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Sample records for east asia part

  1. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  2. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have said the foreign-exchange-strapped Ran- goon regime funded the offensive at least in part by contracts signed since the coup with Western oil ...dictatorship in 1962 which isolated and impoverished the resources-rich land. American and other Western oil experts now work in Rangoon and on-shore sites...failing to resolve the question of oil royalties and the problem of about 500,000 aliens in Sabah. They have raised these subjects as issues in the

  3. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    209098 JPRS- SEA -87-080 16 JUNE 1987 #■■■■■ !■■■■! \\lIPf/ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS tit East Asia Southeast Asia JBKC...of interest to readers of this report are as follows: The SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT ( SEA ) will be titled EAST AS IA/SOUTHEAST ASIA ( SEA ). The JAPAN...Virginia 22161. JPRS- SEA -87-080 16 JUNE 1987 EAST ASIA SOUTHEAST ASIA CONTENTS INTER-ASIAN LAOS Pacific Forum Offers Fiji Aid, No Recognition (AFP

  4. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  5. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 2, Language Policy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    This document, the second part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, discusses the problems aroused by language in the region. Chapters I-IV cover assumptions of the study, common problems of the region, current solutions, and future outlook.…

  6. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-17

    aqua EAST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST £ SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA pink WEST EUROPE ivory AFRICA (SUB...established with a view to improving technical knowledge. Then unified accounting was set up, particularly on behalf of the cadres who go out to...has reduced their number from 23 to 11, etc. In terms of management, through accounting and financial planning, it is possible to ascertain the

  7. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  8. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    During the same period , capital flight from Brazil amounted to $18.7 billion and from Venezuela $30.5 billion. In Asia, capital flight from South...up to Bank Indonesia. "We are merely implementers," said Ronny Suyanto. W. Kidarsa said that Bank Indonesia’s plans to end the tight money period ...34 Kidarsa stated. He hoped that bankers will continue to be selective in providing credit after the tight money period ends. To revive the sluggish economy

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Deficit With Malaysia Reported 16 Sumarlin Tries To Allay Concern About Foreign Debts 16 ’Four Tigers’ Move To Take Advantage of Lower Production...Southeast Asia MALAYSIA National Front Wants Legislators To Declare Stand 22 Mahathir Meets With New UMNO Leaders 22 MP Datuk Abdullah Urges Uniting...Japan, but after exten- sive explanation by the Indonesian side, their opposition changed into acceptance. /08309 Trade Deficit With Malaysia

  10. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-03

    exchange programme between the two countries, together with Workers Asia- yone Central Body Secretary U Nyunt Thein and Central Executive Committee...The delegation then proceeded to the National Museum at 11 am. In the evening, Vice-Chairman of the Workers Asiayone Central Body U Kyi Thein hosted...now as a sociopolitical organization in terms of unity and integrity. Tonny said that since the " Group of 17" is a problem of the central office it

  11. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-23

    interests of socialism and peace and stability in the region and the world over." /12913 CSO: 4209/663 PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KAMPUCHEA KAMPUCHEA...will be further strengthened and developed for the social development of each country and for peace and stability in the region and the world. [Text...contributed to the safeguarding of peace and stability in Indochina, Southeast Asia and the world. We are very proud of these successes and consider

  12. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Economic Management 7 PASASON Sees Need for Enterprises To Adopt Capitalist Expertise 7 MALAYSIA Mahathir Hands Over $100,000 to PLO 9 Libyan...Diplomats in Malaysia Spearhead Asia-Pacific ’Offensive’ 9 Mahathir Warns Japanese Investors About ’Western Media Distortion’ 10 Negotiations To...9604 JPRS-SEA-88-033 10 August 1988 FIJI Study of Nation’s Leadership 42130148a Kuala Lumpur UTUSAN MALAYSIA in Malay 2 Jun 88 p 6 [Article by

  13. Transport: Shipping emissions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, James

    2016-11-01

    Large growth in East Asia's sea-borne trade has increased premature deaths and atmospheric warming in the region. New legislation could reduce these impacts in areas around China, but joint efforts are needed for region-wide benefits.

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Morocco

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-NEA-92-030 19 MARCH 1992 SFOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -:PRS Report "Near East & South Asia MOROCCO 19980113 275 REPRODUCED BY U.S...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Near East & South Asia MOROCCO JPRS-NEA-92-030 CONTENTS 19 March 1992...NEA-92-030 19 March 1992 POLITICAL 1 INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS "Fish should not poison relations between the EEC and Morocco . It is up to the competent

  15. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Indonesian Personalities 8 Briefs East Sumba Food Shortage H KAMPUCHEA COALITION GOVERNMENT OF DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA VOK Urges Unity in Struggle...Suburbs’ Security, Food Conditions Reported (Noi Meuangsam; PASASON, 2 Apr 87) 18 Rubber Industry, Exports Since 1980 Reported (Keosouvan...governing party in Malaysia . Dr Burhan Magenda, a member of the teaching staff at the FISIP-UI [Sociology and Political Science Faculty of the

  16. Acid deposition in east Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Phadnis, M.J.; Carmichael, G.R.; Ichikawa, Y.

    1996-12-31

    A comparison between transport models was done to study the acid deposition in east Asia. The two models in question were different in the way the treated the pollutant species and the way simulation was carried out. A single-layer, trajectory model with simple (developed by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan) was compared with a multi-layered, eulerian type model (Sulfur Transport Eulerian Model - II [STEM-II]) treating the chemical processes in detail. The acidic species used in the simulation were sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The comparison was done for two episodes: each a month long in winter (February) and summer (August) of 1989. The predicted results from STEM-II were compared with the predicted results from the CRIEPI model as well as the observed data at twenty-one stations in Japan. The predicted values from STEM-II were similar to the ones from the CRIEPI results and the observed values in regards to the transport features. The average monthly values of SO{sub 2} in air, sulfate in air and sulfate in precipitation were in good agreement. Sensitivity studies were carried out under different scenarios of emissions, dry depositions velocities and mixing heights. The predicted values in these sensitivity studies showed a strong dependence on the mixing heights. The predicted wet deposition of sulfur for the two months is 0.7 gS/m2.mon, while the observed deposition is around 1.1 gS/m2.mon. It was also observed that the wet deposition on the Japan sea side of the islands is more than those on the Pacific side and the Okhotsk sea, mainly because of the continental outflow of pollutant air masses from mainland China and Korea. The effects of emissions from Russia and volcanoes were also evaluated.

  17. East Asia: The Yale Outreach Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caryn

    The East Asian Outreach Program at Yale University seeks to promote increased understanding of the countries of East Asia (China, Japan, and Korea) through educational and cultural programming for educators, businesses, community organizations, and the general public on a national basis. In addition to information concerning the services,…

  18. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-03

    exempted from taxes for between 6 months and 1 year. Families who work part - time to increase their incomes are exempted from all taxes. With regard...Zainon Ahmad; NEW STRAITS TIMES , 18 Apr 87) 39 Prem Urged To Resign To Solve Image Problem (Editorial; SIAM RAT, 7 May 87) ^2 43 Fisheries...Ho Chi Minh City Regulation on Business, Part 3 (SAIGON GIAI PHONG, 10 Apr 87) 85 Ho Chi Minh City Autonomy Regulation, Part 4 (SAIGON GIAI

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-23

    East & South Asia JPRS-NEA-88-021 CONTENTS 23 MARCH 1988 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Egyptian Foreign Policy Advisor Offers Views on Uprising 1 PALESTINIAN...Calls For Clear, Honest Party Policies 13 LIBYA Libya Detains Crew of Tunisian Fishing Vessel [AL-DUSTUR, 7 Mar 88] 14 MOROCCO World Bank...88] il JPRS-NEA-88-021 23 March 1988 NEAR EAST REGIONAL Egyptian Foreign Policy Advisor Offers Views on Uprising 44040123a Jerusalem AL-QUDS 18

  20. JPRS Report, East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    whether to keep it on or to lift the ban. [Dobell] But sanctions are hurting Fiji, do you support those things? [Bavadra] Well, they are hurting Fiji...candidates get to understand the issues better be- cause they keep very close to the stage, each trying to elbow for prime space to view the candidates...recognize the CPLA as a "peace- keeping force" in the Cordillera? If true, the move shows that the CPLA is now part of the gov- ernment’s police

  1. Cloud Microphysical Characteristics over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Wang, D.; Zhai, G.

    2012-04-01

    A survey of the existing literature on in-situ measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical properties was undertaken. Then, a database was established to contain microphysical properties for raindrop, cloud droplet, fog, ice nuclei (IN), snow crystal, as well as the relationship between radar reflectivity (Z) and rainfall rate (R). The time span of the in-situ probe measurements ranges from 1960 to 2008 over East Asia and from 1940 to 2008 in the other regions (which is defined as those include the Americas, Europe, and Australia). From the datasets, dividing the data coverage into East Asia and the other regions, several parameters are presented, including mean concentration of hydrometeor particles, liquid water content (LWC), as well as functional fit parameters of particles size distributions. The main properties of hydrometeor particles were presented, and the functional fitted parameters of particle size distributions over East Asia have been compared with those over the other regions. Note that the all measurements taken in other regions do not mean that all cloud systems in the other regions are similar. Our main method of the present study is to put all measurement results taken in different regions over the world together. If the cloud systems over East Asia have their own characteristics, it will be grouped together. Thus, the difference between East Asia and other regions is readily discernible. The results show that there are differences, sometimes even large differences, between East Asia and the other regions in terms of these cloud-precipitation microphysical characteristics. More specific conclusions are as follows: (1) Both exponential- and gamma-size distributions are used to fit RSD of rains originating from stratiform clouds. Average intercept N0 of exponential-size distribution over East Asia is one order of magnitude smaller than that over the other regions, and average slope λ is slight smaller. As for gamma-size distributions, the

  2. Application of WRF/Chem over East Asia: Part I. Model evaluation and intercomparison with MM5/CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the application of the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF/Chem) version 3.3.1 is evaluated over East Asia for January, April, July, and October 2005 and compared with results from a previous application of an offline model system, i.e., the Mesoscale Model and Community Multiple Air Quality modeling system (MM5/CMAQ). The evaluation of WRF/Chem is performed using multiple observational datasets from satellites and surface networks in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. WRF/Chem simulates well specific humidity (Q2) and downward longwave and shortwave radiation (GLW and GSW) with normalized mean biases (NMBs) within 24%, but shows moderate to large biases for temperature at 2-m (T2) (NMBs of -9.8% to 75.6%) and precipitation (NMBs of 11.4-92.7%) for some months, and wind speed at 10-m (WS10) (NMBs of 66.5-101%), for all months, indicating some limitations in the YSU planetary boundary layer scheme, the Purdue Lin cloud microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi ensemble scheme. WRF/Chem can simulate the column abundances of gases reasonably well with NMBs within 30% for most months but moderately to significantly underpredicts the surface concentrations of major species at all sites in nearly all months with NMBs of -72% to -53.8% for CO, -99.4% to -61.7% for NOx, -84.2% to -44.5% for SO2, -63.9% to -25.2% for PM2.5, and -68.9% to 33.3% for PM10, and aerosol optical depth in all months except for October with NMBs of -38.7% to -16.2%. The model significantly overpredicts surface concentrations of O3 at most sites in nearly all months with NMBs of up to 160.3% and NO3- at the Tsinghua site in all months. Possible reasons for large underpredictions include underestimations in the anthropogenic emissions of CO, SO2, and primary aerosol, inappropriate vertical distributions of emissions of SO2 and NO2, uncertainties in upper boundary conditions (e.g., for O3 and CO), missing or inaccurate model representations (e

  3. Education Indicators for East Asia and Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acedo, Clementina; Uemura, Mitsue

    This set of education indicators for the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region is designed to provide key policy-oriented data for World Bank staff and clients. The framework is divided into six main chapters: (1) the demographic, social and economic context of education; (2) financial and human resources invested in education; (3) access to…

  4. Higher Education in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    South-East Asia is a region of vast development diversity but also many commonalities. And the development of higher education in the region, stemmed from its different historical background is changing rapidly towards their respective socio-economic needs. The publication is a joint research study by UNESCO Bangkok and Southeast Asian Ministers…

  5. A comparison of the taxonomic richness of temperate plants in East Asia and North America.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong

    2002-11-01

    The taxonomic richness of seed plants at different taxonomic levels was compared between temperate East Asia and North America at both continental and semi-continental scales. In each comparison, land area and latitude range were adjusted to a comparable level between the two continental regions. East Asia is significantly more diverse than North America. In general, differences in taxonomic diversity arise at and below the genus level. At the continental scale, East Asia has 1.3 and 1.5 times as many genera and species, respectively, as North America. The northern part of East Asia has 1.1 times as many species as the northern part of North America. At the genus level, the northern part of East Asia is less diverse than the northern part of North America by a factor of 0.94. This pattern indicates that the diversity bias between the two continental regions results from the flora of southern East Asia. The diversity differences between East Asia and North America are not homogenously distributed across different plant groups. At the species level, East Asia had significantly more species than expected in magnoliids, alismatids, Liliidae, ranunculids, and rosids and had significantly less species in the Commelinidae, Caryophyllidae, and euasterids than North America.

  6. Some cooperative activities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaifu, Norio

    We report the activity of continued and sequential cooperation among Asian countries/regions, especially in East Asia. Such efforts started in 1990 from a small-size China-Korea-Japan meeting on starforming regions. Being aware of the importance of cooperation among those neighboring countries, participants agreed to hold sequential "East Asian Meetings for Astronomy (EAMA)". The 1992 meeting entitled "Millimeter-Wave and Infrared Astronomy" was held in Japan, and the 1999 meeting entitled "Observational Astrophysics in Asia and its Future" was held in China. These meetings achieved quite high activity with 100-200 participants, each. An important product of those meetings was active exchange between young astronomers, including graduate students. The primary aim of these meetings/activities was to promote small but practical cooperation in the field of astronomical instrumentation, as well as to widen the contact among Asian astronomers. An East-Asian co-experiment to search for good sites for a possible "Asian Observatory" was among such efforts. The close cooperation between Japan, China (Peoples' Republic and Taipei) and Korea, on millimeter and sub-millimeter wave technology is another good example of joint developments of new instruments.

  7. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Yu, Sheng; Ohtani, Eiji

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review the significant recent results of geophysical studies and discuss their implications on seismotectonics, magmatism, and mantle dynamics in East Asia. High-resolution geophysical imaging revealed structural heterogeneities in the source areas of large crustal earthquakes, which may reflect magma and fluids that affected the rupture nucleation of large earthquakes. In subduction zone regions, the crustal fluids originate from the dehydration of the subducting slab. Magmatism in arc and back-arc areas is caused by the corner flow in the mantle wedge and dehydration of the subducting slab. The intraplate magmatism has different origins. The continental volcanoes in Northeast Asia (such as Changbai and Wudalianchi) seem to be caused by the corner flow in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and the deep dehydration of the stagnant slab as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is possibly caused by a similar process in BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate). The Hainan volcano in southernmost China seems to be a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The occurrence of deep earthquakes under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin may be related to a metastable olivine wedge in the subducting Pacific slab. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which may trigger upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and cause the slab-plume interactions. Some of these issues, such as the origin of intraplate magmatism, are still controversial, and so further detailed studies are needed from now.

  8. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning in East Asia and southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-06-02

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in East Asia and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the coastal countries of East Asia and Southeast Asia, ciguatera should be common because of the extensive tropical and subtropical coral reefs along the coasts and in the neighboring seas with ciguatoxic fishes. An extensive search of journal databases, the Internet and the government websites was performed to identify all reports of ciguatera from the regions. Based on the official data and large published case series, the incidence of ciguatera was higher in the coastal cities (Hong Kong, Foshan, Zhongshan) of southern China than in Japan (Okinawa Prefecture). In Singapore, ciguatera appeared to be almost unknown. In other countries, only isolated cases or small case series were reported, but under-reporting was assumed to be common. Ciguatera may cause severe acute illness and prolonged neurological symptoms. Ciguatera represents an important public health issue for endemic regions, with significant socio-economic impact. Coordinated strategies to improve risk assessment, risk management and risk communication are required. The systematic collection of accurate data on the incidence and epidemiology of ciguatera should enable better assessment and management of its risk. Much more work needs to be done to define the size threshold for important coral reef fish species from different regions, above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26042615

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    control the supply of arms in the Middle there was desperate: shortage of food, fuel and flour , East, Mr Cheney, U.S. Defence Secretary, personally...Far East, receives Soviet support. where we have important relationships with Thailand, Malaysia , Korea and Japan, where the prime minister’s Pakistan...citizens everywhere, with the populace in Lahore ious parts of the world where the feudal system flour - and Sheikhupura giving vent to its outrage

  12. What's happening to marriage in East Asia?

    PubMed

    Westley, S B

    1998-07-01

    This article presents an overview of marriage patterns in East Asia. Globally, marriage patterns are changing. In East Asia, cultural patterns are slowing the changes in attitude toward marriage that are occurring in the West. There are implications of changing attitudes for government planners. This issue of Asia-Pacific Population and Policy is based on a series of studies of marriage and family life in Japan, South Korea, and the US. Data were obtained from the 1994 Japan Survey on Work and Family Life; the 1994 South Korea Survey on the Quality of Life; and the 1992-94 US Survey of Families and Households. Findings are reported on marriage age, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes post-marriage, and work patterns during marriage. Both Japan and South Korea have below replacement level fertility and traditional gendered division of labor in the household. In South Korea, women who work 35 or more hours/week spend 31 hours/week on housework, while husbands contribute 14 hours/week. In the US, the equivalent figures were 26 hours for full-time working wives and 9 hours for husbands. In Japan, wives spent 30 hours on housework, while husbands spent 3 hours. Full-time work outside the home involved 57% of married women in Japan, 27% in South Korea, and 66% in the US. Notwithstanding the double burden, women in South Korea and Japan experience pressure from competitive school systems for their children. After-school academic programs are expensive. The trend is for greater reluctance to marry. Replacement level fertility is unlikely unless full equality is achieved in the family.

  13. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  14. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  15. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in East Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. Location: East Asia from the Arctic to tropical regions, an area crossing over 50?? of latitudes and covering the eastern part of China, Korea, Japan and the eastern part of Russia. Methods: East Asia is divided into forty-five geographical regions. Based on the similarity of their world-wide distributional patterns, a total of 2808 indigenous genera of seed plants found in East Asia were grouped into fourteen geographical elements, belonging to three major categories (cosmopolitan, tropical and temperate). The 50??-long latitudinal gradient of East Asia was divided into five latitudinal zones, each of c. 10??. Phytogeographical relationships of East Asia to latitude and climatic variables were examined based on the forty-five regional floras. Results: Among all geographical and climatic variables considered, latitude showed the strongest relationship to phytogeographical composition. Tropical genera (with pantropical, amphi-Pacific tropical, palaeotropical, tropical Asia-tropical Australia, tropical Asia-tropical Africa and tropical Asia geographical elements combined) accounted for c. 80% of the total genera at latitude 20??N and for c. 0% at latitude 55-60??N. In contrast, temperate genera (including holarctic, eastern Asia-North America, temperate Eurasia, temperate Asia, Mediterranean, western Asia to central Asia, central Asia and eastern Asia geographical elements) accounted for 15.5% in the southernmost latitude and for 80% at 55-60??N, from where northward the percentage tended to level off. The proportion of cosmopolitan genera increased gradually with latitude from 5% at the southernmost latitude to 21% at 55-60??N, where it levelled off northward. In general, the genera present in a more

  16. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    PubMed

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  17. Redefining second modernity for East Asia: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Jin; Shim, Young-Hee

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which the concept of second modernity and reflexive modernization proposed by Beck and Grande is relevant to East Asia. Concepts such as driving forces, human agency, objective-structural versus cultural-discursive dimensions, radicalizing versus deficiencies aspects of modernity, push versus pull factors are used to clarify the basic conditions of this historical transformation. Utilizing these conceptual schemes, this paper has advanced the following central claims: 1) Second modernity and reflexive modernization, as a global trend, affects East Asia as deeply as it does in the West, especially when we see this as a structurally conditioned historical transformation; 2) Global risks, as a driving force of second modernity, are more relevant in East Asia because, as a result of the side-effects of the rush-to development, East Asian countries face complex risks of far greater intensity than in the West; 3) The action-mediated pull factor of second-modern transformation in East Asia, expressed through the cultural-discursive articulation of collective desire and aspiration, differs significantly from the West. Consequently, the East Asian pathways to individualization display distinctive characteristics despite the common structural background where push factors operate; 4) East Asia also differs from the West in terms of the normative vision anchored in second modernity; 5) Nevertheless, concrete pathways to second modernity within East Asia differ from one country to another.

  18. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia: Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-15

    to "hear no evil", "see no evil" and "speak no Factories boss Maj. Gen. Mahmood Ali Durrani, an evil" are secretly decided in advance by mutual...nuclear technology, especially to the Middle East..." [Text] Whether the recent meeting between Pakistan’s Federal Minister, Chaudhry Nisar Ali , who...Nisar Ali , On his part, gave Mr Warren Christopher every obtain Russian cyrogenic [as published] rocket engines assurance that Pakistan was opposed

  19. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, D. M.; Stephenson, F. R.; Fang, Huiping

    2007-03-01

    1880-1940. The localised nature and spatial structure of some sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia is indicated by the use of descriptive terms such as "lightning", "rainbow", "streak" and "grid".

  20. The East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: Aerosol Column Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; Li, Zhanqing

    2003-01-01

    Airborne dusts from northern China contribute a significant part of the air quality problem and, to some extent, regional climatic impact in Asia during spring- time. However, with the economical growth in China, increases in the emission of air pollutants generated from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the radiation balance, but adverse health effects to humans all year round. In addition, both of these dust and air pollution clouds can transport swiftly across the Pacific reaching North America within a few days, possessing an even larger scale effect. The Asian dust and air pollution aerosols can be detected by its colored appearance on current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and its evolution monitored by satellites and surface network. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3,Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two new initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East

  1. Preliminary Bibliography on East Asia for Undergraduate Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Edith; Morehouse, Ward

    This classified bibliography on East Asia and similar bibliographies on Africa south of the Sahara (LI 000 882) and South Asia (LI 000 061) have been compiled under the first phase of a three-year cooperative project to strengthen bibliographical resources for undergraduate libraries on "neglected" foreign areas. The bibliography in its…

  2. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  3. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part I. Comprehensive Model Evaluation and Trend Analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with

  4. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; ...

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at themore » surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is generally consistent with or even better than that

  5. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes: Part I. Comprehensive model evaluation and trend analysis for 2006 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-08-18

    Online-coupled climate and chemistry models are necessary to realistically represent the interactions between climate variables and chemical species and accurately simulate aerosol direct and indirect effects on cloud, precipitation, and radiation. In this Part I of a two-part paper, simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with the physics package of Community Atmosphere Model (WRF-CAM5) are conducted with the default heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterization over East Asia for two full years: 2006 and 2011. A comprehensive model evaluation is performed using satellite and surface observations. The model shows an overall acceptable performance for major meteorological variables at the surface and in the boundary layer, as well as column variables (e.g., precipitation, cloud fraction, precipitating water vapor, downward longwave and shortwave radiation). Moderate to large biases exist for cloud condensation nuclei over oceanic areas, cloud variables (e.g., cloud droplet number concentration, cloud liquid and ice water paths, cloud optical depth, longwave and shortwave cloud forcing). These biases indicate a need to improve the model treatments for cloud processes, especially cloud droplets and ice nucleation, as well as to reduce uncertainty in the satellite retrievals. The model simulates well the column abundances of chemical species except for column SO2 but relatively poor for surface concentrations of several species such as CO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10. Several reasons could contribute to the underestimation of major chemical species in East Asia including underestimations of anthropogenic emissions and natural dust emissions, uncertainties in the spatial and vertical distributions of the anthropogenic emissions, as well as biases in meteorological, radiative, and cloud predictions. Despite moderate to large biases in the chemical predictions, the model performance is

  6. The Rising Powers and Collective Security in South East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE RISING POWERS AND COLLECTIVE SECURITY IN SOUTH EAST ASIA BY COLONEL MICHAEL MAHY Australian...U.S. Army War College CARLISLE BARRACKS, PENNSYLVANIA 17013 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel Michael Mahy TITLE: The Rising Powers and...Asia has proved that she can do the economics. Can she also do the politics that come with power? 1 -Shivshankar Menon, India‘s National

  7. "(East) Asia" as a Platform for Debate: Grouping and Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics. Using the notions of "grouping" and "segmentary systems" to show the performative nature of characterizations of (East) Asian bioethics, allowing users to mark regional identity, share meanings, take political positions, and network. Deploying Peter Haas's notion of "epistemic communities," I argue that academic and political elites translate "home" issues into "Asia speak," while at the same time, introducing and giving shape to "new" bioethical issues. Although the "Asianisms" and group-marking activities of Asian networks of bioethics are ideological, thereby engaging in the politics of in/exclusion, they succeed in putting politically sensitive topics on the agenda.

  8. JPRS Report, East Asia. Korea: KULLOJA, No. 12, December 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-23

    JPRS-AKU-90-004 23 JULY 1990 ffSBBBl ■■■■■« L.%^^ W J’#’A FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No...QUALITY DJSPMJTED 3 East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 12, December 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-004 CONTENTS 23 JULY 1990 [This report is a translation of the table...of contents and selected articles from the monthly theoretical journal of the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party, published in Pyongyang

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 10, October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fatherland’s Reunification Reality and Must change Its Policy on Korea 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean No 10, Oct 89...STATEMENT A Approved for public reiecse; Distribution Unlimited East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 IXHC QUÄLET* INSPECTED $ 󈨥SOS7? /3<g...East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-002 CONTENTS 11 APRIL 1990 [This report is a translation of the table of contents and

  10. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  11. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Quits CWC"] [Text] New Delhi, May 8: The veteran Congress(I) leader, Mr Uma Shankar Dikshit, has quit the Congress Working Committee [CWC...expressed by the developing member countries regarding reduction of the quantum of aid to Asia following the developments in Eastern Europe. Prof

  12. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  13. Variations in the power dissipation index in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kin Sik; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the variability of the power dissipation index (PDI) for different regions of the East Asia region during the period 1960-2013. The annual PDI (APDI) in the region is calculated as the sum of the PDI, defined as the cube of the maximum sustained wind speed at landfall of each tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall at that region. Upward and downward trends in APDI are found in the northern and southern parts of East Asia respectively, suggesting a possible northward shift in TC landfall locations. Interdecadal variations of the APDI can also be found in some regions. The APDI in various regions show a close relation with the PDI distribution over the western North Pacific (WNP) with three characteristic patterns. The ENSO and basin-wide mode represents the PDI patterns associated with ENSO events and the overall PDI over the WNP. The east-west dipole mode and the north-south dipole mode denote the east-west and north-south shifts of PDI respectively. Based on the steering flow (average winds within the 850-300 hPa layer) near the East Asian coast, a three-cell model for TC landfall in East Asia is proposed, which corresponds to three major modes of the atmospheric circulation in the WNP. Each of these modes shows an anomalous circulation located east of Taiwan, east of Japan and the South China Sea, respectively and each of which has a significant impact on the APDI in some regions along the coast of East Asia. A northward shift in the APDI along the East Asian coast is identified in the period 1997-2013 as a result of the change in steering flow pattern, northward shift in TC genesis location and weaker vertical wind shear over the ocean near the coastal areas.

  14. The Geopolitical Destiny of East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    internal problems can deteriorate. Its current problems of overpopulation , gender imbalance, industrial pollution, regional water deficiencies, and...the locals. As these sub-regions already suffer from overpopulation , this will build further pressure in the sub-regions, necessitating a pressure...Arctic coast of Russian Far East will be settled, developed, and will eventually outshine the overpopulated urban centers of East Asian continent

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    following Casablanca , at the end of the first phase of NEAR EAST JPRS-NEA-89-058 31 August 1989 direct negotiations between the Palestinian and... Casablanca , and it is clear after the summit. JPRS-NEA-89-058 31 August 1989 NEAR EAST 17 [BAMAHANE] Yet, there is dialogue. [Shahaq] Dialogue is...important in itself. The fact that all the Arab leaders participated in the Casablanca summit is also an achievement for King Hassan of Morocco, who

  16. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    045 CONTENTS 21 AUGUST 1990 NEAR EAST REGIONAL AFFAIRS GCC Future Management Strategies Explained [London AL-MAJALLAH 26 Jun] 1 Columnist...Economy Criticized [JASARAT 14 May] 57 JPRS-NEA-90-045 21 August 1990 NEAR EAST REGIONAL AFFAIRS GCC Future Management Strategies Explained...depend on the competence of their leaders. Good management skills will be the decisive factor that distin- guishes between organizations that can

  17. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN, No. 1, January 1989 %

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 xmcQuiim Brazil ) 1 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 1 January...regions. Tobacco accounts for 17 percent of the area and 32 percent of the yield. Jute accounts for 14 percent of the yield. Coconuts account for 90...Besides this, Seaprodex helped the Nam Can joint ven- ture import 558 generators of various sizes, 458 "may thuy" [ water machines] of various

  18. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: Tap Chi Cong San, No. 6, June 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 3 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam: TAP CHI CONG SAN No 6, June 1990...1980, volume 1, page 10] According to President Ho, confidence in the masses was one of the basic qualities of communists. That was one of the...34 "Riches could not seduce him, poverty and suf- fering could not change him, and military power could not force him to submit." He resolutely overcame

  19. The Progress of Globalization and Educational Reforms in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimbo, Atsuko

    2009-01-01

    The symposium entitled "Social Changes in East Asia and Educational reforms: China, Korea, and Singapore" suggested that these countries are carrying out rather drastic educational reforms in the context of rapid social changes. The knowledge gained from the symposium also has important suggestions for Japanese educational reform. In…

  20. An evaluation of ozone dry deposition simulations in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, R.; Hong, Seungkyu K.; Kwon, Hyoung-Ahn; Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex B.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Loughner, C. P.

    2014-08-11

    We used a 3-D regional atmospheric chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to examine processes that determine O3 in East Asia; in particular, we focused on O3 dry deposition, which is an uncertain research area due to insufficient observation and numerical studies in East Asia. Here, we compare two widely used dry deposition parameterization schemes, Wesely and M3DRY, which are used in the WRF-Chem and CMAQ models, respectively. The O3 dry deposition velocities simulated using the two aforementioned schemes under identical meteorological conditions show considerable differences (a factor of 2) due to surface resistance parameterization discrepancies. The O3 concentration differed by up to 10 ppbv for the monthly mean. The simulated and observed dry deposition velocities were compared, which showed that the Wesely scheme model is consistent with the observations and successfully reproduces the observed diurnal variation. We conduct several sensitivity simulations by changing the land use data, the surface resistance of the water and the model’s spatial resolution to examine the factors that affect O3 concentrations in East Asia. As shown, the model was considerably sensitive to the input parameters, which indicates a high uncertainty for such O3 dry deposition simulations. Observations are necessary to constrain the dry deposition parameterization and input data to improve the East Asia air quality models.

  1. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  2. Adolescent Suicide and Academic Competition in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Kangmin; Le Tendre, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    Uses recent data and new theoretical perspectives to reexamine hypothesized links between academic competition and adolescent suicide in East Asia, particularly Japan. Finds no direct connection, discusses possible indirect effects on individual motives, and suggests a more complicated model. Analyzes how cultural and historical factors may…

  3. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  4. Teaching about East Asia in North Dakota Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Fredrick E.

    The current practice of teaching about East Asia in North Dakota schools was surveyed. From a list of 607 North Dakota social studies teachers, ranging from grades 7 to 12 in both public and private schools, a target sample of 266 teachers was administered a questionnaire. All regions of the states, with at least one teacher form each school, were…

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AL-SIYASAH 19 Jan] 45 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Iran-EEC Dispute May Affect Dubayy Trading [GULF NEWS 22 Fcb] 46 SOUTH ASIA INDIA Gandhi Meets...Newsmen, Discusses Election Plans [THE STATESMAN 23 Fcb] 48 Gandhi Addresses Scheduled Tribes Meeting [THE TIMES OF INDIA 26 Fcb] 48 Congress Seeks...Developments in Indian Relations With Iraq 50 Iraqi Special Envoy [THE TIMES OF INDIA 28 Fcb] 50 Gandhi Visit Planned [THE TIMES OF INDIA 25

  6. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    proposal, which was made three years ago, remains without a response. The area between the houses of Niqula and the ancient flour mills in Tzalmon Valley...result. We are bidding farewell to 1990, in which unemployment rates will prove to have flour - ished and developed. As long as the options continue...assignments worth US$1.46 million for the Abu Dhabi National Oil Corporation and Petronas, Malaysia were also completed. On the R&D front, Asia’s first

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Garment Industries Look for Quota-Free Bases in Gulf [GULF NEWS 1 May] 36 SOUTH ASIA BANGLADESH Students Riot Over Expulsions [AFP] 38...4,500 Chakma Tribes People Flee Bangladesh Violence [AFP] 52 Editorial Examines Obstacles in Indo-Pak Relations [ANANDA BAZAR PATRIKA 10 Feb] 52...initiated dealing with the engineer- ing geology requirements for building a road across terrain with many sinkholes and solution cavities, for an

  8. Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east Asia.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Su, B

    2000-11-01

    East Asia is one of the few regions in the world where a relatively large number of human fossils have been unearthed--a discovery that has been taken as evidence for an independent local origin of modern humans outside of Africa. However, genetic studies conducted in the past ten years, especially using Y chromosomes, have provided unequivocal evidence for an African origin of East Asian populations. The genetic signatures present in diverse East Asian populations mark the footsteps of prehistoric migrations that occurred tens of thousands of years ago.

  9. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment(BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Shu, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially in Africa, South America, and South East Asia. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass-burning processes, which influence the Earth-atmosphere energetics and hence impact both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some gases and aerosols can serve as active cloud condensation nuclei, which play important role in determining the net radiation budget, precipitation rate, and cloud lifetime. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); the reflectivity and emissivity of the land; and the stability of ecosystems and ecosystem biodiversity. Compared to Africa and South America, the climatology in South East Asia reveals quite different characteristics, showing distinct large-scale smoke and cloud sources and interaction regimes. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and longwave regions. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. A new initiative will be proposed and discussed.

  10. Education and Development in East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Paul, Ed.; Sweeting, Anthony, Ed.

    This book examines the specific role that formal education has played in the development process of the East Asian regions since World War II. The essays emphasize education's role as a source of growth and analyze its links with economic, social, and political domains in the post-war period. The writers hope to demonstrate both the changing…

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Corps of Engineers and that there are two new cities that theSe- cond Army is building by its own efforts, one of them east of the [Suez] Canal...civil aircraft!! Shim’on Perez , who is said to be a dove, described the American decision to hold a dialogue with the PLO as a "black day in

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    billion. The Arab countries’ imports of wheat and flour was 65.7 percent of the total world imports. A Way Out of the Predicament The problem is...Is there any chance that we will manage to break into Muslim countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia , or Indonesia, for example? [Merhav] "I don’t...think so. Almost in every place where the religious element and Pan-Islamic solidarity are strong, we are on the outside. This goes for Malaysia and

  13. JPRS Report Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-22

    secretary in place of Mr. Rath. The present director-general of tourism, Mr. B. K. Goswami, has been posted as secretary, civil supplies, in place of...special secretary, commerce, becomes secretary, ministry of textiles, in place of Mr. R. K. Dhar. Mr. Dhar’s new posting is yet to be announced, an...the 40 SOUTH ASIA JPRS-NEA-91-014 22 February 1991 Food Corporation of India [FCI]. He will have the rank of secretary. The post of FCI chairman

  14. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Textile Trade Predicted To Peak [GULF NEWS 19 Nov] 66 Study Provides Work Force Statistics [AL-KHALU 9 Nov] 67 SOUTH ASIA AFGHANISTAN Fall in...year. "In the data-bank," said al-Khalil, "we will be going into other fields of study to find out what are the problems and potential dangers...a statistical study released by the Arab League today. The study reached the conclusion by comparing the Arab world with the advanced nations in

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Aug] ........................... 54 QATAR Bank Manager Says Financial Climate Returns to Normal [London AL-SHARQ AL-A WSAT 24 Aug... risk , contrary to some observers’ expectations, a JPRS-NEA-91-065 2 NEAR EAST 18 September 1991 withdrawal from negotiations. This is especially the...be linked. However, unlike from protracted negotiations devoid of progress. These the assumption underlying the first scenario, in which risks are

  16. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, David Beck; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  17. Potential vorticity regimes over East Asia during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Ruyan; Wang, Bin; Wright, Jonathon S.; Yang, Zifan; Ma, Wenqian

    2017-02-01

    Nine potential vorticity (PV) regimes over East Asia are identified by applying a Self-Organizing Map and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification regime analysis to the daily PV reanalysis fields on the 300 K isentropic surface for December-March 1948-2014. According to the surface temperature anomalies over East Asia, these nine regimes are further classified into three classes, i.e., cold class (three regimes), warm class (four regimes), and neutral class (two regimes). The PV-based East Asian winter monsoon index (EAWMI) is used to study the relationship between PV distributions and the temperature anomalies. The magnitude of cold (warm) anomalies over the land areas of East Asia increases (decreases) quasi-linearly with the EAWMI. Regression analysis reveals that cold temperature anomalies preferentially occur when the EAWMI exceeds a threshold at ˜0.2 PVU (where 1 PVU ≡ 10-6 m2 K kg-1 s-1). PV inversion uncovers the mechanisms behind the relationships between the PV regimes and surface temperature anomalies and reveals that cold (warm) PV regimes are associated with significant warming (cooling) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. On average, cold regimes have longer durations than warm regimes. Interclass transition probabilities are much higher for paths from warm/neutral regimes to cold regimes than for paths from cold regimes to warm/neutral regimes. Besides, intraclass transitions are rare within the warm or neutral regimes. The PV regime analysis provides insight into the causes of severe cold spells over East Asia, with blocking circulation patterns identified as the primary factor in initiating and maintaining these cold spells.

  18. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    HA’ARETZ 10 Mar] 26 ALGERIA Second Group of Companies Change Status Under New Finance Law [EL MOUDJAHID 28 Mar] 28 EGYPT Open Letter Urges Bush to...Abandon ’Traditional Bias’ [AL-AKHBAR 15 Feb] 29 USSR To Finance Steel Mill on Red Sea [Paris AL-MUSTAQBAL 21 Jan] 30 Ministers of Health Council...and Israel’s interests and international relaxation. JPRS-NEA-89-035 10 May 1989 12 NEAR EAST Yosi Beilin, Israel’s deputy minister of finance

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    July, Khaled Jabarin writes: "in the name of God the merciful and compas- sionate, praise be to the Lord, prayer and peace be upon Mohammed the...1,176 km in the country’s "Tajjal" area. The second phase was to begin in August 1988 with the first well scheduled for drilling this year. South Yemen... drilling location will be chosen this year. JPRS-NEA-89-055 10 AUGUST 1989 54 NEAR EAST China—KUFPEC continued its negotiations with the Chinese

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    that outside forces do not take advantage of the situation and strike Iraq. NEAR EAST JPRS-NEA-90-050 14 September 1990 ’ Ali -al-Din Salih...AL-THA WR1 in Arabic 14 Jul 90 pp 4-5 [Interview with Colonel Doctor Husayn ’ Ali Hasan, director of the Armed Forces’ Political Guidance and Morale...become a staunch and fundamental guarantor of the unity state. That is why we were fortunate to obtain this interview with Col. Dr. Husayn ’ Ali Hasan

  1. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    hair , and bites. Indeed, it is necessary to begin at this early age with "moral" social- ization, in the sense of restraining aggression that harms... hair . This past year, he has walked with the aid of a cane, because of an injury received, not in a campaign to collect evidence at Dehayshah...stipulated by Islamic law of "cutting off the hand of the thief, flogging the adulterer , and the noose? JPRS-NEA-90-052 21 September 1990 NEAR EAST

  2. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

  3. Near East/South Asia Report, No. 2777

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    244082 JPRS 83814 I July 1983 Near East/South Asia Report No. 2777 Approved lor public reikis^"" I >&stribtjtJoia Unlimited 19980716...171 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE 3?XXC $u JIXIS1 1H0P1CT1B 8 lx: "t’/ i 4: /" NOTE JPRS publications contain information...be addressed to Joint Publications Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS 83814 I July 1983 Near East/South

  4. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  5. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events.

  6. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Misuse wastes energy; thorough rationalization is needed through cultural awareness on the part of consumers , government agencies, institu- tions...system, the cultural practices, etc., that were imposed on the Islamic community. These factors com- pletely distanced the community from the sources...between the two countries. Specific agreements were finalised on social security, a cultural agreement and protocol, and on the equivalence of

  7. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, India.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    soft cookies. It seemed that assembly constituency this year, pitted against Mr. Sid- "Gorby" had never gone. dhartha Shankar Ray, former Congress...Bhagat said the election process would be com- "the entire quantum of the so-called NRI [nonresident pletely decentralised. The senior party office...The schedule has included at length Ambanis’ acquired the L&T was "neither transparent the recommendations made by the Uma Shankar Dixit nor a part of

  8. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Maverick missiles it had requested, and an announce- ment to that effect was made at the time . Regarding the second part of the question, let me...from the standpoint of time , energy and cogitation, [passage omitted] As for the second question, I maintain that what hap- pened at al-Ubayyid was...Angered Over Accusatory Letter [HA ’ARETZ 24 Apr] 29 Watches Set According To ’Palestine Time ’ Reportedly Smashed [THE JERUSALEM POST 25 Apr] 29

  9. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reason- able opportunity for Gulf manufacturing industries. The construction material industry, both metal and non- metal, which is suffering from...the manufacturer , giving the country of origin of the component parts or manufactured goods. He said that in Bahrain the Directorate of Customs and...Ports was the responsible authority for products which were manufactured locally for export to other GCC countries, and for which a certificate is

  10. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    must not undermine stability, manufacturers working as subcontractors; the estab- and consequently it is necessary to lower the standard of lishment of a...products and partly because of its non-development expenditure from its revenues, competition (e.g. those manufacturing ghee, packing tea, There will be a...after the lapse of a and cosmetics, footwear, bathroom fittings, butter, number of years. Yet they afford no assurance of sta- yogurt , confectionary etc

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-19

    occasion to make their voice more penetrat- ing and to bring to life a leadership which will genuinely implement their will. From this standpoint...this point, summarizing part of my thesis on anthropology, which is almost completed, for a mas- ter’s degree from Haifa University . It was quoted by...Criticize Special Committee’s Work 1 Appeal to ArSSR Leadership , People [Montreal HORIZON 15 May] 1 Gorbachev Urged to Act [Montreal HORIZON

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-19

    Casablanca summit, despite the fact that King Hassan IIvisited him two weeks before in Libya to take part in At the same time, Tunisian Prime Minister...of stimulated and some of the recent Casablanca summit Algerian-Tunisian relations depends on the extent of the resolutions implemented. However, the...Bin-Majalliyah objected. Heasked that more time be given to discussing the letters Raja al-Habbaj al-’Azimi: "If any citizen complains to received by

  13. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Moroccan employee in by disputes over the gas agreement: bureaucratic annoy- Casablanca, nothing has managed to diminish the spirit ances...railroads, and airport runways. Partly guaranteed by COFACE [French For- For Paris, the Maghreb is of critical importance. From a eign Trade Insurance ...opera- billion francs worth of assistance to Algiers, including 4 tions managed under existing mechanisms in the Euro- billion in aid (half of which

  14. JPRS Report, Near East and South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ourselves forced to question the demic said. government as part of our sensitivity to citizens’ con- cerns, so as to alert managers to the need to keep up...cover a financial deficit, a [Belkhadim] I think the responsibility is joint. We are production shortfall, or bad management . not evading it. However...organically connected to real How do you view the present situation of the reforms? wages. In the context of dealing with workers, managers

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    with the World Bank, provides insurance for non- commercial risks which would make investment by foreigners more attractive. Public Food...protection scheme is to be part of foreign aid. Fiscal management is expected to improve in as much as a revenue surplus of Taka 76.77 billion is...dome. The base of the parliament has six floors. The southern side of the first floor houses building management offices and government conference

  16. Developing Curriculum Materials on East Asia for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The Curriculum Research & Development Group (CRDG) is a research unit of the College of Education at the University of Hawai'i. Part of its mission is to develop curriculum materials for students in grades K-12. The social studies section of CRDG has been developing curriculum materials on Asia since the early 1990s. As part of a project…

  17. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    or semipublic corpora- tion and on a remunerative basis, all or part of the assets of said enterprise or corporation, giving it its seal of approval...work is the welding of the pipes, a job that may be done at the rate of up to 7 kilometers per day. "Welders in this field are true artists...considering the 10 or so beads needed for completing one weld with special techniques and welding rods. The whole thing is 100- percent X-rayed, and the

  18. Aerosol impacts on climate and environment over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Mukai, S.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the aerosol distribution in East Asia is complex due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the behavior of natural dusts. Therefore, detailed observations of atmospheric particles in East Asian are important. It is concerned about the change of concentration of aerosols causes various effects on the climate by directly and indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of cloud. In addition to radiation budget change, aerosol has a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation. These circulation fields change influence on emission of natural aerosols such as dust aerosols and sea salt aerosols. Also, air pollution in megacities in East Asia has become a serious problem. Especially problematic are fine particles called PM2.5, whose diameter is 2.5 mm or less. Particulate matter (PM) pollution as indicated by high PM2.5 readings will cause a spike in the mortality rate of patients suffering from heart and lung diseases. Because fine particles are much smaller than inhalable coarse particles, the can penetrate deeper into the lungs and cause more severe effects on human health. Anthropogenic sources of PM2.5 include automobiles, factories, coal-burning power plants, and heaters in homes. It is well known that the size of dust particles decreases during long-range transport via westerly winds, and the resulting dust storms can contain high concentrations of fine particles. Accordingly, PM2.5 concentrations correspond well to both anthropogenic and dust aerosols. This work intends to investigate impacts of aerosol on regional climate change and environment over East Asia using observations and model simulations.

