Science.gov

Sample records for east asian variant

  1. New Breast Cancer Risk Variant Discovered at 10q25 in East Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiajun; Sung, Hyuna; Zhang, Ben; Lu, Wei; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Kim, Mi Kyung; Iwasaki, Motoki; Long, Jirong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Park, Sue K.; Zheng, Ying; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yoo, Keun-Young; Wang, Wenjing; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Shen, Chen-Yang; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Kang, Daehee; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, 41 new genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer risk were identified in a genome-wide association study conducted in European descendants. Most of these risk variants have not been directly replicated in Asian populations. Methods We evaluated nine of those non-replication loci in East Asians in order to identify new risk variants for breast cancer in these regions. First, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these regions using data from two GWAS conducted among Chinese and Korean women, including 5,083 cases and 4,376 controls (Stage 1). In each region we selected a SNP showing the strongest association with breast cancer risk for replication in an independent set of 7,294 cases and 9,404 controls of East Asian descents (Stage 2). Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as a measure of the association of breast cancer risk and genetic variants. Results Two SNPs were replicated in Stage 2 at P < 0.05: rs1419026 at 6q14 (per allele OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12, P = 3.0×10−4) and rs941827 at 10q25 (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96, P = 5.3×10−5). The association with rs941827 remained highly statistically significant after adjusting for the risk variant identified initially in women of European ancestry (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.97, P = 5.3×10−5). Conclusion We identified a new breast cancer risk variant at 10q25 in East Asian women. Impact Results from this study improve the understanding of the genetic basis for breast cancer. PMID:23677579

  2. Analysis of non-synonymous-coding variants of Parkinson's disease-related pathogenic and susceptibility genes in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jia Nee; Tan, Louis C; Liany, Herty; Koh, Tat Hung; Irwan, Ishak D; Ng, Yen Yek; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Au, Wing-Lok; Aung, Tin; Chan, Anne Y Y; Chong, Siow-Ann; Chung, Sun Ju; Jung, Yusun; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kim, Juyeon; Lee, Jimmy; Lim, Shen-Yang; Mok, Vincent; Prakash, Kumar-M; Song, Kyuyoung; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tan, Eng-King; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the contribution of non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-linked genes for Parkinson's disease (PD) to PD risk in the East Asian population, we sequenced all the coding exons of 39 PD-related disease genes and evaluated the accumulation of rare non-synonymous-coding variants in 375 early-onset PD cases and 399 controls. We also genotyped 782 non-synonymous-coding variants of these genes in 710 late-onset PD cases and 9046 population controls. Significant enrichment of LRRK2 variants was observed in both early- and late-onset PD (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.93; P = 8.05 × 10(-6)). Moderate enrichment was also observed in FGF20, MCCC1, GBA and ITGA8. Half of the rare variants anticipated to cause loss of function of these genes were present in healthy controls. Overall, non-synonymous-coding variants of known familial and GWAS-linked genes appear to make a limited contribution to PD risk, suggesting that clinical sequencing of these genes will provide limited information for risk prediction and molecular diagnosis.

  3. Association of CD33 and MS4A cluster variants with Alzheimer's disease in East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan-Fang; Guo, Zhang-Yu; Pu, Jia-Li; Chen, Yan-Xing; Zhang, Bao-Rong

    2015-11-16

    CD33 and MS4A cluster variants have been identified to modulate the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in several recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Caucasians. In the present study, we first conducted a case-control study to investigate the CD33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3865444 and rs3826656 and the MS4A cluster SNPs rs610932 and rs670139 in a cohort from eastern China that comprised 126 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients and 129 healthy controls. The results revealed that the frequency of rs3826656 major (G) allele carriers was higher among the LOAD patients than among the controls [P=0.005; odds ratio (OR), 1.760; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.185-2.615]. In apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele carriers, the G allele of the SNP rs3865444 was found to be associated with an increased risk of LOAD (P=0.002; OR, 3.391; 95% CI, 1.512-7.605). Next, we re-evaluated the association between these variants and LOAD by conducting a meta-analysis using data from studies of East Asian populations, including the present case-control study, and confirmed that rs3826656 increased the risk of LOAD. In addition, we identified a significant association between rs610932 and LOAD (P=0.035; OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.98). Note that heterogeneity should be considered during the interpretation of these results; significant heterogeneity was identified among studies on rs3865444, even in a subgroup analysis based on stratification of studies by the country of origin. In summary, our results suggest that CD33 and MS4A cluster variants are associated with LOAD susceptibility in East Asian populations. PMID:26455864

  4. East Asian Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyung Mok

    2005-06-01

    Astronomical research in Asian Pacific region has been growing rapidly in recent years. However, most important papers have been published in well established existing journals in US and Europe because we do not have high impact international journals in this region. I review the current trends of the local journals of East Asian countries and propose to establish a new regional journal by combining domestic journals.

  5. East Asian observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.

    East Asian observations are of established importance in Applied Historical Astronomy. The earliest astronomical records from this part of the world (China, Japan and Korea) originate from China. These observations, mainly of lunar eclipses, are recorded on oracle bones from the period ca. 1300 - 1050 BC. Virtually all later Chinese and other East Asian astronomical records now exist only in printed copies. The earliest surviving series of solar eclipse observations from any part of the world is contained in the Chunqiu (722 - 481 BC), a chronicle of the Chinese state of Lu. However, not until after 200 BC, with the establishment of a stable empire in China, do detailed astronomical records survive. These are mainly contained in specially compiled astrological treatises in the official dynastic histories. Such records, following the traditional style, extend down to the start of the present century. All classes of phenomena visible to the unaided eye are represented: solar and lunar eclipses, lunar and planetary movements among the constellations, comets, novae and supernovae, meteors, sunspots and the aurora borealis. Parallel, but independent series of observations are recorded in Japanese and Korean history, especially after about AD 800. Sources of Japanese records tend to be more diverse than their Chinese and Korean counterparts, but fortunately Kanda Shigeru (1935) and Ohsaki Shyoji (1994) have made extensive compilations of Japanese astronomical observations down to the 1860s. Throughout East Asia, dates were expressed in terms of a luni-solar calendar.

