Outbreak reports were standardised by number of villages in each province. Outbreak intensity varied however there did not appear to be a consistent pattern, nor was there any seasonal trend in outbreaks. Spatial and spatio-temporal cluster detection methods were applied. These identified significant clusters of disease reports. FMD is endemic across the region but is not uniformly present. ARAHIS reports can be regarded as indicators of disease reporting: there may be reports in which laboratory confirmation has not occurred, and in some cases clinical signs are inconsistent with FMD. This raises questions about the specificity of the data. Advances in decentralised testing techniques offer hope for improved verification of FMD as the cause of disease outbreaks. Advances in molecular typing may provide a substantial leap forward in understanding the circulation of FMD in South East Asia.

  6. State of photonics-related industry in Japan: Digital economy is creating a deep integration in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, Kimio

    2013-12-01

    Future challenges and problems of Japanese photonics-related industries are discussed by analyzing the statistics of domestic photonics production trend in Japan from the aspects of offshoring and deep integration taking place in East Asia due to the growing of the global digital economy. Mobile phone, digital camera, semiconductor stepper, and fiber to the X. X is home, buildings, factories, shops, government (FTTX) are case studied, and the utilization of the information and communication technology (ICT), together with a free trade policy, is expected for the future challenges.

  7. Effects of an increase of regional PM2.5 concentration in East Asia on the climate variability in the North Paicific for 1985-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lee, jong-won; yeh, sang-wook

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that atmospheric variables can be influenced to change by aerosol concentration. In spite of a wealth of studies, however, it is still remain unclear how the regional anthropogenic aerosol in East Asia affects the climate variability in the North Pacific. In this study, we examined the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing in East Asia (GEOS-Chem) on the climate variability in the North Pacific based on a global chemical transport model and three idealized experiments using an atmosphere model. GEOS-Chem is forced by the assimilated meteorology from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for 1985-2010. Regarding three experiments, the first set used the historical SST for 1985-2010 with the time-varying emissions in East Asia. The second set used the historical SST without the emissions and the third set included the climatological SST with the time-varying emissions in East Asia. By comparing GEOS-Chem run with atmosphere model runs, we analyze the role of regional aerosol forcing in East Asia on the climate variability in the North Pacific.

  8. Multi-week prediction of South-East Asia rainfall variability during boreal summer in CFSv2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Feng; Wang, Wanqiu

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we analyze the multi-week prediction bias and skill from the National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) based on its hindcasts for 1999-2012. The analyses focus on the prediction of the rainfall variability over South-East Asia during boreal warm seasons and the dependence of the prediction on the activity of intrasesaonal leading modes. It is shown that the prediction skill measured by anomaly correlation is comparable between the total anomalies and intraseasonal anomalies during the first 2 weeks. After week 2, the prediction skill drops substantially and the skill for total anomalies is largely from the prediction for the interannual variability. Moreover, the forecast skill tends to be higher when the amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and the Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillation (BSISO) is larger, especially for the BSISO. It is noted that the prediction skill over South-East Asia depends on the phase of the BSISO. One deficiency in the CFSv2 is that the northward propagation of the forecast BSISO is generally slower than the observed.

  9. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Yu, H.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change has occurred over east Asia since the 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the observed warming in past decades. In this study, we investigate regional surface temperature change during the boreal cold season using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT contribute 44 and 56 % to the SAT over east Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). Radiatively forced SAT changes have made a major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between the so-called "global warming hiatus" and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  10. Upper-mantle shear-wave structure under East and Southeast Asia from Automated Multimode Inversion of waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new Sv-velocity model of the upper mantle under East and Southeast Asia constrained by the inversion of seismic waveforms recorded by broad-band stations. Seismograms from earthquakes occurred between 1977 and 2012 are collected from about 4786 permanent and temporary stations in the region whenever and wherever available. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface and multiple-S waveforms is applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations are then solved for the seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and upper mantle with respect to a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model and a realistic crust. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in East and Southeast Asia are identified in the resulting model. At lithospheric depth, low velocities can be seen beneath Tibet, whereas high velocities are found beneath cratonic regions, such as the Siberian, North China, Yangtze,) Tarim, and Dharwarand cratons. A number of microplates are mapped and the interaction with neighbouring plates is discussed. Slabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans can be seen in the upper mantle. Passive marginal basins and subduction zones are also properly resolved.