  19. East Asia Review, 1973. 1. Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, P

    1974-05-01

    Developments in the field of population and family planning during 1973 in Hong Kong are reviewed. The most significant event of the year was the start of the government family planning program. Hong Kong $2.4 million has been allocated to cover the cost of the government's participation in a phased program to integrate family planning services into its maternal and child health program. 4 part-time clinics run by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong became the responsibility of the Medical and Health Department in October 1973. In January 1974, 4 full-time clinics will be taken over, and the remaining clinics in maternal and child health centers will be turned over beginning April 1974. This should 3e completed by the end of 1974. The crude annual birth rate for 1973 was 19.8 per thousand. In 1972 it was 19.7. The death rate remained at around 5. The population growth rate increased to around 3%, of which about half was due to immigration from China. There was a 5.8% increase in new acceptors from January 1973 to November 1973. The Association increased its use of the mass media, particularly radio and television. In 1972, the Association conducted a "Study of the Impact of Industrialization on Fertility in Hong Kong" in conjunction with the Social Research Center of the Chinese University. It was determined that industrialization has affected fertility in a number of interrelated ways. Higher education levels, better employment opportunities (particularly for women), urbanization, desire for improved living standards, and postponement of marriage, which are the primary effects of industrialization, have resulted in changing attitudes toward children and childbearing as reflected in the finding that the percentage of people using contraceptives rose from 44% in 1967 to 48% in 1972. In the future, the Association will establish new clinics in those parts of the colony not presently being reached, and it will develop services to reach such groups as working

  20. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tehsin, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  1. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  2. HIV-1 variants in South and South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsuchie, H; Saraswathy, T S; Sinniah, M; Vijayamalar, B; Maniar, J K; Monzon, O T; Santana, R T; Paladin, F J; Wasi, C; Thongcharoen, P

    1995-01-01

    HIV spread in South and South-East Asia is most alarming, and genetic variability of HIV-1 is an important consideration in vaccine development. In this study, we examined the third variable (V3) region of env gene of HIV-1 variants prevalent in Thailand, Malaysia, India, and the Philippines. By phylogenetic tree analyses, an HIV-1 variant from an injecting drug user (IDU) in Thailand belonged to subtype B, and HIV-1 variants from 2 IDUs in Malaysia were classified into 2 subtypes, B and E. One HIV-1 variant from a male homosexual in the Philippines belonged to subtype B. Out of 8 HIV-1 variants from sexually transmitted disease patients in India, 7 belonged to subtype C, and one to subtype A. Although the total number of individuals examined in this study was limited, 4 HIV-1 subtypes were found in South and South-East Asia and large international movements of HIV-1-infected individuals in this region could induce global dissemination of these HIV-1 variants.

  3. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    ITO, HIROTO; SETOYA, YUTARO; SUZUKI, YURIKO

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, integrate care within the general health care system, prioritize target groups, strengthen leadership in policy mak-ing, and devise effective funding and economic incentives. PMID:23024679

  4. Ozone export from East Asia: The role of PAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhe; Worden, John R.; Payne, Vivienne H.; Zhu, Liye; Fischer, Emily; Walker, Thomas; Jones, Dylan B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an important ozone (O3) precursor. The lifetime of PAN is approximately 1 month in the free troposphere, and this allows O3 production to occur in pollution plumes at intercontinental distances from its source. In this study we use the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS)-Chem global chemical transport model, new satellite measurements of PAN from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and data from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign over North America, to study the role of natural and anthropogenic Asian emissions on free tropospheric (900-400 hPa) PAN distributions and subsequent O3 production. Using the ARCTAS data with GEOS-Chem, we show that while GEOS-Chem is unbiased with respect to the aircraft data, TES version 7 PAN data are biased high for regions with surface temperatures colder than 285 K. However, GEOS-Chem and TES measurements provide a consistent representation (within 15% difference) of PAN abundance over East Asia. Because of the good agreement between model and observations, we use the GEOS-Chem model to evaluate the sources of PAN precursors and the effect of free tropospheric PAN on the export of O3 from Asia to North America. The GEOS-Chem model results show that the largest contributors to free tropospheric PAN over Asia and the northern Pacific are anthropogenic and soil NOx emissions. Biomass burning emissions have important contributions to free tropospheric PAN over northern Pacific (25% in April), while the contribution from lightning over northern Pacific is significant in July (40%). Strong springtime transport in April results in more export of free tropospheric PAN and O3 from East Asian emissions. This free tropospheric PAN contributes about 35% to the abundance of free tropospheric O3 over western North America in spring and 25% in summer.

  5. Beyond Forward Naval Presence Asserting American Military Power in East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    Microsoft Encarta 2007, “East Asia,” http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/mapcenter/map.aspx? refid =701516672 (accessed on 07 April 2007). 13 anti...Affairs 84, (September/October 2005): 49-61. Microsoft Encarta 2007. “East Asia.” http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/features/mapcenter /map.aspx? refid

  6. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  7. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part II. Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Parameterizations and Dust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O3, SO42-, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2 over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and

  8. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on

  9. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; ...

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the

  10. Aerosol remote sensing in East Asia : Motivation for NASA/AERONET/DRAGON-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Nakata, M.; Sano, I.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the air pollution in East Asia becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Furthermore, air quality in the big cities is worse in comparison with that in remote area because of the industries and auto mobiles. Then high resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosols in spatial- and temporal- scale are desired in Asian urban cities. NASA/Dragon-Asia practiced in the spring of 2012 is really meaningful accordingly. In recent years, heavy air pollutants as well as Asian dusts, i.e. yellow dust storm, transport to neighbor countries from the continent of China throughout year. These aerosol episodes, which mean dense concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere, severely influence for the environment and human health. This work focuses on the aerosol remote sensing in the case of serious aerosol episodes detected by both satellite and ground measurements in East Asia. It is reasonable to consider for aerosol remote sensing that precise simulations of multiple light scattering processes ( cslled radiative transfer hereafter) in coupled Earth-atmosphere-surface model are necessary and need a long computational time especially for an optically thick atmosphere model such as an aerosol episode. Thus efficient and practical algorithms for radiative transfer are indispensable to retrieve aerosol properties from space. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models, which are compiled from the accumulated measurements during more than ten years provided with the world wide aerosol monitoring network (NASA/AERONET). In addition the efficient procedure to solve the radiative transfer problem for semi-infinite medium named MSOS (Method of Successive Order of Scattering) is examined in practice around Beijing by using Aqua/MODIS data.

  11. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  12. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  13. Food in health security in North East Asia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Food and health security in North East Asia including South Korea, North Korea, China and Japan was compared. Because this region contains countries with many complex problems, it is worthwhile to study the current situation. With about 24% of the world's population, all North East Asian countries supply between 2400 and 3000 Kcal of energy. Regarding health status, two extreme problems exist. One is malnutrition in North Korea and China and the other is chronic degenerative disease in Japan, South Korea and China. Because quality, quantity and safety of the food supply have to be secured for health security, some topics are selected and discussed. 1) World food price can have an effect on food security for countries with a low food self sufficiency rate such as Japan and Korea; specially, for the urban poor. 2) Population aging can increase the number of aged people without food security. An aged population with less income and no support from their off-spring, because of disappearing traditional values, may have food insecurity. 3) Population growth and economic growth in this region may worsen food problems. Since a quarter of the world's population resides in this region, populations will continue to increase. With economic growth, people will consume more animal products. 4) Climate change generates food production problems. As the progress of industry continues, there will be less land for food and more pollutants in the environment. 5) Political instability will cause food insecurity and conflict will cause problems with regard to food aid.

  14. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  15. Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

    2006-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

  16. Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Tan, Ping-Ping; Jin, Li; Su, Bing; Ma, Runlin Z

    2011-01-01

    modern human settlement in East Asia, there are ancient contributions, though limited, from WE, which partly explain the genetic divergence between current southern and northern East Asian populations.

  17. Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the temperature variation during the winter in the northern hemisphere and East Asia over the last 56 years (1958/1959-2013/2014) was investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phase of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the temperature of East Asia (25-45°N, 110-145°E) and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were out-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500 hPa related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. An index considering the effect of both AO and WP on East Asia winter temperature was proposed. The correlation between the index and the East Asia winter temperature was statistically significant at the 99 % confidence level. The index was correlated with synoptic characteristics of the EAWM, including the Siberian High, East Asian trough, East Asian jet stream and surface air temperature.

  18. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  19. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  20. Atmospheric chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Ohura, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2014-09-01

    This study estimates atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in East Asia using a Gas Chromatograph with High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (GC-HRMS). ClPAHs are ubiquitously generated from PAHs through substitution, and some ClPAHs show higher aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities than their parent PAHs. Atmospheric particles were collected using a high-volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter. We determined the ClPAH concentrations of atmospheric particles collected in Japan (Sapporo, Sagamihara, Kanazawa, and Kitakyushu), Korea (Busan), and China (Beijing). The concentrations of ClPAHs were highest in the winter Beijing sample, where the total mean concentration was approximately 15-70 times higher than in the winter samples from Japan and Korea. The concentrations of Σ19ClPAHs and Σ9PAHs were significantly correlated in the Kanazawa and the Busan samples. This indicates that within those cities ClPAHs and PAHs share the same origin, implying direct chlorination of parent PAHs. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of the total ClPAHs and PAHs were lowest in Kanazawa in the summer, reaching 1.18 and 2610fg-TEQm(-3) respectively, and highest in Beijing in the winter, reaching 627 and 4240000fg-TEQm(-3) respectively.

  1. Impact of Siberian forest fires on tropospheric ozone in East Asia during May 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J.; Park, R.

    2007-12-01

    Forest fire is one of the major sources of CO, VOC, NOx and aerosols in the atmosphere. During the spring of 2003, intensive forest fires occurred in Siberia, the largest seen in the last 10 years. The smoke plumes from these forest fires heavily affected East Asia as indicated by aerosol optical depth retrieved from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Previous studies showed a significant influence of those fires on aerosol concentrations in surface air over East Asia. However, influences of them on O3 concentrations on monthly and daily time scales have not been quantified yet. We use a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data to examine the impact of Siberian forest fires on O3 concentrations in East Asia. The model simulations use a global biomass burning emission inventory constrained by satellite observations in 2003. Fire influence on O3 concentrations in East Asia is determined by the difference between the baseline and sensitivity simulations without Siberian fire emission. A model evaluation is also conducted using O3 observations at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites in East Asia. Simulated increase in O? concentrations due to fire emissions in the model appears to be consistent with an observed increase in O3 concentrations in May 2003 relative to other years. Fire emissions and their long-range transport thus could be important for the year-to-year variability of seasonal O3 concentrations over East Asia. Continuing increases in forest fires as a result of climate warming may have a significant impact on future air quality in East Asia.

  2. Aerosol-Chemistry Interactions: Biomass burning events in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintyre, H.; Bian, H.; Steenrod, S. D.; Chin, M.; Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The abundance of many atmospheric pollutants (such as methane, ozone, CO, sulfate and some organic compounds) is controlled by emissions and the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. As well as being a pollutant, ozone is also a precursor to the hydroxyl radical, a powerful tropospheric oxidant. Large biomass burning events emit substantial amounts of particles and ozone precursors into the atmosphere, and can thus impact chemical processes, air quality, and climate. Aerosol particles can influence chemical processing in the atmosphere through altered rates of photolysis (affecting ozone production and OH concentrations), as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions to occur upon. South East Asia experiences significant biomass burning events each year, and is also in the proximity of substantial and growing anthropogenic emissions from other parts of Asia. A global model of chemistry, aerosol and transport (the GMI model) is used to investigate the impact of emissions from biomass burning events in SE Asia on chemical processes in the troposphere. The effects of aerosols via heterogeneous uptake of gases, and also through altered rates of photolysis are separated and quantified. Subsequent impacts on photochemical processing of pollutants and air quality are discussed.

  3. Nitrate transboundary heavy pollution over East Asia in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Osada, Kazuo; Kamiguchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Tamura, Kei; Wang, Zhe; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kanaya, Yugo

    2017-03-01

    contrast, for type S, the production of SO42- led to the decomposition of NH4NO3, and more SO42- was transported. Notably, the type N transport pattern was limited to western Japan, especially the island of Kyushu. Transboundary air pollution dominated by SO42- (type S) has been recognized as a major pattern of pollution over East Asia. However, our study confirms the importance of transboundary air pollution dominated by NO3-, which will help refine our understanding of transboundary heavy PM2. 5 pollution in winter over East Asia.

  4. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  5. ASPERGILLUS LUCHUENSIS , AN INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT BLACK ASPERGILLUS IN EAST ASIA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Lee, Mina; Kim, Dae-Ho; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens C.; Perrone, Giancarlo; Gomi, Katsuya; Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14) and A. luchuensis (n = 6). The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948) does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature. PMID:23723998

  6. Tomgraphic Structure of East Asia: Data and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhao, D.; Yin, A.; Ning, J.; Chen, X.

    2004-12-01

    P-wave arrival times within the study area of 20ºN-55ºN and 100ºE-145ºE, were selected from three sources, including the ISC Bulletin of 1964-2001, the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes of 1985-1998, and the Temporary Report of Chinese Earthquakes of 1999 to 2001. We also collected several thousands of P-wave arrival times recorded by Chinese regional networks in northeast China to improve the ray coverage there. Selection of earthquakes was based on the criteria that an individual teleseismic event has to be recorded not only by at least 10 stations but also by at least one station of the Chinese Seismic Networks. In total, we had selected 400,000 P-wave arrival times from 8002 regional earthquakes and 370,000 P-wave arrival times from 9000 teleseismic events. The combination of travel time residuals of regional earthquakes and relative travel time residuals of teleseismic events were used simultaneously in the tomographic inversion to determine the 3-D P-wave velocity structure above 1000 km depth. Moho depth variations in the region obtained from deep seismic reflection studies were incorporated in the tomographic inversion. Most important findings of this regional tomography are as follows. (1) No fast P-wave velocity anomalies can be related to subducted oceanic slabs beneath the 660-km discontinuity; instead the subducted oceanic slabs become flattened and stagnant in the transition zone. (2) The western end of the flat stagnant slabs is located ~ 1500 km west of the active trench in the western Pacific, which is correlated with the prominent surface topographic break in eastern China along the NNE-trending Taihang Mountain Range (~105°E). (3) Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100-250 km below the active volcanic arc and the East Asia.

  7. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia.…

  8. The Ideological Construction of English: A Critical Review on the Discourse of English in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Han-Yi

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the ideological character of the English language in East Asia. It focuses on the prevailing beliefs, values and propositions relating to English as a global language and the spread of English in the non-English East Asian countries, namely China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. By analyzing how English is presented in…

  9. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  10. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  11. The oldest Mahonia (Berberidaceae) fossil from East Asia and its biogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Su, Tao; Lebereton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-03-01

    Interpretation of the biogeography of the genus Mahonia (Berberidaceae) is limited by the lack of fossil records in East Asia. Compressed fossil foliage, described here as Mahonia mioasiatica sp. nov., were collected from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan, Yunnan, southwest China. These specimens represent the oldest reliable fossil record of Mahonia in East Asia. This new fossil species shows a general similarity to Group Orientales and is most similar to the extant eastern Asian Mahonia conferta. Considering other fossil evidence of Mahonia, we propose a migration route of this genus to Asia over the North Atlantic Land Bridge rather than the Bering Land Bridge. Our results also suggest that North America, Europe and East Asia have been successive centers of diversity for the genus, as a consequence of diversification in Group Orientales potentially related to historical climate change.

  12. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  13. Model study on acidifying wet deposition in East Asia during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Sakurai, Tatsuya

    A regional air quality model (RAQM) has been developed and applied together with an aerosol model to investigate the states and characteristics of wet deposition in East Asia in December 2001. Model simulation is performed with monthly based emission inventory [Streets, D.G., Bond, T.C., Carmichael, G.R., Fernandes, S.D., Fu, Q., He, D., Klimont, Z., Nelson, S. M., Tsai, N.Y., Wang, M.Q., Woo, J.-H., Yarber, K.F., 2003. An inventory of gaseous and primary emissions in Asia in the year 2000. Journal of Geophysical Research 108(D21), 8809] and meteorological fields derived from MM5. Model results are compared with extensive monitoring data including relevant gaseous species and ions in precipitation. The validation demonstrates that this model system is able to represent most of the major physical and chemical processes involved in acid deposition and reproduces concentrations reasonably well, within a factor of 2 of observations in general. The study shows that the regions with pH less than 4.5 are mainly located in southwestern China, parts of the Yangtze Delta, the Yellow Sea and the Korean peninsula, indicating wide regions of acid precipitation in East Asia in wintertime. Japan islands mainly exhibit pH values of 4.5-5.0, whereas over wide areas of northern China, pH values are relatively high (⩾5.0) due to neutralization by alkaline materials such as calcium-laden particles and ammonia, which are more abundant in northern China than that in southern China. While acid rain over most of China is still characterized by sulfur-induced type, considerable areas of eastern China and the western Pacific Rim are found to be more affected by nitric acid than sulfuric acid in acidification of precipitation, which is supposed to result from a combined effect of variations in photochemistry and emission, suggesting the increasing importance of NO x emission in these regions.

  14. Winter monsoon variability and its impact on aerosol concentrations in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaein I; Park, Rokjin J

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the relationship between winter aerosol concentrations over East Asia and variability in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) using GEOS-Chem 3-D global chemical transport model simulations and ground-based aerosol concentration data. We find that both observed and modeled surface aerosol concentrations have strong relationships with the intensity of the EAWM over northern (30-50°N, 100-140°E) and southern (20-30°N, 100-140°E) East Asia. In strong winter monsoon years, compared to weak winter monsoon years, lower and higher surface PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% are shown over northern and southern East Asia, respectively. Analysis of the simulated results indicates that the southward transport of aerosols is a key process controlling changes in aerosol concentrations over East Asia associated with the EAWM. Variability in the EAWM is found to play a major role in interannual variations in aerosol concentrations; consequently, changes in the EAWM will be important for understanding future changes in wintertime air quality over East Asia.

  15. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  16. Long range transport of acidic species over East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean in winter monsoon - a numerical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, Toshihiro; Nishizawa, Masato; Isogawa, Seiji; Kondo, Yutaka

    1996-12-31

    In winter season, wind system in East Asia is generally dominated by monsoon. The monsoon is caused by persistent high pressure over Siberia and low pressure over Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea, the high pressure which is formed by radiative cooling of air mass over the continent. In Japan area, the monsoon appears as westerly or northwesterly, and usually brings heavy snow over the Japan Sea side of Japanese islands. Since the air mass associated with the monsoon passes over strong emission sources of the East Asia continent, it carries much air pollutants. Significant part of the pollutants should fall to the surface with snow over Japanese islands, and the rest of the pollutants would be distributed into troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean. In this study, to estimate mass budget of air pollutants released over countries in East Asia we have performed 3-D transport/chemistry/deposition simulations for the area of East Asia and the western Pacific Ocean for one month of March, 1994, when an extensive field observation campaign called TEM-WEST Phase B (Pacific Exploratory Mission-West){close_quotes} was conducted. The simulation model includes most of the important chemical species such as NO{sub x}, HNO{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, sulfate, hydrocarbons, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, etc., and covers 3-D region from 80 to 180 degrees east in longitude, 10 degrees south to 60 degrees north in latitude, and earth`s surface to 10 hPa in vertical. The simulation results will be discussed in connection with the PEM-WEST(B) observation.

  17. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  18. Impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhou, Wen; Wenig, Mark; Yang, Liangui

    2017-01-01

    Model simulations and hydrological reanalysis data for 2007 are applied to investigate the impact of long-range desert dust transport on hydrometeor formation over coastal East Asia. Results are analyzed from Hong Kong and Shanghai, which are two representative coastal cities of East Asia. Long-range desert dust transport impacts mainly spring and summer clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia. In spring, clouds and precipitation come mainly from large-scale condensation and are impacted mainly by dust from the Gobi, Sahara, and Thar deserts. These desert dusts can participate in the precipitation within and below the clouds. At lower latitudes, the dust particles act mainly as water nuclei. At higher latitudes, they act as both water nuclei and ice nuclei. The effect of Gobi, Sahara, and Thar dust on large-scale clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at higher latitudes. In summer, clouds and precipitation over coastal East Asia come mainly from convection and are impacted mainly by dust from the Taklamakan, Arabian, and Karakum-Kavir deserts. Most Taklamakan dust particles can participate in precipitation within convective clouds as ice nuclei, while Arabian and Karakum-Kavir dust particles participate only as water nuclei in precipitation below the clouds. The effect of Taklamakan dust on convective clouds and precipitation becomes stronger at lower latitudes. Of all the desert dusts, that from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts has the relatively largest impact. Gobi dust impacts climate change in coastal East Asia by affecting spring water clouds at higher latitudes.

  19. Mobility, Formation and Development of the Academic Profession in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in East and South East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi; Horta, Hugo; Osawa, Aki

    2016-01-01

    The academic profession contributes to shaping the capacity and identity of higher education systems. In East and Southeast Asia, there is a need for further discussion on the regional identity characteristics of the academic profession to account for its multiple origins and national and international dimensions. Data from two large-scale…

  20. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  1. Proof in climatology for circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asia: analysis on the ratios among water vapor transport passageway intensities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

    2013-07-01

    Further verification about the circulation effect of stalagmite δ18O in East Asian monsoon region needs the quantitative description for the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. WVT passageway intensities are defined as regionally averaged WVT flux modes in this paper. The ratio between two WVT passageways' intensities represents relative intensity of the two WVT passageways. Using the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data for 1948-2011, the ratios of the intensities of three WVT passageways from low latitudes (the intensity of WVT from Bay of Bengal (IBOB), the intensity of WVT from South China Sea (ISCS) and the intensity of WVT from western North Pacific (IWNP) in summer are calculated. SB is for the ISCS-IBOB ratio, WB for the IWNP-IBOB ratio, and WS for the IWNP-ISCS ratio. The decadal increase occurs in the time series of WB and WS, with higher values in 1976-1995 and lower values in 1950-1975, probably resulting from the strengthening of WVT from WNP in the midterm of 1970s. East Asian atmospheric circulations, WVTs and previous SST characters corresponding to the ratios are analyzed. The result indicates that SB, WB and WS may properly reflect the relative intensities between ISCS and IBOB, between IWNP and IBOB, and between IWNP and ISCS, respectively. For high SB years, the Asian Low and the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weaken. The southwesterly winds from BOB to the Yangtze River valley by the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau weaken and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The southwesterly winds from SCS to East Asia strengthen and the WVT from SCS to East Asia strengthens. In high WB years, the Asian Low weakens and the WPSH shifts westwards, enhances and enlarges. The WVT from WNP to East Asia increases because of the strengthening of the easterly winds on the south of the WPSH. The westerly winds from BOB to East Asia by Indo-China Peninsula decrease and the WVT from BOB to East Asia weakens. The atmospheric

  2. Seasonal characteristics of precipitation in 1998 over East Asia as derived from TRMM PR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yunfei; Lin, Yihua; Liu, Guosheng; Wang, Qiang

    2003-07-01

    Precipitation radar data derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are used to study precipitation characteristics in 1998 over East Asia (10° 38°N, 100° 145°E), especially over mid-latitude land (continental land) and ocean (East China Sea and South China Sea). Results are compared with precipitations in the tropics. Yearly statistics show dominant stratiform rain events over East Asia (about 83.7% by area fraction) contributing to 50% of the total precipitation. Deep convective rains contribute 48% to the total precipitation with a 13.7% area fraction. The statistics also show the unimportance of warm convective rain in East Asia, contributing 1.5% to the total precipitation with a 2.7% area fraction. On a seasonal scale, the results indicate that the rainfall ratio of stratiform rain to deep convective rain is proportional to their rainfall pixel ratio. Seasonal precipitation patterns compare well between Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall and TRMM PR measurements except in summer. Studies indicate a clear opposite shift of rainfall amount and events between deep convective and stratiform rains in the meridional in East Asia, which corresponds to the alternative activities of summer monsoon and winter monsoon in the region. The vertical structures of precipitation also exhibit strong seasonal variability in precipitation Contoured Rainrate by Altitude Diagrams (CRADs) and mean profiles in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. However, these structures in the South China Sea are of a tropical type except in winter. The analysis of CRADs reveals a wide range of surface rainfall rates for most deep convective rains, especially in the continental land, and light rain rate for most stratiform rains in East Asia, regardless of over land or ocean.

  3. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  4. Long-term trend and variability of soil moisture over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shanjun; Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Ji, Fei; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-09-01

    The variability of soil moisture over East Asia was analyzed using a long-term data set from the Global Land Data Assimilation System. Overall, a clear decreasing trend occurred over a period of 63 years, with pronounced drying over northeast China, north China, part of Mongolia, and Russia near lake Baikal. Statistical analyses show that decreasing precipitation and global warming have different effects on the decrease in soil moisture. The qualitative analysis and quantitative contributions illustrated that soil drying is driven primarily by decreasing precipitation and is enhanced almost twofold by increasing temperatures. As soil moisture decreases, the positive feedback between soil moisture and temperature may result in future water shortages. Following the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 (RCP8.5) and 4.5 (RCP4.5) simulation scenarios of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, the model-predicted soil moisture demonstrated a continuously decreasing trend during the 21st century.

  5. Impact of aerosol indirect effect on surface temperature over East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Dickinson, Robert E.; Chameides, William L.

    2006-01-01

    A regional coupled climate–chemistry–aerosol model is developed to examine the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on surface temperature and precipitation over East Asia. Besides their direct and indirect reduction of short-wave solar radiation, the increased cloudiness and cloud liquid water generate a substantial downward positive long-wave surface forcing; consequently, nighttime temperature in winter increases by +0.7°C, and the diurnal temperature range decreases by −0.7°C averaged over the industrialized parts of China. Confidence in the simulated results is limited by uncertainties in model cloud physics. However, they are broadly consistent with the observed diurnal temperature range decrease as reported in China, suggesting that changes in downward long-wave radiation at the surface are important in understanding temperature changes from aerosols. PMID:16537432

  6. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  7. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  8. A modeling study of the effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Xie, Xiaoning; Yin, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Changhai; Gettelman, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (version 3.5) coupled with the Morrison-Gettelman two-moment cloud microphysics scheme is employed to simulate the aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in two numerical experiments, one representing present-day conditions (year 2000) and the other the pre-industrial conditions (year 1750) over East Asia by considering both direct and indirect aerosol effects. To isolate the aerosol effects, we used the same set of boundary conditions and only altered the aerosol emissions in both experiments. The simulated results show that the cloud microphysical properties are markedly affected by the increase in aerosols, especially for the column cloud droplet number concentration (DNC), liquid water path (LWP), and the cloud droplet effective radius (DER). With increased aerosols, DNC and LWP have been increased by 137% and 28%, respectively, while DER is reduced by 20%. Precipitation rates in East Asia and East China are reduced by 5.8% and 13%, respectively, by both the aerosol's second indirect effect and the radiative forcing that enhanced atmospheric stability associated with the aerosol direct and first indirect effects. The significant reduction in summer precipitation in East Asia is also consistent with the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon, resulting from the decreasing thermodynamic contrast between the Asian landmass and the surrounding oceans induced by the aerosol's radiative effects. The increase in aerosols reduces the surface net shortwave radiative flux over the East Asia landmass, which leads to the reduction of the land surface temperature. With minimal changes in the sea surface temperature, hence, the weakening of the East Asian summer monsoon further enhances the reduction of summer precipitation over East Asia.

  9. Intraplate volcanism and mantle dynamics in East Asia: Big mantle wedge (BMW) model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-12-01

    In the East Asia continent there are many Cenozoic volcanoes, but only a few are still active now, such as the Changbai, Wudalianchi, and Tengchong volcanoes which have erupted several times in the past 1000 years. Although many studies have been made by using various approaches, the origin of the intraplate volcanoes in East Asia is still not very clear. Recently we used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D mantle structure under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004; Huang and Zhao, 2006; Zhao et al., 2009). Our results show prominent low-velocity anomalies from the surface down to 410 km depth beneath the intraplate volcanoes and a broad high-velocity anomaly in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. Focal-mechanism solutions of deep earthquakes indicate that the subducting Pacific slab under the Japan Sea and the East Asia margin is subject to compressive stress regime. These results suggest that the Pacific slab meets strong resistance at the 660-km discontinuity and so it becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under East Asia. The Philippine Sea slab has also subducted down to the mantle transition zone under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topography and gravity boundary in East China, which is located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The upper mantle under East Asia has formed a big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab. The BMW exhibits low seismic-velocity and high electrical-conductivity, which is hot and wet because of the deep dehydration reactions of the stagnant slab and the convective circulation process in the BMW. These processes lead to the upwelling of hot and wet asthenospheric materials and thinning and fracturing of the continental lithosphere, leading to the formation of the active intraplate volcanoes in East

  10. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  11. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  12. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C. P.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up until 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 and 12%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large-scale deployment of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at China's power plants, and the promotion of highly efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25 and 15%, driven by rapid increase in the emissions from China due to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17%, mainly due to the implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current regulations and current levels of implementation, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are projected to increase by about one-quarter over 2010 levels by 2030, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28, 36, 28, and 15%, respectively, compared with the baseline case. The implementation of "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures would lead to another one-third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one-quarter reduction of SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. Assuming the full application of technically feasible energy-saving policies and end-of-pipe control technologies, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia

  13. Emission trends and mitigation options for air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhao, B.; Cai, S. Y.; Klimont, Z.; Nielsen, C.; McElroy, M. B.; Morikawa, T.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Fu, X.; Xu, J. Y.; Hao, J. M.; He, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants in East Asia play an important role in the regional and global atmospheric environment. In this study we evaluated the recent emission trends of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matters (PM), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in East Asia, and projected their future emissions up to 2030 with six emission scenarios. The results will provide future emission projections for the modeling community of the model inter-comparison program for Asia (MICS-Asia). During 2005-2010, the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 in East Asia decreased by 15 % and 11%, respectively, mainly attributable to the large scale deployment of FGD for China's power plants, and the promotion of high-efficient PM removal technologies in China's power plants and cement industry. During this period, the emissions of NOx and NMVOC increased by 25% and 15%, driven by the rapid increase in the emissions from China owing to inadequate control strategies. In contrast, the NOx and NMVOC emissions in East Asia except China decreased by 13-17% mainly due to the implementation of tight vehicle emission standards in Japan and South Korea. Under current legislation and current implementation status, NOx, SO2, and NMVOC emissions in East Asia are estimated to increase by about one quarter by 2030 from the 2010 levels, while PM2.5 emissions are expected to decrease by 7%. Assuming enforcement of new energy-saving policies, emissions of NOx, SO2, PM2.5 and NMVOC in East Asia are expected to decrease by 28%, 36%, 28%, and 15% respectively compared with the baseline case. The implementation of the "progressive" end-of-pipe control measures is expected to lead to another one third reduction of the baseline emissions of NOx, and about one quarter reduction for SO2, PM2.5, and NMVOC. With the full implementation of maximum feasible reduction measures, the emissions of NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 in East Asia are expected to account for only about one quarter and

  14. A(H5N1) Virus Evolution in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ramona Alikiiteaga; Naughtin, Monica Jane; Horm, Srey Viseth; San, Sorn; Buchy, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is an ongoing public health and socio-economic challenge, particularly in South East Asia. H5N1 is now endemic in poultry in many countries, and represents a major pandemic threat. Here, we describe the evolution of H5N1 virus in South East Asia, the reassortment events leading to high genetic diversity in the region, and factors responsible for virus spread. The virus has evolved with genetic variations affecting virulence, drug-resistance, and adaptation to new host species. The constant surveillance of these changes is of primary importance in the global efforts of the scientific community. PMID:21994553

  15. African origin of modern humans in East Asia: a tale of 12,000 Y chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y; Su, B; Song, X; Lu, D; Chen, L; Li, H; Qi, C; Marzuki, S; Deka, R; Underhill, P; Xiao, C; Shriver, M; Lell, J; Wallace, D; Wells, R S; Seielstad, M; Oefner, P; Zhu, D; Jin, J; Huang, W; Chakraborty, R; Chen, Z; Jin, L

    2001-05-11

    To test the hypotheses of modern human origin in East Asia, we sampled 12,127 male individuals from 163 populations and typed for three Y chromosome biallelic markers (YAP, M89, and M130). All the individuals carried a mutation at one of the three sites. These three mutations (YAP+, M89T, and M130T) coalesce to another mutation (M168T), which originated in Africa about 35,000 to 89,000 years ago. Therefore, the data do not support even a minimal in situ hominid contribution in the origin of anatomically modern humans in East Asia.

  16. The origin of Europeans is not rooted in the Middle East but in southern east Asia.

    PubMed

    Shields, E D

    1998-01-01

    The study of tooth crown variables has proven useful in the assessment of human origin and dispersal. I show that multivariate analysis of quantified total tooth structure from dental X-rays is a powerful phylogenetic methodology. From an analysis of the complex global dental phenotype ("GDP," composed of approximately 30 root, pulp, crown, and enamel variables per tooth), a representative Western European population was found to associate with Southeast Asians, while Mongolians formed a tight cluster with all Native Americans. The results suggest that either an emigrant wave, or waves, of modern humans emerged from Africa and with time segregated into at least three groups: Australian aborigines, Europeans, and Southeast Asians, or less likely due to genetic and archaeologic observations, a southern Asia origin of all modern humans from an emigrant African hominid. Both hypotheses portend an early evolution of the European genotype and support the argument that Europeans are principally derived from Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and thus Middle East Neolithic people did not have a major genetic impact on Europeans.

  17. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  18. Validation and improvement of MODIS Gross Primary Productivity in typical forest ecosystems of East Asia based on eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; He, M.; Ju, W.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle plays an important role in global climate change. As a key component of terrestrial carbon cycle, gross primary productivity (GPP) is a major determinant of carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Because of the large spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystems, it is a challenge to estimate GPP at global or regional scales. 8-day MODIS GPP product provides a real time estimate of global GPP. However, many previous studies indicated that MODIS GPP has large uncertainties, which was partly caused by biases in maximum light use efficiency and meteorological data inputs, including VPD, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In this study, MODIS GPP of six typical forest ecosystems in East Asia was validated using GPP derived from the eddy covariance flux measurements. The validation indicated that MODIS GPP was significantly underestimated in the forest ecosystems of East Asia. The underestimation is generally more serious in growing seasons than in non-growing seasons and becomes more obvious from the south to the north. By using observed meteorological data, smoothed fPAR and optimized maximum light use efficiency (ɛmax), predicted GPP with MOD17 algorithm consistently matched well with measured GPP. Smoothed fPAR definitely reduced underestimation of annual GPP, and the optimized ɛmax improved annual GPP more significantly, indicating that the errors in MODIS GPP of forest ecosystems in East Asia can be mainly attributed to the uncertainties of ɛmax. Optimized ɛmax are generally higher than that used for producing MODIS GPP product. The optimized ɛmax changes significantly with forest types. It even exhibits distinct seasonal variations for a specific forest. Key words: Gross Primary Productivity, MODIS, Maximum light use efficiency, East Asia, Forest ecosystem Correspondence author:Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  19. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau's climate system and its impact on East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-03-13

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the "Third Pole" of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on "water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology" multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored.

  20. Scientific publications in anesthesiology journals from East Asia: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2011-04-01

    The scientific publications in anesthesiology research from East Asian authors have not been reported yet. The present study was designed to analyze the contribution of articles from East Asia to anesthesiology research. Articles published in 17 journals in anesthesiology originating from Japan, China, and South Korea from 2000 to 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Web of Science. From 2000 to 2009, there were 3,076 articles published from East Asia. During this period, there were a notable decrease in publications from Japan and modest increases in publications from both China and South Korea. The average 5-year impact factor of the published articles was similar among the three regions, and China had the highest average number of citations to each article. Anesthesia & Analgesia published more articles than any other journal from all three regions. Our analysis showed that Japan was the most productive region in East Asia, but there was a notable decrease in publications from Japan in 2000-2009. The impact factor of the articles suggests similar levels of scholarship. Anesthesia & Analgesia was the most popular journal in East Asia.

  1. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau’s climate system and its impact on East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the “Third Pole” of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on “water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology” multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored. PMID:28287648

  2. Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau’s climate system and its impact on East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yaoming; Ma, Weiqiang; Zhong, Lei; Hu, Zeyong; Li, Maoshan; Zhu, Zhikun; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Xin

    2017-03-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the “Third Pole” of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on “water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology” multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms. This study also analyzed the Tibetan Plateau to clarify global climate change by considering multi-sphere energy and water processes. Additionally, the impacts of climate change in East Asia and the associated impact mechanisms were revealed, and changes in water cycle processes and water conversion mechanisms were studied. The changes in surface thermal anomalies, vegetation, local circulation and the atmospheric heat source on the Tibetan Plateau were studied, specifically, their effects on the East Asian monsoon and energy balance mechanisms. Additionally, the relationships between heating mechanisms and monsoon changes were explored.

  3. Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, Christina N.; King, Michael D.; Sun, Wen-Yih

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth's radiation and water budget. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds from the soil to the atmosphere; the hydrological cycle (i.e., run off and evaporation); land surface reflectivity and emissivity; as well as ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal that smoke is frequently present solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by as much as 100 (20) W/sq m over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance at 670 run is large enough to lead to significant errors in retrieving cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius) from satellite measurements. The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Estimating the burning fuel (e.g., bark, branches, and wood), an important part of studying regional carbon cycle, may rely on utilizing a wide range of distinctive spectral features in the shortwave and

  4. The Quest for an Entrepreneurial University in East Asia: Impact on Academics and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, universities in East Asia have taken knowledge transfer more seriously, especially when the state funding for higher education was reduced while other private funding sources were diversified. Universities in East Asia collaborate with the industrial and business sectors on projects related to research, development, and…

  5. Impact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Tai, A. P. K.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how historical climate and land cover changes have affected tropospheric ozone in East Asia would help constrain the large uncertainties associated with future East Asian air quality projections. We perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data to examine the public health effects associated with changes in climate, land cover, land use, and anthropogenic emissions between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia. We find that between these two periods land cover change alone could lead to a decrease in summertime surface ozone by up to 4 ppbv in East Asia and ~ 2000 fewer ozone-related premature deaths per year, driven mostly by enhanced dry deposition resulting from climate- and CO2-induced increase in vegetation density, which more than offsets the effect of reduced isoprene emission arising from cropland expansion. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10 ppbv in most regions of East Asia and ~ 6000 more premature deaths annually, mostly attributable to warming. The combined impacts (-2 to +12 ppbv) show that while the effect of climate change is more pronounced, land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. While the changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating ozone air quality in East Asia over the past 30 years, we show that climate change and land cover changes could lead to a substantial modification of ozone levels, and thus should come into consideration when formulating future air quality management strategies. We also show that the sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than on isoprene emission in most of East Asia, leading to ozone responses that are quite distinct from that in North America, where most ozone

  6. A sub-decadal trend of diacids in atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Fu, P. Q.; Jung, J.

    2015-08-01

    The change of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) has been predicted to be highly uncertain in the future atmosphere in Asia. To better quantify the SOA change, we study a sub-decadal (2001-2008) trend of major surrogate compounds (C2-C10 diacids) of SOA in atmospheric aerosols from Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. Gosan site is influenced by the pollution-outflows from East Asia. The molecular distribution of diacids was characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids in each year. The seasonal variations of diacids in each year were characterized by the highest concentrations of saturated diacids in spring and unsaturated diacids in winter. The consistent molecular distribution and seasonal variations are indicative of similar pollution sources for diacids in East Asia over a sub-decadal scale. However, the intensity of the pollution sources has increased as evidenced by the increases of major diacids at the rate of 3.9-47.4 % year-1 particularly in April. The temporal variations of atmospheric tracer compounds (CO, levoglucosan, 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, glyoxylic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal) suggest that the increases of diacids are due to an enhanced precursor emissions associated with more anthropogenic than biogenic activities followed by their chemical processing in the atmosphere. The trends of diacids are opposite to the reported decreases of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in the recent years in East Asia. This study demonstrates that recent pollution control strategies in East Asia could not decrease organic acidic species in the atmosphere. If the current rates of increases continue, the organic acid- and water-soluble fractions of SOA could increase significantly in the future atmosphere in East Asia.