  6. ERAP1 variants are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in East Asian population: a new Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis of published series.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Zhang, X

    2015-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) has been confirmed to be associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian. However, whether they are associated with AS in East Asian population remains unidentified. We investigated this relationship by a new Chinese case-control study and a meta-analysis of published series. 368 cases and 460 controls were recruited in the Chinese case-control study. Genotyping was completed using the chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Allelic associations were analysed using contingency tables. In the meta-analysis, up to 2748 cases and 2774 controls from seven different studies and the new Chinese study were combined using Review Manager software version 5.1.1. Mantel-Haenszel or Inverse Variance test was used to calculate fixed or random-effects pooled ORs. In the new Chinese study, strong association with AS was observed for marker rs10050860, rs27434 and rs1065407 at P value of <0.001. Moderate association was observed for rs30187 at P value of <0.01, while no association was observed for rs27044 (P = 0.37) and rs2287987 (P = 0.23). The meta-analysis showed that rs27037 and rs30187 were strongly associated with AS (P < 0.00001). Significant association was also observed for rs27434 (P = 0.001). No association was shown for rs27044 (P = 0.70). We concluded that ERAP1 variants are associated with AS in East Asian population, indicating a common pathogenic mechanism for AS in East Asians and Caucasians.

  7. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  8. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats.

  9. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2011-12-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10N to 20N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East Asia

  10. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  11. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  12. "Reading to Write" in East Asian Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Leora

    2013-01-01

    A reading-writing initiative began in 2011-12 at the University of Toronto as a partnership between an East Asian Studies (EAS) department and an English Language Learning (ELL) Program. In this institution, students are expected to enter into scholarly discussions in their first year essays, yet many (both native English speakers and non-native…

  13. A Personalized Medicine Approach for Asian Americans with the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2*2 Variant

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Eric R.; Zambelli, Vanessa O.; Small, Bryce A.; Ferreira, Julio C.B.; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in heterozygotes. Furthermore, this variant is associated with a higher risk for several diseases affecting many organ systems, including a particularly high incidence relative to the general population of esophageal cancer, myocardial infarction, and osteoporosis. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the ALDH2*2 variant, describe why this variant needs to be considered when selecting drug treatments, and suggest a personalized medicine approach for Asian American carriers of this variant. We also discuss future clinical and translational perspectives regarding ALDH2*2 research. PMID:25292432

  14. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajima, K.; Hagiwara, Y.; An, T.; Baan, W. A.; Fujisawa, K.; Hao, L.; Jiang, W.; Jung, T.; Kawaguchi, N.; Kim, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Oh, S.-J.; Roh, D.-G.; Wang, M. Wu, Y.; Xia, B.; Zhang, M.

    2016-02-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  15. Large-Scale East-Asian eQTL Mapping Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for LD Mapping and the Genomic Landscape of Transcriptional Effects of Sequence Variants

    PubMed Central

    Narahara, Maiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ishii, Miho; Matsubara, Kenichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Profiles of sequence variants that influence gene transcription are very important for understanding mechanisms that affect phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using genotypes at 1.4 million SNPs and a comprehensive transcriptional profile of 15,454 coding genes and 6,113 lincRNA genes obtained from peripheral blood cells of 298 Japanese individuals, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 3,804 cis-eQTLs (within 500 kb from target genes) and 165 trans-eQTLs (>500 kb away or on different chromosomes). Cis-eQTLs were often located in transcribed or adjacent regions of genes; among these regions, 5′ untranslated regions and 5′ flanking regions had the largest effects. Epigenetic evidence for regulatory potential accumulated in public databases explained the magnitude of the effects of our eQTLs. Cis-eQTLs were often located near the respective target genes, if not within genes. Large effect sizes were observed with eQTLs near target genes, and effect sizes were obviously attenuated as the eQTL distance from the gene increased. Using a very stringent significance threshold, we identified 165 large-effect trans-eQTLs. We used our eQTL map to assess 8,069 disease-associated SNPs identified in 1,436 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified genes that might be truly causative, but GWAS might have failed to identify for 148 out of the GWAS-identified SNPs; for example, TUFM (P = 3.3E-48) was identified for inflammatory bowel disease (early onset); ZFP90 (P = 4.4E-34) for ulcerative colitis; and IDUA (P = 2.2E-11) for Parkinson's disease. We identified four genes (P<2.0E-14) that might be related to three diseases and two hematological traits; each expression is regulated by trans-eQTLs on a different chromosome than the gene. PMID:24956270

  16. [South-East Asian arboviruses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    1981-01-01

    The South-East Asian arbovirological pathology is dominated by dengue fever, of which haemorrhagic forms constitute an important public health problem. The incidence of the disease is increasing from year to year, especially in large urban areas of this region and it is expected that the development of a vaccine in the near future will make it possible to improve the actual prevention only based on mosquito control, directed against domestic and peridomestic Aedes. Almost equally worrying is the epidemiological situation of Japanese encephalitis, which recently gave rise to important outbreaks in the Indian sub-continent, the transmission of which is ensured by rural mosquitoes and is very difficult to interrupt. Other arbovirus diseases are of secondary importance; they can involve dengue-like syndromes, meningo-encephalitic syndromes or haemorrhagic syndromes, and constitute public health problems only sporadically.