  11. Numerical Modeling of 1997-2006 Asian Dust and Mass Budget Analysis in East Asia and West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Westphal, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    East Asia has two of the Earth's major natural dust sources: the Taklamakan Desert in west China and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and northwest China. Desertification has increased dust-erodible areas surrounding the deserts so the dust storm frequency has increased in the last few decades. Severe dust storms not only impact East Asia, but also can reach far beyond the continent, as did the dust clouds of April 1998, 2001 and 2005 that drifted over the Pacific Ocean and to North America. The US Navy's operational Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to simulate the dust events for the springs of 1997 through 2006 at a resolution of one quarter of degree with multiple size bins. We use the modeled data to investigate the spatial and temporal dependence of dust emission, transport and deposition, and estimate the impacts of dust on environment. The distribution of dust plumes in area coverage and vertical depth is studied, as is the inter-annual variation of dust patterns from the different deserts of China and Mongolia, and the fluxes across the Pacific. It is found that PM10 is the dominant fraction particles over the continent and near the ocean, while PM2.5 becomes dominant in the boundary outflow along 170E. The details of analyzed model results will be presented at the meeting.

  12. Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi

    2002-10-01

    A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over east Asia. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast Asia, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.

  13. Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer observations over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Q.; Zhang, H.; Choi, M.; Li, S.; Kondragunta, S.; Kim, J.; Holben, B.; Levy, R. C.; Liu, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population densities have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in many urban centers in East Asia. However, ground-based air quality monitoring is relatively limited in this area. Recently, satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at high resolution has become a powerful tool to characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using ground AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia Campaign, as well as from handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) aboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS), and Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in East Asia in 2012 and 2013. In the case study in Beijing, when compared with AOD observations from handheld sunphotometers, 51 % of VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) AOD, 37 % of GOCI AOD, 33 % of VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) AOD, 26 % of Terra MODIS C6 3 km AOD, and 16 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the reference expected error (EE) envelope (±0.05 ± 0.15 AOD). Comparing against AERONET AOD over the Japan-South Korea region, 64 % of EDR, 37 % of IP, 61 % of GOCI, 39 % of Terra MODIS, and 56 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the EE. In general, satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than tracking the spatial variability at high resolutions. The VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3 km products had positive biases.

  14. Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward US Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Nine National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited universities in the United States (US) with the greatest populations of international students were surveyed to identify the status of East Asian international students' attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education…

  15. Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Ye-Won; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Moon, Ja-Yeon

    2014-11-01

    How well the climate models simulate extreme temperature over East Asia and how the extreme indices would change under anthropogenic global warming are investigated. The indices studied include hot days (HD), tropical nights (TN), growing degree days (GDD), and cooling degree days (CDD) in summer and heating degree days (HDD) and frost days (FD) in winter. The representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2075-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from 15 coupled models that are participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To optimally estimate future change and its uncertainty, groups of best models are selected based on Taylor diagrams, relative entropy, and probability density function (PDF) methods previously suggested. Overall, the best models' multi-model ensemble based on Taylor diagrams has the lowest errors in reproducing temperature extremes in the present climate among three methods. Selected best models in three methods tend to project considerably different changes in the extreme indices from each other, indicating that the selection of reliable models are of critical importance to reduce uncertainties. Three groups of best models show significant increase of summerbased indices but decrease of the winter-based indices. Over East Asia, the most significant increase is seen in the HD (336 ± 23.4% of current climate) and the most significant decrease is appeared in the HDD (82 ± 4.2%). It is suggested that the larger future change in the HD is found over in the Southeastern China region, probably due to a higher local maximum temperature in the present climate. All of the indices show the largest uncertainty over Southeastern China, particularly in the TN (~3.9 times as large as uncertainty over East Asia) and in the HD (~2.4). It is further noted that the TN reveals the largest uncertainty over three East Asian countries (~1.7 and 1.4 over Korea and