  7. Genetic history of hepatitis C virus in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Oliver G; Barnes, Eleanor; Taggart, Rachel; Lemey, Philippe; Markov, Peter V; Rasachak, Bouachan; Syhavong, Bounkong; Phetsouvanah, Rattanaphone; Sheridan, Isabelle; Humphreys, Isla S; Lu, Ling; Newton, Paul N; Klenerman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV), which currently infects an estimated 3% of people worldwide, has been present in some human populations for several centuries, notably HCV genotypes 1 and 2 in West Africa and genotype 6 in Southeast Asia. Here we use newly developed methods of sequence analysis to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the epidemic and evolutionary history of HCV in Asia. Our analysis includes new HCV core (n = 16) and NS5B (n = 14) gene sequences, obtained from serum samples of jaundiced patients from Laos. These exceptionally diverse isolates were analyzed in conjunction with all available reference strains using phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent methods. We performed statistical tests of phylogeographic structure and applied a recently developed "relaxed molecular clock" approach to HCV for the first time, which indicated an unexpectedly high degree of rate variation. Our results reveal a >1,000-year-long development of genotype 6 in Asia, characterized by substantial phylogeographic structure and two distinct phases of epidemic history, before and during the 20th century. We conclude that HCV lineages representing preexisting and spatially restricted strains were involved in multiple, independent local epidemics during the 20th century. Our analysis explains the generation and maintenance of HCV diversity in Asia and could provide a template for further investigations of HCV spread in other regions.

  8. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  9. Natural and Anthropogenically Perturbed Biogenic Aerosol over Tropical South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Robinson, N.; Allan, J. D.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forested regions are of interest as sources of atmospheric aerosol since they cover very large areas of the tropics and are a source of a large amount of volatile organic compounds which act as precursors for particle formation. Natural forest regions offer the potential to study the background state of the tropics and so potentially gain some insight into the pre-perturbed atmosphere. However, over the last decade in South East Asia, a considerable fraction of the native tropical deciduous forest has been deforested and replanted with palm oil plantations. This changes the range of volatile organic compounds that are emitted and act as sources of secondary organic aerosol. A suite of intensive ground and airborne measurements were made over both tropical forest and oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysia as part of the "Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) during 2008. These data will be used together with recent improvements in our understanding of aerosol formation from biogenic compounds to discuss aerosol formation in tropical regions and the influence of human influence through widespread palm oil agriculture.

  10. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  11. 17. SOUTH SIDE, EAST HALF, PART 3, SHOWING THE EASTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SOUTH SIDE, EAST HALF, PART 3, SHOWING THE EASTERN PART OF THE OFFICES AND BUILDING NO. 12 IN THE DISTANCE BEYOND THE EAST END. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  12. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  13. Learner Centered Higher Education in East Asia: Assessing the Effects on Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The global expansion of higher education has brought about more ambitious educational goals that require new approaches to curriculum, teaching, and learning. While higher education in East Asia is no exception to this trend, it has been observed that both teachers and learners in the region have adhered to a strong tradition of…

  14. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  15. Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward U.S. Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jin Ho

    2009-01-01

    Nine universities in the United States with the greatest number of international students and having an accredited music program through the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) were selected. Survey research methodologies were used to identify the status of the international music students from East Asia in U.S. higher education…

  16. Globalisation and the Changing Nature of the State in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Economic globalisation is the defining characteristic of our age and a process which is transforming the parameters of the national state and global power relations. However, it is also a contradictory, uneven and unpredictable phenomenon. East Asia has been at the epicenter of globalisation for the past 30 years and will continue to be so with…

  17. Application of DNA barcodes in wildlife conservation in Tropical East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John-James; Sing, Kong-Wah; Lee, Ping-Shin; Wee, Alison K S

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, Tropical East Asia has lost more biodiversity than any tropical region. Tropical East Asia is a megadiverse region with an acute taxonomic impediment. DNA barcodes are short standardized DNA sequences used for taxonomic purposes and have the potential to lessen the challenges of biodiversity inventory and assessments in regions where they are most needed. We reviewed DNA barcoding efforts in Tropical East Asia relative to other tropical regions. We suggest DNA barcodes (or metabarcodes from next-generation sequencers) may be especially useful for characterizing and connecting species-level biodiversity units in inventories encompassing taxa lacking formal description (particularly arthropods) and in large-scale, minimal-impact approaches to vertebrate monitoring and population assessments through secondary sources of DNA (invertebrate derived DNA and environmental DNA). We suggest interest and capacity for DNA barcoding are slowly growing in Tropical East Asia, particularly among the younger generation of researchers who can connect with the barcoding analogy and understand the need for new approaches to the conservation challenges being faced.

  18. Mapping the Terrain of Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain perspective on the extent to which the vision for knowledge production in East Asia set forth by Bajunid, Cheng, Hallinger, Walker, Dimmock and others almost 20 years ago has been fulfilled. The authors undertook an effort to map the terrain of knowledge production in educational leadership and…

  19. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  20. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  1. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  2. University Outreach Programs on East Asia: Linkages with School and Community. Wingspread Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxnam, Robert B.

    The Wingspread conference was convened by the National Committee on United States-China Relations, Inc. and the Asia Society to consider how universities and centers for East Asian studies might make knowledge of Asian affairs more available. The intended audiences were secondary schools, the business community, persons interested in world affairs…

  3. New ecology education: Preparing students for the complex human-environmental problems of dryland East Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Present-day environmental problems of Dryland East Asia are serious, and future prospects look especially disconcerting owing to current trends in population growth and economic development. Land degradation and desertification, invasive species, biodiversity losses, toxic waste and air pollution, a...

  4. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  5. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth.

  6. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  7. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  8. Modeling Mineral Dust and Accessing Its Impact on Radiative Forcing over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.

    2015-12-01

    East Asia dust storm has been investigated with revised WRF/CMAQ modeling system in this study. Taklamkan and Gobi deserts in China and Mongolia are the major contributors for East Asia dust storm, which significantly affect air quality and regional climate over downwind areas in China, Japan and Korea. Understanding the mixing of dust and intensive anthropogenic emissions would require a regional chemistry transport model which can simulate both the emission and transport of the natural and anthropogenic particles, and also their chemical interactions as well as the particles evolutions. In this study, we conducted model development of the WRF/CMAQ modeling system by revising the dust emission scheme and implementing source-dependent speciation profiles of dust aerosol and heterogeneous chemistry. With the revised modeling system, East Asia dust impact on atmospheric chemistry and regional climate has been investigated for the period of March and April from 2006 to 2010. The revised modeling system has been demonstrated to greatly improve model's capability of reproducing dust emission and transport over East Asia by comparing with surface measurements and satellite observations.

  9. Trading on the West's Strength: The Dilemmas of Transnational Higher Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Li-chuan

    2012-01-01

    Responding to the impacts of globalization and the knowledge economy, the increasing demand for higher education in East Asia is not only met by domestic higher education, but also by importing transnational higher education (TNHE). Importing TNHE becomes an export strategy to attract international students to contribute to capacity building for…

  10. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Changing Role of University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews the national innovation systems of the four little tigers in East Asia, namely Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and South Korea, in fostering R&D and technological research. A national innovation system is characterised by the interactions between the state, industries and universities in promoting innovation. This…

  11. A Review of HRD Research in Three Areas of East Asia: Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Jie; Paprock, Kenneth E.; Lynham, Susan A.; Li, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Recent research focusing on Human Resource Development (HRD) in East Asia is attracting increasing attention. The purpose of the study is to explore the definition and practice of HRD, together with influencing cultural factors, in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. The results indicate a difference in the definition and implementation of HRD…

  12. Developing a Knowledge Base for Educational Leadership and Management in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The role of school leadership in educational reform has reached the status of a truism, and led to major changes in school leader recruitment, selection, training and appraisal. While similar policy trends are evident in East Asia, the empirical knowledge base underlying these measures is distorted and lacking in validation. This paper begins by…

  13. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  14. Old Borrowings and New Models of the University in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the transfer of university models from Europe and America to East Asia and will consider how international power relations in different times transform ideas about the university, in the process of global transfer. These relations will be identified with different forms of the state: imperial, colonial, welfare and market…

  15. Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) of East Asia (2). Study of a collection sample deposited at the Russian Academy of Sciences, with descriptions of new species and a checklist.

    PubMed

    Rocienė, Agnė; Stonis, Jonas R

    2013-01-01

    Over the few couple of decades, the Nepticulidae of East Asia have been the subject of continuing investigation. Male genitalia of the nepticulid species described from Primorskiy Kray (the Russian Far East) were re-examined in the preceding paper in this journal. The present paper continues our study on the diversity and systematics of the Nepticulidae of East Asia based on a sample of specimens collected in 1974-1990 at various sites of the southern part of Primorskiy Kray and treats 35 species: two new taxa (Ectoedemia ortiva sp. nov. and E. species 219) and 33 other species. Seventeen of them are briefly discussed and illustrated with photographs of male genitalia. Two new synonyms are proposed, and three new distribution records are provided. We also provide an updated checklist of the Nepticulidae of East Asia, which comprises 105 species; 67 species occur in the Russian Far East and 53 in Japan (20 of which occur both in Japan and Russia). Species with Euro-East Asiatic distribution currently comprise 11% of the Japanese fauna and 16% of the continental fauna of the Russian Far East, Primorskiy Kray.

  16. Inter-annual changes of Biomass Burning and Desert Dust and their impact over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONG, X.; Fu, J. S.; Huang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Impact of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols on air quality has been well documented in the last few decades, but the knowledge about their interactions with anthropogenic emission and their impacts on regional climate is very limited (IPCC, 2007). While East Asia is greatly affected by dust storms in spring from Taklamakan and Gobi deserts (Huang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2012), it also suffers from significant biomass burning emission from Southeast Asia during the same season. Observations from both surface monitoring and satellite data indicated that mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols may approach to coastal area of East Asia simultaneously, thus have a very unique impact on the local atmospheric environment and regional climate. In this study, we first investigated the inter-annual variations of biomass burning and dust aerosols emission for 5 consecutive years from 2006-2010 to estimate the upper and lower limits and correlation with meteorology conditions, and then evaluate their impacts with a chemical transport system. Our preliminary results indicated that biomass burning has a strong correlation with precipitation over Southeast Asia, which could drive the emission varying from 542 Tg in 2008 to 945 Tg in 2010, according to FLAMBE emission inventory (Reid et al., 2009). Mineral dust also demonstrated a strong dependence on wind filed. These inter-annual/annual variations will also lead to different findings and impacts on air quality in East Asia. Reference: Huang, K., et al. (2010), Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 115. IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, New York. Li, J., et al. (2012), Mixing of Asian mineral dust with anthropogenic pollutants over East Asia: a model case study of a super-duststorm in

  17. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  18. Seismic imaging of the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2008-12-01

    We used regional and global seismic tomography to determine high-resolution 3-D P-wave velocity structure of the crust and mantle down to 1200 km depth under Western Pacific to East Asia (Zhao, 2004, 2007; Huang and Zhao, 2006). A large number of arrival times of P, pP, PP and PcP waves recorded by many seismic stations in East Asia are used in the tomographic inversions. The subducting Pacific slab is imaged clearly as a high-velocity zone from the oceanic trenches down to 670-km depth, and intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes are located within the slab. The Pacific slab becomes stagnant in the mantle transition zone under eastern China. The western edge of the stagnant slab is generally parallel with the Japan trench and the Ryukyu trench and roughly coincides with a prominent surface topographic boundary in East China. Although there are some discrepancies between the topographic boundary and the western edge of the stagnant slab, both of them are located approximately 1800 km west of the trenches. The entire Pacific slab is stagnant in the mantle transition zone under Northeast China (53-37 degree north latitude). Under 37-28 degree north latitude, however, some of the slab materials are visible below the 670-km discontinuity, though most of the slab materials are still in the transition zone, suggesting that part of the slab materials have started to drop down to the lower mantle. Under the Mariana arc, the Pacific slab penetrates directly down to the lower mantle. It is also visible that the Philippine Sea slab has subducted down to the mantle transition zone depth under western Japan and the Ryukyu back-arc region (Abdelwahed and Zhao, 2007). There are three active intraplate volcanoes in China. The Changbai and Wudalianchi volcanoes in Northeast China are underlain by significant slow anomalies in the upper mantle, above the stagnant Pacific slab, suggesting that the two active volcanoes are not hot spots but a kind of back-arc volcanoes associated with

  19. Health and climate impacts of ocean-going vessels in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-11-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  20. Trade in labour services and migrant worker protection with special reference to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the migrant worker protection policy of the East Asian international labor market. The labor-exporting countries of East Asia provide an onerous proportion of low-skilled migrant workers to the region and are responding to the perceived edge of a policy of labor export. Conversely, the movement of highly skilled and professional workers is the result of globalization and internationalization of education, training and professions, rather than the result of explicit labor export of certain countries. In view of the need of international bilateral arrangements for the protection and facilitation of low-skilled workers, the labor-exporting countries have introduced a number of policies aimed at protecting and promoting the welfare of the overseas workers. Thus, various policy measures are suggested to advance the cause of migrant worker protection in East Asia.

  1. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  2. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  3. Domestic Determinants and Security Policy-Making in East Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    recognize that there has been no significant “peace dividend ” following the end of the Cold War and the paper enumerates the negative factors, which I am...Soviet and East-European Studies Institut d’Etudes politiques de Paris. She specializes in Russian military and strategic affairs. Yasuhiro Matsuda

  4. Seismic Attenuation Studies in the Middle East and Southern Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in which tectonic activity has occurred since the Mesozoic era. These include the East African rift zone (the most prominent feature on the Q map...affected by process occurring during the spreading of the Red Sea. Low Q’s in the Siberian craton lie in a region that was deformed during the Mesozoic

  5. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  6. Numerical study of 1998 late summer flood in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Yih; Min, Ki-Hong; Chern, Jiun-Dar

    2011-02-01

    The Purdue Regional Model (PRM) is applied to study the evolution of regional climate and weather systems during the heavy precipitation over Korea and China between 30 July and 18 August 1998. The results show that heavy rainfall along the Mei-yu and Changma front was due to the combination of: (1) an anomalous 850 hPa subtropical high, (2) a stronger baroclinicity around 40°N over eastern Asia and a low pressure located to the north of the front, and (3) an excessive evaporation from abnormal wet, warm land. The precipitation ended by 18 August when the subtropical high had retreated and the low pressure in Mongolia moved away from Asia continent. The model reproduced in great detail the observed baroclinic waves to the north, subtropical high and low-level jet to the south, and the front with heavy precipitation extending from southern China, and the Korean peninsula to Japan. High correlations are found for mass, momentum, and moisture fields between model simulation and the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis for the 20-day means.

  7. Moving East: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis regimen in Asia.

    PubMed

    Houssiau, Frédéric A

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of lupus nephritis is more evidenced-based than ever. Yet many areas of uncertainty persist. The article by Rathi et al. brings a piece to the puzzle by comparing, in a group of Indian patients, the Euro-Lupus low-dose i.v. cyclophosphamide regimen with mycophenolate mofetil. Although some caveats must be raised, the results suggest that, after crossing the Atlantic, the Euro-Lupus regimen may well be moving East.

  8. Near East/South Asia Report No. 2803

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 Jun 83) ARAB EAST/ISRAEL Gas Marketing Agreement Signed (ARAB OIL, No 7, Jul 83).. Domestic Political Situation, Regional...458 QATAR GAS MARKETING AGREEMENT SIGNED Kuwait ARAB OIL in English No 7, Jul 83 p 43 [Text] 9 roleu ^tar has signed a memorandum of understanding...could be brought in later for marketing purposes, but the foreign stake in the project would not exceed 30 percent. The state-owned Qatar General

  9. Holocene cultural history of Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and its domestic descendant in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Joris; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Deng, Hui; Larson, Greger

    2016-06-01

    Nearly three decades ago, zooarchaeologists postulated that chicken husbandry was practiced in Northern China by ∼8.0 ka calBP. Recently, ancient mitogenome analyses of galliform remains suggested that Red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) was already present in the Yellow River basin several millennia earlier, shortly after the onset of the Holocene. If these conclusions are correct, the origins of chicken domestication and husbandry in the region may have been spurred by agricultural innovations in the lower Yellow River basin including millet cultivation, pig husbandry, and dog breeding. In addition, the dispersal of poultry farming from East Asia to Asia Minor and Europe could therefore date to the Neolithic along ancient trade routes across Central Asia rather than via South Asia and Mesopotamia. For this scenario to be plausible, the post-Pleistocene climatic conditions must have been favourable to allow for a northward extension of the native distribution of tropical Red jungle fowl currently not found north of ∼25°N. This study combines Holocene palaeoclimate and archaeofaunal archives with new zooarchaeological insights alongside a discussion of methodological issues and cultural aspects in order to revisit the hypothesis of an early Holocene Gallus domestication and Neolithic poultry husbandry in Northern China. Our results regarding the natural and cultural history of Red jungle fowl and domestic chickens in East Asia, and the timing of chicken dispersal across the Old World suggest that an early Holocene domestication of chickens is problematic at best. We conclude by postulating an alternative model for the early exploitation of a key domestic species in present-day East Asia.

  10. Investigation on aerosol optical properties over East Asia: From LEO to GEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. H.; Park, M.; Park, R.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOP) have been regarded as good proxy indicators of the levels of particulate air pollutants such as PM2.5 and PM10, and have also been widely used for estimating direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols. Up to date, the AOP have been retrieved mainly from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites such as terra- and aqua-MODIS. However, the critical limitation of the AOP products from the LEO satellites is relatively long temporal resolution of one to several days. In order to overcome this critical limitation, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite-retrieved data is begun to be used recently. Therefore, in this study, several topics related to the fore-mentioned issues are introduced: (i) current status of the AOP retrieval from the LEO satellites and the AOP calculations from chemistry-transfer model (CTM) simulations over East Asia; (ii) the uses of the AOP data for estimating particulate pollution and DRF by aerosols in East Asia; (iii) preliminary AOP data retrieved from a geostationary sensor (GOCI: Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) on a Korean GEO satellite (COMS: Communication Ocean Meteorology Satellite); and (iv) possible improvements of the GEO-retrieved AOP data, combining them with the AOP data calculated from the CTM simulations over East Asia via a data assimilation technique. Regarding the AOP data retrievals from the COMS-GOCI sensor, two Korean aerosol retrieval algorithms are also introduced briefly: (i) Yonsei algorithm and (ii) GSTAR (GIST Aerosol Retrieval) algorithm. It is also discussed that these researches are being carried out with long-term research goals, aiming at the future applications of the AOP data, which is expected to be available from the world-first Korean environmental GEO sensors (GEMS: Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Sensor and GOCI-2) scheduled to be launched in 2017 or 2018, to the investigations onto the particulate air pollution and the DRF estimation by aerosols over East Asia (as

  11. Modeling study of ozone seasonal cycle in lower troposphere over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Gao, Chao; Pochanart, Pakpong; Wang, Xiquan

    2007-11-01

    On the basis of three mountain sites (Mount Tai, Hua and Huang) newly founded in east-central China and several other sites from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia (EANET) and WMO World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), we investigate seasonal cycle of ozone over east Asia and its budgets in east-central China by using a regional chemical transport model (NAQPMS). The observations show a striking ozone pattern of two sharp peaks in May-June and September-October at three mountain sites in east-central China which are higher than those observed at other mountain sites in Europe and North America. Ozone budgets analysis by the model confirms that maximum of net photochemical productions reaches 31.8, 15.1, and 11.4 ppbv/d at Mount Tai, Hua, and Huang, respectively. The net photochemical production dominates the formation of ozone maximums at Mount Tai and Hua in June, and the importing transport also plays a comparable importance at Mount Huang. In comparison with those in the western North Pacific, east-central China shows stronger net photochemical productions, which are comparable to anthropogenic sources regions in Europe and North America.

  12. Evaluation of aerosol optical properties of GEOS-Chem over East Asia during the DRAGON-Asia 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, D. S.; Park, R.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    A nested version of 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem v9-01-02) is evaluated over East Asia during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia 2012 campaign period, focusing on fine-mode aerosol optical depth (fAOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). Both are important to assess the effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. We compare the daily mean simulated optical properties of aerosols with the observations from DRAGON-Asia campaign for March-May, 2012 (provided in level 2.0: cloud screened and quality assured). We find that the model reproduces the observed daily variability of fAOD (R=0.67), but overestimates the magnitude by 30%, which is in general consistent with other global model comparisons from ACCMIP. However, a significant high bias in the model is found compared to the observed SSA at 440 nm, which is important for determining the sign of aerosol radiative forcing. In order to understand causes for this gap we conduct several sensitivity tests by changing source magnitudes and input parameters of aerosols, affecting the aerosol optical properties under various atmospheric conditions, which allows us to reduce the gap and to find the optimal values in the model.

  13. Hard science is essential to restoring soft-sediment intertidal habitats in burgeoning East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shing Yip; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    Intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems such as mangrove, saltmarsh, and tidal flats face multiple stresses along the burgeoning East Asia coastline. In addition to direct habitat loss, ecosystem structure, function, and capacity for ecosystem services of these habitats are significantly affected by anthropogenic loss of hydrologic connectivity, introduction of invasive exotic species, and chemical pollution. These dramatic changes to ecosystem structure and function are illustrated by four case studies along the East Asian coast: the Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong, the Yunxiao wetlands in Fujian, China, and the Lake Sihwa and Saemangeum tidal flats in Korea. While investment in restoration is increasing significantly in the region, the lack of key basic knowledge on aspects of the behaviour of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems, particularly those in Asia, impairs the effectiveness of these efforts. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function for relatively species-poor mangrove, seagrass, and saltmarsh systems has implications for restoration targeting monospecific plantations. The trajectory of recovery and return of ecosystem function and services is also poorly known, and may deviate from simple expectations. As many introduced species have become established along the East Asian coast, their long-term impact on ecosystem function as well as the socio-economics of coastal communities demand a multidisciplinary approach to assessing options for restoration and management. These knowledge gaps require urgent attention in order to inform future restoration and management of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems in fast-developing East Asia.

  14. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  15. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  16. Sub-decadal increase of glyoxal and methylglyoxal in atmospheric total suspended particles in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.; Lee, M.; Tachibana, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Jang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Glyoxal and methylglyoxal are good tracers to evaluate the chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere and are important precursors for the production of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in aqueous phase. Here we report seasonal and interannual variations of aerosol-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal over sub-decadal scale (2001-2008) in ambient aerosols collected at Gosan, Jeju Island in the East China Sea. Glyoxal concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 106 ng m-3, with a peak in January. Concentrations of methylglyoxal ranged from 0.05 to 110 ng m-3 with a peak in April. The glyoxal peak is related with carbon monoxide and levoglucosan whereas methylglyoxal peak aligns with ozone. These results suggest an elevated combustion sources of glyoxal in January and secondary sources of methylglyoxal in April. A pronounced seasonal variation was observed for methylglyoxal to glyoxal ratios with maximum in summer followed by spring, autumn and winter, suggesting methyglyoxal to glyoxal ratio is an effective proxy to evaluate the strength of biogenic versus anthropogenic sources of organic aerosol in East Asia. Overall, concentrations of glyoxal from 2001 to 2008 increased by at least 29% per year in winter and 83% per year in spring, being consistent with the increase of ozone, carbon monoxide, and biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs in East Asia. We propose that the increased glyoxal and methylglyoxal could be related to an enhanced SOA production by their reactive uptake in aqueous phase over East Asia.

  17. 18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOOKING EAST ALONG THIS PART OF THE NORTH WALL, FROM A POINT ABOUT 1,500 FEET EAST OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL MOUTH. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. General view inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. 7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM EAST FRONT LEADING TO CENTRAL CAMPUS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  20. Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wei, C.; Chin, M.; Diehl, T.; Tan, Q.; Decision and Information Sciences; Tsinghua Univ.; Univ. of Iowa; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increased by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over

  1. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols over South and East Asia using dual carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, O.; Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.-; Kruså, M.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tiwari, S.-; Lee, M.; Chen, B.; Du, K.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon (BC) and other components of carbonaceous aerosols affect both climate and health in South and East Asia, yet substantial uncertainties exist regarding their sources. The relative contribution to atmospheric BC from fossil fuel versus biomass combustion is important to constrain both to direct mitigation and as their different properties make their effects on climate forcing and respiratory health different. This study approached the sourcing challenge by applying microscale radiocarbon measurements to aerosol particles collected in both source regions and at regional receptor observatories of both S Asia (New Delhi and the Maldives Climate Observatory) and of E Asia (Beijing, Shanghai, South China Coastal Observatory and the Korea Climate Observatory - Gosan, KCO-G, Jeju Island). The radiocarbon approach is ideally suited to this task as fossil sources are void of 14C whereas biomass combustion products hold a contemporary 14C signal. For S Asia, the 14C-based observations suggest that biomass combustion contributes half to two-thirds of the BC loading. In contrast, for E Asia, fossil fuel combustion account for four-fifths of the BC emitted from China. This source-diagnostic radiocarbon signal in the ambient aerosol over East Asia establishes a much larger role for fossil fuel combustion than suggested by all fifteen BC emission inventory models. There are also poor constraints on the sources of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), a large hydrophilic component of carbonaceous aerosols that enhances the propensity of aerosols to form clouds. In a 15-mo continuous campaign in S Asia, radiocarbon-based source apportionment of WSOC shows the dominance of biogenic/biomass combustion sources but also a substantial anthropogenic fossil-fuel contribution (about 20%). WSOC in E Asia reaching KCO-G were 50% from fossil sources. Aerosols reaching the Maldives after long-range over-ocean transport were enriched by 3-4‰ in δ13C-WSOC. This is

  2. Oroclines and paleomagnetism in Borneo and South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Charles S.

    2010-12-01

    Oroclinal bending of Borneo is interpreted to result from indentation and collision by the continental promontory of the Miri Zone-Central Luconia Province of northern Sundaland into southern Sundaland. The collision caused strong compression and uplift of the intervening Sibu Zone Upper Cretaceous-Eocene Rajang-Embaluh Group turbidite basin that was floored by oceanic crust of the Proto South China Sea. Timing of the collision is indicated by uplift of turbidite formations to be overlain by Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene carbonates and intrusion of tin-mineralised granites into the turbidites at the south-east maximum inflexion of the orocline, a region complicated by juxtaposition of both shallow and deep water formations. The oroclinal model, requiring clockwise rotation of the north-west limb, is given no support from the paleomagnetic data that instead demonstrate about 50° of Cenozoic anti-clockwise rotation. Unfortunately not a single outcrop of the strongly oroclinally bent Sibu Zone rocks was measured for paleomagnetism in the north-west limb. Limited support was given for the required anti-clockwise rotation in the north-east limb. Previous syntheses emphasised anti-clockwise rotation, or stable non-rotation of the greater Borneo region as a coherent entity, without any internal deformation. Such models have ignored the oroclinal shape defined by the areal geology of the island, known since early Dutch publications. The northern Thailand-Myanmar north-south-trending geology fabric results from indentation by a promontory of continental India at the Assam-Yunnan oroclinal syntaxis, resulting in paleomagnetically-determined clockwise rotation. The bend of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra, from north-south changing to west-east towards Borneo in the south, remains difficult to model because of widespread remagnetisation.

  3. Biomass-Burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S.-C.; Hsu, N. C.; King, M. D.; Sun, W.-Y.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and land conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the unique climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Significant global sources of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning processes. These gases influence the Earth- atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play an important role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, hence, altering the earth s radiation and water budget. Analyses from satellite measurements reveal the reflected solar (emitted thermal) radiation from clouds due to smoke aerosols can be reduced (enhanced) by 100 (20) Watts per square meter over the month of March 2000. In addition, the reduction in cloud spectral reflectance is large enough to lead to significant errors in satellite retrievals of cloud properties (e.g., optical thickness and effective radius). The fresh water distribution in this region is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall; in fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of smoke aerosols in this region requires continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, ground-based networks and dedicated field experiments. BASE-ASIA initiative has been proposed and will be discussed.

  4. Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yali; Zerjal, Tatiana; Bao, Weidong; Zhu, Suling; Shu, Qunfang; Xu, Jiujin; Du, Ruofu; Fu, Songbin; Li, Pu; Hurles, Matthew E; Yang, Huanming; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2006-04-01

    The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in East Asia, applying a Bayesian full-likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan typed with 45 binary and 16 STR markers from the Y chromosome. According to our analysis, the northern populations examined all started to expand in number between 34 (18-68) and 22 (12-39) thousand years ago (KYA), before the last glacial maximum at 21-18 KYA, while the southern populations all started to expand between 18 (6-47) and 12 (1-45) KYA, but then grew faster. We suggest that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe," while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species.

  6. Prospects for emerging infections in East and southeast Asia 10 years after severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Horby, Peter W; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-06-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades.

  7. Prospects for Emerging Infections in East and Southeast Asia 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Dirk; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is 10 years since severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged, and East and Southeast Asia retain a reputation as a hot spot of emerging infectious diseases. The region is certainly a hot spot of socioeconomic and environmental change, and although some changes (e.g., urbanization and agricultural intensification) may reduce the probability of emerging infectious diseases, the effect of any individual emergence event may be increased by the greater concentration and connectivity of livestock, persons, and products. The region is now better able to detect and respond to emerging infectious diseases than it was a decade ago, but the tools and methods to produce sufficiently refined assessments of the risks of disease emergence are still lacking. Given the continued scale and pace of change in East and Southeast Asia, it is vital that capabilities for predicting, identifying, and controlling biologic threats do not stagnate as the memory of SARS fades. PMID:23738977

  8. The low-FODMAP diet in the management of functional dyspepsia in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Victoria P

    2017-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder in East and Southeast Asia where subjects experience post prandial fullness/bloating, early satiety, belching, epigastric pain, and/or burning. A subset of patients with FD experience triggers exclusively related to meals, defined as the post prandial distress syndrome in the Rome IV guidelines. There is significant overlap of symptoms and implicated pathogenic factors with another common functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and in fact, a significant proportion of subjects have FD/IBS overlap. The introduction of the low-FODMAP diet has changed the paradigm of treatment for IBS. Like IBS, dietary management appears to be important to patients with FD and clinicians treating the condition. This review aims to examine the current role of diet in the management of FD in East and Southeast Asia, with an exploration of the likely efficacy and mechanisms of action of the low-FODMAP diet in this region.

  9. Inverse estimation of radon flux distribution for East Asia using measured atmospheric radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Hirao, S; Hayashi, R; Moriizumi, J; Yamazawa, H; Tohjima, Y; Mukai, H

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the (222)Rn flux density distribution at surface was estimated in East Asia with the Bayesian synthesis inversion using measurement data and a long-range atmospheric (222)Rn transport model. Surface atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations measured at Hateruma Island in January 2008 were used. The estimated (222)Rn flux densities were generally higher than the prior ones. The area-weighted mean (222)Rn flux density for East Asia in January 2008 was estimated to be 44.0 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The use of the estimated (222)Rn flux density improved the discrepancy of the model-calculated concentrations with the measurements at Hateruma Island.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome in the 21st century: perspectives from Asia or South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Asian irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) studies not only confirm the truth of this functional disorder but also describe the current disease situation of this continent, with its variable socioeconomic backgrounds. Most Asian community IBS prevalence is within 5-10%, regardless of gender or ethnic character. As well as meeting the main Rome II criteria, Asian IBS subjects also have many minor symptoms. Thus this recommendation remains useful to diagnose Asian IBS. Also, female patients commonly express constipation-predominant (C-) symptoms. Extra-colonic symptoms are common in Asia, for example dyspepsia, insomnia and irritable urinary bladder. Asian IBS subjects do experience psychological disturbances including anxiety, depression, agoraphobia and neuroticism. Accordingly, their quality of life is poor and there is absenteeism leading to excessive physician visits. Abnormal gut motor and sensory functions have been indicated among the Asian IBS subjects. Now, there is evidence of altered colonic neuroimmune function leading to gut hypersensitivity and dysmotility. An Asia-Pacific trial also confirmed tegaserod efficacy on female C-IBS subjects. More than 90% of nurses have very limited IBS knowledge, and are unable even to explain it clearly. In conclusion, Western recommended criteria clearly diagnose Asian IBS and many factors are mutual leading to IBS. Current IBS treatments remain useful but additional reeducation for medical professionals appears to be needed.

  11. CNA Maritime Asia Project. Workshop One: The Yellow and East China Seas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    the concomitant conflicts among all three par- ties over disputed fishing grounds. About 600 million people live in the Yellow Sea catchment area , and...concerns in East Asia have increasing- ly revolved around problems in the maritime domain, the Center for Naval Analyses has elected to make mar- itime...essentially home waters for the navies of China, Japan, and both Koreas. As a result, it is a “lo- cal” training area for four—or, if one includes

  12. Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Ya; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Yong Pyo; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2012-10-01

    We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia using wet deposition fluxes observed at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging scheme. Typical air quality models, including CMAQ, assume below-cloud scavenging as a simple first-order process with a constant or simple form depending on rain intensity. The scheme used here accounts for the collection efficiency, terminal velocity of raindrops, raindrop-size distributions, and particle-size distributions, which are important factors affecting below-cloud scavenging. We conduct model simulations for spring 2001, including baseline and sensitivity simulations. Our analysis mainly focuses on May 2001 to rule out the effect of dust aerosols. Simulated wet deposition fluxes of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ by the new scheme are increased by 103, 16, and 108%, respectively, relative to the baseline simulation and show better agreement with observations. The effect of below-cloud scavenging on coarse particles is even greater, producing wet deposition fluxes two orders of magnitude higher than the baseline. The resulting changes in the model indicate the considerable impacts of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia, where both anthropogenic emissions and natural sources of aerosols are present throughout the year. An accurate wet scavenging simulation is critical to simulate the atmospheric burden and wet deposition fluxes of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosols over East Asia.

  13. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  14. Impacts of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions on Climate Change in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, S.; Jung, Y.; Baek, H.; Cho, C.

    2013-12-01

    Climate impact by anthropogenic drivers gives high concerns in climate change simulation. IPCC AR4 emphasized the role of aerosol on climate besides the GHGs due to its negative significant radiative forcing. We find that climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia through direct and indirect (aerosol-cloud interaction) radiative process using HadGEM2-AO developed by the UK Met office. Due to the industrial revolution and population growth, total anthropogenic aerosol emissions have grown dramatically over East Asia; sulfate aerosol is the dominant component accounting for about 50% of total aerosol optical depth at 550nm (Figure 1). An increased amount of aerosols might increase the CCN number concentration and lead to more, but smaller, cloud droplets for fixed liquid water content. This increases the albedo of the cloud, resulting in enhance reflection and a cooling effect. And smaller drops require longer growth times to reach size at which they easily fall as precipitation. This effect called the cloud lifetime effect may enhance the cloud cover (Figure 2), with a persistent positive correlation between cloud cover and aerosol optical depth. Particularly, aerosols have an influence on the amount of cloud cover (SC, ST, and NS) through the interaction with precipitation efficiency of low level clouds. As a result of perturbations of East Asia aerosols from preindustrial to present day, a net radiative flux at the top of atmosphere is estimated to be -4 W/m2, with a regional mean surface cooling of 1.2 K. More detailed analysis will be shown at the conference. Fig. 1. (a) Total AOD distributions (b) Changes in decadal mean AOD over East Asia. Fig 2. Cloud cover distributions classified by ISCCP cloud types.

  15. Impact Assessment of Biomass Burning on Air Quality in Southeast and East Asia During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Hsu, N. Christina; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lam, Yun Fat

    2013-01-01

    A synergy of numerical simulation, ground-based measurement and satellite observation was applied to evaluate the impact of biomass burning originating from Southeast Asia (SE Asia) within the framework of NASA's 2006 Biomass burning Aerosols in Southeast Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Biomass burning emissions in the spring of 2006 peaked in MarcheApril when most intense biomass burning occurred in Myanmar, northern Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam and Cambodia. Model performances were reasonably validated by comparing to both satellite and ground-based observations despite overestimation or underestimation occurring in specific regions due to high uncertainties of biomass burning emission. Chemical tracers of particulate K(+), OC concentrations, and OC/EC ratios showed distinct regional characteristics, suggesting biomass burning and local emission dominated the aerosol chemistry. CMAQ modeled aerosol chemical components were underestimated at most circumstances and the converted AOD values from CMAQ were biased low at about a factor of 2, probably due to the underestimation of biomass emissions. Scenario simulation indicated that the impact of biomass burning to the downwind regions spread over a large area via the Asian spring monsoon, which included Southern China, South China Sea, and Taiwan Strait. Comparison of AERONET aerosol optical properties with simulation at multi-sites clearly demonstrated the biomass burning impact via longrange transport. In the source region, the contribution from biomass burning to AOD was estimated to be over 56%. While in the downwind regions, the contribution was still significant within the range of 26%-62%.

  16. How predictable is the winter extremely cold days over temperate East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiao; Wang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Skillful seasonal prediction of the number of extremely cold day (NECD) has considerable benefits for climate risk management and economic planning. Yet, predictability of NECD associated with East Asia winter monsoon remains largely unexplored. The present work estimates the NECD predictability in temperate East Asia (TEA, 30°-50°N, 110°-140°E) where the current dynamical models exhibit limited prediction skill. We show that about 50 % of the total variance of the NECD in TEA region is likely predictable, which is estimated by using a physics-based empirical (P-E) model with three consequential autumn predictors, i.e., developing El Niño/La Niña, Eurasian Arctic Ocean temperature anomalies, and geopotential height anomalies over northern and eastern Asia. We find that the barotropic geopotential height anomaly over Asia can persist from autumn to winter, thereby serving as a predictor for winter NECD. Further analysis reveals that the sources of the NECD predictability and the physical basis for prediction of NECD are essentially the same as those for prediction of winter mean temperature over the same region. This finding implies that forecasting seasonal mean temperature can provide useful information for prediction of extreme cold events. Interpretation of the lead-lag linkages between the three predictors and the predictand is provided for stimulating further studies.

  17. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25–10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia. PMID:25826227

  18. Ancient inland human dispersals from Myanmar into interior East Asia since the Late Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Chun; Wang, Hua-Wei; Tian, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Li-Na; Yang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Wu, Shi-Fang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-03-26

    Given the existence of plenty of river valleys connecting Southeast and East Asia, it is possible that some inland route(s) might have been adopted by the initial settlers to migrate into the interior of East Asia. Here we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) HVS variants of 845 newly collected individuals from 14 Myanmar populations and 5,907 published individuals from 115 populations from Myanmar and its surroundings. Enrichment of basal lineages with the highest genetic diversity in Myanmar suggests that Myanmar was likely one of the differentiation centers of the early modern humans. Intriguingly, some haplogroups were shared merely between Myanmar and southwestern China, hinting certain genetic connection between both regions. Further analyses revealed that such connection was in fact attributed to both recent gene flow and certain ancient dispersals from Myanmar to southwestern China during 25-10 kya, suggesting that, besides the coastal route, the early modern humans also adopted an inland dispersal route to populate the interior of East Asia.

  19. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  20. Age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Sanzhong; Wei, Wei

    2017-04-01

    We study the age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia using a high-resolution model of P-wave tomography and paleo-age data of ancient seafloor. Our results show that the lithosphere age of the subducting slab becomes younger from the Japan Trench (∼130 Ma) to the slab's western edge (∼90 Ma) beneath East China, and the flat (stagnant) slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ) is the subducted Pacific plate rather than the proposed Izanagi plate which should have already collapsed into the lower mantle. The flat Pacific slab has been in the MTZ for no more than ∼10-20 million years, considerably less than the age of the big mantle wedge beneath East Asia (>110 million years). Hence, the present flat Pacific slab in the MTZ has contributed to the Cenozoic destruction of the East Asian continental lithosphere with extensive intraplate volcanism and back-arc spreading, whereas the destruction of the North China Craton during the Early Cretaceous (∼140-110 Ma) was caused by the subduction of the Izanagi (or the Paleo-Pacific) plate.

  1. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  2. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-17

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  3. East Asia: A Region of Superlatives in Changing Global Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; van Donkelaar, A.; Geddes, J.; Snider, G.; Weagle, C.; Xu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers a powerful data source to inform East Asian air quality, and to place that information in a global context. Chemical transport models play a critical role in relating those observations of the atmospheric column to ground-level concentrations. Satellite-based estimates of ground-level fine-particulate matter (PM2.5) and NO2 indicate dramatic variation and trends, with implications for public health. The GOCI geostationary satellite instrument provides unprecedented temporal resolution over East Asia. An emerging ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances and future opportunities in combining satellite remote sensing, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of East Asian air quality, and to place that information in a global context.

  4. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J

    2014-02-01

    There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century.

  5. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dapeng

    2015-02-01

    We review recent findings on the causal mechanism of the great 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) sequence and related issues on seismic structure and subduction dynamics in Western Pacific and East Asia. High-resolution tomography revealed significant lateral heterogeneities in the interplate megathrust zone beneath the Tohoku, South Kuril and Southwest Japan forearc regions. Large megathrust earthquakes since 1900 generally occurred in or around high-velocity (high-V) patches in the megathrust zone, which may reflect asperities resulting from subducted seamounts, oceanic ridges and other topographic highs on the Pacific seafloor. In contrast, low-velocity (low-V) patches in the megathrust zone may contain more sediments and fluids, where the subducting oceanic plate and the overlying continental plate are less coupled or even decoupled. The nucleation of large crustal earthquakes in the Japan Islands, including the 11 April 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) in SE Tohoku, is affected by arc magma and fluids resulting from slab dehydration. The Philippine Sea plate has subducted aseismically down to 430-460 km depth under East China Sea, Tsushima Strait and Japan Sea. A window in the aseismic Philippine Sea slab is detected, which may be caused by splitting of weak parts of the slab at the subducted ridges (e.g., Kyushu-Paula ridge) and hot upwelling in the mantle wedge above the Pacific slab. The intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia is caused by hot and wet upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. Frequent generation of large deep earthquakes (>500 km depth) in the Pacific slab may supply additional fluids preserved in the slab to the mantle wedge under the Changbai volcano, making Changbai the largest and most active intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Fluids may be involved in nucleation and rupture processes of all types of earthquakes.