  17. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  18. International exchange activities with East Asian countries through mammography.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tokiko; Morimoto, Tadaoki; Horita, Katsuhei; Kimura, Chiaki; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese NPO Central Committee on Quality Control of Mammographic Screening has initiated international exchange activities regarding quality control of mammographic screening with the concerned organizations in East Asian countries with the objective of contributing to reducing breast cancer mortality in the region. This paper describes the status of the international exchanges that are being carried out in various East Asian countries in relation to mammography and also discusses future aspects. PMID:19034615

  19. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  20. East Asian Cinema (College Course File).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Linda; Ma, Ning

    1990-01-01

    Provides guidelines for instructors who teach entire courses on (or who include) films from Japan and China. Considers issues of concern in contemporary Asian cinema such as conflicts between tradition and modernity, indigenous definitions of cultural identity and artistic form, and internationalization. (KEH)

  1. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  2. East Asian Collections and Organizational Transformation in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses special aspects of East Asian collections and explores how organizational changes in academic libraries affect them, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Considers total quality management; continuous quality improvement; teamwork; staffing changes; specialization versus generalization; budgetary restraints and cost…

  3. Attracting East Asian Students to Canadian Graduate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to identify factors influencing East Asian international students' choices of Canadian graduate schools, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing enrolment decisions, and to describe possible implications both for the Canadian government and for Canadian universities offering graduate education. The research…

  4. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and Its Association with the Asian-Pacific Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Interannual variability of the wintertime East Asian westerly jet stream and the linkage between this variability and the Asian-Pacific climate are investigated. The study emphasizes on the variability of the jet core and its association with the Asian winter monsoon, tropical convection, upper tropospheric wave patterns, and the teleconnection of the jet with other climate systems. The relationship between the jet and North Pacific sea surface temperature pattern (SST) is also explored. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, NASA GISS surface temperature, NASA GEOS reanalysis, NOAA reconstructed SST, GPCP precipitation, and NOAA snow cover data sets are analyzed in this study. An index of the East Asian jet has been defined by the December-February means of the 200 mb zonal winds that are averaged within a box enclosing the jet maximum, which shifts only moderately from one year to another especially in the south-north direction. The jet links to a teleconnection pattern whose major climate anomalies appear over the Asian continent and western Pacific (west of the dateline). This pattern differs distinctly from the teleconnection pattern associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which causes the Pacific/North American pattern to the east of the dateline. A strong jet is accompanied clearly by an increase in the intensity of the atmospheric circulation over Asia and the Pacific. In particular, the winter monsoon strengthens over East Asia, leading to cold climate in the region, and convection intensifies over the tropical Asia-Australia sector. Changes in the jet are associated with broad-scale modification in the upper tropospheric wave patterns that leads to downstream climate anomalies over the eastern Pacific. Through this downstream influence, the East Asian jet causes climate signals in North America as well. A strong jet gives rise to warming and less snow cover in the western United States but reverse climate anomalies in the eastern part of the country, although

  5. Leadership and Creativity in East Asian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Roger C.; Ma, Chenwei

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the concepts of educational creativity and leadership have attracted tremendous attention throughout East Asia. Driven in large part by isomorphic tendencies within a global organizational environment, the two ideas have also acquired the trappings of institutional myth. Often overlooked in the schools literature,…

  6. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    PubMed

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity.

  7. Variation of circulation and East Asian climate associated with anomalous strength and displacement of the East Asian trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Variations of the East Asian trough (EAT) and its relationship with the East Asian climate are documented in this study. The variations investigated include the trough's strength and its meridional and zonal displacements. Anomalous cold (warmth) in Southeast Asia is concurrent with the southward (northward) displacement of the EAT. The southward displacement of the EAT is likely associated with an anomalous strong Siberian high and Aleutian low, which manipulate anomalous northerly wind between them. On the other hand, the temperature in northeast Asia is influenced by both the strength and the zonal displacement of the trough. These properties of the EAT are closely linked to temperatures in the northern and southern portions of East Asia. The relation between variations of the EAT and the East Asian winter monsoon is also examined. In addition, the relation between the EAT and transient eddies is studied. Anomalous transient eddies concurrent with variations of the EAT are contributed by a localized anomalous meridional gradient due to the variation of stationary eddies and zonal symmetric structure. Variations in the polar vortex are significant for variations in the strength of the EAT. To investigate the role of eddies in the anomalous evolution of the EAT, we also study stationary and transient eddy forcing on the evolution of anomalous EAT and zonal symmetric structures using wave activity flux and extended E-vectors.

  8. Why Do East Asian Children Perform so well in PISA? An Investigation of Western-Born Children of East Asian Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate…

  9. The East Asian Jet Stream and Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    2000-01-01

    The upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region during winter. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet stream is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation especially over East Asia. The variabilities of the EAJ on these time scales have been relatively well documented. It has also been understood since decades ago that the interannual. variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation. However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the EAJ and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the EAJ and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet stream linked to the non-ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and to the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern?