  16. A new P wave velocity model beneath East Asia: insights on the relationship between intraplate volcanism and Pacific subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Niu, F.; Obayashi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific plate subducted beneath the East China since the Middle Mesozoic and it went through several different stages of subduction. Knowing its detailed configuration in the mantle can help better understand the geological events happened in the East Asia. Here we combine P-wave traveltime data from the EHB (Engdahl, van der Hilst, and Buland 1998) catalog of 1964-2007, and manually picks from the regional networks of the China Earthquake Administration (CEArray) consisting of more than one thousand stations from 2007 to 2010 as well as the NorthEast China Extended Array (NECESSArray) with 127 broadband stations from 2009 to 2011 in order to produce a global P-wave velocity model with a focus on the velocity structure beneath the East Asia. The mantle is parameterized into irregular blocks and the size of each block depends on the number of the rays penetrating the block. The minimum block size is 1.25°x1.25°. The large dataset and the adaptive block size yield a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model beneath Asia. Our tomographic model shows high velocity roots under Archean cratons, such as the Ordos and the Sichuan basin. Our model also displays low velocity anomalies at a depth from 50km to 350km beneath the Changbaishan and Datong volcanoes. Massive basaltic volcanism occurred in these places in the Cenozoic. There is also a pronounced slow anomaly that extends to the transition zone beneath the South China block, but it is only limited in the upper mantle. The Cenozoic basaltic magmatism in Hainan Island might be related with this slow anomaly. Our model also shows clear segments of slabs inside the transition zone, which could be imaged as flat slabs with insufficient data sampling. Different segments also appear to have different intensity and may correspond to different episodes of the Pacific subduction. The fragmented nature of the subducted Pacific plate also implies that several slab detachment events may have occurred during the subduction

  17. West Meets East in Central Asia: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alan J.

    The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central Asia. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and…

  18. Higher Education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews Asia-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a distinctive…

  19. Late tectonic uplift of an inverted oceanic basin in South East Asia: the case of Palawan Island (western Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meresse, F.; Savva, D.; Pubellier, M.; Steuer, S.; Franke, D.; Cordey, F.; Muller, C.; Sapin, F.; Mouly, B.; Auxiètre, J.-L.

    2012-04-01

    The elongated island of Palawan, bounded by two marginal basins, the South China Sea to the North and the Sulu Sea to the South is composed of remnants of an inverted basin (Proto-South China Sea) thrusted onto the margin of a continental terrane which rifted away from the Chinese-Vietnamese margin. Based on field observations coupled with seismic and drill-holes data, our study focuses on the structural architecture of the island in order to decipher the geodynamic evolution of the southern margin of the South China Sea. Structurally, the Palawan Island consists of: (i) the Palawan wedge, which extends towards the South China Sea is composed of deformed slope to deep ocean deposits of Cretaceous (north Palawan) to Tertiary (central and south Palawan) ages. This accretionnary wedge is characterized by small wavelength folds of mainly NE-SW trend. Offshore, the unconformable Middle-Late Miocene Tabon limestones unit postdates the last stages of the Palawan wedge growth/setting; (ii) On top of this wedge lie thrust slices of ophiolite bodies comprising ribbon cherts of Albian age as indicated by radiolarians.; these bodies are likely to be relicts of the now-subducted Proto South China Sea; (iii) The central and southern parts of the Palawan island are characterized by a large wavelength antiform of NE-SW trend. This structure is sealed by the slightly tilted Early Pliocene marls unit; (iv) The island also presents necking zones bordered by N-S trending transform faults. This area witnessed the geodynamic evolution of the South East Asia which consists of a succession of opening/closure of oceanic basins and block accretions. The Palawan Island therefore results of the closing of the Proto-South China Sea which once formed both the Palawan accretionary wedge and the overlying ophiolite tectonic slices. During a later compressive event, the rifted continental margin which composes the basement of the Island was inverted, inducing the uplift and the large scale folding

  20. Molecular records of continental air temperature and monsoon precipitation variability in East Asia spanning the past 130,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterse, Francien; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Zhou, Bin; Beets, Christiaan J.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2014-01-01