  6. Evaluation of modeled vertical aerosol distributions over east-Asia using in-situ and satellite data during summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quennehen, Boris; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Law, Kathy S.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Ancellet, Gérard; Bazureau, Ariane; Daskalakis, Nikos; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Soon-Chang; Zhu, Tong; Pelon, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    As part of the EU ECLIPSE project, which aims to quantify the climate impact of short lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including aerosols, black carbon and ozone, regional models are being used to evaluate global model performance for specific case studies. Here, we present results using regional WRF-Chem simulations over east-Asia. Results are compared to data from field campaigns which took place in summer 2008 and from long-term measurement stations. This study will, in a first step, evaluate the ability of the model to simulate aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, with a focus on pollution layers. In a second step, the radiative impact of such layers over east-Asia will be investigated as a function of their position relative to clouds. The WRF-Chem regional model was run using MOZART gas phase chemistry and the MOSAIC aerosol scheme and was evaluated against available measurements for the period August to September 2008. The model was run using ECLIPSE anthropogenic and GFEDv3.1 fire emissions for 2008, while initial and boundary conditions were specified from the TM4 global chemical transport model. The radiative impact of pollution aerosol layers has already been investigated but less is known about the influence of vertical layering in the atmosphere. Such layers might have different radiative impacts whether they are below or above clouds and in that sense, a better understanding of their spatial extent is critical. Information about pollution aerosol layers and clouds optical properties and positions over East-Asia are determined using observations from CALIPSO. The radiative impact of these layers is simulated and compared to the observations. In addition to satellite observations, model results are evaluated against trace gas and aerosol data from aircraft campaigns over eastern Asia in summer 2008 (e.g., CAREBEIJING and CAPMEX) and ground-based measurements (e.g., NIES and ABC). In this study, we assess aerosol total concentrations and size

  7. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  8. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  9. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years. PMID:28178351

  10. Changing patterns of HIV epidemic in 30 years in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Suguimoto, S Pilar; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    The HIV epidemic in East Asia started relatively late compared to the rest of the world. All countries or areas, except for North Korea, had reported HIV and AIDS cases, with China being the major contributor to the epidemic. Though initially driven by injecting drug use in China, East Asia did not experience an explosive spread. Strong commitment in China and early harm reduction programs in Taiwan managed to reduce transmission substantially among injecting drug users. In contrast to China and Taiwan, injection drug use has accounted just a little, if not at all, for the spread of HIV in other East Asian counties. However, following a global trend, sexual contact has become a major route of infection across the region. While much progress has been achieved in this region, with the epidemic among other key populations relatively stable, the emerging epidemic through sex between men is a growing concern. Recent estimates suggest that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has reached 6.3 % in China, 7.5 % in Mongolia, and ranges between 8.1 %-10.7 % in Taiwan and between 2.7 %- 6.5 % in South Korea. In Japan, 74 % of male HIV cases were among MSM in 2012, while Hong Kong has witnessed a sharp increase of HIV cases among MSM since 2004. There is urgent need to address issues of discrimination and stigma toward homosexuality, and to strengthen the strategies to reach and care for this population.

  11. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dust emissions from the Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia have a major impact on the air quality in the East Asian region. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dusts also modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentration and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia) and satellite measurements over East Asia. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust modules was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The results show that the Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and DEAD are relatively good dust emission schemes in this region and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic emissions over China. Details of modifications of dust emission schemes and annual background PM10 concentrations by the soil fugitive dust in Korea will be discussed in the presentation.

  12. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint.

  13. Assessment of OMI near-UV aerosol optical depth over Central and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Gu, Xingfa; Xu, Hui; Yu, Tao; Zheng, Fengjie

    2016-01-01

    Several essential improvements have been made in recent Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) near-ultraviolet (UV) aerosol retrieval algorithm version (OMAERUV version 1.4.2), but few regional validations for its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product are conducted. This paper assessed the OMAERUV AOD product over Central and East Asia. The OMAERUV Level 2.0 AOD product was compared with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Level 2.0 direct Sun AOD measurement over 10 years (2005-2014) at 27 selected AERONET sites. A combined comparison of OMAERUV-AERONET AOD at 25 (2) sites was carried out and yielded correlation coefficient (ρ) of 0.63 (0.77), slope of 0.53 (0.57), y intercept of 0.18 (0.13), and 50.71% (57.24%) OMAERUV AOD fall within the expected uncertainty boundary (larger by 0.1 or ±30%) at 380 nm (440 nm). The more accurate (ρ > 0.70) OMAERUV retrievals are reported over eastern and northern China and South Korea. The two primary reasons for the underestimation of OMAERUV AOD over China are as follows: (1) the use of single-channel (388 nm) retrieval method retrieves scattering AOD and not total AOD, and (2) the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index in the near-UV region assumed in the algorithm may not be representative of aerosols found over China. The comparisons for three predominant aerosol types indicate that smoke aerosol exhibits the best performance, followed by dust and nonabsorbing aerosol. It is consistent with the characteristic of near-UV wavelength that it is more sensitive to absorbent particles. The comprehensive yearly (2005-2014) comparison at 25 sites and comparison between two periods (2005-2006 and 2009-2014) at selected four sites show no discernible decrease of temporal trend, which indicates that the OMAERUV algorithm successfully maintains its quality of aerosol product despite post-2008 row anomaly instrument problem.

  14. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  15. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  16. Terrestrial Water Cycle in South and East Asia: Hydrospheric and Cryospheric Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; Hu, G.; Liu, Q.; Xin, X.; Roupioz, L.; Zheng, C.; Zhou, J.; Li, Z.; Faivre, R.; Ghafarian, H.; Hien, V. P.; Lindenbergh, R.; Li, J.; Wen, J.; Li, L.; Zhao, J.; Dou, B.

    2016-08-01

    The state of the land surface and the water cycle over the South and East Asia can be determined by space observation. New or significantly improved algorithms have been developed and evaluated against ground measurements. V ariables retrieved include land surface properties, i.e. NDVI, LAI, FPAR, albedo, soil moisture, glacier and lake levels. Based on these biophysical parameters derived from microwave and optical remote sensing observations, a hybrid remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) estimation model named ETMonitor was developed and applied to estimate the daily actual ET of the Southeast Asia at a spatial resolution of 1 km. The changes in glaciers and lakes on the Tibetan Plateau, and the drainage links between glaciers and lakes are determined in this climate-sensitive region.

  17. Reconstruction of the thermal environment evolution from subsurface temperature distribution in large cities in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, H.; Goto, S.; Vuthy, M.; Nishijima, J.; Yamano, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Miyakoshi, A.; Hachinohe, S.; Sasaka, K.; Shiraishi, H.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature changes at the ground surface propagate into the underground and disturb the subsurface temperature structure. Analyzing disturbances in the subsurface temperature structure, we can reconstruct the past ground surface temperature (GST) change, which is closely related to the past surface air temperature change. This method can be applied to studies of thermal environment evolution in urban areas such as the development of “heat islands”. As part of an international multidisciplinary research project “Human Impacts on Urban Subsurface Environments”, we have been investigating GST histories in and around several large cities in East Asia, including Bangkok and Tokyo. We have also started a study on the subsurface thermal environment in Saitama prefecture, located on the north of Tokyo, as a research project of CESS (Center for Environmental Science in Saitama). The eastern part of Saitama prefecture is densely populated and considered to be a part of Tokyo Metropolitan area. In this presentation, we show the results of GST history reconstruction in the both areas. In Bangkok area, we conducted measurements of temperature profiles in groundwater monitoring wells at 45 sites in 2004, 2006, and 2008. In Saitama, we measured temperature profiles at 15 sites in 2009. We examined the shapes of the temperature profiles and selected ones that are not significantly disturbed by groundwater flow. Reconstruction of GST history for the last several hundred years was made at six sites in the Bangkok area and at two sites in the Saitama area. We used a multi-layer model that allows layers with different thermal properties, determining layer boundaries based on lithology of the formations around the wells. All of the reconstructed GST histories show surface warming in the last century. In the Bangkok area, the amount of the temperature increase ranges from 0.4 to 2.6 K and is larger in the city than in the area to the west of Bangkok and in the northern rural

  18. MICS-Asia II: Modeling gaseous pollutants and evaluating an advanced modeling system over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Joshua S.; Jang, Carey J.; Streets, David G.; Li, Zuopan; Kwok, Roger; Park, Rokjin; Han, Zhiwei

    An advanced modeling system with a "one-atmosphere" perspective, Models-3/Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, driven by MM5/NCEP reanalysis data as the meteorology, and GEOS-Chem outputs as boundary values was applied to simulate the O 3, and other gaseous pollutants (SO 2 and NO 2) evolution among other atmospheric chemicals for July 2001. Comparisons had been made with other models in the MICS-II exercise for the same period. Statistics of both monthly and daily means show that the model skill is very good in reproducing O 3 and SO 2 with small to moderate RMSE. The model species capture the day-to-day and spatial variability of the observations. The same O 3 model concentrations that overpredict most of the EANET observations in the MICS-II study may have underpredicted ones from monitoring networks in Beijing area that is not included in this paper. Vertical O 3 profiles at 4 ozonesonde sites are well predicted in July 2001. In fact, our model is among the best of those MICS-II models within the 2-km surface layer. The meteorology near surface and lower troposphere is well reproduced. Compared to SO 2 and O 3, the NO 2 gas concentrations are simulated less well, but the correlation coefficient is still significant. The choice of reanalysis meteorological fields and different boundary conditions generated by different global models may result in diverse spatial patterns exhibited by MICS-II models and ours. Our spatial distributions of O 3 shows a high concentration patch covering Beijing, a moderate to high pattern across Korea and Japan Sea, and a low but extensive pattern enclosing southern China, Taiwan, and East Sea. Extension of the pattern to southern China coincides with the existence of pollution problems in Guangdong and Taiwan, but overprediction of O 3 over the region deserves further improvement by various factors. One of them can be the grid resolution to resolve the complex orography in or close to the ocean. Another factor

  19. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  20. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over the East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.; choi, D.

    2013-12-01

    Asian mineral dust from Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia has a major impact on the air quality in the East Asia. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in the SMA (Seoul Metropolitan Area). The PM10 prediction by a regional chemical transport model without the dust emission shows an intrinsic tendency of underestimation according to previous studies in this region, especially for the soil originated coarse PM. The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) scheme for the dust emission with CAMx was tested for its applicability in assessing impact of the fugitive dust on air quality in the China region and SMA. The performance of ADMS2 dust emission was evaluated to depict not only onset times of the dust storm event but also to estimate the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event against the surface measurements and satellite measurements over East Asia. The surface observations were from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) monitoring sites in China and the intensive monitoring stations in the SMA. The results show that the CAMx predictions of PM10 with ADAM2 scheme were relatively in a good agreement with the observations. They, however, occasionally over-predicted the PM10 concentrations during non-dust event periods and under-predicted the PM10 concentrations during dust event periods. Details of model comparison for other chemical species and implication of dust emission schemes on the air quality will be discussed in the presentation. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The Eco-technopia 21 project'.

  1. Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in East Asia. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in East Asia, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.

  2. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2016-05-01

    An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over East Asia, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in East Asia in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.

  3. Governments' perceptions and policies of population redistribution in East and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, L A

    1981-01-01

    "This paper is based on the results of the Third Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development carried out in 1977 by the UN Secretariat. It reports on perceptions and policies concerning international migrations, spatial distribution of the national population, internal migration and settlement patterns in fourteen South East and East Asian countries. "It appears that nearly all countries under consideration were concerned with the spatial distribution of population both as a factor related to problems caused by excessive natural increase and as a problem on its own right. The majority of countries were prepared to pursue policies affecting basic trends in internal migration. Most governments declared their willingness to alter patterns of rural or both rural and urban settlement. Only two countries were interested in increasing emigration; the remaining ones were satisfied with the existing levels of international migration."

  4. WRF-Chem simulations of aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF, including direct, semi-direct and indirect forcing) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at many sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korea, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 μm or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan, which indicates the possible influence of pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. The model underestimates SO42- and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over mainland China by about a factor of 2, while overestimates NO3- concentration in autumn along the Yangtze River. The model captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter and spring and over North China in winter, spring and summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over adjacent oceans at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5-30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO42-, NO3- and NH4

  5. Ethnomyocological data from Siberia and North-East Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Saar, M

    1991-02-01

    The paper includes literary data on the use of Amanita muscaria in Siberia and North-East Asia as well as information collected from ethnographers investigating these areas during the past decades. A survey is given on the cases and rules of Amanita muscaria consumption and the ways of its administration. The peoples having the tradition of Amanita muscaria consumption were aware of its different psychotrophic qualities and were able to use for several purposes. The fungus has been used by them as a psychostimulant having a simultaneous effect on several psychic functions.

  6. Projections of summertime ozone concentration over East Asia under multiple IPCC SRES emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Bum; Cha, Jun-Seok; Hong, Sung-Chul; Choi, Jin-Young; Myoung, Ji-Su; Park, Rokjin J.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Ho, Changhoi; Han, Jin-Seok; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-04-01

    We have developed the Integrated Climate and Air Quality Modeling System (ICAMS) through the one-way nesting of global-regional models to examine the changes in the surface ozone concentrations over East Asia under future climate scenarios. Model simulations have been conducted for the present period of 1996-2005 to evaluate the performance of ICAMS. The simulated surface ozone concentrations reproduced the observed monthly mean concentrations at sites in East Asia with high R2 values (0.4-0.9), indicating a successful simulation to capture both spatial and temporal variability. We then performed several model simulations with the six IPCC SRES scenarios (A2, A1B, A1FI, A1T, B1, and B2) for the next three periods, 2016-2025 (the 2020s), 2046-2055 (the 2050s), and 2091-2100 (the 2090s). The model results show that the projected changes of the annual daily mean maximum eight-hour (DM8H) surface ozone concentrations in summertime for East Asia are in the range of 2-8 ppb, -3 to 8 ppb, and -7 to 9 ppb for the 2020s, the 2050s, and the 2090s, respectively, and are primarily determined based on the emission changes of NOx and NMVOC. The maximum increases in the annual DM8H surface ozone and high-ozone events occur in the 2020s for all scenarios except for A2, implying that the air quality over East Asia is likely to get worse in the near future period (the 2020s) than in the far future periods (the 2050s and the 2090s). The changes in the future environment based on IPCC SRES scenarios would also influence the change in the occurrences of high-concentrations events more greatly than that of the annual DM8H surface ozone concentrations. Sensitivity simulations show that the emissions increase is the key factor in determining future regional surface ozone concentrations in the case of a developing country, China, whereas a developed country, Japan would be influenced more greatly by effects of the regional climate change than the increase in emissions.

  7. Is the global atmospheric model MRI-AGCM3.2 better than the CMIP5 atmospheric models in simulating precipitation over East Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, Shoji

    2016-09-01

    The reproducibility of precipitation over East Asia (110-150°E, 20-50°N) by the Meteorological Research Institute-Atmospheric General Circulation Model version 3.2 (MRI-AGCM3.2) was investigated and compared with those by global atmospheric models participated in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The 20, 60 and 180-km grid size version of this model were used to evaluate the dependence of model performance on horizontal resolution. The dependence of cumulus convection scheme on model performance was also investigated. All the MRI-AGCM3.2 models and the CMIP5 models were forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures for the period 1979-2003 (25 years). The reproducibility of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models is higher or comparable to that of the CMIP5 models for seasonal average precipitation, the seasonal March of rainy zone and extreme precipitation events. Especially in summer, the advantage of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models over the CMIP5 models is striking in terms of various skill measures. This is partly due to the higher horizontal resolution of the MRI-AGCM3.2 models, but the performance of models is also sensitive to and depends on cumulus convection scheme. The better simulation of summer precipitation over East Asia by the MRI-AGCM3.2 models can be partly attributed to the better simulation of precipitation, the West Pacific Subtropical High and the local Hadley circulation in the tropics. This study highlights that higher reproducibility of summertime precipitation over East Asia requires proper simulation not only for tropical circulation but also for the strong dynamical linkage between precipitation over East Asia and tropical circulation.

  8. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    As the climate change occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface temperature change using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT changes made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  9. History and current status of bariatric and metabolic surgeries in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Akira; Lee, Wei-Jei; Sasaki, Akira; Wakabayashi, Go

    2015-08-01

    Morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are major public health problems around the world, including in East Asia. Although Asian populations have been shown to have an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia at a relatively lower BMI than Western populations, the Asian perspective on bariatric and metabolic surgeries has not been actively discussed until recently. Bariatric surgery in East Asia has undergone a paradigm shift since the first laparoscopic vertical bariatric surgery was performed in Taiwan in 1998, which was subsequently followed by the introduction of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass. Since 2006, use of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has remarkably increased because of its ease, speed, and safety. With regard to metabolic surgery, a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan demonstrated that laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is more effective than laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for surgical treatment of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In this article, we describe the history of bariatric procedures, revision surgeries, weight-loss effect, and metabolic surgeries in Asian populations, and we also discuss minimally invasive bariatric surgery with some important citations.

  10. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  11. Comparison of trend between aerosol optical depth and PM in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, S. H.; Kim, J.; Choi, M.; KIM, M.; Jeong, U.

    2014-12-01

    East Asia is one of major source region of aerosol emission. For decades, vast amount of aerosol, which is emitted and transported from emission region such as desert and industrialized area, has significant effect in the air quality and public health. Moreover, by scattering solar radiation and moderating cloud microphysical system, aerosol plays an important role in climate system. As the Korean peninsula is located in the downwind side of East Asia, the distribution of aerosol in this region is affected by continental outflow and local emission, This study shows the long-term trend and regional distribution of PM10 concentration over 28 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) sites and aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) at 550nm channel during the period from March 2011 to March 2014. Though AOD is a good indicator of PM10 concentration, there are some uncertainties in AOD caused largely by aerosol type, surface reflectance, and those in PM by relative humidity (RH), boundary layer height (BLH) and so on. In this study, retrieved AODs were compared with the observed PM10, and trends and correlations between AOD and PM10 have been calculated for different region and season over the Korean peninsula.

  12. Observationally-constrained estimates of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over East Asia via data assimilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Song, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Not only aerosol's direct effect on climate by scattering and absorbing the incident solar radiation, but also they indirectly perturbs the radiation budget by influencing microphysics and dynamics of clouds. Aerosols also have a significant adverse impact on human health. With an importance of aerosols in climate, considerable research efforts have been made to quantify the amount of aerosols in the form of the aerosol optical depth (AOD). AOD is provided with ground-based aerosol networks such as the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), and is derived from satellite measurements. However, these observational datasets have a limited areal and temporal coverage. To compensate for the data gaps, there have been several studies to provide AOD without data gaps by assimilating observational data and model outputs. In this study, AODs over East Asia simulated with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and derived from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) observation are interpolated via different data assimilation (DA) techniques such as Cressman's method, Optimal Interpolation (OI), and Kriging for the period of the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) Campaign (March - May 2012). Here, the interpolated results using the three DA techniques are validated intensively by comparing with AERONET AODs to examine the optimal DA method providing the most reliable AODs over East Asia.

  13. An HIV Vaccine for South-East Asia-Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; O'Connell, Robert J; Kim, Jerome H; Excler, Jean-Louis

    2013-08-14

    Recent advances in HIV vaccine development along with a better understanding of the immune correlates of risk have emerged from the RV144 efficacy trial conducted in Thailand. Epidemiological data suggest that CRF01_AE is still predominant in South-East Asia and is spreading in China with a growing number of circulating recombinant forms due to increasing human contact, particularly in large urban centers, tourist locations and in sites of common infrastructure. A vaccine countering CRF01_AE is a priority for the region. An Asia HIV vaccine against expanding B/E or BCE recombinant forms should be actively pursued. A major challenge that remains is the conduct of efficacy trials in heterosexual populations in this region. Men who have sex with men represent the main target population for future efficacy trials in Asia. Coupling HIV vaccines with other prevention modalities in efficacy trials might also be envisaged. These new avenues will only be made possible through the conduct of large-scale efficacy trials, interdisciplinary teams, international collaborations, and strong political and community commitments.

  14. Change in the near future surface air quality over East Asia under different assumptions in the future emissions of SLCPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Kurokawa, J.; Sudo, K.; Ohara, T.; Akimoto, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examined surface air quality over East Asia in the near future (2030) based on the different future emission scenarios of air pollutants in order to build a near future emission scenario that can get a co-benefit of improvement in air quality in East Asia and mitigation of rapid climate change by controlling air pollutants, in other words, SLCPs (Short-Lived Climate Pollutants) which have large radiative impact in the atmosphere. For this, near future projections of SLCPs done by a global scale chemistry climate model (CHASER model) were further down scaled by a regional chemistry transport model (CMAQ model) in order to focus on the East Asian region. We performed a series of simulations which include standard simulation forced with emissions of air pollutants at the current (year 2005) level and 3 future simulations (year 2030) forced with different future emission scenario each other: 1) Current Legislation (CLE) scenario, 2) CO2-equivalent greenhouse gas stabilized at 450 ppm (450ppm) scenario, 3) Maximum Feasible Reduction (MFR) scenario, and 4) Modified 450 ppm (m450ppm) scenario. Then, the changes in air quality over East Asia from 2005 to 2030 for each future scenario were estimated and compared each other. The MFR scenario was estimated to bring a large improvement of air quality over the entire East Asian region, but other two scenarios, CLE and 450 ppm, were very limited in ability to improve the air quality in East Asia. The m450ppm scenario is the scenario based on the 450ppm scenario with more stringent air pollution control in East Asia. Compared with the 450ppm scenario, the m450ppm scenario did not have much impact in annual mean surface ozone but brought large improvement in the summer time ozone and also in the frequency of high ozone concentration events in highly polluted area such as CEC (Central East China) in East Asia. The m450ppm scenario also reduced significantly the amount of PM2.5 in East Asia particularly in the high seasons of PM2

  15. Time scale of riverine sediment transfer in East Asia: from source to sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Yang, Shouye; Zhao, Jianxin; Bi, Lei

    2015-04-01

    River on the earth surface is like the blood vessel for human body, which transports huge nutrients from the vast continent to the deep ocean. The knowledge of the river transit process leads to better understanding of the continent weathering and earth surface evolution. However, this process, particularly its timescale, is rarely studied due to the poor geological tracer. In this regard, our work aims to reconstruct the sediment transport time in Changjiang (Yangtze River) and Taiwan rivers by mean of "Comminution Age" based on 234U/238U in the lithogenic fraction. As the largest river in Asia, Changjiang is characterized by "Large river/delta + wide shelf + huge input + slower sediment transfer + strong anthropogenic impact", while the Taiwan rivers are featured for "Mountainous river + narrow shelf + huge and rapid sediment transfer + extreme climate event". The distinct geological and topographical features in both river systems result in different sediment "source to sink" processes in terms of time scale. Our calculation shows that the sediment transport time, which is largely depended on basin topography and its weathering condition, in Changjiang basin is much longer (400 ky) than that in Taiwan river basin (120 ky). This work provides the first quantitative constraint on time scale of sediment source to sink process in East Asia, which probably sheds a new insight into weathering regime and sediment recycling in East Asia and northwest Pacific. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment (YRWEF201305), Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology (MRE201402) and the Natural Science Foundation of China (41306040; 41225020).

  16. Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for East Asia in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over East Asia. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-Asia, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for East Asia. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.

  17. Remote sensing evidence of decadal changes in major tropospheric ozone precursors over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Amir Hossein; Choi, Yunsoo; Jeon, Wonbae; Woo, Jung-Hun; Zhang, Qiang; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi

    2017-02-01

    Recent regulatory policies in East Asia reduce ozone precursors, but these changes are spatially and temporally nonuniform. This study investigates variations in the long-term trends of tropospheric NO2, HCHO, and HCHO/NO2 ratios to diagnose ozone sensitivity to changes in NOx and volatile organic compound using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Using an adaptive-degree polynomial filter, we identify extremums of time series of NO2 to determine when and how NO2 change. Due to the regulations in China, trends which were predominantly upward turned downward. The years undergoing these changes primarily happened in 2011 and 2012. OMI column densities, however, suggest that NOx sources in South Korea, the Pearl River Delta (PRD), Taiwan, and Japan have not consistently decreased. Specifically, as Chinese exports of NO2 started subsiding, increasing trends in NO2 columns over several Korean cities, including Seoul, become evident. To quantify the changes in NOx emissions from summertime 2010 to 2014, we conduct a 3D-Var inverse modeling using a regional model with MIX-Asia inventory and estimate NOx emissions (in 2010 and 2014) for the PRD (1.6 and 1.5 Gg/d), the Yangtze River Delta (3.9 and 3.0 Gg/d), north China (15.6 and 14.3 Gg/d), South Korea (1.6 and 1.5 Gg/d), and Japan (2.7 and 2.6 Gg/d). OMI HCHO shows upward trends in East Asia resulting from anthropogenic effects; however, the magnitudes are negative in the PRD, Japan, North Korea, and Taiwan. OMI HCHO/NO2 ratios reveal that while South Korea, Japan, and the south of China have undergone toward more NOx-sensitive regime, areas around the Bohai Sea have become more NOx saturated.

  18. 17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to north. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  19. 16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  20. View towards east of interior wall structure with parts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards east of interior wall structure with parts of coffee despulpadora in foreground - Finca Silem, Coffee Processing Structure No. 1, Highway 139, Kilometer 9.3, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  1. 8. RAIL SPURS AND NORTHEAST PART OF EAST ELEVATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. RAIL SPURS AND NORTHEAST PART OF EAST ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 25. EAST SIDE, SOUTH PART, SHOWING FOUR SETS OF SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. EAST SIDE, SOUTH PART, SHOWING FOUR SETS OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS ABOVE THE WOOD SHOP, WHICH IS OBSCURED BY STORAGE RACKS OF STEEL. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  3. 2. EAST PART OF SOLIDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST PART OF SOLIDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING 274 AND PLUMMER STREET, FROM BALL DIAMOND IN SOUTHEAST CORNER. (Panoramic view 2/2). - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Decadal increase of organic compounds in winter and spring atmospheric aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Tachibana, E.; Lee, M.; Jung, J.

    2014-12-01

    A rapid economic growth in China and other East Asian countries may have changed molecular level organic composition of atmospheric aerosols in East Asia. Molecular level composition is required to better evaluate the roles of organic aersols on climate, air quality and public health. Diacids and oxoacids account for a significant fraction of atmospheric organic matter and their secondary sources are more important than their primary sources. Atmospheric aerosol samples (n = 698) were collected during 2001-2008 at Gosan site in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were analyzed for saturated (C2-C10), unsaturated aliphatic (C4-C5), multifunctional (C3-C7) and aromatic (C8) diacids and oxoacids (C2-C9). According to monthly average concentration, oxalic acid (C2) is the most abundant followed by malonic acid (C3) and succinic acid (C4) in the homologous series of saturated diacids (C2-C10) whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is most abundant in the homologous series of oxoacids (C2-C9). The monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of saturated and multifunctional diacids and oxoacids showed the highest in spring (March-May). In contrast, those concentrations for unsaturated aliphatic and aromatic diacids were observed the highest in winter (December-February). The monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of all diacids and oxoacids showed the second peak in the autumn (September-November) while those concentrations were recorded lowest in summer (June-August). A steady increment or decrement was not found in the monthly median and percentile (25th and 75th) concentrations of diacids and oxoacids in any month. However, the curve fitting of those concentrations over the study period shows an incremental trend for major diacids and oxoacids in winter and spring. For example, the monthly median, 25th percentile and 75th percentile concentrations of all major diacids and oxoacids increased up to 3 times from 2001 to 2008 in winter and

  6. Development of the STEM-mercury model to study the fate and transport of mercury in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li

    In this thesis, the atmospheric mercury distributions in East Asia are studied using methods: model simulations with the backward trajectory analysis; 4D-Var data assimilation approach using adjoint inverse model simulations. The main purposes of this study are to evaluate current estimate of mercury emissions, which inventory have huge uncertainties that lead to model predict which underestimate mercury observations measured over the Yellow Sea and Japan Sea during the ACE-Asia campaign on April 2001. The chemical and physical mechanisms of mercury in the atmosphere are studied in this thesis by developing a detailed chemical box model. Finally mercury mechanisms are incorporated into STEM (Sulfur Transport and dEposition model) to generate STEM-Hg, which is applied to East Asia to estimate mercury ambient concentration distributions, to predict mercury dry and wet depositions and to calculate mercury exports from the East Asia. The results from this work identify that anthropogenic emission emitted from China are three times higher than the estimate. During the month of April, 77% of total emitted mercury is deposited in the East Asia areas due to the quick oxidation reactions of mercury in the gas phase.

  7. A new urban landscape in East-Southeast Asia, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Mertes, C. M.; Tatem, A. J.; Tan, B.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Graves, S. J.; Patel, N. N.; Horton, J. A.; Gaughan, A. E.; Rollo, J. T.; Schelly, I. H.; Stevens, F. R.; Dastur, A.

    2015-03-01

    East-Southeast Asia is currently one of the fastest urbanizing regions in the world, with countries such as China climbing from 20 to 50% urbanized in just a few decades. By 2050, these countries are projected to add 1 billion people, with 90% of that growth occurring in cities. This population shift parallels an equally astounding amount of built-up land expansion. However, spatially-and temporally-detailed information on regional-scale changes in urban land or population distribution do not exist; previous efforts have been either sample-based, focused on one country, or drawn conclusions from datasets with substantial temporal/spatial mismatch and variability in urban definitions. Using consistent methodology, satellite imagery and census data for >1000 agglomerations in the East-Southeast Asian region, we show that urban land increased >22% between 2000 and 2010 (from 155 000 to 189 000 km2), an amount equivalent to the area of Taiwan, while urban populations climbed >31% (from 738 to 969 million). Although urban land expanded at unprecedented rates, urban populations grew more rapidly, resulting in increasing densities for the majority of urban agglomerations, including those in both more developed (Japan, South Korea) and industrializing nations (China, Vietnam, Indonesia). This result contrasts previous sample-based studies, which conclude that cities are universally declining in density. The patterns and rates of change uncovered by these datasets provide a unique record of the massive urban transition currently underway in East-Southeast Asia that is impacting local-regional climate, pollution levels, water quality/availability, arable land, as well as the livelihoods and vulnerability of populations in the region.

  8. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Han, X.; Liu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W/m2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W/m2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan.

  9. Simulation of aerosol direct radiative forcing with RAMS-CMAQ in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Han, Zhiwei; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ is developed to assess aerosol direct radiative forcing by linking simulated meteorological parameters and aerosol mass concentration with the aerosol optical properties/radiative transfer module in this study. The module is capable of accounting for important factors that affect aerosol optical properties and radiative effect, such as incident wave length, aerosol size distribution, water uptake, and internal mixture. Subsequently, the modeling system is applied to simulate the temporal and spatial variations in mass burden, optical properties, and direct radiative forcing of diverse aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, dust, and sea salt over East Asia throughout 2005. Model performance is fully evaluated using various observational data, including satellite monitoring of MODIS and surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network), AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network), and CSHNET (Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network). The correlation coefficients of the comparisons of daily average mass concentrations of sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 between simulations and EANET measurements are 0.70, 0.61, and 0.64, respectively. It is also determined that the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) is in congruence with the observed results from the AERONET, the CSHNET, and the MODIS. The model results suggest that the high AOD values ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 are mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin as well as over central and southeastern China, in East Asia. The aerosol direct radiative forcing patterns generally followed the AOD patterns. The strongest forcing effect ranging from -12 to -8 W m -2 was mainly distributed over the Sichuan Basin and the eastern China's coastal regions in the all-sky case at TOA, and the forcing effect ranging from -8 to -4 W m -2 could be found over entire eastern China, Korea, Japan, East China Sea, and the sea areas of Japan

  10. Methane emissions in East Asia for 2000-2011 estimated using an atmospheric Bayesian inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Stohl, A.; Zhou, L. X.; Dlugokencky, E.; Fukuyama, Y.; Tohjima, Y.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, H.; Nisbet, E. G.; Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present methane (CH4) emissions for East Asia from a Bayesian inversion of CH4 mole fraction and stable isotope (δ13C-CH4) measurements. Emissions were estimated at monthly resolution from 2000 to 2011. A posteriori, the total emission for East Asia increased from 43 ± 4 to 59 ± 4 Tg yr-1 between 2000 and 2011, owing largely to the increase in emissions from China, from 39 ± 4 to 54 ± 4 Tg yr-1, while emissions in other East Asian countries remained relatively stable. For China, South Korea, and Japan, the total emissions were smaller than the prior estimates (i.e., Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research 4.2 FT2010 for anthropogenic emissions) by an average of 29%, 20%, and 23%, respectively. For Mongolia, Taiwan, and North Korea, the total emission was less than 2 Tg yr-1 and was not significantly different from the prior. The largest reductions in emissions, compared to the prior, occurred in summer in regions important for rice agriculture suggesting that this source is overestimated in the prior. Furthermore, an analysis of the isotope data suggests that the prior underestimates emissions from landfills and ruminant animals for winter 2010 to spring 2011 (no data available for other times). The inversion also found a lower average emission trend for China, 1.2 Tg yr-1 compared to 2.8 Tg yr-1 in the prior. This trend was not constant, however, and increased significantly after 2005, up to 2.0 Tg yr-1. Overall, the changes in emissions from China explain up to 40% of the increase in global emissions in the 2000s.

  11. East Asia: Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-05

    Chatchai Administration Corruption [NAEO NA 20 Jun] 33 Columnist Urges Appointment of Civilian Defense Minister [ BAN MUANG 19 Jun] 34 Seminar...May in Ban Souansavan Village, Sivilai Canton, Paksan District, the Central Organization of the Lao Women’s Federation officially presented a...administrative committees of Sivilai Canton and Ban Souansavan Village provided 1 hectare of land to the meeting place so that activities could be

  12. Formation of metamorphic core complexes in non-over-thickened continental crust: A case study of Liaodong Peninsula (East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Burov, Evgueni; Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Yan; Lu, Gang; Mezri, Leila; Zhao, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Pre-thickened hot orogenic crust is often considered a necessary condition for the formation of continental metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). However, the discovery of MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula, where the crust has a normal thickness (~ 35 km), challenges the universality of this scenario. Therefore, we implement a series of 2-D numerical thermo-mechanical modeling experiments in which we investigate the conditions of MCC formation in normal crusts, as well as the relationships between the underlying mechanisms and the syn-rift basin evolution. In these experiments, we explore the impact of the lithostratigraphic and thermo-rheological structure of the crust. We also examine the lithosphere thickness, strain softening, extension rate, and surface erosion/ sedimentation processes. The experiments demonstrate that high thermal gradients and crustal heterogeneities result only in a symmetric spreading dome, which is geometrically incompatible with the observations of the MCCs in the Liaodong Peninsula. According to our further findings, the strain softening should play a key role in the development of asymmetric strain localization and domal topography uplift, while synchronous surface erosion controls the polarity of the syn-rift basin. The synthetic model data are compatible with the geological observations and cooling history based on the thermo-chronology for the eastern part of the East Asia during the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. The model-predicted P-T-t paths are essentially different from those inferred for the other known MCCs, confirming the exceptional character of the MCC formation in the wide rift system of the East Asia.

  13. Trends in mortality from cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, esophagus, and stomach in East Asia: role of nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Zhao, Zijin; Li, Lang

    2012-09-01

    Although substantial nutrition transition, characterized by an increased intake of energy, animal fat, and red meats, has occurred during the last several decades in East Asia, few studies have systematically evaluated temporal trends in cancer incidence or mortality among populations in this area. Therefore, we sought to investigate this question with tremendous public health implications. Data on mortality rates of cancers of the breast, colon, prostate, esophagus, and stomach for China (1988-2000), Hong Kong (1960-2006), Japan (1950-2006), Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1963-2006) were obtained from WHO. Joinpoint regression was used to investigate trends in mortality of these cancers. A remarkable increase in mortality rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancers and a precipitous decrease in those of esophageal and stomach cancers have been observed in selected countries (except breast cancer in Hong Kong) during the study periods. For example, the annual percentage increase in breast cancer mortality was 5.5% (95% confidence interval: 3.8, 7.3%) for the period 1985-1993 in Korea, and mortality rates for prostate cancer significantly increased by 3.2% (95% confidence interval: 3.0, 3.3%) per year from 1958 to 1993 in Japan. These changes in cancer mortality lagged ∼ 10 years behind the inception of the nutrition transition toward a westernized diet in selected countries or regions. There have been striking changes in mortality rates of breast, colon, prostate, esophageal, and stomach cancers in East Asia during the last several decades, which may be at least in part attributable to the concurrent nutrition transition.

  14. The Long Winding Road of Opioid Substitution Therapy Implementation in South-East Asia: Challenges to Scale Up

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gary; Sharma, Mukta; Higgs, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The South-East Asia Region contains an estimated 400,000-500,000 people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence among PWID is commonly 20% or higher in Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar and some regions of India. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an important HIV prevention intervention in this part of the world. However, key challenges and barriers to scale up of OST exist, including: pervasive stigma and discrimination towards PWID; criminalisation of drug use overshadowing a public health response; lack of political will and national commitment; low financial investment; focus towards traditional treatment models of detoxification and rehabilitation; inadequate dosing of OST; and poor monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Our review of local evidence highlights that OST can be successful within the Asian context. Such evidence should be utilised more widely to advocate for policy change and increased political commitment to ensure OST reaches substantially more drug users. Significance for public health Several countries in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region can be commended for introducing opioid substitution therapy (OST) to address the ongoing HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). Local evidence shows OST is an effective drug treatment approach in the Asian context given sufficient technical and institutional support. However, despite much progress, the number of OST dispensing sites and recipients remains totally inadequate in terms of impact upon the current HIV epidemic among PWID. Ongoing advocacy is needed if countries are to achieve the WHO’s target of 40% of PWID being dosed with OST. Greater political commitment a strengthened policy environment, capacity building for OST clinics, lessening the criminalisation of drug use and promoting a public health response will give many more PWID access to OST and slow the advance of the HIV epidemic. PMID:25170509

  15. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  16. East Asia Summit: Steps toward Community to Prevent Great Power Hegemony and Implications for U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    East Asia Forum, in Kuala Lumpur on 6 12 December 2004, Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi delivered the keynote address on the theme of an...East Asian Community. Mr. Badawi stated: There is no alternative but to take concerted common action in various forms in order to protect and promote...regional cooperation in the past. The way forward must include building blocks for regional integration.58 Mr. Badawi continued by proposing the

  17. Interannual variations and recent trends of surface ozone in East Asia: Integrated observations and chemical transport model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Ohara, T.; Kurokawa, J.; Mukai, H.; Uno, I.; Yamaji, K.

    2006-12-01

    Socio-economic activities are rapidly increasing in many countries of Asia due to a population explosion. The emissions of nitrogen oxides from East Asia have been rising in the past decades, and are now more than those from Europe and North America. Under such circumstances, systematic observational networks with wide spatial and temporal coverage are required to detect current and future changes in air quality (ozone and aerosols). In this work, ground-based measurement data of ozone, PM, and precursors at ~15 remote sites from multiple monitoring networks including operational programs (NIES, JMA, EANET, WMO/GAW) and collaborative research projects (SKYNET) in East Asia are integrated. The idea and basis is that in-situ data are more accurate than satellite and sounding data, though its spatial coverage is limited. The intercomparisons of reference scales in each network make ambient data compatible with each other, and the integration of such traceable data allows us to cover wide latitudinal zones ranging from subtropical to boreal regions in the western Pacific within ~2% uncertainties. The data are further utilized to test multi-year simulations by a regional chemistry transport model (CMAQ). With these efforts, we reproduce "bottom-up" climatology of surface ozone in East Asia during the past 7 years (1998-2004). The data, widely combined in the range of 25-45 deg N in East Asia, show significant latitudinal gradient in surface ozone distributions and seasonal cycles. Interestingly, there are sizable interannual variations (and latitudinal dependences) associated with El Nino/La Nina events, suggesting that changes in regional meteorology (e.g., transport paths, patterns, and efficiency) and/or enhanced precursor emissions from biomass burning may contribute to the anomalies. Trends for 7 years are not visible at boundary layer sites, but are substantial at mountainous sites during continental outflow seasons, possibly due to increasing NOx emissions from

  18. Pleistocene paleoenvironmental reconstructions and mammalian evolution in South-East Asia: focus on fossil faunas from Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougard, C.; Montuire, S.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian faunal studies have provided various clues for a better reconstruction of hominid Quaternary paleoenvironments. In this work, two methods were used: (1) the cenogram method, based on a graphical representation of the mammalian community structure, and (2) the species richness of murine rodents to estimate climatic parameters. These methods were applied to Middle and Late Pleistocene mammalian faunas of South-East Asia, from South China to Indonesia. Special emphasis was laid on a fauna from north-east Thailand dated back to approximately 170,000 years (i.e. a glacial period). This Thai fauna seems characteristic of a slightly open forested environment intermediate between those of present-day central Myanmar and the northern part of South China. In the Thai fauna, the occurrence of both cool-loving mammalian taxa, currently living further north, and species of larger body size than their living counterparts, indicates cooler and probably drier climatic conditions than present-day climates in Thailand. These results are quite consistent with Middle Pleistocene palynological records from South China and eastern Java. From other less well-documented Pleistocene faunas, taken into account in this work, humid climatic conditions of interglacial periods were revealed from large mammalian taxa.

  19. Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions: A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West. ICMI Comparative Study. Discussion Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Mathematical Instruction.

    Education is influenced by the social environment as well as cultural effects. This study investigates the differing cultural traditions' role in mathematics education in East Asia and the West. Investigated issues in mathematics education include curriculum, assessment, policy, influences of information and communication technology (ICT) and…

  20. Endangered Peoples of Southeast & East Asia: Struggles To Survive and Thrive. Endangered Peoples of the World Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponsel, Leslie E., Ed.

    This volume introduces 14 endangered cultures from Southeast and East Asia and describes the most pressing issues facing these marginalized groups, such as the impact of tourism, prohibition against whaling, or dislocation due to nuclear testing. The chapters are: (1) "Identities, Ecologies, Rights, and Features: All Endangered" (Leslie…

  1. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  2. Policy Coherence towards East Asia: Development Challenges for OECD Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukasaku, K.; Kawai, M.; Plummer, M. G.; Trzeciak-Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Coherence issues drawn from specific country and regional cases can provide the most concrete information on the development implications of OECD-country policies. A first regional case study focused on East Asia, with financial support from the Policy Research Institute of the Japanese Ministry of Finance. The links between the region's…

  3. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  4. Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. Directions in Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in East Asia: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of…

  5. Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Casler, Bruce; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.

  6. Quality Assurance of Joint Degree Programs from the Perspective of Quality Assurance Agencies: Experience in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Yung-Chi; Ince, Martin; Tsai, Sandy; Wang, Wayne; Hung, Vicky; Lin Jiang, Chung; Chen, Karen Hui-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Joint degree programs have gained popularity in East Asia, due to the growth of transnational higher education in the region since 2000. However, the external quality assurance (QA) and accreditation of joint degree programs is a challenge for QA agencies, as it normally involves the engagement of several institutions and multiple national…

  7. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  8. English Language Education among Young Learners in East Asia: A Review of Current Research (2004-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto

    2015-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages to young learners is growing in popularity around the world. Research in this field, particularly of English as a second/foreign language education in East Asia, is a relatively new area of empirical inquiry, and it has the potential to make significant contributions to child second-language acquisition…

  9. Imagining School Autonomy in High-Performing Education Systems: East Asia as a Source of Policy Referencing in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Yun; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Education reform is increasingly based on emulating the features of "world-class" systems that top international attainment surveys and, in England specifically, East Asia is referenced as the "inspiration" for their education reforms. However, the extent to which the features identified by the UK Government accord with the…

  10. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-09-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitoring, ozonesondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around northeastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  11. Photochemical roles of rapid economic growth and potential abatement strategies on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia in 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatani, S.; Amann, M.; Goel, A.; Hao, J.; Klimont, Z.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, A.; Sharma, S.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, Y. X.; Zhao, B.

    2014-04-01

    A regional air quality simulation framework including the Weather Research and Forecasting modelling system (WRF), the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ), and precursor emissions to simulate tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia is introduced. Concentrations of tropospheric ozone and related species simulated by the framework are validated by comparing with observation data of surface monitorings, ozone zondes, and satellites obtained in 2010. The simulation demonstrates acceptable performance on tropospheric ozone over South and East Asia at regional scale. Future energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in 2030 under three future scenarios are estimated. One of the scenarios assumes a business-as-usual (BAU) pathway, and other two scenarios consider implementation of additional energy and environmental strategies to reduce energy consumption, CO2, NOx, and VOC emissions in China and India. Future surface ozone under these three scenarios is predicted by the simulation. The simulation indicates future surface ozone significantly increases around India for a whole year and around north eastern China in summer. NOx is a main driver on significant seasonal increase of surface ozone, whereas VOC as well as increasing background ozone and methane is also an important factor on annual average of surface ozone in East Asia. Warmer weather around India is also preferable for significant increase of surface ozone. Additional energy and environmental strategies assumed in future scenarios are expected to be effective to reduce future surface ozone over South and East Asia.