  10. Genes Regulated by Vitamin D in Bone Cells Are Positively Selected in East Asians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Luiselli, Donata; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Pagani, Luca; Ayub, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D and folate are activated and degraded by sunlight, respectively, and the physiological processes they control are likely to have been targets of selection as humans expanded from Africa into Eurasia. We investigated signals of positive selection in gene sets involved in the metabolism, regulation and action of these two vitamins in worldwide populations sequenced by Phase I of the 1000 Genomes Project. Comparing allele frequency-spectrum-based summary statistics between these gene sets and matched control genes, we observed a selection signal specific to East Asians for a gene set associated with vitamin D action in bones. The selection signal was mainly driven by three genes CXXC finger protein 1 (CXXC1), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Examination of population differentiation and haplotypes allowed us to identify several candidate causal regulatory variants in each gene. Four of these candidate variants (one each in CXXC1 and RUNX2 and two in LRP5) had a >70% derived allele frequency in East Asians, but were present at lower (20–60%) frequency in Europeans as well, suggesting that the adaptation might have been part of a common response to climatic and dietary changes as humans expanded out of Africa, with implications for their role in vitamin D-dependent bone mineralization and osteoporosis insurgence. We also observed haplotype sharing between East Asians, Finns and an extinct archaic human (Denisovan) sample at the CXXC1 locus, which is best explained by incomplete lineage sorting. PMID:26719974

  11. Genes Regulated by Vitamin D in Bone Cells Are Positively Selected in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Elena; Biagini, Simone Andrea; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Luiselli, Donata; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Pagani, Luca; Ayub, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D and folate are activated and degraded by sunlight, respectively, and the physiological processes they control are likely to have been targets of selection as humans expanded from Africa into Eurasia. We investigated signals of positive selection in gene sets involved in the metabolism, regulation and action of these two vitamins in worldwide populations sequenced by Phase I of the 1000 Genomes Project. Comparing allele frequency-spectrum-based summary statistics between these gene sets and matched control genes, we observed a selection signal specific to East Asians for a gene set associated with vitamin D action in bones. The selection signal was mainly driven by three genes CXXC finger protein 1 (CXXC1), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Examination of population differentiation and haplotypes allowed us to identify several candidate causal regulatory variants in each gene. Four of these candidate variants (one each in CXXC1 and RUNX2 and two in LRP5) had a >70% derived allele frequency in East Asians, but were present at lower (20-60%) frequency in Europeans as well, suggesting that the adaptation might have been part of a common response to climatic and dietary changes as humans expanded out of Africa, with implications for their role in vitamin D-dependent bone mineralization and osteoporosis insurgence. We also observed haplotype sharing between East Asians, Finns and an extinct archaic human (Denisovan) sample at the CXXC1 locus, which is best explained by incomplete lineage sorting.

  12. Fifteen-Years-Old Students of Seven East Asian Cities in PISA 2009: A Secondary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background: In PISA 2009, seven East Asian countries rank high among the 65 participating countries, but some of the differences among the seven countries are small to be of substantive meaning. Aims: This paper is an attempt to fine tune the comparisons for better understanding of the situation in East Asian. Sample: Data of the seven East Asian…

  13. Divergence of East Asians and Europeans Estimated Using Male- and Female-Specific Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Yoshio; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Oka, Akira; Haida, Yuko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    To study the male and female lineages of East Asian and European humans, we have sequenced 25 short tandem repeat markers on 453 Y-chromosomes and collected sequences of 72 complete mitochondrial genomes to construct independent phylogenetic trees for male and female lineages. The results indicate that East Asian individuals fall into two clades, one that includes East Asian individuals only and a second that contains East Asian and European individuals. Surprisingly, the European individuals did not form an independent clade, but branched within in the East Asians. We then estimated the divergence time of the root of the European clade as ∼41,000 years ago. These data indicate that, contrary to traditional views, Europeans diverged from East Asians around that time. We also address the origin of the Ainu lineage in northern Japan. PMID:24589501

  14. The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon: Recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jinhai; Liu, Boqi

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we firstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land-sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the effect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast and the influences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate difference between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its influential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  15. East Asian seas: A hot spot of pelagic microplastics.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Shinsuke

    2015-12-30

    To investigate concentrations of pelagic micro- (<5mm in size) and mesoplastics (>5mm) in the East Asian seas around Japan, field surveys using two vessels were conducted concurrently in summer 2014. The total particle count (pieces km(-2)) was computed based on observed concentrations (pieces m(-3)) of small plastic fragments (both micro- and mesoplastics) collected using neuston nets. The total particle count of microplastics within the study area was 1,720,000 pieces km(-2), 16 times greater than in the North Pacific and 27 times greater than in the world oceans. The proportion of mesoplastics increased upstream of the northeastward ocean currents, such that the small plastic fragments collected in the present surveys were considered to have originated in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea southwest of the study area. PMID:26522164

  16. East Asian seas: A hot spot of pelagic microplastics.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Uchida, Keiichi; Tokai, Tadashi; Iwasaki, Shinsuke

    2015-12-30

    To investigate concentrations of pelagic micro- (<5mm in size) and mesoplastics (>5mm) in the East Asian seas around Japan, field surveys using two vessels were conducted concurrently in summer 2014. The total particle count (pieces km(-2)) was computed based on observed concentrations (pieces m(-3)) of small plastic fragments (both micro- and mesoplastics) collected using neuston nets. The total particle count of microplastics within the study area was 1,720,000 pieces km(-2), 16 times greater than in the North Pacific and 27 times greater than in the world oceans. The proportion of mesoplastics increased upstream of the northeastward ocean currents, such that the small plastic fragments collected in the present surveys were considered to have originated in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea southwest of the study area.

  17. Climacteric and menopause in seven south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M J; Oddens, B J; Lehert, P; Vemer, H M; Visser, A

    2008-01-01

    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician.