    Our current understanding of past changes in East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation intensity derives from several loess-paleosol sequences and oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of well-dated stalagmites. Although temperature is generally presumed to have had minimal impact on EASM records, past air temperature dynamics over East Asia are, so far, relatively poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of tools to reconstruct continental paleotemperatures. Here we report a high-resolution record of East Asian air temperature over the past 130,000 years, based on soil bacterial lipid signatures preserved in a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau in China. We find that maximum local insolation is the main driver of air temperature, although greenhouse gas concentrations and southern hemisphere climate may influence temperature at times when insolation is weak, causing a decoupling with EASM precipitation intensity. Direct comparison of our temperature record with precipitation-induced changes in past soil pH, derived from the same suite of lipids confirms this decoupling. Subsequent cross-spectral analysis of the two molecular proxy records reveals that variations in monsoon precipitation consistently lag those in air temperature throughout the whole record at the dominant precession band. The length of this lag is variable however, and increases as glaciation develops. This observation is consistent with an increasing influence of northern hemisphere ice sheets on the modulation of EASM response to insolation forcing during ice ages.

  1. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  2. A GCM Investigation of Dust Aerosol Impact on the Regional Climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The interactions between dust and other physical processes have been found to play an important role in the dust-induced climate change. However, there are large uncertainties regarding whether, where, and how the dust enhances or suppresses precipitation. The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will induce a subsidence to its south and

  3. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    PubMed

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific. PMID:15495964

  4. Epidemiological status of kissing-bugs in South East Asia: A preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Pham Thi, Khoa; Truong Xuan, Lam; Panzera, Francisco; Pita, Sebastián; Schofield, Chris J

    2015-11-01

    Kissing-bugs (Triatominae) are being increasingly reported as a biting nuisance in SE Asia, with severe bite reactions sometimes leading to anaphylactic shock. In addition, they pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of trypanosomiasis, with potential diagnostic difficulties due to the range of trypanosome species in the region. Here, we review available information about Triatominae in Asia, and present additional comparisons using morphometry, cytogenetics, and new DNA sequence data, to clarify their relationship with each other and with the better known American species. We deduce that all Asian Triatominae have probably derived from forms originally spread during the 15-18th centuries on sailing ships, from the area that now forms the southern USA. PMID:26115948

  5. Orbital remote sensing - Space technology applications in south-east Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of remote sensing techniques in the developing countries of southeast Asia is reviewed. The use of the images for monitoring soil, water, and vegetation resources, in order to develop a national policy for conservation of the resources, is described. The remote sensing data are helpful in observing deforestation in southeast Asia; however, excessive cloud coverage does not allow accurate evaluation of the rice crop. The effects of the capabilities of the developing countries to process the data and remote sensing program of industrial countries on the future application of satellite imagery in developing countries are studied. The need for improved data banking and dissemination of the imagery is analyzed. Agreements on proprietary rights due to the improved ground resolution of orbital sensors are required. The designing of remote sensing equipment to meet the requirements of its users is discussed.

  6. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  7. A new species of spider belonging to the Pardosa lugubris-group (Araneae: Lycosidae) from Far East Asia.

    PubMed

    Nadolny, Anton A; Omelko, Mikhail M; Marusik, Yuri M; Blagoev, Gergin

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Pardosa koponeni sp. n., is described. The new species is widely distributed in Far East Asia. It was previously confused with P. lugubris (Walckenaer, 1802). The two species have very similar copulatory organs but differ in the colouration of legs II-IV in males and the carapace/femur I ratio in both sexes. The distribution of the new species is mapped using material examined and literature data. To provide a more complete understanding of the boundaries between such closely related species, morphological and DNA barcoding approaches for species discrimination were integrated. Two species of the Pardosa lugubris-group (P. lugubris and P. alacris) were found to share haplotypes, suggesting evidence of hybridization or incomplete lineage sorting, or they are perhaps separate morphotypes of the same species. This is another example of complexity and the value of comparing morphology and DNA barcode data among spiders. PMID:27395923

  8. Overview: epidemiology of malaria and its control in countries of the WHO South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kondrashin, A V; Rooney, W