  12. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven’t been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Methods: Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. Results: There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). Conclusions: China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output. PMID:27182223

  13. Interannual variation, decadal trend, and future change in ozone outflow from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jia; Liao, Hong; Mao, Yuhao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    We examine the past and future changes in the O3 outflow from East Asia using a global 3-D chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem. The simulations of Asian O3 outflow for 1986-2006 are driven by the assimilated GEOS-4 meteorological fields, and those for 2000-2050 are driven by the meteorological fields archived by the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 3 under the IPCC SRES A1B scenario. The evaluation of the model results against measurements shows that the GEOS-Chem model captures the seasonal cycles and interannual variations of tropospheric O3 concentrations fairly well with high correlation coefficients of 0.82-0.93 at four ground-based sites and 0.55-0.88 at two ozonesonde sites where observations are available. The increasing trends in surface-layer O3 concentrations in East Asia over the past 2 decades are captured by the model, although the modeled O3 trends have low biases. Sensitivity studies are conducted to examine the respective impacts of meteorological parameters and emissions on the variations in the outflow flux of O3. When both meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions varied from 1986-2006, the simulated Asian O3 outflow fluxes exhibited a statistically insignificant decadal trend; however, they showed large interannual variations (IAVs) with seasonal values of 4-9 % for the absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) and an annual APDM value of 3.3 %. The sensitivity simulations indicated that the large IAVs in O3 outflow fluxes were mainly caused by variations in the meteorological conditions. The variations in meteorological parameters drove the IAVs in O3 outflow fluxes by altering the O3 concentrations over East Asia and by altering the zonal winds; the latter was identified to be the key factor, since the O3 outflow was highly correlated with zonal winds from 1986-2006. The simulations of the 2000-2050 changes show that the annual outflow flux of O3 will increase by 2.0, 7.9, and

  14. [Alternative medicine, from North America to East Asia: between persistent exclusion and embodied pluralism].

    PubMed

    Monnais, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    At a time of growing interest in integrative approaches to health and care, this article examines, from a historical perspective, the factors underlying the global popularity of so-called complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). Focusing on the multiple and changing meanings of the concepts used with reference to CAM since the nineteenth century, it emphasizes the agency of CAM practitioners' and calls into question a linear progression from outright exclusion to gradual inclusion into mainstream health care systems. This analysis concludes that biomedicine and "other" medical systems have mutually defined each other in a process of co-production that has had a significant impact on the medicalization of contemporary societies from North America to East Asia.

  15. Tomographic Imaging of Pn and Sn Velocities in the Middle East and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, S.; Sun, Y.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    We have obtained Vp and Vs velocity images of the uppermost mantle beneath the Middle East and Central Asia by performing tomographic inversion of both Pn and Sn travel times. In total 654,999 Pn and 121,838 Sn arrivals were selected from the ISC/EHB database and the Annual Bulletin of Chinese Earthquakes. Average Pn and Sn velocities are 8.04 km/s and 4.60 km/s, respectively with maximum velocity perturbations more than 6%. Pn velocities correlate well with topography. In general, low velocities are found beneath mountains and high velocities are found beneath oceans, basins and plains with low elevation. Tectonic boundaries are clearly outlined in between the high and low Pn velocities. These boundaries include Hellenic arc, Cyprean arc, Zagros suture, Charman fault, Hari Rod fault. The Sn velocities show similar patterns to the Pn velocities.

  16. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.

  17. Effect of climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, Jordan L.; Prather, Michael J.; Josse, Beatrice; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Zeng, Guang; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The effect of future climate change on surface ozone over North America, Europe, and East Asia is evaluated using present-day (2000s) and future (2100s) hourly surface ozone simulated by four global models. Future climate follows RCP8.5, while methane and anthropogenic ozone precursors are fixed at year 2000 levels. Climate change shifts the seasonal surface ozone peak to earlier in the year and increases the amplitude of the annual cycle. Increases in mean summertime and high-percentile ozone are generally found in polluted environments, while decreases are found in clean environments. We propose that climate change augments the efficiency of precursor emissions to generate surface ozone in polluted regions, thus reducing precursor export to neighboring downwind locations. Even with constant biogenic emissions, climate change causes the largest ozone increases at high percentiles. In most cases, air quality extreme episodes become larger and contain higher ozone levels relative to the rest of the distribution.

  18. Groundwater storage inferred from earthquake activities around East Asia and West Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, David Ching-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater is a necessary and indispensable resource in the gradual depletion of the amount in the world. Groundwater storage is an important indicator to evaluate the capability of volume of water can be released from the aquifer. This research highlights a new assessment to infer the storage of aquifer using earthquakes activated around East Asia and the ring of fire at West Pacific Ocean. Ten significant seismic events are used to evaluate the groundwater storage at an observation station. By analyzing the spectra of groundwater level and seismogram, it is evident that the period varied in 7-25 s of Rayleigh waves significantly dominate propagation from the epicenter of earthquakes to the observation station. The storage coefficient is then shown in the order of 10-4-10-3. The major innovation of this study suggests that to concretely deduce the groundwater storage by earthquake activity has become feasible.

  19. Resilience and well-being among children of migrant parents in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Lucy P; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia-a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N=1,498). Results indicate that while children of migrant parents, especially migrant mothers, are less likely to be happy compared to children in nonmigrant households, greater resilience in child well-being is associated to longer durations of maternal absence. There is no evidence for a direct parental migration effect on school enjoyment and performance. The analyses highlight the sensitivity of results to the dimension of child well-being measured and who makes the assessment.

  20. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S A; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-05-04

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia - and in particular the feminisation of these movements - suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents' migration.

  1. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection.

  2. Transnational migration, changing care arrangements and left-behind children's responses in South-east Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Lan Anh; Lam, Theodora; Yeoh, Brenda S.A.; Graham, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent increases in the volume of labour migration from South-east Asia – and in particular the feminisation of these movements – suggest that millions of children are growing up in transnational families, separated from their migrant parents. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam, the study seeks to elucidate care arrangements for left-behind children and to understand the ways in which children respond to shifts in intimate family relations brought about by (re)configurations of their care. Our findings emphasise that children, through strategies of resistance, resilience and reworking, are conscious social actors and agents of their own development, albeit within constrained situations resulting from their parents’ migration. PMID:27134570

  3. Inter-Annual Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia during 2000-2011 summers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Tao, S.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosols degrade air quality, perturb atmospheric radiation, and impact regional and global climate. Due to a rapid increase of anthropogenic emissions, aerosol loading over East Asia (EA) is markedly higher than other industrialized regions, motivating a need to characterize the evolution of aerosols and understand the associated drivers. Based on the MISR satellite data during 2000-2011, a wave-like inter-annual variation of summertime aerosol optical depth (SAOD) is observed over the highly populated North China Plain (NCP) in East Asia. Specifically, the peak to trough ratio of SAOD ranges from 1.4 to 1.6, with a period of 3-4y. This variation pattern differs apparently from what has been seen in EA emissions, indicating a periodic change in regional climate pattern during the past decade. Investigations on meteorological fields over the region reveal that the high SAOD is generally associated with enhanced Philippine Sea Anticyclone Anomaly (PSAA), which weakens southeasterlies over northeastern EA and depresses air ventilation. Alternatively, a higher temperature or lower relative humidity is found to be coincident with reduced SAOD. The behavior of PSAA has been found previously to be modulated by the El Niño southern oscillations (ENSO), which thereby could disturb the EA SAOD as well. Rather than changing coherently with the ENSO activity, SAOD peaks over the NCP are found to be accompanied by the rapid transition of El Niño warm to cold phases developed four months ahead. An index measuring the ENSO development during January-April is able to capture the inter-annual variability of NCP SAOD during 2000-2011. This indicates a need to integrate the consideration of large-scale periodic climate variability in the design of regional air quality policy.

  4. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally.

  5. Summer insolation is the primary driver for orbital-scale dust storm variability in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serno, Sascha; Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Kienast, Stephanie S.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2016-04-01

    Eolian dust plays an important role in the global climate system through its influence on radiation, albedo and precipitation properties, and through delivering micronutrients like iron to the oceans. Glacial periods of Earth's climate are recognized to be dustier than interglacials, but the conditions leading to greater dust mobilization are poorly defined. We present a high-resolution dust flux record based on 230Th-normalised 4He flux from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 882 in the Subarctic North Pacific covering the last 170,000 years. Today, dust storms in the vast dry regions of East Asia are almost exclusively springtime phenomena, due to a specific set of climate conditions driven by the seasonal evolution of the meridional temperature gradient between high and low latitudes. The dust flux record points to high dust storm activity in East Asia during cold periods, with highest dust flux during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5d. We interpret periods of higher dust supply as the result of an expansion of the dust season into the summer, primarily controlled by reduced summer insolation at high latitudes and resulting lower air temperatures in Siberia over orbital timescales. Changes in the extent of the large Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in North America and Fennoscandinavia, and atmospheric teleconnections, act as a secondary control. On millennial timescales, the occurrence of Heinrich Stadials 1 and 11 signals during the last two terminations in Subarctic North Pacific dust records indicates that dust flux variability over millennial timescales was influenced by climate changes in the North Atlantic.

  6. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  7. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  8. Atmospheric outflow of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds from East Asia in Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Toby Primbs; Staci Simonich; David Schmedding; Glenn Wilson; Dan Jaffe; Akinori Takami; Shungo Kato; Shiro Hatakeyama; Yoshizumi Kajii

    2007-05-15

    To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, high-volume air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan between 22 March and 2 May 2004. Contributions from different source regions (China, Japan, the Koreas, Russia, and ocean/local) were estimated by use of source region impact factors (SRIFs). Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorcyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current-use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Chlordanes showed a technical mixture profile and similar concentrations regardless of source region. {alpha}/{gamma} HCH and trans/cis chlordane ratios did not vary significantly with different source regions and had regional averages of 2.5 {+-} 1.0 and 1.2 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Particulate-phase PAH concentrations were significantly correlated (p value {lt} 0.05) with other incomplete combustion byproduct concentrations, including elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}), CO, NOx{asterisk}, black carbon, submicrometer aerosols, and SO{sub 2}. By use of measured PAH, CO, and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of six carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs was estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for China, respectively. These results confirm that East Asian outflow contains significant emissions of carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs. 39 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Arts and Crafts of East Asia. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Daisy

    This teaching guide focuses on four forms of arts and crafts popular in China, Korea, and Japan, and explores the effects, if any, on American culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to help students understand and appreciate East Asian calligraphy, haiku,…

  10. Fossil wood diversity gradient and Far-East Asia palaeoclimatology during the Late Triassic - Cretaceous interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Changhwan; Legrand, Julien; Kim, Kyungsik; Philippe, Marc; SungPaik, In

    2011-02-01

    Mesozoic fossil floras are distributed over eastern Asia (China, Mongolia, Siberia, Korea and Japan) according to a regular latitudinal pattern. Two floras are usually distinguished, a northern type and a southern type, the distribution of which oscillated during the Mesozoic. In Japan, this regular pattern is disrupted by a sharp inflexion of the boundary between the two floras. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain this disruption. One hypothesis advocates later tectonic motion clouding the original pattern, while the other hypothesis proposes that a warm oceanic current allowed the southern flora to grow much further north in coastal areas. We used fossil wood, a biotic component that has not previously been used, for a palaeobiogeographical study of the region. The observed fossil wood diversity at the generic level does not fit with the hypothesis of a warm oceanic current, unless this hypothesis is modified to include alternating warm northbound and cold southbound oceanic currents. Our results provide new evidence for the palaeoecology of the Mesozoic continental biota in Far-East Asia.

  11. Women are key players in the economies of East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Westley, S B; Mason, A

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the East-West Center's Program on Population investigated the links between population change and economic growth in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. This document discusses the findings pertaining to women's changing marriage and childbearing patterns, education attainment, and labor force participation as well as changes in family life. In eastern and southeastern Asia, women are delaying marriage and having fewer children as a result of their overwhelming acceptance of modern contraception. Concurrently, women's secondary school enrollment has increased dramatically since 1960, and women have accounted for steadily increasing proportions of total labor force growth. Economic development has led to fewer women employed in agriculture and more in clerical positions. Women continue to be marginalized in low-paying manufacturing jobs and to lose these jobs more frequently than do men. Women's labor force participation continues to be dependent upon their child care responsibilities, but women are beginning to combine both activities with the help of live-in grandparents. Women have made an important contribution to economic growth in Asia. Policies should address job discrimination against married women, wage discrimination, the problems faced by young women who leave home for employment in the manufacturing and service sectors, and the lack of child care facilities.

  12. Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the East Asia region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over East Asia, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over East Asia from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia. Further details of inverse modeling

  13. Uplifting of carbon monoxide from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources to the free troposphere in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Jane; Ding, Aijun; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Tianliang; Shi, Jiancheng; Han, Yong; Wang, Hengmao; Jiang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    East Asia has experienced rapid development with increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emission in the past decades. Therefore, uplifting CO from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in East Asia can have great implications on regional air quality around the world. It can also influence global climate due to the longer lifetime of CO at higher altitudes. In this study, three cases of high CO episodes in the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan from 2003 to 2005 are examined with spaceborne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data, in combination with aircraft measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program. Through analyses of the simulations from a chemical transport model GEOS-Chem and a trajectory dispersion model FLEXPART, we found different CO signatures in the elevated CO and distinct transport pathways and mechanisms for these cases.

  14. Social capital and health and well-being in East Asia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kazue

    2008-02-01

    How individual-level social capital relates to adult health and well-being was examined using data from a cross-sectional interview survey in East Asia (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, five areas in Mainland China, and Taiwan) in 2002-2004. The number of self-reported somatic symptoms, subjective health satisfaction, life satisfaction and social capital indicators, as well as socio-economic status (SES), were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Adjusting for SES, social capital measured by belonging to organizations and weakness in "norms of reciprocity" were related to a greater number of self-reported somatic symptoms (p<0.001 for both). Lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) and of a person to consult (p=0.012) were related to poor health satisfaction. Lower "interpersonal trust" (p=0.016), weakness in "norms of reciprocity" (p<0.001) and lack of trust in organizations (p<0.001) were related to poor life satisfaction. Gender inequality was observed across countries, but the relationships varied according to the health indicator. Specifically, self-reported somatic symptoms were more numerous and health satisfaction was worse in women (p<0.001), but life satisfaction was worse in men (p=0.017). The analyses provide evidence that dimensions of social capital are positively associated with self-reported somatic symptoms and overall well-being in East Asian countries.

  15. Epidemiology and ecology of highly pathogenic avian influenza with particular emphasis on South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Martin, V; Sims, L; Lubroth, J; Pfeiffer, D; Slingenbergh, J; Domenech, J

    2006-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recognised as a serious viral disease of poultry since 1878. The number of recorded outbreaks of HPAI has increased globally in the past 10 years culminating in 2004 with the unprecedented outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI involving at least nine countries in East and South-East Asia. Apart from the geographical extent of these outbreaks and apparent rapid spread, this epidemic has a number of unique features, among which is the role that asymptomatic domestic waterfowl and more particularly free-ranging ducks play in the transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1. Field epidemiological studies have been conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization and several collaborative centres to explore the factors that could have led to a change from infection to the emergence of widespread disease in 2003-2004 and 2005. Domestic waterfowl, specific farming practices and agro-ecological environments have been identified to play a key role in the occurrence, maintenance and spread of HPAI. Although there are some questions that remain unanswered regarding the origins of the 2004 outbreaks, the current understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the disease should now lead to the development of adapted targeted surveillance studies and control strategies.

  16. The genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 (Coleoptera, Cleroidea: Malachiidae) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tshernyshev, Sergei E

    2016-07-22

    South-East Asian species of the genus Dromanthomorphus Pic, 1921 and several species provisionally attributed to Hadrocnemus Kraatz, 1895 are studied, and their taxonomic position is specified. Three new species are described from the Philippines: D. subflabellatus Tshernyshev, sp. n., D. restrictus Tshernyshev, sp. n. and D. subtilis Tshernyshev, sp. n. Seven species are transferred from Hadrocnemus to Dromanthomorphus, D. apoensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. blaisei (Pic, 1926) comb. n., D. chiangensis (Wittmer, 1999) comb. n., D. depressicornis (Pic, 1919) comb. n., D. gravieri (Pic, 1923) comb. n., D. javanus (Wittmer, 1989) comb. n. and D. tonkineus (Pic, 1919) comb. n. Three species are transferred from Dromanthomorphus to Oculapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, O. ranuensis Wittmer 1990 comb. n., O. saigonensis (Pic, 1951) comb. n. and O. suttoni Wittmer, 1995 comb. n., and two species from Dromanthomorphus to Mimapalochrus Tshernyshev, 2015, M. cingalensis (Champion, 1921) comb. n. and M. dolokensis Wittmer, 1999 comb. n. Illustrations of male external appearance, metathoracic appendage, urites and genitalia, and distribution maps are provided. A determination key to all species of Dromanthomorphus from South-East Asia is also proposed.

  17. Dissolved platinum in major rivers of East Asia: Implications for the oceanic budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyol-Erdene, Tseren-Ochir; Huh, Youngsook

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved platinum concentrations of eleven large pristine river systems in East Asia (˜200 samples) were determined to better constrain the oceanic platinum budget. Most samples had concentrations less than 1.4 pM; relatively high concentrations up to 5.8 pM were measured in only approximately 6% of the samples. The median Pt concentrations of the individual river systems had only a small range, from 0.18 pM (Duman) to 0.63 pM (Huang He), and the difference in Pt yield mainly resulted from the difference in runoff. The rivers draining the eastern Tibetan Plateau - the Salween, Mekong, Chang Jiang (Yangtze), Hong (Red), and Huang He (Yellow) - had higher Pt yield than the rivers of the Russian Far East - the Amur, Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. If the discharge-weighted mean Pt concentration of our samples (0.36 pM) is extrapolated globally, the estimated riverine flux of dissolved Pt to the ocean is 13 × 103 mol y-1. Based on this riverine flux, the estimated oceanic residence time of Pt is 24 ± 10 kyrs. A 50% release and 50% uptake of Pt in estuaries would modify this to 16 kyrs and 45 kyrs, respectively.

  18. Future changes in propagating and non-propagating diurnal rainfall over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, S.-Y. Simon

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of diurnal rainfall in the East Asian continent consist of a propagating regime over the Yangtze River and a non-propagating regime in southeast China. Simulations of these two diurnal rainfall regimes by 18 CMIP5 models were evaluated from the historical experiment of 1981-2005. The evaluation led to the identification of one model, the CMCC-CM that replicated the key characteristics of diurnal rainfall regimes including the propagation of moisture convergence. Using the CMCC-CM to assess the future (2076-2100) change of diurnal evolution and propagation projected by the RCP4.5 experiment, it was found that propagating diurnal rainfall will enhance and expand southward into the non-propagating regime in southeast China. This change in diurnal rainfall is attributed to the intensification of diurnal land-sea thermal contrast over eastern China and the southward shift of the upper-level jet stream over 20°-30°N. Similar projected changes in diurnal rainfall and associated large-scale dynamical mechanisms were also depicted by four other models (GFDL-ESM2G, GFDL-ESM2M, MRI-CGCM3, and MRI-ESM1) showing a higher skill in representing the diurnal rainfall regimes over East Asia. If such model projection holds true, southeast China will experience an increase in the eastward propagating diurnal rainfall, which could further impact Taiwan.

  19. Dipole Structure of Interannual Variations in Summertime Tropical Cyclone Activity over East Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo-Hong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Park, Seon Ki

    2005-12-01

    The present study examines variations in summertime (July September) tropical cyclone (TC) activity over East Asia during the period 1951 2003. To represent TC activity, a total of 853 TC best tracks for the period were converted to TC passage frequencies (TPFs) within 5° × 5° latitude longitude grids; TPFs are defined as the percentage values obtained by dividing the number of TC appearances in each grid box by the total number of TCs each year. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the TPF showed three leading modes: two tropical modes that represent the long-term trend and the relationship with ENSO and one midlatitude mode that oscillates between south of Korea and southeast of Japan with an interannual time scale. The latter proved to be the most remarkable climatic fluctuation of summertime TC activity in the midlatitudes and is referred to as the East Asian dipole pattern (EADP) in this paper.Anomalous atmospheric flows directly connected to the EADP are an enhanced anticyclonic (cyclonic) circulation centering around Japan when the TPF is high south of Korea (southeast of Japan), thereby showing an equivalent barotropic structure in the entire troposphere. This regional circulation anomaly varies in conjunction with the zonally oriented quasi-stationary Rossby wave train in the upper troposphere. This wave train is meridionally trapped in the vicinity of the summer-mean jet stream; therefore, the mean jet stream alters its internal meandering structure according to the phase of the wave train.

  20. Compulsory drug detention in East and Southeast Asia: evolving government, UN and donor responses.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph J; Pearshouse, Richard; Cohen, Jane E; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    According to official accounts, more than 235,000 people are detained in over 1000 compulsory drug detention centers in East and South East Asia. Individuals in such centers are held for periods of months to years, and can experience a wide range of human rights abuses, including violation of the rights to freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment; freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention; a fair trial; privacy; the highest attainable standard of health; and freedom from forced labor. Since 2010, an increasing number of United Nations agencies, human rights experts, and others have expressed concerns about rights abuses associated with compulsory drug detention centers, and since 2012, called for their closure. Although they do not represent a complete break from the past, these calls mark a significant shift from past engagement with drug detention, which included direct and indirect funding of detention centers and activities in detention centers by some donors. However, the lack of transparent governance, restrictions on free speech and prohibitions on monitoring by independent, international human rights organizations make assessing the evolving laws, policies and practices, as well as the attitudes of key governments officials, difficult. Looking specifically at publicly announced reforms and statements by government officials in China, Cambodia, Vietnam and Lao PDR reveals possible improvements in respect for the rights of drug users, and on-going challenges.

  1. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  2. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  3. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2014-05-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100-year time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around the year 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries - including Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea and Japan - were determined by using inverse modeling and in situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2404 ± 325 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 60-72% to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (8-16%), Japan (5-16%) and Taiwan (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and Taiwan, while the per capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China and from South Korea increased, while emissions from Taiwan and Japan decreased overall.

  4. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions in East Asia determined by inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Thompson, R. L.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kim, J.; Li, S.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S.; Graziosi, F.; Stohl, A.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a global warming potential of around 22 800 over a 100 yr time horizon and is one of the greenhouse gases regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. Around circa 2000 there was a reversal in the global SF6 emission trend, from a decreasing to an increasing trend, which was likely caused by increasing emissions in countries that are not obligated to report their annual emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this study, SF6 emissions during the period 2006-2012 for all East Asian countries, including Mongolia, China, the Taiwan region, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, were determined by using inverse modeling and in-situ atmospheric measurements. We found that the most important sources of uncertainty associated with these inversions are related to the choice of a priori emissions and their assumed uncertainty, the station network as well as the meteorological input data. Much lower uncertainties are due to seasonal variability in the emissions, inversion geometry and resolution, and the measurement calibration scale. Based on the results of these sensitivity tests, we estimate that the total SF6 emission in East Asia increased rapidly from 2437 ± 329 Mg yr-1 in 2006 to 3787 ± 512 Mg yr-1 in 2009 and stabilized thereafter. China contributed 58-72 % to the total East Asian emission for the different years, followed by South Korea (9-19%), Japan (5-16%) and the Taiwan region (4-7%), while the contributions from North Korea and Mongolia together were less than 3% of the total. The per-capita SF6 emissions are highest in South Korea and the Taiwan region, while the per-capita emissions for China, North Korea and Japan are close to global average. During the period 2006-2012, emissions from China increased rapidly and emissions from South Korea increased slightly, while emissions from the Taiwan region and Japan decreased overall.

  5. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S.; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction. PMID:26750105

  6. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianye; Bever, Gaberiel S; Yi, Hong-Yu; Norell, Mark A

    2016-01-11

    Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction.

  7. What Is Inner Asia? Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinor, Denis

    This pamphlet is the first of a series aimed at helping college and high school teachers incorporate facts pertaining to Inner Asia into their courses. Written in a narrative style, the pamphlet defines Inner Asia as a "cultural concept," part of the Eurasian continent lying outside the boundaries of Europe, the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia,…

  8. The status and prospect of seasonal climate prediction of climate over Korea and East Asia: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Lee, Hyunsoo; Yoo, Jin Ho; Kwon, MinHo; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Kug, Jong-Seong; Lee, Jun-Yi; Kim, Baek-Min; Son, Seok-Woo; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Hansu; Lee, Woo-Seop; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hyun-kyung

    2017-02-01

    Over the last few decades, there have been startling advances in our understanding of climate system and in modelling techniques. However, the skill of seasonal climate prediction is still not enough to meet the various needs from industrial and public sectors. Therefore, there are tremendous on-going efforts to improve the skill of climate prediction in the seasonal to interannual time scales. Since seasonal to interannual climate variabilities in Korea and East Asia are influenced by many internal and external factors including East Asian monsoon, tropical ocean variability, and other atmospheric low-frequency variabilities, comprehensive understanding of these factors are essential for skillful seasonal climate prediction for Korea and East Asia. Also, there are newly suggested external factors providing additional prediction skill like soil moisture, snow, Arctic sea ice, and stratospheric variability, and techniques to realize skills from underlying potential predictability. In this review paper, we describe current status of seasonal climate prediction and future prospect for improving climate prediction over Korea and East Asia.

  9. A molecular phylogeny of ichthyophiid caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Ichthyophiidae): out of India or out of South East Asia?

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Kupfer, Alex; Oommen, Oommen V; Himstedt, Werner; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Loader, Simon P; Presswell, Bronwen; Müller, Hendrik; Krishna, Sharath B; Boistel, Renaud; Wilkinson, Mark

    2002-08-07

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that the rafting Indian plate harboured several isolated vertebrate lineages between ca. 130 and 56 Myr ago that dispersed and diversified 'out of India' following accretion with Eurasia. A single family of the amphibian order Gymnophiona, the Ichthyophiidae, presently occurs on the Indian plate and across much of South East Asia. Ichthyophiid phylogeny is investigated in order to test competing out of India and out of South East Asia hypotheses for their distribution. Partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes for 20 ichthyophiids and proximate outgroups were assembled. Parsimony, maximum-likelihood and distance analyses all recover optimum trees in which uraeotyphlids plus Ichthyophis cf. malabarensis are the sister taxa to all other Ichthyophis, among which the South East Asian taxa are monophyletic. Tree topology and branch lengths indicate that the Indian lineages are more basal and older, and thus are more consistent with the hypothesis that ichthyophiids dispersed from the Indian subcontinent into South East Asia. The estimated relationships also support monophyly of Sri Lankan Ichthyophis, and non-monophyly of striped and unstriped Ichthyophis species groups. Mitochondrial DNA sequences provide evidence that should assist current problematic areas of caecilian taxonomy.

  10. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  11. Emergence and diversity of begomoviruses infecting solanaceous crops in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Shih, Su-Ling; Lee, Li-Mei

    2014-06-24

    Over the past three decades diseases caused by whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) have emerged to be important constraints to the production of solanaceous crops, particularly tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and peppers (Capsicum spp.), in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The most studied of these is Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which has spread to many other areas from its likely origin in the Mediterranean basin region. The virus is usually associated with the polyphagous and virus-vectoring-efficient B-biotype of its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, in Southeast and East Asia, a wide variety of distinct local begomovirus species have been identified from tomato and pepper crops over this period, and TYLCV was detected in Japan only in about 1996, China in 2006 and Korea in 2008, despite B-biotype whiteflies being present in several of the countries of the region since at least the early 1990s. Continental Southeast Asia appears to be a major center of diversity for begomoviruses and some species may have spread across the region; Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Myanmar region into southern China and is now displacing the local tomato-infecting species in Taiwan, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Kanchanaburi virus (TYLCKaV) appears to have spread from the Thailand-Vietnam region to Java, Indonesia. Since many of the native tomato- or pepper-infecting begomoviruses and associated satellite DNAs have also been detected in local weed species, it seems likely that their ancestors originated in these weed hosts, but with the expansion and intensification of tomato and pepper production in the region, there was selection for recombinant or mutant forms with greater virulence on tomato and/or pepper. Expansion and intensification of these crops may also have resulted in increased populations of local, and if present, B- or Q-biotype whiteflies, aiding the increase

  12. Variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm over East/Southeast Asia on the ENSO time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tie; Di, Yuelun; Qie, Kai

    2016-03-01

    The variability of lightning flash and thunderstorm on the ENSO time scales over East/Southeast Asia was investigated by using 17-year (1995-2011) lightning data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), and 14-year (1998-2011) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite (TRMM) precipitation feature data. In addition, ERA-Interim reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) were used to present related environmental characteristics. It was found that the response of lightning flash to ENSO events shows remarkable seasonal and regional variations. The regions of positive (negative) lightning anomaly are mainly located at both sides of 5°-20°N (5°-15°N) in El Niño (La Niña) spring and winter, and located north of the equator in summer and autumn. There is a significantly positive correlation between lightning anomaly and the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) over both East China and Indonesia during El Niño episodes, but no obvious correlation during La Niña episodes. The positive thunderstorm anomalies during El Niño periods are dispersed. The distribution of thunderstorm anomalies in La Niña summer and autumn is almost opposite to that in spring and winter. The correlation between thunderstorm anomaly and ONI is better over East China than that over Indonesia. In general, lightning variation follows thunderstorm intensity (number) variation over East China during El Niño (La Niña) episodes, and follows a combination of thunderstorm intensity and number variations over Indonesia on ENSO time scales. During ENSO time scales, variations of surface wind can be considered as one of the key factors to LAs. More lightning flashes present in the regions where warm moist flows intersection, and less in the regions where surface wind changes slightly or diverges. Dramatic lightning increases also occur with higher values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). In addition, higher (lower

  13. Gravity Derived Moho Depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    East and Southeast Asia and Western Pacific have extreme topography and both the youngest and oldest oceanic basins in the world, and are ideal places to understand oceanic basin evolution and continent-ocean interactions. Crustal structure is critical to understand the regional geodynamic processes. We present our recent inversion of Moho depths of East/Southeast Asia and Western Pacific from satellite gravity data. Because the marginal basins have experienced different cooling histories, we perform thermal correction after the simple Bouguer correction based on the plate cooling model. The model parameters are tested by varying the input plate thickness and mantle temperature with 5 km and 50°C steps, respectively. The evaluation criteria of thermal correction is that the regions with similar water depths have similar Moho depths. We find the best-fit plate thickness and mantle temperature are 95 km and 1300°C, respectively. The Moho undulations are then estimated from residual Bouguer gravity based on the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm. Because the study area convers distinct geological settings, we implement two gravity inversion strategies. In the first strategy, we use a constant density contrast of 0.38 g/cm3 across the Moho and a reference depth of 25 km for the entire study area. Using just one density contrast results in an obvious shallow Moho in continental region. In the second strategy, the study area is divided into four blocks, each covering either the continents or oceans mainly. Moho depths range approximately between 5 and 65 km. The average Moho depths of continental and continental shelf domains are about 35 and 23 km, respectively. Moho depths beneath the marginal basins are averaged at about 16 km. This large mean Moho depth is attributed to numerous seamounts, volcanic chains and ridges, where the Moho depths can be up to ~35 km. We find that the density contrast across the Moho varies between 0.33 and 0.40 g/cm3, approximately 0.40 g/cm3 in

  14. Improvement of satellite-based gross primary production through incorporation of high resolution input data over east asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Haemi; Im, Jungho; Kim, Miae

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis of plants is the main mechanism of carbon absorption from the atmosphere into the terrestrial ecosystem and it contributes to remove greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Annually, 120 Gt of C is supposed to be assimilated through photosynthetic activity of plants as the gross primary production (GPP) over global land area. In terms of climate change, GPP modelling is essential to understand carbon cycle and the balance of carbon budget over various ecosystems. One of the GPP modelling approaches uses light use efficiency that each vegetation type has a specific efficiency for consuming solar radiation related with temperature and humidity. Satellite data can be used to measure various meteorological and biophysical factors over vast areas, which can be used to quantify GPP. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) program provides Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived global GPP product, namely MOD17A2H, on a daily basis. However, significant underestimation of MOD17A2H has been reported in Eastern Asia due to its dense forest distribution and humid condition during monsoon rainy season in summer. The objective of this study was to improve underestimation of MODIS GPP (MOD17A2H) by incorporating meteorological data-temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation-of higher spatial resolution than data used in MOD17A2H. Landsat-based land cover maps of finer resolution observation and monitoring - global land cover (FROM-GLC) at 30m resolution were used for selection of light use efficiency (LUE). GPP (eq1. GPP = APAR×LUE) is computed by multiplication of APAR (IPAR×fPAR) and LUE (ɛ= ɛmax×T(°C)scalar×VPD(Pa)scalar, where, T is temperature, VPD is vapour pressure deficit) in this study. Meteorological data of Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55, 0.56° grid, 3hr) were used for calculation of GPP in East Asia, including Eastern part of China, Korean peninsula, and Japan. Results were validated using flux tower-observed GPP

  15. Future changes in precipitation over East Asia projected by the global atmospheric model MRI-AGCM3.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    We conducted global warming projections using global atmospheric models with high-horizontal resolution of 20-km (MRI-AGCM3.2S, the 20-km model) and 60-km (MRI-AGCM3.2H, the 60-km model) grid sizes. For the present-day climate of 21 years from 1983 to 2003, models were forced with observed historical sea surface temperatures (SST). For the future climate of 21 years from 2079 to 2099, models were forced with future SST distributions projected by the models of the Fifth phase of Couple Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Ensemble simulations for four different SST distributions and three different cumulus convection schemes were conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of projection. The simulations consistently project the increase of precipitation over eastern China for almost all months. In June, precipitation decreases over Japan and increases over the ocean to the south of Japan. The geographical distribution of precipitation change tends to depend relatively on the cumulus convection scheme and horizontal resolution of models rather than on SST distributions. The time evolution of pentad mean precipitation over Japan indicates the delay in the onset of Japanese rainy season in June. This delay can be attributed to the decrease of water vapor transport toward Japan associated with the southward shift of the subtropical high. Change in the subtropical high can be interpreted as the southward shift of the local Hadley circulation. The intensity of precipitation increases over most part of East Asia, while the possibility of drought will increase over Japan, the East China Sea and the area to the south of Japan.

  16. Climate effects of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia based on modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Makiko

    The increasing emission of anthropogenic aerosols causes serious air pollution episodes and various effects on the climate by the aerosols interacting with the radiation budget by directly absorbing and scattering the solar radiation, and by them indirectly modifying the optical properties and lifetimes of clouds. In East Asia anthropogenic aerosol concentrations are rapidly increasing. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of anthropogenic aerosols upon the radiative forcing in this region. For this purpose we utilize an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with an aerosol transport and radiation model and an ocean mixed-layer model. The model in this study was a three-dimensional aerosol transport-radiation model (SPRINTARS), driven by the AGCM developed by CCSR (Center for Climate System Research), NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies), and FRCGC (Frontier Research Center for Global Change). This model incorporates sulfate, carbonaceous, sea salt, and mineral dust aerosols, the first three of which are assumed to acts as cloud condensation nuclei that generate cloud droplets whose number increases with the number of nuclei. We assumed sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol from fuel burning for anthropogenic aerosol. And the model simulations of equilibrium experiments were performed to investigate the impact of anthropogenic aerosols based on present-day emission data and the preindustrial-era emission data. Our simulation results showed that copious anthropogenic aerosol loading causes significant decrease in the surface downward shortwave radiation flux (SDSWRF), which indicates that a direct effect of aerosols has the greatest influence on the surface radiation. It is found from our model simulations that low-level clouds increase but convective clouds decrease due to reduced convective activity caused by surface cooling when anthropogenic aerosol increases. It was also found that the contributions of aerosols to the radiation

  17. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as “FODMAPs” and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food commonly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes. PMID:26350937

  18. The Low FODMAP Diet and Its Application in East and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Iacovou, Marina; Tan, Victoria; Muir, Jane G; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using food choice/dietary change to influence clinical outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) diet is an evidence-based approach that is gaining popularity in many Western countries. The low FODMAP diet is based on restricting dietary intake of short chain carbohydrates that are slowly absorbed or indigestible and not absorbed during passage through the small intestine. These are collectively described as "FODMAPs" and comprise oligosaccharides (mostly fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols, fructose in excess of glucose, and lactose in lactose malabsorbers. The general strategy of the diet is to avoid foods high in FODMAPs and replace them with foods low in FODMAPs, with long-term restriction limited to what is required to control symptoms. The likely mechanism of action is minimisation of the stimulation of mechanoreceptors exerted by distension of the intestinal lumen with water from osmotic effects and gases from bacterial fermentation in those with visceral hypersensitivity. The success of this dietary approach greatly depends on detailed knowledge about the FODMAP composition of food com - monly consumed in that country. While the content of foods associated with East and Southeast Asian cuisines has not been fully explored, major high FODMAP sources are frequently used and include onion, garlic, shallots, legumes/pulses, and wheat-based products. Thus, this dietary approach holds great promise in treating IBS patients in East and Southeast Asia. The aim of this review is to highlight how the diet is implemented, its efficacy, and troublesome ingredients frequently used in Asian dishes.

  19. Changes of the transitional climate zone in East Asia: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Wen; Huang, Gang; Zeng, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The transitional climate zone (TCZ) between humid and arid regions in East Asia is characterized by sharp climate and biome gradients, interaction between the East Asian summer monsoon and the mid-latitude westerly winds and mixed agriculture-pasture activities. Consequently, it is highly vulnerable to natural disturbances and particularly human-driven global change. This study aims to illuminate the spatial and temporal variation of TCZ across both the retrospective and the prospective periods. In the historical period, both the front and rear edges of TCZ exhibit wide year-to-year excursions and have experienced coastward migration with increasing aridity throughout TCZ. Furthermore, precipitation fluctuation mainly contributes to interannual variability of TCZ whereas potential evaporation behavior dominates the long-term trends of TCZ. Models are capable of largely reproducing the shape and orientation of TCZ, although northwestward bias is apparent. In global warming scenario period, there will be continuing southeastward displacement for the front edge but the opposite northwestward movement is projected for the rear one, as a consequence of significant drying trends in the humid zone together with regime shifts towards humid conditions in the arid zone. Despite expanded TCZ sector, however, the available water resources inside it suffer little magnitude changes without preferential tendency towards either drier or wetter conditions, implying neither deleterious nor beneficial effects on the TCZ environment. Moreover, interannual variability of TCZ is expected to become stronger, resulting in more frequent occurrences of extreme swings. Finally, it is noted that uncertainty arising from climate models dominates in the TCZ than dispersed emission scenarios, in contrast to the situation in humid and arid zones.

  20. Recent decline of DDTs among several organochlorine pesticides in background air in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Yoshikatsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Doi, Kenji; Saito, Mick; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordanes (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in air-mass outflows from East Asia were recorded monthly from April 2009 to March 2014 at Cape Hedo in Japan. These organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were collected by a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter, a polyurethane foam plug, and activated carbon fiber and analyzed by using a gas chromatograph-high resolution mass spectrometer. The overall (and geometric mean ± SD) concentration over the period was 4.9-43 pg m(-3) (15 ± 7.8 pg m(-3)) in HCHs (sum of α-/β-/γ-/δ-HCH), 1.5-83 pg m(-3) (8.8 ± 11 pg m(-3)) in CHLs (sum of cis-/trans-chlordane, cis-/trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane), and 0.71-16 pg m(-3) (2.5 ± 2.0 pg m(-3)) in DDTs (sum of o,p'-/p,p'-DDD, o,p'-/p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-/p,p'-DDT). Clear seasonal changes, i.e. higher in summer and lower in winter, were observed in HCHs and CHLs, suggesting the dominant effect of temperature-dependence, secondary sources in these OCPs. DDT concentration as well as the ratio of (o,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDT) to total DDTs, on the other hand, showed clear a declining trend during the five year sampling period, suggesting the decrease of input of newly produced DDTs in the regional environment by reflecting recent activities in the East Asian region to eliminate production and use of DDTs under the Stockholm Convention.

  1. Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-16

    A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.

  2. Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

  3. A new dynamical index for classification of cold surge types over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae-Won; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Heo, Jin-Woo; Deng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    The cold surges over East Asia can be classified into wave-train type and blocking type according to their dynamic origins. In the present study, two dynamic indices are proposed to objectively identify cold surge types using potential temperature ( θ) on the dynamic tropopause at 2-potential vorticity units (2-PVU) surface. The two indices are designed to represent primary characteristics of the two types of cold surge. The wave-train index ( WI) is defined as a difference of anomalous θ on the 2-PVU surface between the western North Pacific and northeast China, which captures a southward (northward) intrusion of cold (warm) air mass related to the trough-ridge pattern. The blocking index ( BI) is defined as a difference of anomalous θ between the subarctic region and northeast China, which indicates air mass overturning related to a reversal of the usual meridional θ gradient commonly observed in the occurrence of blocking type cold surge. Composite analyses based on the distribution of the WI and BI clearly demonstrate the dynamic evolutions of corresponding cold surge types. The wave-train cold surge is associated with a southeastward expansion of the Siberian High and northerly wind near surface, which is caused by growing baroclinic waves. During the blocking cold surge, a geopotential height dipole indicating the subarctic blocking and deepening of East Asian coastal trough induces a southward expansion of the Siberian High and northeasterly wind. Compared to the wave-train type, the blocking cold surge exhibits a longer duration and stronger intensity. In the new framework of these dynamic indices, we can detect a third type of cold surge when both the wave-train and the blocking occur together. In addition, we can exclude the events that do not have the essential features of the upper tropospheric disturbances or the subarctic anticyclonic circulation, which are responsible for cold surge occurrence, using the new indices.

  4. Assessment of the first indirect radiative effect of ammonium-sulfate-nitrate aerosols in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Skorokhod, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A physically based cloud nucleation parameterization was introduced into an optical properties/radiative transfer module incorporated with the off-line air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-Models-3 Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) to investigate the distribution features of the first indirect radiative effects of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium-sulfate-nitrate (ASN) over East Asia for the years of 2005, 2010, and 2013. The relationship between aerosol particles and cloud droplet number concentration could be properly described by this parameterization because the simulated cloud fraction and cloud liquid water path were generally reliable compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved data. Simulation results showed that the strong effect of indirect forcing was mainly concentrated in Southeast China, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The highest indirect radiative forcing of ASN reached -3.47 W m-2 over Southeast China and was obviously larger than the global mean of the indirect forcing of all anthropogenic aerosols. In addition, sulfate provided about half of the contribution to the ASN indirect forcing effect. However, the effect caused by nitrate was weak because the mass burden of nitrate was very low during summer, whereas the cloud fraction was the highest. The analysis indicated that even though the interannual variation of indirect forcing magnitude generally followed the trend of aerosol mass burden from 2005 to 2013, the cloud fraction was an important factor that determined the distribution pattern of indirect forcing. The heaviest aerosol loading in North China did not cause a strong radiative effect because of the low cloud fraction over this region.