  18. Climacteric and menopause in seven South-east Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Boulet, M J; Oddens, B J; Lehert, P; Vemer, H M; Visser, A

    1994-10-01

    The menopause is universal, but what about the climacteric? In an attempt to answer this question, a study was conducted in seven south-east Asian countries, namely, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Taiwan. Samples of approximately 400 women in each country were questioned about a number of climacteric complaints, incontinence and dyspareunia, consultation of a physician, menopausal status and several background characteristics. Special care was taken to overcome linguistic and cultural problems, and the data collected were kept as objective as possible. From the results obtained we were able to show that the climacteric was indeed experienced in south-east Asian countries, although in a mild form. The prevalence of hot flushes and of sweating was lower than in western countries, but was nevertheless not negligible. The percentages of women who reported the more psychological types of complaint were similar to those in western countries. The occurrence of climacteric complaints affected perceived health status. A physician was consulted for climacteric complaints by 20% of the respondents, although this was most frequently associated with the occurrence of psychological complaints and less so with that of hot flushes and sweating. The median age at menopause (51.09) appeared to be within the ranges observed in western countries. Ethnic background and age at menarche were found to have a significant influence on age at menopause. The study clearly demonstrated that climacteric complaints occur in south-east Asia. The findings suggest, however, that vasomotor-complaint-related distress might be 'translated' into psychological complaints, which are more frequently considered to warrant consulting a physician.

  19. The Academic Success of East Asian American Youth: The Role of Shadow Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms--commercial test preparation…

  20. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  1. The East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping

    2015-08-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. At this next General Assembly, we aim at updating the community of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  2. Risk factors, quality of care and prognosis in South Asian, East Asian and White patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke has emerged as a significant and escalating health problem for Asian populations. We compared risk factors, quality of care and risk of death or recurrent stroke in South Asian, East Asian and White patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to 12 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada (July 2003-March 2008) and included in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network database. The database was linked to population-based administrative databases to determine one-year risk of death or recurrent stroke. Results The study included 253 South Asian, 513 East Asian and 8231 White patients. East Asian patients were more likely to present with intracerebral hemorrhage (30%) compared to South Asian (17%) or White patients (15%) (p<0.001). Time from stroke to hospital arrival was similarly poor with delays >2 hours for more than two thirds of patients in all ethnic groups. Processes of stroke care, including thrombolysis, diagnostic imaging, antithrombotic medications, and rehabilitation services were similar among ethnic groups. Risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after ischemic stroke was similar for patients who were White (27.6%), East Asian (24.7%, aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.78-1.21 vs. White), or South Asian (21.9%, aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.24 vs. White). Although risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after intracerebral hemorrhage was higher in East Asian (35.5%) and White patients (47.9%) compared to South Asian patients (30.2%) (p=0.002), these differences disappeared after adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity and comorbid conditions (aHR 0.89 [0.67-1.19] for East Asian vs White and 0.99 [0.54-1.81] for South Asian vs. White). Conclusion After stratification by stroke type, stroke care and outcomes are similar across ethnic groups in Ontario. Enhanced health promotion is needed to reduce delays to hospital

  3. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and its Association with the Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The wintertime upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation over Asia. The variabilities of the jet on these time scales have been relatively well documented (e.g., Yeh et al. 1959, Palmen and Newton 1969; Zeng 1979). It has also been understood that the inter-annual variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation (Bjerknes 1966; Chang and Lau 1980; Huang and Gambo 1982; Kang and Held 1986; Tao and Chen 1987; Lau et al. 1988; Yang and Webster 1990; Ding 1992; Webster and Yang 1992; Dong et al. 1999). However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the jet and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the jet and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet linked to North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern? In this study, we address several issues related to the wintertime EAJ with a focus on interannual time scales. We will examine the association between the jet core and ENSO, which has always been overshadowed by the relationship between ENSO and the

  4. Tobacco and youth in the South East Asian region.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Tobacco use among youth in South-East asian countries was reviewed using available literature. Youth who are out-out-of school, earning, less educated and live in rural areas are more likely to use tobacco and start during the Preteen years. Better educated youth may know the health effects of smoking but the dangers of passive smoking are generally unknown. Youth are fairly unconcerned about the present or future effect of tobacco use on health but do favour tobacco control measures. Children and youth are more responsive than adults to tobacco education. In India, a manufactured smokeless tobacco product, gutkha, has been targeted toward youth and has become extremely popular. An evolving epidemic of oral submucous fibrosis attributed to to gutkha use has been documented among youth, with a resultant increase in oral cancer in lower age groups. Children in India are often illegally employed in bidi manufacturing. This review points out the need for specific actions. PMID:12931709

  5. CMIP5/AMIP GCM simulations of East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinming; Wei, Ting; Dong, Wenjie; Wu, Qizhong; Wang, Yongli

    2014-07-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is a distinctive component of the Asian climate system and critically influences the economy and society of the region. To understand the ability of AGCMs in capturing the major features of EASM, 10 models that participated in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project/Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5/AMIP), which used observational SST and sea ice to drive AGCMs during the period 1979-2008, were evaluated by comparing with observations and AMIP II simulations. The results indicated that the multi-model ensemble (MME) of CMIP5/AMIP captures the main characteristics of precipitation and monsoon circulation, and shows the best skill in EASM simulation, better than the AMIP II MME. As for the Meiyu/Changma/Baiyu rainbelt, the intensity of rainfall is underestimated in all the models. The biases are caused by a weak western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and accompanying eastward southwesterly winds in group I models, and by a too strong and west-extended WPSH as well as westerly winds in group II models. Considerable systematic errors exist in the simulated seasonal migration of rainfall, and the notable northward jumps and rainfall persistence remain a challenge for all the models. However, the CMIP5/AMIP MME is skillful in simulating the western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI).