    1992-09-01

    The malaria situation in the WHO South-East Asia Region is reviewed in terms of its epidemiological diversity, problems encountered and implications for control. Varying host-parasite-vector interrelationships are shown to be influenced significantly by prevailing environmental conditions (eg topographic, climatic) as well as behavioral and socio-economic determinants. Drug-resistant falciparum malaria and vector resistance to insecticides are the main biological deterrents to the success of control programs. Thus, the potential for malaria transmission remains high in many places. The malaria control strategy includes Primary Health Care and integration with basic health services. However, operational research is needed in many of the countries in the Region. PMID:1364858

  9. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97), Latin America (n = 46), the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA) (n = 39) and Australia and Canada (n = 39). Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1) building capacity; 2) developing evidence; 3) removing barriers; and 4) promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004) and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p < 0.001) in Australia and Canada. Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients. PMID:21933435

  10. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  11. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  12. Effects of Environment and Space on Species Turnover of Woody Plants across Multiple Forest Dynamic Plots in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Yuan, Zhiliang; Li, Peikun; Cao, Ruofan; Jia, Hongru; Ye, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Species turnover is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms that influence large-scale species richness patterns. However, few studies have described and interpreted large-scale spatial variation in plant species turnover, and the causes of this variation remain elusive. In addition, the determinants of species turnover depend on the dispersal ability of growth forms. In this study, we explored the large-scale patterns of woody species turnover across the latitude gradient based on eight large stem-mapping plots (covering 184 ha forest) in East Asia. The patterns of woody species turnover increased significantly with increasing latitude differences in East Asia. For overall woody species, environment explained 36.30, 37.20, and 48.48% of the total variance in Jaccard’s (βj), Sorenson’s, (βs), and Simpson’s dissimilarity (βsim). Spatial factors explained 47.92, 48.39, and 41.38% of the total variance in βj, βs, and βsim, respectively. The effects of pure spatial and spatially structured environments were stronger than pure environmental effects for overall woody species. Our results support the hypothesis that the effect of neutral processes on woody species turnover is more important than the effect of the environment. Neutral processes explained more variation for turnover of tree species, and environmental factors explained more variation for the turnover of shrub species on a large scale. Therefore, trees and shrubs should be subjected to different protection strategies in future biodiversity conservation efforts. PMID:27790236

  13. Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

    2012-01-01

    Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14 437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628

  14. Origins of domestic dog in southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

    2012-05-01

    Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog-wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14,437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13-24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog-wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog-wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool.

  15. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2016-08-01

    The ability of seven state-of-the-art chemistry-aerosol models to reproduce distributions of tropospheric ozone and its precursors, as well as aerosols over eastern Asia in summer 2008, is evaluated. The study focuses on the performance of models used to assess impacts of pollutants on climate and air quality as part of the EU ECLIPSE project. Models, run using the same ECLIPSE emissions, are compared over different spatial scales to in situ surface, vertical profiles and satellite data. Several rather clear biases are found between model results and observations, including overestimation of ozone at rural locations downwind of the main emission regions in China, as well as downwind over the Pacific. Several models produce too much ozone over polluted regions, which is then transported downwind. Analysis points to different factors related to the ability of models to simulate VOC-limited regimes over polluted regions and NOx limited regimes downwind. This may also be linked to biases compared to satellite NO2, indicating overestimation of NO2 over and to the north of the northern China Plain emission region. On the other hand, model NO2 is too low to the south and west of this region and over South Korea/Japan. Overestimation of ozone is linked to systematic underestimation of CO particularly at rural sites and downwind of the main Chinese emission regions. This is likely to be due to enhanced destruction of CO by OH. Overestimation of Asian ozone and its transport downwind implies that radiative forcing from this source may be overestimated. Model-observation discrepancies over Beijing do not appear to be due to emission controls linked to the Olympic Games in summer 2008.With regard to aerosols, most models reproduce the satellite-derived AOD patterns over eastern China. Our study nevertheless reveals an overestimation of ECLIPSE model mean surface BC and sulphate aerosols in urban China in summer 2008. The effect of the short-term emission mitigation in Beijing

  16. Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

  17. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J.