  5. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    cover colors will be as follows : CHINA aqua E/YST EUROPE gold SOVIET UNION salmon EAST ASIA yellow NEAR EAST § SOUTH ASIA. ..blue LATIN AMERICA...remaining 14 national MP’s from New South Wales and Victoria. Both Mr Howard and Mr Sinclair blamed the split on the Queenslanders . Mr Sinclair’s...report are as follows: The SOUTHEAST ASIA REPORT (SEV) will be titled EAST ASIA/SOUTHEAST ASIA (SEA). The JAPAN REPORT (JAR) will be titled EAST

  6. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  7. Estimating sediment accumulation rates in Manila Bay, a marine pollution hot spot in the Seas of East Asia.

    PubMed

    Sta Maria, E J; Siringan, F P; Bulos, A dM; Sombrito, E Z

    2009-01-01

    The GEF/UNDP/IMO/PEMSEA project identifies Manila Bay as among the marine pollution hot spots in the Seas of East Asia. (210)Pb dating of its sediment can provide a historical perspective of its pollution loading. However, the validity of (210)Pb dating in a complex dynamic coastal system of Manila Bay may come into question. Land-based sediment input can be high and physical and biological processes can possibly disturb the sediment layers. In this report, the (210)Pb profiles of sediment cores from different parts of the bay are presented. The linear sedimentation rates are shown to be higher in the recent past and are also variable across the bay. The largest change in sedimentation rate, coincided with the occurrence of a volcanic eruption in 1991 and is shown by applying a variant of the CIC model in sedimentation rate calculations. The data suggest that (210)Pb dating can be useful in estimating relative magnitudes of sedimentation rates, even in a complex dynamic coastal system like Manila Bay.

  8. Cranes in East Asia; Proceedings of the symposium held in Harbin, People's Republic of China, June 9-18, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Hongfei, Zou; Stendell, Rey C.

    2001-01-01

    Introductory Remarks (R.C. Stendell): I appreciate the opportunity to be in Harbin and participate in the International Scientific Workshop on Cranes in East Asia. I would like to provide some background information on how this meeting came to be. Almost one year ago, in July 1997, Dr. Kun John of the Seoul National University contacted the U.S. Geological Survey’s Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) requesting that we host a meeting of scientists from the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) to discuss the biology and ecology of cranes on the Korean peninsula. Dr. John and his colleagues expressed concern about three species of cranes that migrate up and down the Korean peninsula and use the Demilitarized Zone. The species of interest are the Red-crowned Crane, White-naped Crane, and the Hooded Crane. The primary question was the conservation of these species in this part of the world. Another concern involved exploring potential economic values and opportunities associated with these species. Richard Johnson, an economist at MESC, assumed responsibility as the primary MESC contact to help bring about this meeting.

  9. Trypanosoma from rodents as potential source of infection in human-shaped landscapes of South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pumhom, Pornpan; Morand, Serge; Tran, Annelise; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Desquesnes, Marc

    2015-03-15

    Reports of atypical human cases of Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like and Trypanosoma evansi infections have increased in South-East Asia, urging to investigate the possible links between humans, animal reservoirs and habitats. We tested how habitat structure affects the infection by Trypanosoma species of common murine rodents, inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in South East Asia. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents investigated for Trypanosoma infection and land cover maps produced for seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR. High prevalence of infection by T. lewisi was observed in rodents living near human settlement and in areas with high cover of built-up habitat, while the infection of rodents by T. evansi was explained by increased landscape patchiness and high cover of rain-fed agriculture lands. These results suggest a likely role of wild rodents as reservoir and possible source of atypical human infection by animal trypanosomes.

  10. Cenozoic East Asia plate tectonic reconstructions using constraints of mapped and unfolded slabs from mantle seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. E.; Suppe, J.; Kanda, R. V.

    2012-12-01

    Subducted slabs were mapped in the mantle under East Asia using MITP08 global seismic tomography (Li et al., 2008), Benioff zone seismicities and published local tomography. 3D gridded slab surfaces were constructed by manually picking and correlating the midpoint of fast seismic anomalies along variable cross-section orientations. The mapped slabs were structurally 'unfolded' and restored to the spherical Earth surface to assess their pre-subduction geometries. Gplates software was used to constrain plate tectonic reconstructions using the unfolded slabs. The unfolded SE Asia upper mantle slabs reveal a 'picture puzzle' fit along their edges that suggests a larger NE Indo-Australian ocean once existed that included the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea. Deeper lower mantle detached slabs indicate an early to mid-Cenozoic 'East Asia Sea' between east Sundaland and the Pacific that stretched from the Ryukyu Islands north of present-day Taiwan southward to Sulawesi. The unfolded slab constraints produced gap and overlap incompatibilities when used in published plate tectonic reconstructions. Here a plate tectonic reconstruction incorporating the unfolded slab constraints is proposed that has the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea clustered at the northern margin of Australia during the early Cenozoic. At the mid-Cenozoic these plates moved NNE with 'Australia-like' plate motions and overrode the 'East Asia Sea'. Plate motions were accommodated by N-S transforms at the eastern margin of Sundaland. Between 25 to 15 Ma the Philippine Sea, Molucca Sea and Celebes Sea plates were fragmented from the greater Indo-Australian ocean. The Philippine Sea was captured by the Pacific plate and now has Pacific-like westward motions.

  11. Importance of demographic history for phylogeographic inference on the arctic–alpine plant Phyllodoce caerulea in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, H; Sakaguchi, S; Yakubov, V; Barkalov, V; Setoguchi, H

    2016-01-01

    Arctic–alpine plants have enormous ranges in the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogeographic studies have provided insights into their glacial survival as well as their postglacial colonization history. However, our understanding of the population dynamics of disjunct alpine populations in temperate regions remains limited. During Pleistocene cold periods, alpine populations of arctic–alpine species in East Asia were either connected to an ice-free Beringia refugium or they persisted with prolonged isolation after their establishment. To estimate which of these scenarios is more likely, we elucidated the genetic structure of Phyllodoce caerulea (Ericaceae) in Beringia and northern Japan, East Asia. Sequence variation in multiple nuclear loci revealed that P. caerulea can be distinguished into northern and southern groups. A demographic analysis demonstrated that the north–south divergence did not predate the last glacial period and detected introgression from Phyllodoce aleutica, relative widely distributed in East Asia, exclusively into the southern group. Therefore, although there has been genetic divergence between northern Japan and Beringia in P. caerulea, the divergence is unlikely to have resulted from their prolonged geographic separation throughout several cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Instead, our study suggests that the introgression contributed to the genetic divergence of P. caerulea and that the range of P. caerulea was plausibly connected between northern Japan and Beringia during the last glacial period. Overall, our study not only provides a biogeographic insight into alpine populations of arctic–alpine plants in East Asia but also emphasizes the importance of careful interpretation of genetic structure for inferring phylogeographic history. PMID:26531250

  12. Alkalization of yellow sand and its long-term effects on acid rain in East Asia: Observed Evidence and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Uno, I.; Akimoto, H.

    2001-05-01

    Acid rain has been one of the serious environmental problems in East Asia for the rapid industrialization in the last two decades. The contour line of pH value less than 5 has come up to the Yellow River region (35 deg N) from the southern China bounded by the Yangtze River (25 deg N) during these ten years. The objective of EANET ( Acid Deposition Moniroring Network in East Asia) is to create a common understanding of the state of the acid deposition problems in East Asia. There are 38 monitoring sites for wet deposition monitoring and data was collected since January 1999. The analysis of datasets in 1999 shows that aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, especially in spring. An Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (AQPMS) was used to investigate the neutralization of acid rain by the yellow-sand in East Asia. The AQPMS includes all the major processes such as emission, advection, diffusion, chemistry, dry deposition, wet deposition and micro-physical processes. A new deflation module for the dust uptake is designed to estimate the dust loading (Wang et. al.,2000). The gas-phase chemical reaction scheme is a slightly modified version of the CBM-IV. Changes in trace species concentrations due to chemical reactions of soluble and reactive gases in in-cloud and below-cloud droplets are computed using a box aqueous chemical model. Numerical simulation was performed for two cases, that is, with and without the neutralization effects of Kosa in 1999. The predicted pH values and sulfate- and nitrate-ion levels of precipitation, together with the surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants, were compared with measured datasets of EANET and a reasonable agreement was obtained. The simulation results of 1999 exhibited a strong neutralization of the precipitation by the yellow-sand in the spring. The aerosol has alkalization effects on pH of rain, which reduces the H+ of rain.

  13. Population phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in wild boars and domestic pigs revealed multiple domestication events in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Qu, Kai-Xing; Ding, Zhao-Li; Li, Hui; Palanichamy, Malliya G; Duan, Zi-Yuan; Li, Ning; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Background Previously reported evidence indicates that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple places throughout the world. However, a detailed picture of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia has not yet been reported. Results Population phylogenomic analysis was conducted in domestic pigs and wild boars by screening the haplogroup-specific mutation motifs inferred from a phylogenetic tree of pig complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. All domestic pigs are clustered into single clade D (which contains subclades D1, D2, D3, and D4), with wild boars from East Asia being interspersed. Three haplogroups within D1 are dominant in the Mekong region (D1a2 and D1b) and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River (D1a1a), and may represent independent founders of domestic pigs. None of the domestic pig samples from North East Asia, the Yellow River region, and the upstream region of the Yangtze River share the same haplogroup status with the local wild boars. The limited regional distributions of haplogroups D1 (including its subhaplogroups), D2, D3, and D4 in domestic pigs suggest at least two different in situ domestication events. Conclusion The use of fine-grained mtDNA phylogenomic analysis of wild boars and domestic pigs is a powerful tool with which to discern the origin of domestic pigs. Our findings show that pig domestication in East Asia mainly occurred in the Mekong region and the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River. PMID:18021448

  14. Phylogeography and genetic structure of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Lee, Ying-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is mainly distributed in East Asia. The phylogeography, population genetic structure and historical demography of this species in the East Asia were examined by using partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA in mitochondrial DNA. Ten populations that included 239 individuals were collected from Taiwan (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, Mingte Reservoir, MTR and Chengching Lake Reservoir, CLR), mainland China (Taihu Lake, TLC, Min River, MRC, Jiulong River, JRC and Shenzhen Reservoir, SRC), Japan (Biwa Lake, BLJ and Kasumigaura Lake, KLJ) and Korea (Han River, HRK). The nucleotide diversity (π) of all individuals was 0.01134, with values ranging from 0.0089 (BLJ, Japan) to 0.01425 (MTR, Taiwan). A total of 83 haplotypes were obtained, and the haplotypes were divided into 2 main lineages: lineage A included the specimens from BLJ, KLJ, CLR, MTR, TLC, MRC and JRC, and lineage B comprised the ones from HRK, SRC, SMR, MTR, TLC, MRC and JRC. Lineage A could be further divided two sub-lineages (A1 and A2). Individuals of lineage A2 were only from TLC. Demographic expansion was observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period for lineage A and within the last glacial period for lineage B. All FST values among the ten populations were significantly different, except for the values between MRC and JRC, and SMR and SRC. The phylogeography and genetic structure of M. nipponense in East Asia might be influenced by Pleistocene glacial cycles, lake isolation and human introduction. The possible dispersal routes of M. nipponense in the East Asia were also discussed. PMID:28267807

  15. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Berger, S Dar; Chadha, S S; Singh, R J; Lal, P; Tonsing, J; Harries, A D

    2015-03-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012-both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere.

  16. New Sources for Comparative Social Science: Historical Population Panel Data From East Asia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao; Campbell, Cameron; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2015-06-01

    Comparison and comparability lie at the heart of any comparative social science. Still, precise comparison is virtually impossible without using similar methods and similar data. In recent decades, social demographers, historians, and economic historians have compiled and made available a large number of micro-level data sets of historical populations for North America and Europe. Studies using these data have already made important contributions to many academic disciplines. In a similar spirit, we introduce five new micro-level historical panel data sets from East Asia, including the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) 1749-1909, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Shuangcheng (CMGPD-SC) 1866-1913, the Japanese Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho Population Register Database-Shimomoriya and Niita (NAC-SN) 1716-1870, the Korea Multi-Generational Panel Dataset-Tansung (KMGPD-TS) 1678-1888, and the Colonial Taiwan Household Registration Database (CTHRD) 1906-1945. These data sets in total contain more than 3.7 million linked observations of 610,000 individuals and are the first such Asian data to be made available online or by application. We discuss the key features and historical institutions that originally collected these data; the subsequent processes by which the data were reconstructed into individual-level panels; their particular data limitations and strengths; and their potential for comparative social scientific research.

  17. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants.

    PubMed

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P; Fayle, Tom M; Newton, Rob J; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H; Hamer, Keith C

    2011-11-27

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority.

  18. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Asia, the Far East and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; Ashley, K; Kolesar, R

    2014-04-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) region for Asia, the Far East and Oceania presents both challenges and opportunities in implementing improved approaches to animal welfare. Drivers for improvements include social values, culture, religion, political interest, trade, an increasing global awareness of animal welfare issues, an increasing demand for meat and dairy products, the interest of non-governmental organisations, and the mandate given to the OIE to develop science-based standards for animal welfare. The outcomes-based OIE standards can be amended in the light of new scientific knowledge and implemented by countries in a manner best suited to meet their needs. A number of regional initiatives are described, including a regional strategy, examples of national activities, projects run by the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Science and Bioethical Analysis, and trade measures. Although the overall outlook for improvements in the region looks promising, implementation of standards over the longer-term will require ongoing political commitment, resources and cultural change to ensure sustained improvements.

  20. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  1. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, I

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah. PMID:11605617

  2. The ionospheric response to the Saint Patrick storm over South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Di Mauro, D.; Pezzopane, M.; Cesaroni, C.; Povero, G., Sr.; Pini, M., Sr.; Dovis, F., Sr.; Romero, R.; Linty, N.; Abadi, P.; Nuraeni, F.; Husin, A.; Huy Le, M.; La The, V.; Pillat, V. G.; Floury, N.

    2015-12-01

    ERICA, a project funded by the European Space Agency, aims at characterizing the ionospheric variability of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly in the South East Asia. In particular, ERICA focuses on the variation of the plasma electron density in the southern and northern crests of the anomaly and over the dip equator identified by the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough. To achieve this goal, an ad hoc measurements campaign is on-going with ground-based instruments located in the footprints of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly and of the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough in Vietnam and Indonesia.The campaign started on the 1st of March 2015, timing to monitor the Saint Patrick storm effects on the ionosphere by means of ionosondes, double frequency hardware and software defined radio GNSS receivers, ground based and spaceborne magnetometers and Langmuir probe. Such multi-instrumental and multi-parametric observations of the region enables an in-depth investigation of the ionospheric response to the largest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle. The observations record positive and negative ionospheric storms, sporadic E layer and spread F conditions, scintillations enhancement and inhibition, TEC gradients. The ancillary information on the local magnetic field allows to highlight the variety of ionospheric perturbations happened during the main and the long recovery phase of the storm.The paper presents the outcomes of the investigation evidencing the peculiarities of a region not yet extensively reported in the open literature.

  3. Mapping tobacco industry strategies in South East Asia for action planning and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, F; Hoang, M; Linton, R; Ritthiphakdee, B; Trochim, W

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of tobacco industry tactics in four countries in South East Asia for the purpose of: (1) generating consensus on key areas of importance and feasibility for regional and cross country tobacco industry monitoring and surveillance; (2) developing measures to track and monitor the effects of the tobacco industry and to design counterstrategies; and (3) building capacity to improve tobacco control planning in the participating countries. Design: A structured conceptualisation methodology known as concept mapping was used. The process included brainstorming, sorting and rating of statements describing industry activities. Statistical analyses used multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Interpretation of the maps was participatory, using regional tobacco control researchers, practitioners, and policy makers during a face to face meeting. Participants: 31 participants in this study come from the four countries represented in the project along with six people from the Johns Hopkins Blomberg School of Public Health. Conclusions: The map shows eight clusters of industry activities within the four countries. These were arranged into four general sectors: economics, politics, public relations and deception. For project design purposes, the map indicates areas of importance and feasibility for monitoring tobacco industry activities and serves as a basis for an initial discussion about action planning. Furthermore, the development of the map used a consensus building process across different stakeholders or stakeholder agencies and is critical when developing regional, cross border strategies for tracking and surveillance. PMID:18218787

  4. Response of Vegetation to Climate Change in the Drylands of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Zhang, L.; Wang, K.; Wang, R. L.

    2014-03-01

    Over the past 25 years, global climate and environmental changes have caused an unprecedented rate of vegetation change, as exemplified in the drylands of East Asia. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation in this region and analysed their relationship with climate data. Our results show that vegetation productivity significantly increased from 1982 to 2006. This increasing trend was observed for most of the region, particularly for northwest Mongolia and central Inner Mongolia. Grasslands, croplands, forests, and shrublands, all exhibited this trend. The annual growth rate of the grasslands determined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was the largest observed change; reaching 0.07% p.a, followed by shrublands (0.06%), croplands (0.03%), and forests (0.02%). In the different geographic regions, the roles of temperature and precipitation on vegetation growth were shown to be different. Temperature was the dominant factor for the observed NDVI increase in northwest Mongolia and the centre of Inner Mongolia. The combined influences of temperature and precipitation changes have resulted in the promotion of vegetation growth, as seen in eastern GanSu. Temperature change is the primary factor for initiating vegetation growth in spring and autumn because warmer temperatures increase the length of the growing season, and are thus evaluated as an increased NDVI value. Increased precipitation has been shown to play a positive role on vegetation growth during summer.

  5. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease.

  6. Age and climate contribution to observed forest carbon sinks in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Donghai; Li, Zheng; Wu, Hao; Du, Ling; Luo, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The observed forest carbon sink, i.e. positive net ecosystem productivity (NEP), in East Asia reported by the eddy covariance flux tower network is an integrated result of forests themselves (e.g. age) and abiotic factors such as climate. However the relative contribution of climate alone to that sink is highly uncertain and has been in debate. In this study we de-trended a primary effect of forest age on carbon sinks by a statistical regression model between NEP and forest ages. Then, modeled residual NEP was regressed against climate factors again so that its relative contribution could be evaluated appropriately in the region. The analysis for data from the 2000s showed that forest age appeared to be the primary impact factor on the carbon sink of the region (R 2 = 0.347), and the mean annual temperature (MAT) was the second (R 2 = 0.23), while the mean annual precipitation effect might not be as apparent as MAT. Particularly for forests in China, climate might contribute to about 31.7% of the total NEP of 0.540 Pg C yr-1. Given that forests in China are relatively young under current climate conditions, we predicted that they would be capable of atmospheric carbon sequestration in the near future.

  7. New Sources for Comparative Social Science: Historical Population Panel Data From East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hao; Campbell, Cameron; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison and comparability lie at the heart of any comparative social science. Still, precise comparison is virtually impossible without using similar methods and similar data. In recent decades, social demographers, historians, and economic historians have compiled and made available a large number of micro-level data sets of historical populations for North America and Europe. Studies using these data have already made important contributions to many academic disciplines. In a similar spirit, we introduce five new microlevel historical panel data sets from East Asia, including the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Liaoning (CMGPD-LN) 1749–1909, the China Multi-Generational Panel Dataset– Shuangcheng (CMGPD-SC) 1866–1913, the Japanese Ninbetsu-Aratame-Cho Population Register Database–Shimomoriya and Niita (NAC-SN) 1716–1870, the Korea Multi-Generational Panel Dataset–Tansung (KMGPD-TS) 1678–1888, and the Colonial Taiwan Household Registration Database (CTHRD) 1906–1945. These data sets in total contain more than 3.7 million linked observations of 610,000 individuals and are the first such Asian data to be made available online or by application. We discuss the key features and historical institutions that originally collected these data; the subsequent processes by which the data were reconstructed into individual-level panels; their particular data limitations and strengths; and their potential for comparative social scientific research. PMID:26001625

  8. Combined Dust Detection Algorithm by Using MODIS Infrared Channels over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Lee, Sukjo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Chang, Lim Seok; Ou, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A new dust detection algorithm is developed by combining the results of multiple dust detectionmethods using IR channels onboard the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) between two wavelength channels has been used widely in previous dust detection methods. However, BTDmethods have limitations in identifying the offset values of the BTDto discriminate clear-sky areas. The current algorithm overcomes the disadvantages of previous dust detection methods by considering the Brightness Temperature Ratio (BTR) values of the dual wavelength channels with 30-day composite, the optical properties of the dust particles, the variability of surface properties, and the cloud contamination. Therefore, the current algorithm shows improvements in detecting the dust loaded region over land during daytime. Finally, the confidence index of the current dust algorithm is shown in 10 × 10 pixels of the MODIS observations. From January to June, 2006, the results of the current algorithm are within 64 to 81% of those found using the fine mode fraction (FMF) and aerosol index (AI) from the MODIS and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The agreement between the results of the current algorithm and the OMI AI over the non-polluted land also ranges from 60 to 67% to avoid errors due to the anthropogenic aerosol. In addition, the developed algorithm shows statistically significant results at four AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sites in East Asia.

  9. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W

    2005-08-01

    In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities.

  10. Review of subtribe Singilina Jeannel, 1949, of the Middle East and Central Asia (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini)

    PubMed Central

    Anichtchenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510

  11. Interventions to improve the use of antimalarials in south-east Asia: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, M.; Wayling, S.; Pang, L.

    1998-01-01

    There are few drugs for malaria, and those which are available for use are subject to rapid development of resistance. Curiously, little effort has been made to improve drug use in malaria-endemic countries and to assess the benefits of such improvements. Advances can be made in public understanding of the value of ingesting a full regimen of antimalarials, in order to achieve complete cure, and in improving simple technologies (blister packaging) to achieve the same result. Better efforts can be made to reduce the availability of fake or substandard drugs in the marketplace. In this article, we describe the outcome of a concerted effort to improve drug compliance and drug quality in an area of multidrug resistance for malaria. These research efforts, guided by the Task Force for Improved Use of Antimalarials, characterized the problems in drug compliance in South-East Asia, and developed interventions to improve drug use in the various countries. Interventions involved drug packaging, public information campaigns, and assessments of drug quality. Results show that blister packaging worked best to improve drug compliance and that the increased cost of packaged medication did not limit its use. Drug quality was a major problem in unregulated countries and should be improved. PMID:9763718

  12. Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

    East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G

  13. The forms of the Culex pipiens complex in East Asia, with ecological thoughts on their origin and interrelation.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2012-12-01

    In East Asia, 4 forms of the Culex pipiens complex have been confirmed. A form pipiens s. s. (anautogeous pipiens) has been confirmed only in westernmost China. A temperate form pallens and a subtropical and tropical form quinquefasciatus are connected with intermediates in morphology and many aspects of ecology, but their difference is rather clear in climatic adaptation traits. The distribution of a form molestus overlaps with pallens and, in Taiwan, quinquefasciatus, and, in East Asia, this form requires artificial underground habitats for its persistence. The origin and interrelation of 3 forms other than pipiens s. s. are considered from ecological aspects, especially climatic adaptation. A hypothesis is presented that molestus was originally a form having adapted to the Mediterranean climate in the western Palaearctic, secondarily colonized artificial underground habitats, and reached East Asia in the early 20th century by ships from North America. At present, it is difficult to assign pallens with certainty to either the old or new groups of the Manchurian mosquito fauna. Three hypotheses about the interrelation between pallens and quinquefasciatus are compared, and the strengths and problems of each hypothesis are indicated. Finally, a map to show the distribution of the forms of the Culex pipiens complex before it was extensively changed by humans is presented as an initial trial. The Culex pipiens problems now troubling humans are largely human-made problems.

  14. Preliminary results from measurement of methane at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea for understanding emissions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Kim, J.; Ahn, K.; Park, M.; Kim, K.

    2010-12-01

    Importance of methane (CH4) to the global biogeochemical cycle and climate change has been well documented, and while the total global methane emissions are relatively well known, the strength of each source component and their trends are not, due to the varied biological and anthropogenic sources of emissions. This is especially true in East Asia, where strong expected emissions of CH4 from fossil fuel mining and burning as well as rice agriculture remain less understood. In this study, we present atmospheric measurements of methane and preliminary analysis of the results. Measurement site for this study is at Gosan, a remote background site located on Jeju Island, Korea. Due to its central location in East Asia, monitoring of both background and pollution from the surrounding regions is possible, thus ideal for monitoring methane emissions in East Asia. To facilitate high-quality continuous measurements, an automated measurement system with a GC-FID has been created and tested at Seoul National University. Identification of the dominant CH4 emission sources could be better understood by analyzing correlation with other anthropogenically and biogenically emitted compounds such as CO (important indicator for fossil fuel burning) and chlorinated compounds (emitted from biomass burning and the use of coal). Advanced air mass transport modeling will also be used to analyze different emission patterns by region.

  15. Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter.

  16. Assessment of the biospheric contribution to surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations over East Asia with a regional chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Xingxia; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Yinghong

    2015-03-01

    A regional chemical transport model, RAMS-CMAQ, was employed to assess the impacts of biosphere-atmosphere C2 exchange on seasonal variations in atmospheric C2 concentrations over East Asia. Simulated C2 concentrations were compared with observations at 12 surface stations and the comparison showed they were generally in good agreement. Both observations and simulations suggested that surface C2 over East Asia features a summertime trough due to biospheric absorption, while in some urban areas surface C2 has a distinct summer peak, which could be attributed to the strong impact from anthropogenic emissions. Analysis of the model results indicated that biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions are comparably important in shaping spatial distributions of C2 near the surface over East Asia. Biospheric flux plays an important role in the prevailing spatial pattern of C2 enhancement and reduction on the synoptic scale due to the strong seasonality of biospheric C2 flux. The elevation of C2 levels by the biosphere during winter was found to be larger than 5 ppm in North China and Southeast China, and during summertime a significant depletion (⩾ 7 ppm) occurred in most areas, except for the Indo-China Peninsula where positive bioflux values were found.

  17. Investigation on the variability of East Asia Boreal Summer Front Frequency and Linkage between Tropical Air Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunho; Lim, Gyu-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Summer time front is one of the most significant phenomena over East Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Many efforts have been established to understand the nature of front. However, there was no research conducting identifying East Asia summer time fronts objectively. We have established objective front recognition method. The method follows next procedures : 1) We calculate vorticity on 850-hPa surface. 2) Any grid point that have horizontal gradient of equivalent potential temperature (EPT hereafter) on 850-hPa surface less than 4 'c / 100km set to zero. 3) Next, we smooth this field using 9-point smoothing technique. 4) Finally we extract the main axis of closed contour correspond to vorticity of 1.5 10-5s-5. Voronoi diagram used to extract this axis. We define this axis as front on 850-hPa pressure surface. We have applied the method on 1981-2010 ERA-Interim dataset. From the result, front frequency maximums are in around of East China Sea (34N, 122E), north (38N, 136E) and south (34N, 140E) of main island of Japan. Below 30N and above 40N, front frequency tends to decrease maybe due to decrease in the magnitude of gradient of EPT and the frequency of cyclonic weather disturbance. Two main regions affect the variability of East Asia Front Frequency. One is equatorial positive region especially over Taiwan (25N, 120E). The other one is East Sea next to Korea (40N, 135E). Humid warm air transported from southern China (20N-30N, 100E-110E) and dry cold air transported from northern China (30N-40N, 100E-110E) compressed by clockwise high system over Taiwan and counter-clockwise low system over East Sea). This compressed precipitation-making system or front moves by extratropical westerly and transported out to north-western Pacific. It looks like geopotential over Taiwan affected by tropical activity, especially vertical integration of temperature (VIT hereafter) over tropical region (30S-30N). When VIT is higher than normal, geopotential over Taiwan also

  18. Impacts of historical climate and land cover changes on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in East Asia between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu; Tai, Amos P. K.; Liao, Hong

    2016-08-01

    To examine the effects of changes in climate, land cover and land use (LCLU), and anthropogenic emissions on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) between the 5-year periods 1981-1985 and 2007-2011 in East Asia, we perform a series of simulations using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) driven by assimilated meteorological data and a suite of land cover and land use data. Our results indicate that climate change alone could lead to a decrease in wintertime PM2.5 concentration by 4.0-12.0 µg m-3 in northern China, but to an increase in summertime PM2.5 by 6.0-8.0 µg m-3 in those regions. These changes are attributable to the changing chemistry and transport of all PM2.5 components driven by long-term trends in temperature, wind speed and mixing depth. The concentration of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is simulated to increase by 0.2-0.8 µg m-3 in both summer and winter in most regions of East Asia due to climate change alone, mostly reflecting higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions under warming. The impacts of LCLU change alone on PM2.5 (-2.1 to +1.3 µg m-3) are smaller than that of climate change, but among the various components the sensitivity of SOA and thus organic carbon to LCLU change (-0.4 to +1.2 µg m-3) is quite significant especially in summer, which is driven mostly by changes in biogenic VOC emissions following cropland expansion and changing vegetation density. The combined impacts show that while the effect of climate change on PM2.5 air quality is more pronounced, LCLU change could offset part of the climate effect in some regions but exacerbate it in others. As a result of both climate and LCLU changes combined, PM2.5 levels are estimated to change by -12.0 to +12.0 µg m-3 across East Asia between the two periods. Changes in anthropogenic emissions remain the largest contributor to deteriorating PM2.5 air quality in East Asia during the study period, but climate and LCLU changes could lead to a substantial

  19. A review of the status of foot and mouth disease in South-East Asia and approaches to control and eradication.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, L J

    2002-12-01

    The author presents reports of foot and mouth disease (FMD) submitted between 1996 and 2001 to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) Sub-Commission for FMD in South-East Asia. Of the ten countries in South-East Asia, FMD is endemic in seven (Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) and three are free of the disease (Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore). Part of the Philippines is also recognised internationally as being free of FMD. From 1996 to 2001, serotype O viruses caused outbreaks in all seven of the endemically infected countries. On the mainland, three different type O lineages have been recorded, namely: the South-East Asian (SEA) topotype, the pig-adapted or Cathay topotype and the pan-Asian topotype. Prior to 1999, one group of SEA topotype viruses occurred in the eastern part of the region and another group in the western part. However, in 1999, the pan-Asian lineage was introduced to the region and has become widespread. The Cathay topotype was reported from Vietnam in 1997 and is the only FMD virus currently endemic in the Philippines. Type Asia 1 has never been reported from the Philippines but was reported from all countries on the mainland except Vietnam between 1996 and 2001. Type A virus has not been reported from east of the Mekong River in the past six years and seems to be mainly confined to Thailand with occasional spillover into Malaysia. The distribution and movement of FMD viruses in the region is a reflection of the trade-driven movement of livestock. There is great disparity across the region in the strength and resources of the animal health services and this has a direct impact on FMD control. Regulatory environments are not well developed and enforcement of regulations can be ineffectual. The management of animal movement is quite variable across the region and much market-driven transboundary movement of livestock is unregulated. Formal quarantine approaches

  20. Persistence in rainfall occurrence over Tropical south-east Asia and equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahale, S. D.; Panchawagh, N.; Singh, S. V.; Ranatunge, E. R.; Brikshavana, M.

    1994-03-01

    Daily rainfall observations during the principal rainy seasons over a large part of Tropical Asia and the equatorial Pacific are analysed for persistence by fitting Markov chains of various order. Daily rainfall data of 98 stations from India, Sri Lanka and Thailand falling in the monsoonal regime and 9 stations in the non-monsoonal regime of the equatorial Pacific are examined. The appropriate order of Markov chain is determined by analyzing wet and dry spell length characteristics and by applying the Schwarz Baysian Criterion to the arbitrary sequences of 5-day length. Markov chains of order greater than 1 are found to characterize the persistence in rainfall over India and to some extent over wet zones of Sri Lanka and central equatorial Pacific. Simple Markov chains are suggested for Thailand, the dry zone of Sri Lanka and the stations of central equatorial Pacific lying some what away from the equator.

  1. Effects of Siberian forest fires on air quality in East Asia during May 2003 and its climate implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaein I.; Park, Rokjin J.; Youn, Daeok

    In May 2003, intense forest fires occurred over Siberia, which were the largest fires in the past decade. In order to quantify the effects of these fires on regional air quality in East Asia, we used a global chemical transport model (CTM) with a biomass burning emission inventory constrained by satellite. Our focus was mainly on the enhancements of the ozone and aerosol concentrations due to these fires over East Asia. We first evaluated the model extensively by comparing the simulated and the observed ozone and aerosol concentrations at the EANET sites and found that the simulation reproduced the observed variability of those species. However, some discrepancies were found in the model when compared with the MODIS AOD observations. We tested the sensitivity of the model AOD to different injection heights of fire emissions and found that the model with an injection height of 4.5 km was in better agreement with the observations. We then used our model results to quantify the influences of Siberian forest fires on ozone and aerosols concentrations which were computed using the differences between the simulations with and without Siberian forest fire emissions. The peak increases in the surface PM 10 and ozone concentrations were up to 90 μg m -3 and 33 ppbv, respectively, over Siberia. In the downwind regions, the increases ranged from 5 to 30 μg m -3 and from 3 to 20 ppbv for PM 10 and ozone concentrations, respectively, having an important implication for air quality over East Asia. Finally, we computed the radiative forcing of aerosols and ozone from the Siberian forest fires as a measure of climate impact. Siberian forest fires were found to act mainly as a cooling agent resulting in a negative radiative forcing of -5.8 W m -2 at the surface over East Asia. The value at the TOA was -1.5 W m -2, indicating that a considerable absorption of radiation occurred in the atmosphere. This result implies that the Siberian forest fires may affect the regional climate

  2. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia through coupling regional and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective: using global chemical transport models and focusing on synoptic-scale export events. These global models have fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, and thus have a limited ability to represent boundary layer processes and urban photochemistry. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; http://www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) coupled with a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the importance of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent. We find that the vertical lifting and outflow of Asian pollution is enhanced in the regional models throughout the study period (March 2001) as contrast to the global model. Episodic outflow of CO, PAN, and O3 to the upper troposphere during cold frontal passages is twice as great in the WRF-Chem model as compared with the MOZART model. The TRACE-P aircraft measurements indicate that the pollution plumes in MOZART are too weak and too low in the altitude, which we attribute to the global model's inability to capture rapid deep convection that develops along the leading edge of the convergence band during frontal events. In contrast to pollution export from Asia, we find little difference in the regional vs. global model transport of European (EU) pollution into surface air over East Asia (EA). Instead, the local surface characteristics - sensitivity - strongly influence surface O3 responses. For instance, the O3 response to 20% decreases in EU emissions imported into our regional model domain is strongest (0.4-0.6 ppbv

  3. Cross-national burden of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Deborah L; Sadosky, Alesia; Alvir, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The burden of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes. This study expanded on the human burden of painful DPN by quantifying functional and health status impairments among international patients from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of painful DPN. Evaluated outcomes measures included: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (mBPI-sf), EuroQOL 5D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Outcomes were stratified by pain severity using cut-points: 0 to 10 numeric rating scale (NRS) for average pain (0 to 3: none/mild, 4 to 6: moderate, 7 to 10: severe). Study sample is: 401 patients (163 in Asia, 110 in Latin America and 128 in the Middle East), mostly female (61%) (+/- standard deviation, SD), age of 57 +/- 10 years. Participants reported at least moderate levels of pain severity (mean [+/- SD] scores on a 0 to 10 NRS for average pain of 5.9 +/- 1.8 for Asia, 6.7 +/- 1.6 for Latin America, and 6.6 +/- 1.7 for the Middle East). Mean (+/- SD) values on the mBPI-sf Pain Interference Index were 4.7 +/- 2.3 for Asia, 5.6 +/- 2.1 for Latin America, and 5.5 +/- 2.3 for the Middle East. Patients in all 3 regions reported difficulties with functioning, sleep, and overall health status, which increased with higher pain severity levels. Patients in Asia had substantial impairments; however, they reported less serious problems than the other regions. These data are consistent with painful DPN being a burdensome condition worldwide: people with poorly managed neuropathic pain report a substantial burden of disease.

  4. Evaluation of PM forecasting model using Lidar and satellite data over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, S. Y.; Koo, Y. S.

    2014-12-01

    East Asian economies have experienced rapid growth over three decades, and the region is one of the world's most populated places. Asian dust and anthropogenic aerosols are considerable over East Asia. They are frequently transported to Korea during the late winter and spring. Trans-boundary dust is transported either as isolated or mixed with anthropogenic aerosols. Consequently, Asian dust and atmospheric aerosols have become an emerging issue resulting in high particulate matter (PM) episode in Korea. The PM forecasting model which has been developed and opened to public since 2007 is an effective tool to protect the public health by detecting the PM episode event and notifying it to the public in advance. Validation of forecasting models using measurements such as surface observations is necessary to assess their reliability, but they are not able to detect spatial and vertical distribution. Vertical profile is crucial to understand the long-range transport of PM. In this study, long-range transports of aerosols were investigated by a integrated analysis of ground-based / space-borne Lidar observations and a numerical forecasting model for the PM episode in 2013. The numerical forecasting using the CMAQ model (Community Multiscale Air Quality) was compared with LIDAR (LIght Detection and Ranging) which is located in Seoul National University (37.46°N, 126.95°E) and CALIOP onboard CALIPSO satellite. Vertical profiles of CALIOP which are the Attenuated backscatter coefficient(532nm), the Depolarization ratio (532nm) and Ratio of attenuated backscatter coefficients (1064nm/532nm) were compared with those calculated from CMAQ output. Altitudinal distribution of extinction coefficient from CMAQ was also compared with vertical distribution of LIDAR extinction coefficient at Seoul. Results showed that long-range transports of aerosols originated from China to Korea were observed by the CALIOP and the CMAQ model could depict the long-range transport of PM to identify

  5. Promoting operational research through fellowships: a case study from the South-East Asia Union Office

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, S.; Berger, S. Dar; Chadha, S. S.; Singh, R. J.; Lal, P.; Tonsing, J.; Harries, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) jointly developed a new paradigm for operational research (OR) capacity building and started a new process of appointing and supporting OR fellows in the field. This case study describes 1) the appointment of two OR fellows in The Union South-East Asia Office (USEA), New Delhi, India; 2) how this led to the development of an OR unit in that organisation; 3) achievements over the 5-year period from June 2009 to June 2014; and 4) challenges and lessons learnt. In June 2009, the first OR fellow in India was appointed on a full-time basis and the second was appointed in February 2012—both had limited previous experience in OR. From 2009 to 2014, annual research output and capacity building initiatives rose exponentially, and included 1) facilitation at 61 OR training courses/modules; 2) publication of 96 papers, several of which had a lasting impact on national policy and practice; 3) providing technical assistance in promoting OR; 4) building the capacity of medical college professionals in data management; 5) support to programme staff for disseminating their research findings; 6) reviewing 28 scientific papers for national or international peer-reviewed journals; and 7) developing 45 scientific abstracts for presentation at national and international conferences. The reasons for this success are highlighted along with ongoing challenges. This experience from India provides good evidence for promoting similar models elsewhere. PMID:26400596

  6. The rise of clinical nutrition science in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Effective clinical nutrition practice depends on a sound knowledge of biomedical, societal and environmental science and the skills to diagnose, prevent and manage the health problems related to food patterns, energy equilibrium (mostly to do with physical activity) and nutrient metabolism. Its delivery needs to be accessible, equitable, affordable and sustainable. Ordinarily, this will require both local and widely distributed health services. In North-East (NE) Asia, these requisites are being met to an ever increasing extent. The roots of this progress are steeped in cultures which acknowledge the food-health connections and support education which pays regard to these connections. As elsewhere, however, the food and health systems, their safety and security are threatened by exploitative operatives. In China, a concerted effort was made in the mid-1980s to foster clinical nutrition in major hospitals throughout the country by programs directed at medical graduates, nursing and kitchen staff; dietetics has appeared much more recently. By contrast, Japan has had an extensive and well-trained dietetic workforce for much longer, alongside a vibrant basic nutrition science constituency in its universities and foodnutraceutical industry. South Korea and Taiwan have traversed a similar course to that in Japan. Now, all of these NE Asian economies have gathered rapid momentum in the publication of innovative approaches to public health and clinical nutrition which have the prospect of not only improving health outcomes, but also reducing the societal and financial burden of health care. This is particularly important in rapidly ageing societies, which they are. It is also a growing challenge where climate change threatens to engulf the lives and destinies of hundreds of millions of Asians on account of natural disasters, water and food insecurity.

  7. Vitamin D status and food security in North-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    The functions of vitamin D are pleiotropic affecting all body organs and systems in some way. Its adequacy depends principally on sunshine for UV light to stimulate its synthesis in skin and on foods which contain it, either animal-derived or obtained from fungi or mushrooms, with the UV-responsive substrates dehydrocholesterol for vitamin D-3 or ergosterol for vitamin D-2, respectively. Thus, vitamin D health is very environmentally dependent. With ecosytem degradation, whether by atmospheric pollution or food systems which do not derive UV irradiation, as with fish farming or mushroom processing, then this nutrient input into human biology may falter. Vitamin D deficiency is now common and widespread in North-East Asia as elsewhere. When discovered early in the 20th century it was linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults and, for a generation or so, children were given fish, usually cod, liver oil to prevent bone disease. Now cod as a species and many edible fish are threatened. Over-exposure to sun-light increases the risk of skin cancer. We may tackle this problem by vitamin D supplementation with an alternative to fish liver. But the demographic pressures of population size and ageing (when the skin is less UV responsive) make the clinical and public health decisions and strategies demanding. Vitamin D health has become indicative of food security whose usual indicator is food diversity; such diversity may allow lesser concentrations to be more effective in organ and system function, but we have little evidence to support this at present.

  8. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Methods Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4–5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country’s Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Findings Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Conclusion Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations. PMID:27994284

  9. Impact of model resolution on the simulation of diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Emilia Kyung; Choi, In-Jin; Kim, So-Young; Han, Ji-Young

    2016-02-01

    The impact of model resolution on the simulation of diurnal variations of precipitation over East Asia during the summer monsoon period of 2006 is investigated by conducting a suite of ensemble simulations of three different cumulus parameterization schemes (CPS), which are Kain-Fritsch, Kain-Fritsch with a modified trigger function, and Simplified Arakawa-Schubert, and the convection-permitting (CP) setting with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The horizontal resolutions of 50 km, 27 km, and 9 km are applied for each different representation of convection process. Model simulations as a whole are able to mimic the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles with 24 h and 12 h peaks in the morning and the afternoon. However, the simulated afternoon peaks over land are earlier in the CPS runs, while delayed in the CP runs, compared to those observed. The increase of resolution improves the phase and amplitude of diurnal variations in the CP runs due to the explicit representation of the realistic cloud system. In addition, the contribution of nonconvective precipitation from the microphysical process significantly improves the phase of diurnal variations in the CPS runs, especially the afternoon peak over land. The KFtr scheme outperforms other schemes in reproducing the diurnal variations due to the relatively dominant role of nonconvective precipitation. Phase does not change with increasing resolution in the diurnal variations of convective precipitation. Only the modification of the convection scheme, such as the alternative trigger function in the KFtr scheme distinguished from the KF scheme, can make fundamental changes in phase of diurnal variation.