  6. Holocene biome shifts in the East Asian monsoon margin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Yongbo; Cao, Xianyong; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    East Asia is affected by three major atmospheric circulation systems determining the regional climate and vegetation distribution: The moisture advected by the Indian and East Asian monsoon support the growing of forest in large parts of Eastern China. The influence of the monsoon gets weaker further on the continent yielding a transition of forest to steppe and of steppe to desert in Central East Asia (e.g. Inner Mongolia) where the dry westerly winds prevail. Particularly in these transition zones, vegetation is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change and strong feedbacks are expected in case of climate and vegetation shifts due to large environmental changes (Feng et al., 2006). During mid-Holocene, cyclic variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun led to an enhancement of the Asian monsoon system probably causing strong shifts in the biome distribution. According to reconstructions, the steppe-forest margin moved to the northwest by about 500km (Yu et al., 2000) and the desert area in China and Inner Mongolia was substantially reduced compared to today (Feng et al., 2006). However, in the complex environment of Asia, the locally limited reconstructions may not portray the general vegetation change. To get a systematic overview on the spatial pattern of biome shifts in the Asian monsoon - westerly wind transition zone since mid-Holocene, we use the diagnostic vegetation model BIOME4 and force this model with climate anomalies from different transient Holocene climate simulations performed in coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models. The main aims of this study are to a) get a consistent ensemble of possible changes in biome distribution since the mid-Holocene b) test the robustness of the simulated vegetation changes and quantify the differences between the models, and c) allow for a better comparison of simulated and reconstructed vegetation changes. Preliminary results confirm the general trend seen in the reconstructions. The simulations reveal

  7. Deep History of East Asian Populations Revealed Through Genetic Analysis of the Ainu.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Choongwon; Nakagome, Shigeki; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in population genomics, much remains to be elucidated with regard to East Asian population history. The Ainu, a hunter-gatherer population of northern Japan and Sakhalin island of Russia, are thought to be key to elucidating the prehistory of Japan and the peopling of East Asia. Here, we study the genetic relationship of the Ainu with other East Asian and Siberian populations outside the Japanese archipelago using genome-wide genotyping data. We find that the Ainu represent a deep branch of East Asian diversity more basal than all present-day East Asian farmers. However, we did not find a genetic connection between the Ainu and populations of the Tibetan plateau, rejecting their long-held hypothetical connection based on Y chromosome data. Unlike all other East Asian populations investigated, the Ainu have a closer genetic relationship with northeast Siberians than with central Siberians, suggesting ancient connections among populations around the Sea of Okhotsk. We also detect a recent genetic contribution of the Ainu to nearby populations, but no evidence for reciprocal recent gene flow is observed. Whole genome sequencing of contemporary and ancient Ainu individuals will be helpful to understand the details of the deep history of East Asians.

  8. Development of a new scale for measuring acculturation: the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM).

    PubMed

    Barry, D T

    2001-10-01

    Given the paucity of appropriate measures to assess the acculturation patterns of East Asian immigrants in the United States, a new acculturation instrument was developed and evaluated. One-hundred and fifty nonclinical East Asian immigrants (75 males and 75 females) were administered the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM) and provided demographic information concerning length of stay in the United States and gender. Satisfactory reliability is reported for the four acculturation scales: assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Length of stay was not associated with separation but was significantly positively associated with assimilation and integration and significantly negatively associated with marginalization. Gender was not associated with any of the acculturation scales. The findings suggest that the EAAM may be a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to investigate the acculturation patterns of East Asian immigrants. PMID:16228786

  9. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are

  10. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H. John B.; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Jin, Liya

    2016-04-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka=thousands of years before present, where the "present" is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7-7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8-5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5-8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change.

  11. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H John B; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Shengrui; Jin, Liya; An, Chengbang; Telford, Richard J; Cao, Xianyong; Wang, Zongli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Lu, Houyuan; Li, Yuecong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Haipeng; Zhou, Aifeng; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jiawu; Huang, Xiaozhong; Bloemendal, Jan; Rao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the "present" is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7-7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8-5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5-8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change.

  12. Eating habits of east Asian people and transmission of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Soh, C T; Kosman, M L

    1992-04-01

    In order to understand the role of raw meat and viscera eating habits in the transmission of taeniasis in Asian countries, 1502 infected aborigines in ten mountainous districts/towns of six counties in Taiwan, 58 infected persons in two villages on Cheju Island, Korea, and 97 cases in Ambarita District on Samosir Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia were studied during the field surveys. All infected Taiwan aborigines had the habit of eating raw meat and viscera of wild and/or domestic animals. Among these aborigines, 73% ate wild boar, 66% flying squirrel, 65% wild goat, 56% muntjac, 49% wild rats, 46% monkey, 38% hare, 20% civet-cats, 18% weasel, 17% pheasant, 14% squirrel, 4% grouse, 1% deer, 1% snake, less than 1% bamboo partridge, less than 1% frog, less than 1% bear, less than 1% dog, and less than 1% fox. Of the 58 infected persons with Taenia on Cheju Island, Korea, 72% ate raw meat and/or viscera of pig and cattle, 19% raw pork only, and 9% raw beef only. Among 12 infected persons infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms, 7 had eaten raw pork, 2 raw beef and pork and 3 raw pork. Almost all of the 97 cases of taeniasis on Samosir Island of North Sumatra, Indonesia, had eaten only undercooked pork. Eleven of 15 cases were found to be infected with T. saginata-like tapeworms. Eating habits observed suggest an unusual way of transmission of Taenia in East Asia. PMID:1356301

  13. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  14. Interannual variation of East Asian Winter Monsoon and ENSO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Boyle, James S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the interannual variation of the East Asian winter monsoon and its relationship with EJSO based on the 1979-1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Two stratifications of cold surges are used. The first one, described as the conventional cold surges, indicates that the surge frequency reaches a urn one year after El Nino events. The second one, originated from the same region as the first, is defined as the maximum wind events near the South China Sea. The variation of this stratification of surges is found to be in good agreement with the South Oscillation Index (SOI). Low SOI (high SOI) events coincide with years of low (high) surge frequency. The interannual variation of averaged meridional wind near the South China Sea and western Pacific is dominated by the South China Sea cold surges, and is also well correlated (R--O.82) with the SOI. Strong wind seasons are associated with La Nina and high SOI events; likewise, weak wind years are linked with El Nino and low SOI cases. This pattern is restricted north of the equator within the region of (OON-20 N, 11OOE-1300E), and is confined to the near surface layer. The surface Siberian high, 500 hPa trough and 200 hPa jetstream, all representing the large-scale monsoon flow, are found to be weaker than normal during El Nino years. In particular, the interannual variation of the Siberian high is in general agreement with the SOL.