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America. PMID:25699210

  18. Effect of continental sources and sinks on the seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric carbon dioxide over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Changsub; Lee, Jeongsoon; Wang, Yuxuan

    2013-11-01

    Here we demonstrate the sharp seasonal and latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 over East Asia, where there are relatively few ground-based observations. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) column-averaged dry air CO2 mole fraction (xCO2) retrieved by NASA's Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space (ACOS) (2009-2011) program and GEOS-Chem nested-grid CO2 results are used. The strong anthropogenic emissions mainly from China and intensive vegetation uptake from northeastern Asia lead to a clear seasonal change of the xCO2 between spring maximum and summer minimum (>10 ppm). In particular, the steep latitudinal gradient of summer time xCO2 by 3-5 ppm in the vicinity of the Korean Peninsula (32°N-44°N) is likely attributed to the large difference in CO2 fluxes among industry/cities, northeastern forests and the northwest Pacific region. This study represents the current progress to understand sub-continental scale atmospheric CO2 variabilities with recent satellite retrievals and nested-grid modeling.

  19. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Mühle, J.; Salameh, P. K.; Saito, T.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wan, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Yao, B.; Yokouchi, Y.; Zhou, L. X.

    2010-04-01

    The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from four East Asian countries and the Taiwan region for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 h, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as emissions for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 65.3±6.6 kt/yr for HCFC-22 (17% of global emissions extrapolated from Montzka et al., 2009), 12.1±1.6 kt/yr for HCFC-141b (22%), 7.3±0.7 kt/yr for HCFC-142b (17%), 6.2±0.7 kt/yr for HFC-23 (>50%), 12.9±1.7 kt/yr for HFC-134a (9% of global emissions estimated from Velders et al., 2009) and 3.4±0.5 kt

  20. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Salameh, P. K.; Saito, T.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wan, D.; Yao, B.; Yokouchi, Y.; Zhou, L. X.

    2010-02-01

    The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from five East Asian countries for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 h, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as emissions for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 65.3±6.6 kt/yr for HCFC-22 (17% of global emissions extrapolated from Montzka et al., 2009), 12.1±1.6 kt/yr for HCFC-141b (22%), 7.3±0.7 kt/yr for HCFC-142b (17%), 6.2±0.7 kt/yr for HFC-23 (>50%), 12.9±1.7 kt/yr for HFC-134a (9% of global emissions estimated from Velders et al., 2009) and 3.4±0.5 kt/yr for HFC-152a (7%).

  1. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, Andreas; Kim, J.; Li, S.; O'Doherty, S.; Zhou, L. X.; Saito, T.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wan, D.; Yao, B.; Yokouchi, Y.

    2010-05-01

    The emissions of three hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F) and HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and three hydrofluorocarbons, HFC-23 (CHF3), HFC-134a (CH2FCF3) and HFC-152a (CH3CHF2) from five East Asian countries for the year 2008 are determined by inverse modeling. The inverse modeling is based on in-situ measurements of these halocarbons at the Japanese stations Cape Ochi-ishi and Hateruma, the Chinese station Shangdianzi and the South Korean station Gosan. For every station and every 3 hours, 20-day backward calculations were made with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model output, the measurement data, bottom-up emission information and corresponding uncertainties were fed into an inversion algorithm to determine the regional emission fluxes. The model captures the observed variation of halocarbon mixing ratios very well for the two Japanese stations but has difficulties explaining the large observed variability at Shangdianzi, which is partly caused by small-scale transport from Beijing that is not adequately captured by the model. Based on HFC-23 measurements, the inversion algorithm could successfully identify the locations of factories known to produce HCFC-22 and emit HFC-23 as an unintentional byproduct. This lends substantial credibility to the inversion method and is, to our knowledge, the first time greenhouse gas emissions from point sources can be determined by inverse modeling using stations of a global network. The HFC-23 emissions thus determined will also be compared to emissions reported for some factories in the framework of Clean Development Mechanism projects. We report national emissions for China, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, as well as for the Taiwan region. Halocarbon emissions in China are much larger than the emissions in the other countries together and contribute a substantial fraction to the global emissions. Our estimates of Chinese emissions for the year 2008 are 64.9±6.5 kt/yr for