  10. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  11. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  12. 3D aerosol climatology over East Asia derived from CALIOP observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongbo; Sun, Xuejin; Zhang, Chuanliang; Zhang, Riwei; Li, Yan; Li, Haoran

    2017-03-01

    The seasonal mean extinction coefficient profile (ECP), single scattering albedo (SSA), and scattering phase function (SPF) derived from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) version 3 Level 2 5-km aerosol profile product (2011-2014) were compiled into a three-dimensional (3D) aerosol climatology for East Asia. The SSA and SPF were calculated as the weighted averages of the scattering properties of the CALIOP aerosol subtypes. The weights were set to the occurrence frequencies of the subtypes. The single scattering properties of each subtype were extrapolated from the volume-based size distribution and complex refractive indexes based on Mie calculations. For the high-loading episodes (aerosol optical depth ≥ 0.6), the exponential ECP structures were most frequently observed over the farmland and desert areas, along with the uplifted ECP structures over the marine and coastal areas. Besides the desert areas, high-loading episodes also occurred over areas with frequent agricultural and industry activities. Unlike the conventional half-3D aerosol climatology (vertically constant SSA and SPF), this newly generated climatology specified SSA and SPF in the full-3D space (full-3D aerosol climatology). Errors on the shortwave radiative heating rate (SW RHR) due to the half-3D aerosol climatology approximation were quantified. The SW RHR errors were around ±1 K/day, implying that the half-3D aerosol climatology should be used with caution in climate modeling. This study is among the first to generate a full-3D aerosol climatology from the CALIOP data. This full-3D aerosol climatology is potentially useful for aerosol remote sensing and climate modeling.

  13. A Collaborative Epidemiological Investigation into the Criminal Fake Artesunate Trade in South East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Plançon, Aline; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Green, Michael D; Ziyong, Li; Christophel, Eva Maria; Phanouvong, Souly; Howells, Stephen; McIntosh, Eric; Laurin, Paul; Blum, Nancy; Hampton, Christina Y; Faure, Kevin; Nyadong, Leonard; Soong, C. W. Ray; Santoso, Budiono; Zhiguang, Wang; Newton, John; Palmer, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1998 the serious public health problem in South East Asia of counterfeit artesunate, containing no or subtherapeutic amounts of the active antimalarial ingredient, has led to deaths from untreated malaria, reduced confidence in this vital drug, large economic losses for the legitimate manufacturers, and concerns that artemisinin resistance might be engendered. Methods and Findings With evidence of a deteriorating situation, a group of police, criminal analysts, chemists, palynologists, and health workers collaborated to determine the source of these counterfeits under the auspices of the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the Western Pacific World Health Organization Regional Office. A total of 391 samples of genuine and counterfeit artesunate collected in Vietnam (75), Cambodia (48), Lao PDR (115), Myanmar (Burma) (137) and the Thai/Myanmar border (16), were available for analysis. Sixteen different fake hologram types were identified. High-performance liquid chromatography and/or mass spectrometry confirmed that all specimens thought to be counterfeit (195/391, 49.9%) on the basis of packaging contained no or small quantities of artesunate (up to 12 mg per tablet as opposed to ∼ 50 mg per genuine tablet). Chemical analysis demonstrated a wide diversity of wrong active ingredients, including banned pharmaceuticals, such as metamizole, and safrole, a carcinogen, and raw material for manufacture of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy'). Evidence from chemical, mineralogical, biological, and packaging analysis suggested that at least some of the counterfeits were manufactured in southeast People's Republic of China. This evidence prompted the Chinese Government to act quickly against the criminal traders with arrests and seizures. Conclusions An international multi-disciplinary group obtained evidence that some of the counterfeit artesunate was manufactured in China, and this prompted a criminal investigation

  14. Threshold wind speed for dust emission in east Asia and its seasonal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Mikami, M.

    2007-09-01

    We present maps of threshold wind speed for dust emission in east Asia, which are statistically evaluated from synoptic surface meteorological data. We define threshold wind speeds as ut5% and ut50%, which can be identified as threshold wind speeds at close to the most favorable land surface condition for dust emission and under normal land surface conditions, respectively. Spatial distributions of ut5% and ut50% are similar and roughly correspond to the land cover type. The threshold wind speed is low in desert regions such as the Taklimakan Desert (ut5% = 4.4 ± 0.6 m s-1 and ut50% = 6.7 ± 1.5 m s-1) and the Loess Plateau (ut5% = 6.9 ± 1.2 m s-1 and ut50% = 9.4 ± 1.6 m s-1). On the other hand, the highest is seen in northern Mongolia (ut5% = 9.8 ± 2.2 m s-1 and ut50% = 16.2 ± 2.5 m s-1), whose land cover type is grassland. One exception is the high threshold wind speed recorded in the Gobi Desert (ut5% = 8.9 ± 2.2 m s-1 and ut50% = 13.8 ± 2.0 m s-1). Seasonal variations in the threshold wind speed are narrow in desert regions such as the Taklimakan Desert, the Gobi Desert and Loess Plateau, but wide in grassland regions such as northern Mongolia. This suggests that land surface conditions are the similar throughout the year in desert regions, but seasonally variable in grassland regions.

  15. Predictable patterns of the May-June rainfall anomaly over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-02-01

    During early summer (May-June, MJ), East Asia (EA) subtropical front is a defining feature of Asian monsoon, which produces the most prominent precipitation band in the global subtropics. Here we show that dynamical prediction of early summer EA (20°N-45°N, 100°E-130°E) rainfall made by four coupled climate models' ensemble hindcast (1979-2010) yields only a moderate skill and cannot be used to estimate predictability. The present study uses an alternative, empirical orthogonal function (EOF)-based physical-empirical (P-E) model approach to predict rainfall anomaly pattern and estimate its potential predictability. The first three leading modes are physically meaningful and can be, respectively, attributed to (a) the interaction between the anomalous western North Pacific subtropical high and underlying Indo-Pacific warm ocean, (b) the forcing associated with North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly, and (c) the development of equatorial central Pacific SST anomalies. A suite of P-E models is established to forecast the first three leading principal components. All predictors are 0 month ahead of May, so the prediction here is named as a 0 month lead prediction. The cross-validated hindcast results demonstrate that these modes may be predicted with significant temporal correlation skills (0.48-0.72). Using the predicted principal components and the corresponding EOF patterns, the total MJ rainfall anomaly was hindcasted for the period of 1979-2015. The time-mean pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) score reaches 0.38, which is significantly higher than dynamical models' multimodel ensemble skill (0.21). The estimated potential maximum attainable PCC is around 0.65, suggesting that the dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve. Limitations and future work are discussed.

  16. Super-ensemble of three RCMs for climate projection over East Asia and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Wu, Ming-Chin; Paul, Sahana; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Shu-Hua; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Lee, Yen-Chih; Hsu, Huang-Hsung; Tseng, Ren-Yow; Chen, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Runs of three regional climate models (RCMs) dynamically downscaling the outputs of atmosphere-ocean coupling general circulation models (AOGCMs) are studied. These RCMs are NCAR-MM5, NCEP-RSM (Regional Spectral Model), and Purdue-PRM (Purdue Regional Model). A useful approach is developed to compare the variability, error, and spatial distribution of model-simulated results with respect to the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) datasets over East Asia and seven sub-regions during the 1990s. The results show that NCEP-RSM outperforms the other two in meeting criteria selected on evaluating the model performance. Furthermore, three super-ensemble approaches are tested on merging RCMs' outputs. The inverse of the square error summation (ISES) method is selected as a suitable method with a generally good performance during the verification period. The projected future climate changes by ISES indicate larger temperature increases over high-latitude continent and smaller over low-latitude maritime areas. Rainfall will increase in summer over the central simulation domain, i.e. the eastern China, but decrease in winter, which are clearly linked to the variation in the synoptic airflows. Also, a more frequent occurrence of extreme rainfall events than what happened in the 1990s is projected. The projection over Taiwan suggests strong warming in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. The interaction between the synoptic flow and the local terrain affects significantly the changes in precipitation. In general, larger change of the variability of rainfall will be over areas with lesser rainfall in the future, while lesser change will be over areas with more projected rainfall.

  17. Health systems in East Asia: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers?

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2007-05-01

    The health systems of Japan and the Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan), and the recent reforms to them, provide many potentially valuable lessons to East Asia's developing countries. All five systems have managed to keep a check on health spending despite their different approaches to financing and delivery. These differences are reflected in the progressivity of health finance, but the precise degree of progressivity of individual sources and the extent to which households are vulnerable to catastrophic health payments depend on the design features of the system - the height of any ceilings on social insurance contributions, the fraction of health spending covered by the benefit package, the extent to which the poor face reduced copayments, whether there are caps on copayments, and so on. On the delivery side, too, Japan and the Tigers offer some interesting lessons. Singapore's experience with corporatizing public hospitals - rapid cost and price inflation, a race for the best technology, and so on - illustrates the difficulties of corporatization. Korea's experience with a narrow benefit package illustrates the danger of providers shifting demand from insured services with regulated prices to uninsured services with unregulated prices. Japan, in its approach to rate setting for insured services, has managed to combine careful cost control with fine-tuning of profit margins on different types of care. Experiences with DRGs in Korea and Taiwan point to cost-savings but also to possible knock-on effects on service volume and total health spending. Korea and Taiwan both offer important lessons for the separation of prescribing and dispensing, including the risks of compensation costs outweighing the cost savings caused by more 'rational' prescribing, and cost-savings never being realized because of other concessions to providers, such as allowing them to have onsite pharmacists.

  18. How well do climate models simulate atmospheric teleconnctions over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with ENSO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunyong; Son, Hye-Young; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    During the El Niño and La Niña mature phase, atmospheric teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia vary considerably on sub-seasonal time scales, and are strongly phase-locked to the sub-seasonal evolution. In this study, we investigate how well climate models that participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulate the sub-seasonal evolution of teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the observations, there is a prominent anticyclone anomaly over the Kuroshio extension region (i.e. Kuroshio anticyclone), which significantly affects East Asian climate in the early winter (November-December) of El Niño years. However, in January, the Kuroshio anticyclone suddenly disappears, and a cyclonic flow dominates over the North Pacific. It is found here that the CMIP5 models simulate the overall extratropical teleconnection patterns, but they fail to reproduce some of these sub-seasonally-varying features in atmospheric circulation. For example, the models tend to simulate a weaker Kuroshio anticyclone in the early winter during El Niño phases, and fail to capture the abrupt decay of the Kuroshio anticyclone in the late winter. We demonstrate here that these systematic errors in ENSO teleconnection can be explained by systematic errors in tropical precipitation associated with ENSO. That is, negative precipitation anomalies over the western North Pacific (WNP) are too weak in the models compared to that in the observations, and their amplitude tends to be strengthened from December to the following January, while they are weakened in the observations. In addition, analyses on the inter-model diversity strongly support that relative magnitudes of WNP and central Pacific precipitation anomalies are critical for determining sub-seasonal evolution of ENSO teleconnections over the North Pacific and East Asia.

  19. Asthenospheric counterflows beneath the moving lithosphere of Central and East Asia in the past 90 Ma: volcanic and tomographic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, Sergei; Chuvashova, Irina; Kozhevnikov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Asthenospheric counterflows, accompanied motions of the lithosphere in Central and East Asia, are defined on basis of spatial-temporal activity of mantle sources [Rasskazov et al., 2012; Rasskazov, Chuvashova, 2013; Chuvashova, Rasskazov, 2014] and the tomographic model of the Rayleigh wave group velocities [Kozhevnikov et al., 2014]. The opposite fluxes are defined relative to centers of convective instability (low-velocity anomalies), expressed by thinning of the mantle transition layer under Southwestern Gobi (44 °N, 95 °E) and Northern Baikal (52 °N, 108 °E). Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic fields in Southern Gobi are shifted eastwards relative to the former anomaly over 600 km with the opposite sub-lithospheric flux at depths of 150-300 km. Likewise, the Late Tertiary Vitim volcanic field is shifted relative to the latter anomaly over 100-200 km. We suggest that the Gobi and Baikal asthenospheric counterflows contributed to the rollback mechanism of downgoing slab material from the Pacific under the eastern margin of Asia in the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Early-Middle Miocene. The east-west Gobi reverse flux, caused by differential block motions in front of the Indo-Asian convergence, resulted in the oblique Honshu-Korean flexure of the Pacific slab that propagated beneath the continental margin, while the Japan Sea was quickly opening at about 15 Ma. The Baikal N60°W reverse flux, originated due to oncoming traffic between Eurasia and the Pacific plate, entailed the formation of the Baikal Rift Zone and direct Hokkaido Amur slab flexure [Rasskazov et al., 2004]. The study is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant 14-05-31328). References Chuvashova I.S., Rasskazov S.V. Magmatic sources in the mantle of the evolving Earth. Irkutsk: Publishing House of the Irkutsk State University, 2014. 310 p. (in Russian) Kozhevnikov V.M., Seredkina A.I., Solovei O.A. 3D mantle structure of Central Asia from Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion

  20. Demographic transitions and migration in prehistoric East/Southeast Asia through the lens of nonmetric dental traits.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hirofumi; Oxenham, Marc F

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region.

  1. Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in East Asia's mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the East China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to East Asia's mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in East Asia's mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in East Asia's mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies

  2. Mechanisms controlling surface ozone over East Asia: a multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Oki, T.; Streets, D. G.; Richter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Mechanisms controlling surface ozone (O3) over East Asia are examined using the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at two horizontal scales: 81 km and 27 km. Through sensitivity studies and comparison with recently available satellite data and surface measurements in China and Japan, we find that the O3 budget over East Asia shows complex interactions among photochemical production, regional transport, meteorological conditions, burning of agricultural residues, and global inflows. For example, wintertime surface O3 over northern domain is sensitive to boundary conditions derived from the MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related Tracers) global model, whereas summertime O3 budget is controlled by the competitive processes between photochemical production and monsoonal intrusion of low-O3 marine air masses from tropical Pacific. We find that simulated surface O3 for 2001 does not exhibit the same sharp drop in July and August concentrations that is observed at two mountaintop sites (Tai and Hua) for 2004 and Beijing for 1995-2005. CMAQ sensitivity tests with two widely used photochemical schemes demonstrate that over the industrial areas in East Asia north of 30° N, SAPRC99 produces higher values of mean summertime O3 than CBIV, amounting to a difference of 10 ppb. In addition, analysis of NCEP winds and geopotential heights suggests that southwesterly monsoonal intrusion in central east China is weakened in August 2001 as compared with the climatologically mean for 1980-2005. Further examination of the O3 diurnal cycle at nine Japanese sites shows that boundary layer evolution has an important effect on the vertical mixing of ground-level O3, and error in near surface meteorology might contribute to overprediction of nighttime O3 in urban and rural areas. In conclusion, the uncertainties in simulating cloud activities and convection mixing, Asian monsoon circulation, photochemical production, and nighttime cooling explain why CMAQ with 81 km

  3. Volatility basis-set approach simulation of organic aerosol formation in East Asia: implications for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction and controllable amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Takami, A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kanaya, Y.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-16

    Organic aerosol (OA) simulations using the volatility basis-set approach were made for East Asia and its outflow region. Model simulations were evaluated through comparisons with OA measured by aerosol mass spectrometers in and around Tokyo (at Komaba and Kisai in summer 2003 and 2004) and over the outflow region in East Asia (at Fukue and Hedo in spring 2009). The simulations with aging processes of organic vapors reasonably well reproduced mass concentrations, temporal variations, and formation efficiency of observed OA at all sites. As OA mass was severely underestimated in the simulations without the aging processes, the oxidations of organic vapors are essential for reasonable OA simulations over East Asia. By considering the aging processes, simulated OA concentrations considerably increased from 0.24 to 1.28 µg m-3 in the boundary layer over the whole of East Asia. OA formed from the interaction of anthropogenic and biogenic sources was also enhanced by the aging processes. The fraction of controllable OA was estimated to be 87 % of total OA over the whole of East Asia, showing that most of the OA in our simulations formed anthropogenically (controllable). A large portion of biogenic secondary OA (78 % of biogenic secondary OA) formed through the influence of anthropogenic sources. The high fraction of controllable OA in our simulations is likely because anthropogenic emissions are dominant over East Asia and OA formation is enhanced by anthropogenic sources and their aging processes. Both the amounts (from 0.18 to 1.12 µg m-3) and the fraction (from 75 % to 87 %) of controllable OA were increased by aging processes of organic vapors over East Asia.

  4. Virtual versus physical spaces: which facilitates greater HIV risk taking among men who have sex with men in East and South-East Asia?

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongyi; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Koe, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    Increasing use of the Internet to seek sex partners is accompanied by rising HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in East and South-East Asia. We examined whether the Internet facilitates greater HIV risk taking among MSM in the region. A cross-sectional sample of 9,367 MSM was recruited via the Internet in 2010. We compared socio-demographic and HIV-related behavioral characteristics among MSM who met sex partners on the Internet only, who met sex partners offline only, and who met sex partners through both. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify independent correlates that were associated with differences in where participants met their male sex partners. Compared to MSM who met partners offline only, those who met partners online only were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, have paid for sex, have consumed recreational drugs, and have used alcohol before sex. MSM who met partners both online and offline appeared to be the riskiest group that they were more likely to have multiple male sex partners, have engaged in UIAI, and have consumed alcohol before sex. These findings suggest that social networking websites alone do not facilitate greater HIV risk taking among MSM. Rather, they provide additional venues for MSM who already engage in HIV-related high risk behaviors to seek sex partners. The Internet offers incredible opportunities to reach large numbers of MSM in East and South-East Asia for HIV prevention and research. Web-based outreach and prevention activities are needed to reach these men. In addition, mobile and application-based interventions should also be developed and disseminated.

  5. Evaluation of MODIS GPP over a complex ecosystem in East Asia: A case study at Gwangneung flux tower in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Changsub; Hong, Jiyoun; Hong, Jinkyu; Kim, Youngwook; Kang, Minseok; Malla Thakuri, Bindu; Kim, Yongwon; Chun, Junghwa

    2014-12-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) gross primary productivity (GPP) has been used widely to study the global carbon cycle associated with terrestrial ecosystems. The retrieval of the current MODIS productivity with a 1 × 1 km2 resolution has limitations when presenting subgrid scale processes in terrestrial ecosystems, specifically when forests are located in mountainous areas, and shows heterogeneity in vegetation type due to intensive land use. Here, we evaluate MODIS GPP (MOD17) at Gwangneung deciduous forest KoFlux tower (deciduous forest; GDK) for 2006-2010 in Korea, where the forests comprise heterogeneous vegetation cover over complex terrain. The monthly MODIS GPP data overestimated the GDK measurements in a range of +15% to +34% and was fairly well correlated (R = 0.88) with the monthly variability at GDK during the growing season. In addition, the MODIS data partly represented the sharp GPP reduction during the Asian summer monsoon (June-September) when intensive precipitation considerably reduces solar radiation and disturbs the forest ecosystem. To examine the influence of subgrid scale heterogeneity on GPP estimates over the MODIS scale, the individual vegetation type and its area within a corresponding MODIS pixel were identified using a national forest type map (∼71-m spatial resolution), and the annual GPP in the same area as the MODIS pixel was estimated. This resulted in a slight reduction in the positive MODIS bias by ∼10%, with a high degree of uncertainty in the estimation. The MODIS discrepancy for GDK suggests further investigation is necessary to determine the MODIS errors associated with the site-specific aerodynamic and hydrological characteristics that are closely related to the mountainous topography. The accuracy of meteorological variables and the impact of the very cloudy conditions in East Asia also need to be assessed.

  6. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  7. Multiple introductions of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses into East Asia in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Timina, Anna; Scherbakov, Alexey; Abdul-Hamid, Nor Faizah; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P

    2013-09-05

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious and genetically variable virus. Sporadic introductions of this virus into FMD-free countries may cause outbreaks with devastating consequences. In 2010 and 2011, incursions of the FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain, normally restricted to countries in mainland Southeast Asia, caused extensive outbreaks across East Asia. In this study, 12 full genome FMDV sequences for representative samples collected from the People's Republic of China (PR China) including the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, Mongolia and The Russian Federation were generated and compared with additional contemporary sequences from viruses within this lineage. These complete genomes were 8119 to 8193 nucleotides in length and differed at 1181 sites, sharing a nucleotide identity ≥ 91.0% and an amino acid identity ≥ 96.6%. An unexpected deletion of 70 nucleotides within the 5'-untranslated region which resulted in a shorter predicted RNA stem-loop for the S-fragment was revealed in two sequences from PR China and Hong Kong SAR and five additional related samples from the region. Statistical parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provide evidence that these outbreaks in East Asia were generated by two independent introductions of the O/SEA/Mya-98 lineage sometime between August 2008 and March 2010. The rapid emergence of these viruses from Southeast Asia highlights the importance of adopting approaches to closely monitor the spread of this lineage that now poses a threat to livestock industries in other regions.

  8. Assessment of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases Emission Over East Asia : A Bottom-up Inventory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Choi, K. C.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J. I.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols are mainly affected by meteorological variables and emissions. East Asia is one of important source regions of both anthropogenic and natural air pollutants and GHGs. Therefore, significant environmental changes are expected in the future and air quality modeling is the important methodology to quantitatively evaluate them. Multiple emission inventories with various spatio-temporal resolutions are necessary in support of many different air quality modeling and future climate chage researches. Many emission inventories have been developed for Asia and for Globe, such as TRACE-P, INTEX, REAS, CREATE, MICS-Asia, HTAP, SRES, RCP. Those inventories have been successfully used for many international researches, but also have several limitations including relatively old base year, limited number of pollutants/types, and low transparency of sector/fuel information. Understanding discrepancies and similarities among those intentories would give us a better insights to understand not only present status regional emissions amounts but structures of society and policy that link to the future emissions. To understand these, we; 1) selected several base-year bottom-up anthropogenic emission inventories over East Asia, 2) inter-compare emission inventories with more comprehensive sector/fuel classification, 3) explorer emissions change with more updated acvities, emission factors, and control options. The tentative results show that more than 50% of emission amount could be differ by inventory selection and more than 30% of emissions could be changed by emissions factor and/or control options. More findings regarding to these objectives will be presented on site

  9. Reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations together drove species diversification of slipper orchids (Paphiopedilum) in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Luo, Yi-Bo; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    South-East Asia covers four of the world's biodiversity hotspots, showing high species diversity and endemism. Owing to the successive expansion and contraction of distribution and the fragmentation by geographical barriers, the tropical flora greatly diversified in this region during the Tertiary, but the evolutionary tempo and mode of species diversity remain poorly investigated. Paphiopedilum, the largest genus of slipper orchids comprising nearly 100 species, is mainly distributed in South-East Asia, providing an ideal system for exploring how plant species diversity was shaped in this region. Here, we investigated the evolutionary history of this genus with eight cpDNA regions and four low-copy nuclear genes. Discordance between gene trees and network analysis indicates that reticulate evolution occurred in the genus. Ancestral area reconstruction suggests that vicariance and long-distance dispersal together led to its current distribution. Diversification rate variation was detected and strongly correlated with the species diversity in subg. Paphiopedilum (~80 species). The shift of speciation rate in subg. Paphiopedilum was coincident with sea-level fluctuations in the late Cenozoic, which could have provided ecological opportunities for speciation and created bridges or barriers for gene flow. Moreover, some other factors (e.g. sympatric distribution, incomplete reproductive barriers and clonal propagation) might also be advantageous for the formation and reproduction of hybrid species. In conclusion, our study suggests that the interplay of reticulate evolution and sea-level fluctuations has promoted the diversification of the genus Paphiopedilum and sheds light into the evolution of Orchidaceae and the historical processes of plant species diversification in South-East Asia.

  10. An evaluation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease outbreak reporting in mainland South-East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Madin, Ben

    2011-12-01

    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is considered to be endemic throughout mainland South-East Asia (SEA). The South-East Asia and China FMD (SEACFMD) campaign is a regional control programme which has been ongoing since 1997. The programme encourages countries to submit reports of outbreaks regularly. This paper evolved from a collaboration with SEACFMD to evaluate 10 years worth of reporting. All publicly available outbreak reports (5237) were extracted from the ASEAN Region Animal Health Information System (ARAHIS) for the period from 2000 to mid 2010. These reports included date, outbreak location (at the province and district level) and serotype (if known) plus information on the outbreak size and affected species. Not all records had complete information on the population at-risk or the number of animals affected. This data was transferred into a spatially enabled database (along with data from other sources) and analysed using R and SaTScan. Outbreak serotype was unknown in 2264 (43%) of reports and some countries had very few laboratory confirmed cases (range <1-86%). Outbreak reports were standardised by number of villages in each province. Outbreak intensity varied however there did not appear to be a consistent pattern, nor was there any seasonal trend in outbreaks. Spatial and spatio-temporal cluster detection methods were applied. These identified significant clusters of disease reports. FMD is endemic across the region but is not uniformly present. ARAHIS reports can be regarded as indicators of disease reporting: there may be reports in which laboratory confirmation has not occurred, and in some cases clinical signs are inconsistent with FMD. This raises questions about the specificity of the data. Advances in decentralised testing techniques offer hope for improved verification of FMD as the cause of disease outbreaks. Advances in molecular typing may provide a substantial leap forward in understanding the circulation of FMD in South East Asia.

  11. Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

    2014-10-12

    Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 μm (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30μg/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

  12. Analysis of Aerosol Distribution over North East Asia Using a Geostationary Satellite Measurement during Filed Campaigns of DRAGON-Asia 2012 and MAPS-Seoul 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Choi, M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Ahn, J.

    2015-12-01

    Considering diverse source and high concentration of aerosol, numerous manners have been applied to detect aerosol properties in North East Asia (NEA). Above all, a geostationary orbit satellite, COMS has monitored atmosphere and ocean conditions over the NEA using two payloads of Meteorological Imager (MI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) since 2010. By using the MI measurements, an AOD retrieval algorithm was developed (Kim et al., 2014). Additionally, a number of ground-based network such as Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Sky Radiometer Network (SKYNET), and Mie-scattering Light Detector and Ranging (LIDAR) Network have been in operation to capture aerosol variability. And, occasionally, field campaigns were conducted. In 2012 (March to May), the DRAGON-Asia campaign was performed by AERONET science team and NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), and 40 sun/sky-radiometer was deployed. Subsequently, MAPS-Seoul campaign for detecting air quality was performed with 8 AERONET sites and 6 Pandora instruments in Korea. Those ground-based measurements provide validation dataset for satellite retrieval algorithm, as well as detect detail of aerosol characteristics at each local point. Thus, in this study, the AODs obtained from the aforementioned campaigns were applied to assess and improve the accuracy of MI AOD. For the DRAGON-Asia 2012, the comparison between MI AOD and AERONET AOD shows correlation coefficient of 0.85, regression slope of 1.00 and RMSE of 0.18. Furthermore, AOPs obtained from those field campaign results and the MI AOD were analyzed to understand temporal and spatial variance of aerosol in NEA during spring.

  13. A case of chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tohge, Rie; Nagao, Masahiro; Yagishita, Akira; Matsubara, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome is a clinically and radiologically distinct pontine-predominant perivascular neuroinflammation showing T lymphocyte infiltration. It is assumed to have an autoimmune or other inflammatory mediated pathogenesis. We report the first known case of CLIPPERS in East Asia, characterized by multiple punctate enhancement of the brainstem extending to the bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsule and caudal to the spinal cord conus. The patient had elevated IgE levels and a history of allergies, suggesting that lesions may arise from neuroinflammation in response to T lymphocyte infiltration into perivascular spaces.

  14. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia in spring with regional and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective using global chemical transport models with fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) driven with chemical boundary conditions from a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the role of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent in spring (March 2001). Our analysis indicates the importance of rapid venting through deep convection that develops along the leading edge of frontal system convergence bands, which are not adequately resolved in either of two global models compared with TRACE-P aircraft observations during a frontal event. Both regional model simulations and observations show that frontal outflows of CO, O3 and PAN can extend to the upper troposphere (6-9 km). Pollution plumes in the global MOZART model are typically diluted and insufficiently lofted to higher altitudes where they can undergo more efficient transport in stronger winds. We use sensitivity simulations that perturb chemical boundary conditions in the CMAQ regional model to estimate that the O3 production over East Asia (EA) driven by PAN decomposition contributes 20% of the spatial averaged total O3 response to European (EU) emission perturbations in March, and occasionally contributes approximately 50% of the total O3 response in subsiding plumes at mountain observatories (at approximately 2 km altitude). The response to decomposing PAN of EU origin is strongly affected by the O3 formation chemical regimes, which

  15. Impacts of anthropogenic forcing on regional climate simulation for CORDEX-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for regional climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the East Asia domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant cold biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced cold bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL

  16. Characteristics of ionospheric storms in East Asia during 2002-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Zherebtsov, Gelii; Wang, Guojun; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Romanova, Elena; Shi, Jiankui

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere experiences intense response during the geomagnetic storm and it varies with latitude and longitude. The DPS-4 digisonde measurements and GPS-TEC data of ionospheric stations located at different latitudes in the longitudinal sector of 90-130°E during 2002 to 2014 were analyzed to investigate the ionospheric effects in the different latitude of East Asia during geomagnetic storm. About 80 geomagnetic storms are selected according to the Dst index and observed data and they are in different seasons and different solar activity levels. A few quiet days' averages of data before geomagnetic storm were used as the undisturbed level. Results show that for the middle and high latitude, the short-lived positive disturbance associated with the initial phase of the every storm was observed in each season and then the disturbances were negative till the termination of storm. At the low latitude, storm-time disturbances of foF2 have obvious diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle characteristics. Generally, geomagnetic activity will cause foF2 to increase at daytime and decrease at nighttime except for the summer in low solar activity period. The intensity of response of foF2 is stronger at nighttime than that at daytime. The negative ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in summer and the positive ionospheric storm effect is the strongest in winter. In high solar activity period, the diurnal variation of the response of foF2 is very pronounced in each season, and the strong ionospheric response can last several days. In low solar activity period, ionospheric response has very pronounced diurnal variation in winter only. It's notable that geomagnetic activities occurred at local time nighttime can cause stronger and longer responses of foF2 at the low latitude. For the TEC data, strong disturbances can be observed simultaneously from high latitude to low latitude during the main phase of some storms. Generally strong/weak storms can cause the negative

  17. How well do models reproduce the ocean-forced teleconnections associated with droughts and pluvials in the Middle East and Southwest Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical sea surface temperatures have been shown to strongly influence the seasonal and multi-year occurrence of both droughts and very wet periods (pluvials) across Southwest Asia and parts of the Middle East. Here, we examine those ocean-forced teleconnections from three perspectives: how their influence varies within this broad region, how well their influence is captured by a range of models, and how closely their influence is linked to societal impacts. This combination of perspectives improves our understanding of these modes, especially in relation to societal impacts, and provides key information for evaluating climate projections. The teleconnections are examined first in observational data, considering differences resulting from focusing on the western part of the region (the Mediterranean coastal Middle East) to the eastern part of the region (the Pamir mountains), and then comparing the observational results to ensemble simulations from a range of models. There are notable differences between models, with important implications for understanding the dynamics of the events and for setting confidence bounds on climate change projections in the region. The relationship between droughts and floods in the region is also considered. The teleconnections associated with pluvials are approximately antisymmetric to those associated with droughts. Floods occur over a considerably shorter time-scale, however, and their variability is examined by analyzing changes to the frequency of floods between pluvial and drought periods, considering floods as recorded in the Dartmouth Flood Observatory and the CRED EM-DAT disaster database.

  18. National and ethnographic groups in Central Asia as reflected in ethnic statistics (Part 2).

    PubMed

    Vinnikov, Y R

    1980-01-01

    This is the second part of an article in which the author examines trends in population growth and development among the national and ethnographic groups of the republics of Central Asia. The historical process of ethnic group consolidation is studied, with a focus on the roles of bilingualism, cross-national marriage, and socioeconomic development in inter-ethnic integration

  19. Role of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over east Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Yu, H.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As climate change has occurred over east Asia since the 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the observed warming in past decades. In this study, we investigate regional surface temperature change during the boreal cold season using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT) changes in raw surface air temperature (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT contribute 44 and 56 % to the SAT over east Asia, respectively. The DIT changes dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). Radiatively forced SAT changes have made a major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between the so-called "global warming hiatus" and regional enhanced warming is discussed.

  20. Upper-mantle shear-wave structure under East and Southeast Asia from Automated Multimode Inversion of waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, C. P.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Q.-F.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new Sv-velocity model of the upper mantle under East and Southeast Asia constrained by the inversion of seismic waveforms recorded by broad-band stations. Seismograms from earthquakes occurred between 1977 and 2012 are collected from about 4786 permanent and temporary stations in the region whenever and wherever available. Automated Multimode Inversion of surface and multiple-S waveforms is applied to extract structural information from the seismograms, in the form of linear equations with uncorrelated uncertainties. The equations are then solved for the seismic velocity perturbations in the crust and upper mantle with respect to a three-dimensional (3-D) reference model and a realistic crust. Major features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in East and Southeast Asia are identified in the resulting model. At lithospheric depth, low velocities can be seen beneath Tibet, whereas high velocities are found beneath cratonic regions, such as the Siberian, North China, Yangtze,) Tarim, and Dharwarand cratons. A number of microplates are mapped and the interaction with neighbouring plates is discussed. Slabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans can be seen in the upper mantle. Passive marginal basins and subduction zones are also properly resolved.

  1. The demographic response of a deciduous shrub (the Indigofera bungeana complex, Fabaceae) to the Pleistocene climate changes in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Li; Gao, Xin-Fen; Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Gao, Yun-Dong; Xu, Bo

    2017-04-06

    East Asia harbors the highest level of floristic diversity among the world's temperate regions. Despite the increase in phylogeographic studies of temperate plants in East Asia, far less attention has been paid to widely distributed deciduous shrubs that widespread across several floral regions. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments (ndhJ-trnF and trnD-trnT) and one nuclear DNA (Pgk1) of 472 individuals from 51 populations of such a group, the Indigofera bungeana complex. We used population genetic data as well as ecological niche modelling to examine the evolutionary history and glacial refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of this group. We recovered 133 cpDNA and 68 nuclear haplotypes. The star-phylogeny of the recovered cpDNA and nuclear haplotypes and demographic analyses suggested distinct range expansion of I. bungeana complex have occurred during the early and middle Pleistocene. The climate change of the LGM might have affected little on the distribution of this complex based on the niche modelling. However, these climate changes and geographic isolation probably resulted in fixtures of the private haplotypes and genetic differentiations between regions. Our results suggested that this arid-tolerant species complex may have different responses to the Quaternary climate changes with those climate-sensitive species.

  2. Numerical Modeling of 1997-2006 Asian Dust and Mass Budget Analysis in East Asia and West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Westphal, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    East Asia has two of the Earth's major natural dust sources: the Taklamakan Desert in west China and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and northwest China. Desertification has increased dust-erodible areas surrounding the deserts so the dust storm frequency has increased in the last few decades. Severe dust storms not only impact East Asia, but also can reach far beyond the continent, as did the dust clouds of April 1998, 2001 and 2005 that drifted over the Pacific Ocean and to North America. The US Navy's operational Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) is used to simulate the dust events for the springs of 1997 through 2006 at a resolution of one quarter of degree with multiple size bins. We use the modeled data to investigate the spatial and temporal dependence of dust emission, transport and deposition, and estimate the impacts of dust on environment. The distribution of dust plumes in area coverage and vertical depth is studied, as is the inter-annual variation of dust patterns from the different deserts of China and Mongolia, and the fluxes across the Pacific. It is found that PM10 is the dominant fraction particles over the continent and near the ocean, while PM2.5 becomes dominant in the boundary outflow along 170E. The details of analyzed model results will be presented at the meeting.

  3. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Scheelbeek, P F D; Vineis, P; Khan, A E; Ahmed, K M; Butler, A P

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteorological variability and climate change along the (ca. 6000 km) coastline of SSE Asia. The risks of increasing climatic stresses are first considered, and then maps of relative vulnerability along the entire coastline are developed, using data from global scale land surface models, along with an overall vulnerability index. The results show that surface and near-surface drinking water in the coastal areas of the mega-deltas in Vietnam and Bangladesh-India are most vulnerable, putting more than 25 million people at risk of drinking 'saline' water. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this problem, with adverse consequences for health, such as prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for identifying locations that are most at risk of salinisation in order for policy makers and local officials to implement strategies for reducing these health impacts. To counter the risks associated with these vulnerabilities, possible adaptation measures are also outlined. We conclude that detailed and fine scale vulnerability assessments may become crucial for planning targeted adaptation programmes along these coasts.

  4. [Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie

    2012-02-01

    Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India.

  5. Evaluation of VIIRS, GOCI, and MODIS Collection 6 AOD retrievals against ground sunphotometer observations over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Q.; Zhang, H.; Choi, M.; Li, S.; Kondragunta, S.; Kim, J.; Holben, B.; Levy, R. C.; Liu, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Persistent high aerosol loadings together with extremely high population densities have raised serious air quality and public health concerns in many urban centers in East Asia. However, ground-based air quality monitoring is relatively limited in this area. Recently, satellite-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at high resolution has become a powerful tool to characterize aerosol patterns in space and time. Using ground AOD observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-Asia Campaign, as well as from handheld sunphotometers, we evaluated emerging aerosol products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) aboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS), and Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (Collection 6) in East Asia in 2012 and 2013. In the case study in Beijing, when compared with AOD observations from handheld sunphotometers, 51 % of VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) AOD, 37 % of GOCI AOD, 33 % of VIIRS Intermediate Product (IP) AOD, 26 % of Terra MODIS C6 3 km AOD, and 16 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the reference expected error (EE) envelope (±0.05 ± 0.15 AOD). Comparing against AERONET AOD over the Japan-South Korea region, 64 % of EDR, 37 % of IP, 61 % of GOCI, 39 % of Terra MODIS, and 56 % of Aqua MODIS C6 3 km AOD fell within the EE. In general, satellite aerosol products performed better in tracking the day-to-day variability than tracking the spatial variability at high resolutions. The VIIRS EDR and GOCI products provided the most accurate AOD retrievals, while VIIRS IP and MODIS C6 3 km products had positive biases.

  6. Future change of extreme temperature climate indices over East Asia with uncertainties estimation in the CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Ye-Won; Kim, Hojin; Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Moon, Ja-Yeon

    2014-11-01

    How well the climate models simulate extreme temperature over East Asia and how the extreme indices would change under anthropogenic global warming are investigated. The indices studied include hot days (HD), tropical nights (TN), growing degree days (GDD), and cooling degree days (CDD) in summer and heating degree days (HDD) and frost days (FD) in winter. The representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP 4.5) experiments for the period of 2075-2099 are compared with historical simulations for the period of 1979-2005 from 15 coupled models that are participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). To optimally estimate future change and its uncertainty, groups of best models are selected based on Taylor diagrams, relative entropy, and probability density function (PDF) methods previously suggested. Overall, the best models' multi-model ensemble based on Taylor diagrams has the lowest errors in reproducing temperature extremes in the present climate among three methods. Selected best models in three methods tend to project considerably different changes in the extreme indices from each other, indicating that the selection of reliable models are of critical importance to reduce uncertainties. Three groups of best models show significant increase of summerbased indices but decrease of the winter-based indices. Over East Asia, the most significant increase is seen in the HD (336 ± 23.4% of current climate) and the most significant decrease is appeared in the HDD (82 ± 4.2%). It is suggested that the larger future change in the HD is found over in the Southeastern China region, probably due to a higher local maximum temperature in the present climate. All of the indices show the largest uncertainty over Southeastern China, particularly in the TN (~3.9 times as large as uncertainty over East Asia) and in the HD (~2.4). It is further noted that the TN reveals the largest uncertainty over three East Asian countries (~1.7 and 1.4 over Korea and

  7. Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Kolmer, J A; Ordoñez, M E; Manisterski, J; Anikster, Y

    2011-07-01

    Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the previously characterized population from Central Asia to determine whether genetically similar groups of isolates are found in the two regions. In total, 118 isolates of P. triticina collected from common wheat and durum wheat in Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Ethiopia, and Kenya were tested for virulence on 20 lines of wheat with single genes for leaf rust resistance and for molecular genotypes with 23 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After removal of isolates with identical virulence and SSR genotype in each country, 103 isolates were retained for further analysis. Clustering of SSR genotypes based on two-dimensional principal coordinates and virulence to wheat differential lines grouped the isolates into four Middle East (ME) groups. The two largest ME groups had virulence phenotypes typical of isolates collected from common wheat and two smaller ME groups had virulence typical of isolates collected from durum wheat. All pairs of ME groups were significantly differentiated for SSR genotype based on R(ST) and F(ST) statistics, and for virulence phenotype based on Φ(PT). All ME groups had observed values of heterozygosity greater than expected and significant fixation indices that indicated the clonal reproduction of urediniospores in the overall population. Linkage disequilibria for SSR genotypes was high across the entire population. The overall values of R(ST) and F(ST) were lower when isolates were grouped by country of origin that indicated the likely migration of isolates within the region. Although the two ME groups with virulence typical of isolates from common wheat were not differentiated for SSR genotype from groups of isolates from Central Asia based on

  8. Attitudes of International Music Students from East Asia toward US Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Nine National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) accredited universities in the United States (US) with the greatest populations of international students were surveyed to identify the status of East Asian international students' attitudes toward their schools. Among East Asian international music students at US higher education…

  9. The Future Strategic Environment of East Asia: Implications of a PRC-Taiwan Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    conflict with a number of East Asian nations, including Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, the Philippines, Brunei, and Malaysia . In recent years the upswing of...confrontation with Japan over the disputed Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea In response to this perceived Chinese bullying , Asian nations drew

  10. The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, 1981-90, which has a diversity of objectives, takes a different form in each country. What makes this decade different from previous actions for water and sanitation is the way in which the programs, projects, and servces are to be conceived, planned, implemented, managed, operated, and maintained. The urban population to be covered by water and sanitation services, in the developing nations that have prepared plans for the Decade, is roughly between 280-290 million people. In rural areas, some 750 million people are to be provided with drinking water and around 300 million with sanitation facilities. The initial goal of 100% of the population to be provided with water and sanitation by 1990 is proving difficult to realize. Only a small proportion of developing nations have even planned for 100% coverage by 1990. The initial optimism arising from the declaration of the Decade and the expectations of increased aid has given way to realism in the face of the global recession and the scarcity of development capital. The Southeast Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) covers 11 member countries with a combined population of over 1000 million people. Among the countries in Southeast Asia that have prepared Decade plans, the following populations are to be covered by 1990: urban water supply, 126 million; urban sanitation, 156 million; rural water supply, 585 million; and rural sanitation, 212 million. Such a challenge calls for a stock taking of the real issues in order to identify what action can be taken. The lack of up-to-date and comprehensive databases is a serious problem. The information system for the Decade should be and integral part of it, be timed to keep pace with it, and be developed from the lowest level. The annual investment needed during the Decade is estimated at over 4 times that prior to the Decade. The accepted strategy is to meet the minimum needs of the largest number of

  11. A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX East Asia: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX East Asia domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong East Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX East Asia domain.