  15. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H John B; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Shengrui; Jin, Liya; An, Chengbang; Telford, Richard J; Cao, Xianyong; Wang, Zongli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Lu, Houyuan; Li, Yuecong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Haipeng; Zhou, Aifeng; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jiawu; Huang, Xiaozhong; Bloemendal, Jan; Rao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the "present" is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7-7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8-5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5-8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change. PMID:26084560

  16. East Asian summer monsoon precipitation variability since the last deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fahu; Xu, Qinghai; Chen, Jianhui; Birks, H. John B.; Liu, Jianbao; Zhang, Shengrui; Jin, Liya; An, Chengbang; Telford, Richard J.; Cao, Xianyong; Wang, Zongli; Zhang, Xiaojian; Selvaraj, Kandasamy; Lu, Houyuan; Li, Yuecong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Haipeng; Zhou, Aifeng; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Jiawu; Huang, Xiaozhong; Bloemendal, Jan; Rao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the “present” is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7–7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8–5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5–8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change. PMID:26084560

  17. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  18. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  19. Characteristics of the East Asian Winter Climate Associated with the Westerly Jet Stream and ENSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the influences of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the interannual variability of the East Asian winter climate are examined with a focus on the relative climate impacts of the two phenomena. Although the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and the temperature and precipitation of China, Japan, and Korea are emphasized, the associated changes in the broad-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over Asia and the Pacific and in the extratropical North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are also investigated. It is demonstrated that there is no apparent relationship between ENSO and the interannual variability of EAJS core. The EAJS and ENSO are associated with distinctly different patterns of atmospheric circulation and SST in the Asian-Pacific regions. While ENSO causes major climate signals in the Tropics and over the North Pacific east of the dateline, the EAJS produces significant changes in the atmospheric circulation over East Asia and western Pacific. In particular, the EAJS explains larger variance of the interannual signals of the East Asian trough, the Asian continental high, the Aleutian low, and the East Asian winter monsoon. When the EAJS is strong, all these atmospheric systems intensify significantly. The response of surface temperature and precipitation to EAJS variability and ENSO is more complex. In general, the East Asian winter climate is cold (warm) and dry (wet) when the EAJS is strong (weak) and it is warm during El Nino years. However, different climate signals are found during different La Nina years. In terms of linear correlation, both the temperature and precipitation of northern China, Korea, and central Japan are more significantly associated with the EAJS than with ENSO.

  20. Quantitating and dating recent gene flow between European and East Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-04-02

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia.

  1. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  2. Impact of Aerosol Direct Effect on East Asian Air Quality During the EAST-AIRE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Allen, D. J.; Pickering, K. E.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three WRF-Chem simulations were conducted for East Asia region during March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) period to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. WRF-Chem captured the temporal and spatial variations of meteorological fields, trace gases, and aerosol loadings. Surface shortwave radiation changes due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE) were calculated and compared with data from six World Radiation Data Center (WRDC) stations. The comparison indicated that WRF-Chem can simulate the surface short wave radiation moderately well, with temporal correlations between 0.4 and 0.7, and high biases between 9 to 120 W/m2. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 22 W/m2 in surface SW radiation due to the aerosol direct effect, consistent with observational studies. The ADE demonstrates diverse influences on air quality in East Asian. For example, the surface concentration of PM2.5 increases in eastern China (~11.1%) due to ADE, but decreases in central China (-7.3%), western China (-8.8%), and Sichuan Basin (-4%). Surface 1-hour maximum ozone is reduced by 2.3%, owing to less radiation reaching the surface due to the ADE. Since PM2.5 pollution raises serious public concern in China, regulations that control the emissions of PM2.5 and its precursors have been implemented. We investigate the impact of reducing two different types of aerosols, sulfate (scattering) and black carbon (absorbing), by cutting 80% of SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions in two sensitivity simulations. We found that reducing SO2 emissions results in the decline of PM2.5 as much as 16mg/m3 in eastern China, and 20mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. Reducing the BC emissions by the same percentage causes the PM2.5 to decrease as much as 40mg/m3 in eastern China, and 25mg/m3 in the Sichuan Basin. The monthly averaged surface 1-hour maximum ozone increases 3

  3. Common genetic determinants of breast-cancer risk in East Asian women: a collaborative study of 23 637 breast cancer cases and 25 579 controls

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Qiuyin; Sung, Hyuna; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Long, Jirong; Dennis, Joe; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chun; Cai, Hui; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Tessier, Daniel; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Wenjin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tanaka, Hideo; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, In Nee; Wong, Tien Y.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lee, Soo Chin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ren, Zefang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Sueta, Aiko; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Wen, Wanqing; Hall, Per; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Easton, Douglas F.; Kang, Daehee

    2013-01-01

    In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted primarily in European-ancestry populations. SNPs in 31 loci showed an association with breast cancer risk at P < 0.05 in a direction consistent with that reported previously. Twenty-one of them remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni-corrected significance level of <0.0015. Eight of the 70 SNPs showed a significantly different association with breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status at P < 0.05. With the exception of rs2046210 at 6q25.1, the seven other SNPs showed a stronger association with ER-positive than ER-negative cancer. This study replicated all five genetic risk variants initially identified in Asians and provided evidence for associations of breast cancer risk in the East Asian population with nearly half of the genetic risk variants initially reported in GWASs conducted in European descendants. Taken together, these common genetic risk variants explain ∼10% of excess familial risk of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:23535825