  2. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  3. The Internationalization of Higher Education in East Asia: A Comparative Ethnographic Narrative of Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    How is Japan becoming "internationalized"? A common response is "through student mobility". But can Japanese universities continue to attract thousands of East Asian students annually, given increasing competition from other Pacific Rim nations like Australia, South Korea and Singapore? Japan's "internationalization", a focus of educational…

  4. Monitoring Rural Development in East Asia. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 439.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboeck, Guido; Ng, Ronald

    The paper presents results of discussions during an 8-day workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, December 1979) on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of East Asian and Pacific rural development projects. Major workshop themes identified are managerial, technical, and institutional aspects of monitoring. The introduction discusses previous World Bank…

  5. Factors Influencing the Higher Education of International Students from Confucian East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in East Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places…

  6. Psychiatric symptoms in refugee families from South East Asia: therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Fine, S; Lin, T Y

    1989-04-01

    South East Asian refugees refuse mental health services until behavior is quite extreme. This reflects their attitude to mental illness. Refugees suffer from depression and posttraumatic stress disorder especially when separated from their families and their ethnic group. Two case examples are given. PMID:2751007

  7. Overcoming the "Walmart Syndrome": Adapting Problem-Based Management Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores design issues to be considered in adapting the problem-based learning (PBL) for use in the context of East Asian higher education and tests its instructional effectiveness in a Master of Management degree program at a graduate school of business (GSB) in Thailand. The research analyzes course evaluation data obtained from…

  8. SLCP co-control approach in East Asia: Tropospheric ozone reduction strategy by simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Jun`ichi; Sudo, Kengo; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of NOx and CO2 in East Asia (Northeast and Southeast Asia) contribute more than 30% of the global total since 2008, and consequently the control of air pollutants and CO2 alleviating regional air pollution and global climate change is of great concern of not only in this region but also worldwide. In order to arrive at a rational view of the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) co-control approach in East Asia, the effectiveness of the reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions for the reduction of tropospheric O3 has been evaluated by individual and simultaneous 50%-reduction of the emissions in Northeast Asia (NEA) using both a global chemical climate model (CHASER/SPRINTARS-MIROC), and a regional chemical transport model (WRF-CMAQ). The simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions was found to reduce the regional concentration of surface O3 in NEA, and globally averaged net radiative forcing most effectively. Global mean RF and regional air quality change were also evaluated for the climate stabilization scenario ("450-ppm"), and climate stabilization with additional air pollution mitigation strengthened scenario ("450-ppm-cntr") developed in IIASA with the aid of GAINS model. In the 450 ppm-cntr scenario, emissions of NOx NMVOC, BC and OC were further reduced respectively, for East Asia from the emissions in 450 ppm. The improvement of air quality as well as the mitigation of climate change would grant to the basis of the SLCP co-control approach in East Asia.

  9. A glimpse into evolution and dissemination of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in East Asia: a comparative genomics study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Ruan, Zhi; Shu, Jianfeng; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    Clonal dissemination is characteristic of the important nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, as revealed by previous multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) studies. However, the disseminated phyletic unit is actually MLST sequence type instead of real bacterial clone. Here we sequenced the genomes of 13 multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii strains from Taiwan, and compared them with that of A. baumannii from other East Asian countries. Core-genome phylogenetic tree divided the analyzed strains into three major clades. Among them, one ST455 clade was a hybrid between the ST208 clade and the other ST455 clade. Several strains showed nearly identical genome sequence, but their isolation sources differed by over 2,500 km and 10 years apart, suggesting a wide dissemination of the phyletic units, which were much smaller than the sequence type. Frequent structural variation was detected even between the closely related strains in antimicrobial resistance elements such as AbaRI, class I integron, indicating strong selection pressure brought by antimicrobial use. In conclusion, wide clonal dissemination and frequent genomic variation simultaneously characterize the clinical MDR A. baumannii in East Asia. PMID:27072398

  10. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  11. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  12. [Catalogues of Third Country Training Resources in East, Near East, and South Asia. Volumes 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Office of International Training.