  12. Anomalous midsummer rainfall in Yangtze River-Huaihe River valleys and its association with the East Asia westerly jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Shouli; Zhang, Qingyun; Sun, Shuqing

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the interannual and interdecadal relationship between midsummer Yangtze River-Huaihe River valley (YHRV) rainfall and the position of the East Asia westerly jet (EAWJ) were investigated. The midsummer YHRV rainfall was found to significantly increase after the 1980s. Moreover, the location of the EAWJ was found abnormally south of the climatic mean during 1980-2008 (ID2) compared to 1951-1979 (ID1). During ID2, associated with the southward movement of the EAWJ, an anomalous upper-level convergence occurred over middle-high latitudes (35°-55°N) and divergence occurred over lower latitudes (˜30°N) of East Asia. Correspondingly, anomalous descending and ascending motion was observed in middle-high and lower latitudes along 90°-130°E, respectively, favoring more precipitation over YHRV. On an interannual time scale, the EAWJ and YHRV rainfall exhibited similar relationships during the two periods. When the EAWJ was centered abnormally southward, rainfall over YHRV tended to increase. However, EAWJrelated circulations were significantly different during the two periods. During ID1, the circulation of the southward-moving EAWJ exhibited alternating positive-negative-positive distributions from low to middle-high latitudes along the East Asian coast; the most significant anomaly appeared west of the Okhotsk Sea. However, during ID2 the EAWJ was more closely correlated with the tropical and subtropical circulations. Significant differences between ID1 and ID2 were also recorded sea surface temperatures (SSTs). During ID1, the EAWJ was influenced by the extratropical SST over the northern Pacific; however, the EAWJ was more significantly affected by the SST of the tropical western Pacific during ID2.

  13. Winter temperatures over the Korean Peninsula and East Asia: development of a new index and its application to seasonal forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seon Tae; Sohn, Soo-Jin; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes a new index for monitoring and predicting winter temperatures of the Korean Peninsula based on the dominant atmospheric winter teleconnection patterns. The utilization of this index is further extended to the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) index because the new index is found to well represent the main feature of the EAWM circulation. Among the teleconnection patterns, the East Atlantic (EA) and Western Pacific (WP) patterns are found to be most strongly correlated with winter temperatures via their partial association with changes in sea level pressure (SLP) around the Korean Peninsula, i.e., the EA and WP patterns are associated with SLP variation over the Siberian High region and the Kuroshio extension region to the east of Japan, respectively. On the basis of this relationship, the two regions representing the northwest-to-southeast SLP gradients are determined to define the new index. It is found that the new index can represent the Korean winter temperatures consistently well regardless of their considerable decadal changes. When compared with the existing SLP-based EAWM indices, the new index shows the best performance in delineating winter air temperatures, not only in the Korean Peninsula but also in the entire East Asian region. We also assess the prediction skill of the new index with seasonal coupled forecast models of the APEC Climate Center of Korea and its capability to predict winter temperatures. This assessment shows that the new index has potential for operationally predicting and monitoring winter temperatures in Korea and the whole of East Asia.

  14. Higher Education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews Asia-Pacific higher education and university research, focusing principally on the "Confucian" education nations Japan, Korea, China, Hong Kong China, Taiwan, Singapore and Vietnam. Except for Vietnam, these systems exhibit a special developmental dynamism--still playing out everywhere except Japan--and have created a…

  15. U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-08

    assistance from U.S. State Department programs funded outside the foreign operations budget, such as educational and cultural exchange programs, and...and South Asia regions, with Pakistan, India , the Philippines, and Indonesia receiving the bulk of the increases. In 2007, the Bush Administration...20 Malaysia

  16. West Meets East in Central Asia: Competing Discourses on Secondary Education Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Young, Alan J.

    The Kyrgyz Republic--a remote mountainous region--is one of five former Soviet states in central Asia. This case study begins with a brief overview of the political and economic situation of the Kyrgyz Republic and its relation to aims of Soviet schooling in the 20th century. A critique of the Soviet schooling model by foreign academics before and…

  17. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  18. Long-range transport of acidifying substances in East Asia—Part II. Source-receptor relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meiyun; Oki, Taikan; Bengtsson, Magnus; Kanae, Shinjiro; Holloway, Tracey; Streets, David G.

    Region-to-grid source-receptor (S/R) relationships are established for sulfur and reactive nitrogen deposition in East Asia, using the Eulerian-type Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with emission and meteorology data for 2001. We proposed a source region attribution methodology by analyzing the non-linear responses of the CMAQ model to emission changes. Sensitivity simulations were conducted where emissions of SO 2, NOx, and primary particles from a source region were reduced by 25%. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations was multiplied by a factor of four, and then defined as the contribution from that source region. The transboundary influence exhibits strong seasonal variation and generally peaks during the dry seasons. Long-range transport from eastern China contributes a significant percentage ( >20%) of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen as well as sulfur deposition in East Asia. At the same time, northwestern China receives approximately 35% of its sulfur load and 45% of its nitrogen load from foreign emissions. Sulfur emissions from Miyakejima and other volcanoes contribute approximately 50% of the sulfur load in Japan in 2001. Sulfur inflows from regions outside the study domain, which is attributed by using boundary conditions derived from the MOZART global atmospheric chemistry model, are pronounced (10-40%) over most parts of Asia. Compared with previous studies using simple Lagrangian models, our results indicate higher influence from long-range transport. The estimated S/R relationships are believed to be more realistic since they include global influence as well as internal interactions among different parts of China.

  19. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  20. Preface to Changes and disturbance in tropical rainforest in South-East Asia. A Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society on 20 and 21 January 1999

    PubMed Central

    Newbery, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Preface to Changes and disturbance in tropical rainforest in South-East Asia. A Discussion Meeting held at The Royal Society on 20 and 21 January 1999. Organized and edited by D. M. Newbery, T. H. Clutton-Brock and G. T. Prance.

  1. Effect of Meteorological and Geographical Factors on the Epidemics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Island-Type Territory, East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Chun David; Tang, Jia-Hong; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Shigematsu, Mika; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has threatened East Asia for more than three decades and has become an important public health issue owing to its severe sequelae and mortality among children. The lack of effective treatment and vaccine for HFMD highlights the urgent need for efficiently integrated early warning surveillance systems in the region. In this study, we try to integrate the available surveillance and weather data in East Asia to elucidate possible spatiotemporal correlations and weather conditions among different areas from low to high latitude. The general additive model (GAM) was applied to understand the association between HFMD and latitude, as well as meteorological factors for islands in East Asia, namely, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, from 2012 to 2014. The results revealed that latitude was the most important explanatory factor associated with the timing and amplitude of HFMD epidemics (P < 0.0001). Meteorological factors including higher dew point, lower visibility, and lower wind speed were significantly associated with the rise of epidemics (P < 0.01). In summary, weather conditions and geographic location could play some role in affecting HFMD epidemics. Regional integrated surveillance of HFMD in East Asia is needed for mitigating the disease risk. PMID:26290875

  2. Analysis of East Asia Genetic Substructure Using Genome-Wide SNP Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Lee, Annette; Ransom, Michael; Belmont, John W.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Accounting for population genetic substructure is important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to different continental populations the understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. In this study, population differentiation (Fst) and Principal Components Analyses (PCA) are examined using >200 K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry. The population groups included those from the Human Genome Diversity Panel [Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut], HapMap [ Han Chinese (CHB) and Japanese (JPT)], and East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. Paired Fst (Wei and Cockerham) showed close relationships between CHB and several large East Asian population groups (CHB/Korean, 0.0019; CHB/JPT, 00651; CHB/Vietnamese, 0.0065) with larger separation with Filipino (CHB/Filipino, 0.014). Low levels of differentiation were also observed between Dai and Vietnamese (0.0045) and between Vietnamese and Cambodian (0.0062). Similarly, small Fst's were observed among different presumed Han Chinese populations originating in different regions of mainland of China and Taiwan (Fst's <0.0025 with CHB). For PCA, the first two PC's showed a pattern of relationships that closely followed the geographic distribution of the different East Asian populations. PCA showed substructure both between different East Asian groups and within the Han Chinese population. These studies have also identified a subset of East Asian substructure ancestry informative markers (EASTASAIMS) that may be useful for future complex genetic disease association studies in reducing type 1 errors and in identifying homogeneous groups that may increase the power of such studies. PMID:19057645

  3. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  4. Spring predictability explains different leaf-out strategies in the woody floras of North America, Europe and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zohner, Constantin M; Benito, Blas M; Fridley, Jason D; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S

    2017-02-14

    Intuitively, interannual spring temperature variability (STV) should influence the leaf-out strategies of temperate zone woody species, with high winter chilling requirements in species from regions where spring warming varies greatly among years. We tested this hypothesis using experiments in 215 species and leaf-out monitoring in 1585 species from East Asia (EA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA). The results reveal that species from regions with high STV indeed have higher winter chilling requirements, and, when grown under the same conditions, leaf out later than related species from regions with lower STV. Since 1900, STV has been consistently higher in NA than in EU and EA, and under experimentally short winter conditions NA species required 84% more spring warming for bud break, EU ones 49% and EA ones only 1%. These previously unknown continental-scale differences in phenological strategies underscore the need for considering regional climate histories in global change models.

  5. Reverse relationship between drought of mid-latitudes in East Asia and Northwest Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2016-12-01

    This study found that there is a significant negative correlation between summer drought in Korea, China and Japan and the frequency of tropical cyclone (TC) in the subtropical western North Pacific (SWNP) using effective drought index (EDI). The frequency of TCs that affect Korea is low (high) in a year of summer drought (non-drought). As a case study, in 1994 when there is extremely severe summer drought in Korea, there was high frequency of TCs while in 2003 when there was least severe summer drought, the frequency of TCs is the lowest. Changes in the anomalous secondary circulation, namely anomalous upward (downward) flow in the SWNP and anomalous downward (upward) flow in the mid-latitudes of East Asia, are one of the causes of drought (non-drought).

  6. Talking to the Enemy: Track Two Diplomacy in the Middle East and South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Asia and that another dozen were taking place outside the region with regular regional participation ( Behera , Evans, and Rizvi, 1997, p. 4). The end of...range of unofficial dialogues, see Behera , Evans, and Rizvi (1997, pp. 51–98). This inventory is broader than track two dialogues closely connected...business networks, grassroots people-to- people networks, and activities outside the region that bring South Asians together. Also see Behera (2002

  7. The United States Strategy in East Asia-Pacific-Implications for Australia’s Defenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    power by wealth, has been a dominant historical catalyst for human conflict. When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871 he made the...71 Ross Babbage , "Trends in Asia-Pacific Security." In The Army and the Future. Ed. David Horner, 47-48. Canberra: Directorate of...Keehn, 112. 165 General Charles Krulak, Commandant USMC, in an interview with The Navy Times, 1 January 1996, 18. 166 General Dennis J. Reimer, in

  8. The consequences of maltreatment on children's lives: a systematic review of data from the East Asia and Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Fry, Deborah; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the consequences of child maltreatment in East Asia and the Pacific region based on the results of a systematic review of 16 English and non-English databases for journal articles and "gray" literature published between January 2001 and November 2010. This review shows that children in the region experiencing maltreatment are at increased risk of experiencing mental health consequences, physical health sequelae, high-risk sexual behaviors, and increased exposure to future violence including intimate partner violence (IPV) as an adult. Children who suffer from child sexual abuse have a median twofold increased risk of experiencing mental health disorders than those who have never experienced child maltreatment.  Similar findings were found for those who experience physical abuse.  Children who have been maltreated in the region are also at an increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts than those that have experienced child sexual or physical abuse being at a median fourfold increased risk. Children who have experienced physical abuse or those who have witnessed parental domestic abuse as a child are at median twofold increased risk of experiencing IPV as an adult, while children who have been sexually abused have a median threefold increase in risk of IPV later in life. There are still gaps in our understanding of the consequences of child maltreatment, but we do know that the consequences are profound and far-reaching. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for governments, civil society organizations, development agencies, and academia to advocate for, invest in, and collaborate across sectors for the strengthening of child protection systems in the East Asia and Pacific Region, with a focus on evidence-based child maltreatment prevention policies and programs.

  9. Effects of Environment and Space on Species Turnover of Woody Plants across Multiple Forest Dynamic Plots in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Yuan, Zhiliang; Li, Peikun; Cao, Ruofan; Jia, Hongru; Ye, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Species turnover is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms that influence large-scale species richness patterns. However, few studies have described and interpreted large-scale spatial variation in plant species turnover, and the causes of this variation remain elusive. In addition, the determinants of species turnover depend on the dispersal ability of growth forms. In this study, we explored the large-scale patterns of woody species turnover across the latitude gradient based on eight large stem-mapping plots (covering 184 ha forest) in East Asia. The patterns of woody species turnover increased significantly with increasing latitude differences in East Asia. For overall woody species, environment explained 36.30, 37.20, and 48.48% of the total variance in Jaccard’s (βj), Sorenson’s, (βs), and Simpson’s dissimilarity (βsim). Spatial factors explained 47.92, 48.39, and 41.38% of the total variance in βj, βs, and βsim, respectively. The effects of pure spatial and spatially structured environments were stronger than pure environmental effects for overall woody species. Our results support the hypothesis that the effect of neutral processes on woody species turnover is more important than the effect of the environment. Neutral processes explained more variation for turnover of tree species, and environmental factors explained more variation for the turnover of shrub species on a large scale. Therefore, trees and shrubs should be subjected to different protection strategies in future biodiversity conservation efforts. PMID:27790236

  10. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  11. Study of Landslide Disaster Prevention System in Malaysia as a Disaster Mitigation Prototype for South East Asia Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, Swee Peng; Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Tien Tay, Lea; Murakami, Satoshi; Koyama, Tomofumi; Chan, Huah Yong; Sakai, Naoki; Hazarika, Hemanta; Jamaludin, Suhaimi; Lateh, Habibah

    2016-04-01

    Every year, hundreds of landslides occur in Malaysia and other tropical monsoon South East Asia countries. Therefore, prevention casualties and economical losses, by rain induced slope failure, are those countries government most important agenda. In Malaysia, millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for slope monitoring and mitigation in every year budget. Besides monitoring the slopes, here, we propose the IT system which provides hazard map information, landslide historical information, slope failure prediction, knowledge on natural hazard, and information on evacuation centres via internet for user to understand the risk of landslides as well as flood. Moreover, the user can obtain information on rainfall intensity in the monitoring sites to predict the occurrence of the slope failure. Furthermore, we are working with PWD, Malaysia to set the threshold value for the landslide prediction system which will alert the officer if there is a risk of the slope failure in the monitoring sites by calculating rainfall intensity. Although the IT plays a significant role in information dissemination, education is also important in disaster prevention by educating school students to be more alert in natural hazard, and there will be bottom up approach to alert parents on what is natural hazard, by conversion among family members, as most of the parents are busy and may not have time to attend natural hazard workshop. There are many races living in Malaysia as well in most of South East Asia countries. It is not easy to educate them in single education method as the level of living and education are different. We started landslides education workshops in primary schools in rural and urban area, in Malaysia. We found out that we have to use their mother tongue language while conducting natural hazard education for better understanding. We took questionnaires from the students before and after the education workshop. Learning from the questionnaire result, the students are

  12. Multi-Institutional Phase II Clinical Study of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in East and Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Thephamongkhol, Kullathorn; Chansilpa, Yaowalak

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia, a multi-institutional Phase II clinical study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Methods and Materials: Between April 2003 and March 2006, 120 patients (60 with bulky Stage IIB and 60 with Stage IIIB) with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were enrolled in the present study. Radiotherapy consisted of pelvic external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate or low-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy according to institutional practice. The planned Point A dose was 24-28 Gy in four fractions for high-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy and 40-45 Gy in one to two fractions for low-dose-rate-intracavitary brachytherapy. Five cycles of weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) were administered during the radiotherapy course. Results: All patients were eligible for the study. The median follow-up was 27.3 months. Of the 120 patients, 100 (83%) received four or five cycles of chemotherapy. Acute Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 21% of the patients, and Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 6%. No patient failed to complete the radiotherapy course because of toxicity. The 2-year local control and overall survival rate for all patients was 87.1% and 79.6%, respectively. The 2-year major late rectal and bladder complication rate was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The results have suggested that concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in East and Southeast Asia.

  13. Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Z-L; Oskarsson, M; Ardalan, A; Angleby, H; Dahlgren, L-G; Tepeli, C; Kirkness, E; Savolainen, P; Zhang, Y-P

    2012-01-01

    Global mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data indicates that the dog originates from domestication of wolf in Asia South of Yangtze River (ASY), with minor genetic contributions from dog–wolf hybridisation elsewhere. Archaeological data and autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism data have instead suggested that dogs originate from Europe and/or South West Asia but, because these datasets lack data from ASY, evidence pointing to ASY may have been overlooked. Analyses of additional markers for global datasets, including ASY, are therefore necessary to test if mtDNA phylogeography reflects the actual dog history and not merely stochastic events or selection. Here, we analyse 14 437 bp of Y-chromosome DNA sequence in 151 dogs sampled worldwide. We found 28 haplotypes distributed in five haplogroups. Two haplogroups were universally shared and included three haplotypes carried by 46% of all dogs, but two other haplogroups were primarily restricted to East Asia. Highest genetic diversity and virtually complete phylogenetic coverage was found within ASY. The 151 dogs were estimated to originate from 13–24 wolf founders, but there was no indication of post-domestication dog–wolf hybridisations. Thus, Y-chromosome and mtDNA data give strikingly similar pictures of dog phylogeography, most importantly that roughly 50% of the gene pools are shared universally but only ASY has nearly the full range of genetic diversity, such that the gene pools in all other regions may derive from ASY. This corroborates that ASY was the principal, and possibly sole region of wolf domestication, that a large number of wolves were domesticated, and that subsequent dog–wolf hybridisation contributed modestly to the dog gene pool. PMID:22108628

  14. Satellite-Based Assessment of Possible Dust Aerosols Semi-Direct Effect on Cloud Water Path over East Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jianping; Lin, Bing; Minnis, Patrick; Wang, Tainhe; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yongxiang; Yi, Yuhong; Ayers, J. Kirk

    2006-01-01

    The semi-direct effects of dust aerosols are analyzed over eastern Asia using 2 years (June 2002 to June 2004) of data from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, and 18 years (1984 to 2001) of International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. The results show that the water path of dust-contaminated clouds is considerably smaller than that of dust-free clouds. The mean ice water path (IWP) and liquid water path (LWP) of dusty clouds are less than their dust-free counterparts by 23.7% and 49.8%, respectively. The long-term statistical relationship derived from ISCCP also confirms that there is significant negative correlation between dust storm index and ISCCP cloud water path. These results suggest that dust aerosols warm clouds, increase the evaporation of cloud droplets and further reduce cloud water path, the so-called semi-direct effect. The semi-direct effect may play a role in cloud development over arid and semi-arid areas of East Asia and contribute to the reduction of precipitation.

  15. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae).

    PubMed

    Hoebeke, E Richard; Huffmaster, Wesley; Freeman, Byron J

    2015-01-01

    Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan), is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes) in North America.

  16. SLCP co-control approach in East Asia: Tropospheric ozone reduction strategy by simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kurokawa, Jun`ichi; Sudo, Kengo; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of NOx and CO2 in East Asia (Northeast and Southeast Asia) contribute more than 30% of the global total since 2008, and consequently the control of air pollutants and CO2 alleviating regional air pollution and global climate change is of great concern of not only in this region but also worldwide. In order to arrive at a rational view of the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) co-control approach in East Asia, the effectiveness of the reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions for the reduction of tropospheric O3 has been evaluated by individual and simultaneous 50%-reduction of the emissions in Northeast Asia (NEA) using both a global chemical climate model (CHASER/SPRINTARS-MIROC), and a regional chemical transport model (WRF-CMAQ). The simultaneous reduction of NOx/NMVOC and CH4 emissions was found to reduce the regional concentration of surface O3 in NEA, and globally averaged net radiative forcing most effectively. Global mean RF and regional air quality change were also evaluated for the climate stabilization scenario ("450-ppm"), and climate stabilization with additional air pollution mitigation strengthened scenario ("450-ppm-cntr") developed in IIASA with the aid of GAINS model. In the 450 ppm-cntr scenario, emissions of NOx NMVOC, BC and OC were further reduced respectively, for East Asia from the emissions in 450 ppm. The improvement of air quality as well as the mitigation of climate change would grant to the basis of the SLCP co-control approach in East Asia.

  17. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2016-08-01

    The ability of seven state-of-the-art chemistry-aerosol models to reproduce distributions of tropospheric ozone and its precursors, as well as aerosols over eastern Asia in summer 2008, is evaluated. The study focuses on the performance of models used to assess impacts of pollutants on climate and air quality as part of the EU ECLIPSE project. Models, run using the same ECLIPSE emissions, are compared over different spatial scales to in situ surface, vertical profiles and satellite data. Several rather clear biases are found between model results and observations, including overestimation of ozone at rural locations downwind of the main emission regions in China, as well as downwind over the Pacific. Several models produce too much ozone over polluted regions, which is then transported downwind. Analysis points to different factors related to the ability of models to simulate VOC-limited regimes over polluted regions and NOx limited regimes downwind. This may also be linked to biases compared to satellite NO2, indicating overestimation of NO2 over and to the north of the northern China Plain emission region. On the other hand, model NO2 is too low to the south and west of this region and over South Korea/Japan. Overestimation of ozone is linked to systematic underestimation of CO particularly at rural sites and downwind of the main Chinese emission regions. This is likely to be due to enhanced destruction of CO by OH. Overestimation of Asian ozone and its transport downwind implies that radiative forcing from this source may be overestimated. Model-observation discrepancies over Beijing do not appear to be due to emission controls linked to the Olympic Games in summer 2008.With regard to aerosols, most models reproduce the satellite-derived AOD patterns over eastern China. Our study nevertheless reveals an overestimation of ECLIPSE model mean surface BC and sulphate aerosols in urban China in summer 2008. The effect of the short-term emission mitigation in Beijing

  18. Factors Influencing the Higher Education of International Students from Confucian East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Serene H.-J.; Nieminen, Timo A.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education, especially that leading to a degree from a high-prestige university, is strongly related to social status and employment opportunities in East Asian countries. This is a consequence of both traditional Confucian attitudes to education and the social and economic changes accompanying industrialisation. Since the number of places…

  19. Strategic Requirements for the Army to the Year 2000. Volume V. Middle East and Southwest Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1981. 13. Hanna Batata , "Some Observations in the Social Roots of Syria’s Ruling... Batata , Hanna. "Some Observations in the Social Roots of Syria’s -Ruling Military Group and the Causes for its Dominance," Middle East Journal

  20. Insights into Korean red fox (Vulpes vulpes) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variation in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Bang-Hwan; Kryukov, Alexey P; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Byoung-Yoon; Kwak, Myounghai

    2012-11-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore in the world, occurring throughout most of North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. In South Korea, however, this species has been drastically reduced due to habitat loss and poaching. Consequently, it is classified as an endangered species in Korea. As a first step of a planned red fox restoration project, preserved red fox museum specimens were used to determine the genetic status of red foxes that had previously inhabited South Korea against red foxes from neighboring countries. Total eighty three mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, including 22 newly obtained East Asian red fox sequences and worldwide red fox sequences from NCBI, were clustered into three clades (i.e., I, II, and III) based on haplotype network and neighbor-joining trees. The mean genetic distance between clades was 2.0%. Clade III contained South Korean and other East Asian samples in addition to Eurasian and North Pacific individuals. In clade III, South Korean individuals were separated into two lineages of Eurasian and North Pacific groups, showing unclear phylogeographic structuring and admixture. This suggests that South Korean red fox populations may have been composed of individuals from these two different genetic lineages.

  1. New particle formation under the influence of the long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Indra; Kim, Seyoung; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Takami, Akinori; Yoshino, Ayako; Irei, Satoshi; Park, Kihong; Takamura, Tamio; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2016-09-01

    Field observations to investigate the correlation between New Particle Formation (NPF) and the long-range transport of air pollutants in the East Asia region were carried out on a rural Island of Japan in the East-China Sea (Fukue Island, 32.8°N, 128.7°E) over three periods (February 23 to March 7, 2013; November 7 to 20, 2013; and November 2 to 24, 2014). Frequent NPF events were identified (16 events in 50 days), typically in association with sudden increases in particle number concentrations and the successive growth of particles to mobility diameters of several tens of nanometers. The NPF events were classified into two types (A and B) according to the initially detected particle sizes (onset diameters). Type-A consisted of strong NPF events with onset diameters as small as 5 nm. Type-B consisted of NPF events whose onset (<10 nm) was not clearly identifiable. The correlations of SO2 concentrations, solar radiation, PM2.5 concentrations, and chemical composition were analyzed based on the types of NPF events.

  2. Forest biomass carbon sinks in East Asia, with special reference to the relative contributions of forest expansion and forest growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingyun; Guo, Zhaodi; Hu, Huifeng; Kato, Tomomichi; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Son, Yowhan

    2014-06-01

    Forests play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) cycles. With extensive afforestation and reforestation efforts over the last several decades, forests in East Asia have largely expanded, but the dynamics of their C stocks have not been fully assessed. We estimated biomass C stocks of the forests in all five East Asian countries (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Mongolia) between the 1970s and the 2000s, using the biomass expansion factor method and forest inventory data. Forest area and biomass C density in the whole region increased from 179.78 × 10(6) ha and 38.6 Mg C ha(-1) in the 1970s to 196.65 × 10(6) ha and 45.5 Mg C ha(-1) in the 2000s, respectively. The C stock increased from 6.9 Pg C to 8.9 Pg C, with an averaged sequestration rate of 66.9 Tg C yr(-1). Among the five countries, China and Japan were two major contributors to the total region's forest C sink, with respective contributions of 71.1% and 32.9%. In China, the areal expansion of forest land was a larger contributor to C sinks than increased biomass density for all forests (60.0% vs. 40.0%) and for planted forests (58.1% vs. 41.9%), while the latter contributed more than the former for natural forests (87.0% vs. 13.0%). In Japan, increased biomass density dominated the C sink for all (101.5%), planted (91.1%), and natural (123.8%) forests. Forests in South Korea also acted as a C sink, contributing 9.4% of the total region's sink because of increased forest growth (98.6%). Compared to these countries, the reduction in forest land in both North Korea and Mongolia caused a C loss at an average rate of 9.0 Tg C yr(-1), equal to 13.4% of the total region's C sink. Over the last four decades, the biomass C sequestration by East Asia's forests offset 5.8% of its contemporary fossil-fuel CO2 emissions.

  3. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in South East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R

    1999-01-01

    This article reports on the prevalence of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Southeast Asia. The spread of HIV infection in this region has been predicted to be worse than that of Africa. The high-prevalence countries are Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar, where prevalence rates in the population at risk (15-49 year olds) are up to 2%; while low prevalence countries with rates of 0.1% include the Philippines, Indonesia, Laos, Brunei, and Singapore. Heterosexual transmission in Southeast Asia is the main mode of spread of HIV. Another route is through migration, rural-to-urban or international migration of people seeking jobs; with concurrent loneliness and anonymity, they become vulnerable to STDs and HIV infection. Intravenous drug use poses an increasing risk of transmission. The unavailability of data in some countries makes it difficult to evaluate the extent of the epidemic or if there's an impending epidemic. There are a number of caveats to the data compilation from various countries. These include the following: under-reporting of cases; underdiagnosis; missed diagnosis; and differences in the time of data collection. It is clear that poverty, illiteracy, and poor access to educational information in most countries in this region facilitate the rapid spread of HIV. These coupled with lack of primary health care services, and in most instances, enormously high cost of drugs make the pain and suffering due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic a human disaster far worse than the ravages of war.

  4. The oriental fruitfly Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. in East Asia: disentangling the different forces promoting the invasion and shaping the genetic make-up of populations.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, N; Guglielmino, C R; Karam, N; Falchetto, M; Manni, M; Scolari, F; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, is one of the most economically destructive pests of fruits and vegetables especially in East Asia. Based on its phytophagous life style, this species dispersed with the diffusion and implementation of agriculture, while globalization allowed it to establish adventive populations in different tropical and subtropical areas of the world. We used nine SSR loci over twelve samples collected across East Asia, i.e. an area that, in relatively few years, has become a theatre of intensive agriculture and a lively fruit trade. Our aim is to disentangle the different forces that have affected the invasion pattern and shaped the genetic make-up of populations of this fruit fly. Our data suggest that the considered samples probably represent well established populations in terms of genetic variability and population structuring. The human influence on the genetic shape of populations and diffusion is evident, but factors such as breeding/habitat size and life history traits of the species may have determined the post introduction phases and expansion. In East Asia the origin of diffusion can most probably be allocated in the oriental coastal provinces of China, from where this fruit fly spread into Southeast Asia. The spread of this species deserves attention for the development and implementation of risk assessment and control measures.

  5. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  6. Incorporation of new particle formation and early growth treatments into WRF/Chem: Model improvement, evaluation, and impacts of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Changjie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Litao; Zhang, Qiang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Yu, Shao-Cai

    2016-01-01

    New particle formation (NPF) provides an important source of aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei, which may result in enhanced cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and cloud shortwave albedo. In this work, several nucleation parameterizations and one particle early growth parameterization are implemented into the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF/Chem) to improve the model's capability in simulating NPF and early growth of ultrafine particles over East Asia. The default 8-bin over the size range of 39 nm-10 μm used in the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry aerosol module is expanded to the 12-bin over 1 nm-10 μm to explicitly track the formation and evolution of new particles. Although model biases remain in simulating H2SO4, condensation sink, growth rate, and formation rate, the evaluation of July 2008 simulation identifies a combination of three nucleation parameterizations (i.e., COMB) that can best represent the atmospheric nucleation processes in terms of both surface nucleation events and the resulting vertical distribution of ultrafine particle concentrations. COMB consists of a power law of Wang et al. (2011) based on activation theory for urban areas in planetary boundary layer (PBL), a power law of Boy et al. (2008) based on activation theory for non-urban areas in PBL, and the ion-mediated nucleation parameterization of YU10 for above PBL. The application and evaluation of the improved model with 12-bin and the COMB nucleation parameterization in East Asia during January, April, July, and October in 2001 show that the model has an overall reasonably good skill in reproducing most observed meteorological variables and surface and column chemical concentrations. Relatively large biases in simulated precipitation and wind speeds are due to inaccurate surface roughness and limitations in model treatments of cloud formation and aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions

  7. Propagation of Regional Phases and Their Codas in Southern Asia and the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    be as high as a thousand or more. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Attenuation, Rayleigh waves, Q, Middle East i 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION | OF REPORT...stable continental regions where shear-wave Q may be as high as a thousand or more. These low values may indicate that fluids reside in faults...years, high -quality data and increasing numbers of favorably located, modern, digital stations have enabled seismologists to apply tomographic

  8. Swanea (Southwest Asia--Northeast Africa): A Climatological Study. Volume 2. The Middle East Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    encouragement. Thanks to the members of the DESERT STORM Forecast Unit; Capt John Murphy, Capt Jeff Johnson, Capt Tom Coe, Lt Dave Wood, MSgt Neal...for the excellent terminal forecast reference notebooks. Thanks to Lt Col Gerald Riley and Lt Col Kenneth A. Nash for helping to obtain data necessary...study came from three sources: provide summarized meteorological observational data for many airports on the Middle East * Terminal forecast reference

  9. Phylogeography of Quercus variabilis Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequence in East Asia: Multiple Glacial Refugia and Mainland-Migrated Island Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongzhang; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Shan; Du, Hongmei; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Gapare, Washington; Wu, Harry X.; Liu, Chunjiang

    2012-01-01

    The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (NST = 0.751> GST = 0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu’s FS indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. PMID:23115642

  10. Regional Dispersal of Fukushima-derived Fission Nuclides by East Asia Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Since the Fukushima nuclear accident happened on 12 March 2011, there have been a plethora of publications about the dispersion of radioactive material from the damaged reactors. Most of these works dealt with global transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the northern hemisphere and local transport in the vicinity of Fukushima and around Japan. In contrast, few works investigated into dispersal of radiation plumes from Japan to other areas on regional scales. This is because regional dispersal out of Japan in the springtime is most likely dominated by the northeastern monsoon, whereas there are few monitoring stations downwind in the southeastern Asia region. In this respect, we are only aware of the data in Vietnam published by Long et al (2012) in addition to our own data obtained in and around Taiwan (Huh et al., 2012; Hsu et al., 2012). By integrating the data published in the literature plus those that can be searched from relevant websites, we try to further elucidate the dispersal of Fukushima-derived radiation toward the southeastern Asia region. The WRF/Chem tracer model is employed to simulate the dispersal of radiation plumes from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From a vis-à-vis comparison between the model simulation and the time-series of Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around the southeastern Asia, we can distinguish between global transport by the Westerlies in the free troposphere and regional transport by the northeast monsoon in the planetary boundary layer. In general, regional (mainly meridional) transport carried more weight than global (mainly zonal) transport in contributing Fukushima-derived radioactivity to the area covered in this review, particularly at the ground-level sites. References 1. Hsu, S.C., Huh, C.A., Chan, C.Y., Lin, S.H., Lin, F.J. and Liu, S.C. (2012). Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L00

  11. Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances Using Radio and Optical Observations in South-East Asia -- The Initial Results of the ASI and FPI Observations in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Komonjinda, S.; Komolmis, T.; Somboon, E.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    For the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, SEALION (SouthEast Asia Low-latitude IOnospheric Network) has been developed since 2003 as a cooperation project by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand, Chiang Mai University (CMU) in Thailand, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) in Indonesia, Hanoi Institute of Geophysics (HIG), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology in Vietnam, Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, Kyoto University in Japan, and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University in Japan. SEALION consists of five ionosondes, four GPS receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, and a magnetometer. As a part of this project, we newly installed an all-sky imager (ASI) and a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Sirindhorn observatory in Chiang Mai (18.8N, 98.9E, Dip lat. 13.1), Thailand. This site is located near conjugate to EAR site in Kototabang, Indonesia. One of main targets of the ASI observation is the large-scale wave structure (LSWS) with wavelengths of 100-1000 km. The LSWS is thought to be connected to the generation mechanism of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPB). The optical observations in Chiang Mai started in February 2010, and we have detected several ionospheric disturbance events with these instruments In this paper, we will show the initial results of the optical observations from Sirindhorn observatory, and discuss the features of ionospheric disturbances in Southeast Asia.

  12. Role of off-equatorial SST in El Niño teleconnection to East Asia during El Niño decaying spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2016-12-01

    Observational evidences are presented to show significant differences in Pacific-East Asian (PEA) teleconnections during the El Niño decaying period depending on the northern off-equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) conditions. On the basis of the northern off-equatorial central Pacific SST (NOCP) index, we separate El Niño events into two groups. Distinctive differences are observed between the two groups not only in tropical features but also in mid-latitude teleconnections. In particular, the NOCP index is closely related to the strength of the local feedback between the SST anomalies and the anticyclonic flow over the western North Pacific (WNP) during the ensuing spring of the El Niño events. Because the WNP anticyclone tends to persist until boreal spring in the case of negative NOCP, diabatic cooling due to the reduced precipitation over the WNP induces anticyclonic flow over the Kuroshio extension region via a Rossby wave response, which leads to warm and wet conditions over East Asia. However, because the WNP anticyclone decays early in the case of positive NOCP, cyclonic circulation exists over the North Pacific, which leads to cold and dry conditions over East Asia. Consequently, the maintenance of the WNP anticyclone during the El Niño decaying period may explain the discrepancy in the PEA teleconnections in various types of El Niño. Accordingly, the NOCP index could be a possible predictor for boreal spring climate conditions over East Asia.

  13. A GCM study of effects of radiative forcing of sulfate aerosol on large scale circulation and rainfall in East Asia during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2007-12-01

    The effect of sulfate aerosol radiative forcing on spring rainfall in East Asia are studied based on numerical simulations with the NASA finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM) forced with monthly varying three-dimensional aerosol distribution from the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model (GOCART). Result shows that radiative forcing of sulfate aerosol leads to cooling of the land surface and reduction in rainfall over central East Asia. The maximum reduction in precipitation is shifted northward relative to the maximum aerosol loading region as a result of dynamical feedback. The anomalous thermal gradient by aerosol cooling near the land surface, reduces the baroclinicity of the atmosphere, leading to a deceleration of the upper level westerly flow. The westerly deceleration induces, through ageostrophic wind adjustment, anomalous meridional secondary circulation at the entrance region of the East Asian jetstream, with strong sinking motion and suppressed precipitation near 30°N, coupled to weak rising motion and moderately enhanced precipitation over southern China and the South China Sea. These results suggest that the radiative forcing of aerosol through induced dynamical feedback with the atmospheric water cycle, may be a causal factor in the observed spring precipitation trend over East Asia.

  14. Public health in South-East Asia in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the proceedings of the Regional Conference on Public Health in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century, held in Calcutta, India, on November 22-24, 1999. Organized by the WHO, the conference reviewed the progress in Public Health education and training, practice and research in the countries of the region. Discussions were focused on the quality of the Schools of Public Health, professional capacities, societal commitment, shrinking resources for health and the resultant need for greater efficiency of interventions and the realization of national Public Health goals. It also stressed the importance of Public Health for national, socioeconomic and political development. Moreover, the participants identified key strategies and initiatives for strengthening Public Health in the region. These measures include focusing on the promotion of health in all settings; social mobilization and community action; strengthening the scientific and ethical foundation for evidence-based policy formulation in Public Health; and the creation of an Executive Management Team.

  15. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  16. Characterizing the winter concurrent variation patterns of the subtropical and polar-front jets over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaocun; Chen, Jiao

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the concurrent variation relationships between the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) and polar-front jet (PFJ) over the East Asian land mass in the winter season on different timescales are identified and the impacts of the jet concurrent variation patterns on the atmospheric circulation in mid-high latitude regions and climate anomalies in China are examined, using NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data and observational data. The major variability modes of the winter upper-level wind field on interannual timescales are characterized by the meridional shift of the PFJ and out-of-phase variation in the intensity of the subtropical jet and PFJ. On subseasonal and synoptic timescales, the concurrent variation relationships can be categorized into four configuration patterns: a strong (weak) subtropical jet accompanied by a weak (strong) PFJ, or a strong (weak) subtropical jet with a strong (weak) PFJ. The out-ofphase variation [i.e., a stronger (weaker) EASJ and weaker (stronger) PFJ] is found to be more common than the inphase variation [i.e., a stronger (weaker) EASJ and stronger (weaker) PFJ]. These concurrent variation relationships represent the integral structure and variation features of the atmospheric general circulation over East Asia, and have significant impacts on the weather and climate. The strong subtropical jet/weak PFJ (weak subtropical jet/strong PFJ) pattern leads to anomalous negative (positive) geopotential height in midlatitude regions and favors cold (warm) conditions, and positive (negative) rainfall anomalies in southern China. For both strong jet configurations, the geopotential height anomaly in the mid-high latitudes shows a northwest-southeast tilted dipole pattern, resulting in northern warm-southern cold temperature anomalies, and positive rainfall anomalies in southern China. For both weak jet situations, positive geopotential height anomalies dominate the East Asian area, and warm conditions occur over most areas in China

  17. SWANEA (Southwest Asia-Northeast Africa) A Climatological Study. Volume 3. The Near East Mountains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    the one behind Mangla Dam is about 20 NM long (NW-Sl) and 13 NM The Potwar Plateau, in the north central Trans-Indus wide (NE-SW). There are no other...darns or the extreme northwest, is bounded on the east by the reservoirs. The two most prominent dam /reservoirs are Indus River and on the south by...the Kabul River. It the Tarbela (on the Indus) and the Mangla (on tile covers 1,5(X) sq NM and includes the foothills, of the high Jhelum). Both are

  18. Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L.

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall

  19. From east to west across the Palearctic: Phylogeography of the invasive lime leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and discovery of a putative new cryptic species in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Ohshima, Issei; Haran, Julien; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Li, Houhun; Augustin, Sylvie; Roques, Alain; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the phylogeographic structure of invasive species is important for understanding the underlying processes of invasion. The micromoth Phyllonorycter issikii, whose larvae damage leaves of lime trees Tilia spp., was only known from East Asia. In the last three decades, it has been recorded in most of Europe, Western Russia and Siberia. We used the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region to compare the genetic variability of P. issikii populations between these different regions. Additionally, we sequenced two nuclear genes (28S rRNA and Histone 3) and run morphometric analysis of male genitalia to probe for the existence of cryptic species. The analysis of COI data of 377 insect specimens collected in 16 countries across the Palearctic revealed the presence of two different lineages: P. issikii and a putative new cryptic Phyllonorycter species distributed in the Russian Far East and Japan. In P. issikii, we identified 31 haplotypes among which 23 were detected in the invaded area (Europe) and 10 were found in its putative native range in East Asia (Russian Far East, Japan, South Korea and China), with only two common haplotypes. The high number of haplotypes found in the invaded area suggest a possible scenario of multiple introductions. One haplotype H1 was dominant (119 individuals, 67.2%), not only throughout its expanding range in Europe and Siberia but, intriguingly, also in 96% of individuals originating from Japan. We detected eight unique haplotypes of P. issikii in East Asia. Five of them were exclusively found in the Russian Far East representing 95% of individuals from that area. The putative new cryptic Phyllonorycter species showed differences from P. issikii for the three studied genes. However, both species are morphologically undistinguishable. They occur in sympatry on the same host plants in Japan (Sendai) and the Russian Far East (Primorsky krai) without evidence of admixture.

  20. From east to west across the Palearctic: Phylogeography of the invasive lime leaf miner Phyllonorycter issikii (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and discovery of a putative new cryptic species in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Ohshima, Issei; Haran, Julien; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Li, Houhun; Augustin, Sylvie; Roques, Alain; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the phylogeographic structure of invasive species is important for understanding the underlying processes of invasion. The micromoth Phyllonorycter issikii, whose larvae damage leaves of lime trees Tilia spp., was only known from East Asia. In the last three decades, it has been recorded in most of Europe, Western Russia and Siberia. We used the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene region to compare the genetic variability of P. issikii populations between these different regions. Additionally, we sequenced two nuclear genes (28S rRNA and Histone 3) and run morphometric analysis of male genitalia to probe for the existence of cryptic species. The analysis of COI data of 377 insect specimens collected in 16 countries across the Palearctic revealed the presence of two different lineages: P. issikii and a putative new cryptic Phyllonorycter species distributed in the Russian Far East and Japan. In P. issikii, we identified 31 haplotypes among which 23 were detected in the invaded area (Europe) and 10 were found in its putative native range in East Asia (Russian Far East, Japan, South Korea and China), with only two common haplotypes. The high number of haplotypes found in the invaded area suggest a possible scenario of multiple introductions. One haplotype H1 was dominant (119 individuals, 67.2%), not only throughout its expanding range in Europe and Siberia but, intriguingly, also in 96% of individuals originating from Japan. We detected eight unique haplotypes of P. issikii in East Asia. Five of them were exclusively found in the Russian Far East representing 95% of individuals from that area. The putative new cryptic Phyllonorycter species showed differences from P. issikii for the three studied genes. However, both species are morphologically undistinguishable. They occur in sympatry on the same host plants in Japan (Sendai) and the Russian Far East (Primorsky krai) without evidence of admixture. PMID:28187126