    Both of these catalogs are part of a series of four official AID publications covering both academic and non-academic training opportunities. These two in particular were developed to encourage increased use by Asians of the regional training resources designed to assist them in the economic and social development of their countries. The…

  13. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war. PMID:10330595

  14. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  15. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over East Asia during summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Daskalakis, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2015-04-01

    The ability of six global and one regional model to reproduce distributions of tropospheric ozone and its precursors, as well as aerosols over Asia in summer 2008 is evaluated using satellite and in-situ observations. Whilst ozone precursors (NO2 and CO) are generally underestimated by the models in the troposphere, surface NO2 concentrations are overestimated, suggesting that emissions of NOx are too high. Ozone integrated columns and vertical profiles are generally well modeled, but the global models face difficulties simulating the ozone gradient at the surface between urban and rural environments, pointing to the need to increase model resolution. The accuracy of simulated aerosol patterns over eastern China and northern India varies between the models, and although most of the models reproduce the observed pollution features over eastern China, significant biases are noted in the magnitude of optical properties (aerosol optical depth, aerosol backscatter). These results have important implications for accurate prediction of pollution episodes affecting air quality and the radiative effects of these short-lived climate pollutants over Asia.

  16. Wet removal of black carbon in Asian outflow: Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Matsui, H.; Kajino, M.; Nakamura, H.; Jung, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted over East Asia in March-April 2009. During the A-FORCE campaign, 120 vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were obtained in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere. This study examines the wet removal of BC in Asian outflow using the A-FORCE data. The concentrations of BC and CO were greatly enhanced in air parcels sampled at 3-6 km in altitude over the Yellow Sea on 30 March 2009, associated with upward transport due to a cyclone with modest amounts of precipitation over northern China. In contrast, high CO concentrations without substantial enhancements of BC concentrations were observed in air parcels sampled at 5-6 km over the East China Sea on 23 April 2009, caused by uplifting due to cumulus convection with large amounts of precipitation over central China. The transport efficiency of BC (TEBC, namely the fraction of BC particles not removed during transport) in air parcels sampled above 2 km during the entire A-FORCE period decreased primarily with the increase in the precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during vertical transport, although their correlation was modest (r2 = 0.43). TEBC also depended on the altitude to which air parcels were transported from the PBL and the latitude where they were uplifted locally over source regions. The median values of TEBC for air parcels originating from northern China (north of 33°N) and sampled at 2-4 km and 4-9 km levels were 86% and 49%, respectively, during the A-FORCE period. These median values were systematically greater than the corresponding median values (69% and 32%, respectively) for air parcels originating from southern China (south of 33°N). Use of the A-FORCE data set will contribute to the reduction of large uncertainties in wet removal process of BC in global- and regional-scale models.

  17. Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

    2014-06-01

    Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 × 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 × 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions.

  18. The impact on the present and future East Asia climate of the land cover changes simulated by dynamic vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, Kyung-On; Cho, Mee-Hyun; Martin, Gill; Lee, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Land surface properties are important because of their known impact on the East Asian monsoon circulation. Historical and future changes in land cover changes give influences on the monsoon rainfall and circulation over the Asian summer monsoon region. The dynamic vegetation model, as one of the key process of the Earth System model, simulates the terrestrial biosphere where the fraction of tree and grass species is a function of the local climate state. The potential effect of the simulated land cover distribution needs to be individually evaluated in present and future climate simulations. Since it is reported that the simulated land surface properties could give influence on the systematic biases in monsoon rainfall and add an impact in the future projection via feedback with the dust loading of the atmosphere [Martin and Levine, 2012]. Motivated by the previous study, we investigate the impact of land cover change generated by the interactive terrestrial carbon cycle in the HadGEM2 Earth System configuration over East Asia under present-day and possible future climate condition. Data in this study is HadGEM2-A runs using HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution in Martin and Levine [2012]. In present-day run, over the northern China region to the west of Korea, bare soil increase distinctly in HadGEM2-ES rather than HadGEM2-AO. ES land cover by interactive vegetation model gives influences on JJA rainfall and temperature. There is interaction with model systematic biases in the present-day climate. JJA dry bias is larger when HadGEM2-ES land cover distribution was used for Korea. Dust aerosol effect contributes to the dry bias. As bare soil fraction increases, more emitted dust aerosol has direct effect of negative net downward SW, cooling the land surface, weakening monsoon inflow, inducing dry bias over Korea. In the other hand, over bare soil expan