  4. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  5. English Learning Styles of Students from East Asian Countries: A Focus on Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…

  6. The Science Education of the East Asian Regions--What We Can Learn from PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…

  7. Transport of dusts from East Asian and non-East Asian sources to Hong Kong during dust storm related events 1996-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Yang, Xun; Wenig, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Over a twelve year period from 1996 to 2007, 76 dust storm related events (as days) in Hong Kong were selected for study, based on Aluminium and Calcium concentrations in PM 10. Four of the 76 events reach episodic levels with exceedances of the Hong Kong air quality standards. The purpose of the study is to identify and characterize dust sources impacting Hong Kong. Global distribution of aerosols in NASA's daily aerosol index images from TOMS and OMI, are compared to plots generated by NRL(US)'s Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System. Possible source areas are assigned by computing air parcel backward trajectories to Hong Kong using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. PM 10 and elemental data are analyzed for crustal mass concentrations and element mass ratios. Our analysis reveals that 73 out of the 76 dust events (96%) involve non-East Asian sources-the Thar, Central/West Asian, Arabian and Sahara deserts (Saharan influence is found in 63 events), which are previously not known to affect Hong Kong. The Gobi desert is the most frequent origin of dust, affecting 68 dust events while the Taklamakan desert impacts only 30 of the dust events. The impact of the Gobi desert in March and December is apparently associated with the northeast monsoon in East Asia. Our results also show a seasonal pattern in dust impact from both East Asian and more remote sources, with a maximum in March. Dust event occurrences are conspicuously absent from summer. Dust transport to Hong Kong is commonly associated with the passage of frontal low-pressure systems. The coarse size fraction of PM 10 concentrations were, as indicated by Al, Ca and Fe concentrations, about 4-8 times higher during dust events. The mean Ca/Al ratios of sources involving the Taklamakan desert are notably higher than those for non-East Asian sources owing to a higher Ca content of most of the East Asian deserts. The Fe/Al ratios follow a similar trend. Contributions from the desert sources are grossly estimated where

  8. Late Miocene Pliocene intensification of the East Asian monsoon linked to Antarctic ice-sheet development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, H.; An, Z.; Dekkers, M. J.; Liu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that an East Asian monsoon broadly similar to the present may have occurred in China as early as the late Oligocene or early Miocene, but its variability and possible driving forces prior to the Quaternary epoch remain poorly known, due to rare reconstructions of continuous long-term East Asian monsoon records extending to the earlier periods. Here we report Late MiocenePliocene records of magnetic property variations of an eolian red clay sequence on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau, which is dated using magnetostratigraphy. The high-resolution magnetic records indicate a long-term increasing trend in the East Asian summer monsoon intensity from ca 8 to 2.6 Ma. This is supported by studies from central Chinese Loess Plateau and South China Sea. We further find that this Late MiocenePliocene monsoon intensification is broadly correlated the long-term increasing trend in the Southern Hemisphere ice volume, suggesting a possible linkage between them. Combing a numerical climate-model experiment that simulates the East Asian summer monsoonal responses to the idealized stepwise increases of ice sheets from East to West Antarctic, we suggested that the Southern Hemisphere ice-sheet development is a driver of this late MiocenePliocene intensification of the East Asian summer monsoon. The Southern Hemisphere ice-sheet development could have intensified the East Asian monsoon mainly via weakening the low pressures over Asia and enhancing the high pressures over western Pacific Ocean and Australia, implying sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to the interhemispheric temperature gradient modulated by Southern Hemisphere climate.

  9. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. PMID:27343688

  10. An Introduction to the Major NSFC Program 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Dong, Y.; Li, S.; Xiao, W.

    2013-12-01

    Pangea is the youngest supercontinent in Earth's history and its main body formed about 250 million years ago. As supported by voluminous evidence from reliable geological, paleomagnetic and paleontological data, configurations of major continental blocks in Pangea have been widely accepted. However, controversy has long surrounded the reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea. So far, most Pangea reconstructions assume that continental blocks in East Asia had never become parts of Pangea before its breakup. In these reconstruction models, configurations of East Asian blocks in Pangea were mainly based on geological and paleomagnetic data before the 1990's but did not fully consider recent data produced by Chinese researchers about collisional mountain belts between continental blocks in East Asia. To precisely reconstruct the East Asian blocks in Pangea, the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) recently set up a Major NSFC Program entitled 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'. On the basis of summarizing and integrating previous data, this major program will carry out detailed field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological, paleomagnetic and paleontonological investigations on key segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Central China Orogenic Belt and Paleo-Tethys Belt, which assembled major continental blocks in East Asia, in order to determine the timing and processes of opening and closuring of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, Proto-Tethyan Ocean (Qin-Qi-Kun Ocean) and Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The program will not only answer where, when and how continental blocks in East Asia were assembled and whether or not they had become parts of Pangea before the breakup of the supercontinent, but will also improve and develop the theory of plate tectonics. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41190070, 41190075)

  11. Seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall using a multi-model ensemble system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Lee, Doo-Young; Yoo, Jin‑Ho

    2015-04-01

    Using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers, the prediction skills of climate models in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research

  12. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doo Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Yoo, Jin-Ho

    2015-08-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP Indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index or each MPI. Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by hybrid dynamical-statistical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using a hybrid dynamical-statistical approach compared to the dynamical forecast alone.

  13. The Academic Success of East Asian American Youth: The Role of Shadow Education.

    PubMed

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Park, Hyunjoon

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms - commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring - of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students.

  14. Morphologic Variability of the Shoulder between the Populations of North American and East Asian

    PubMed Central

    Cabezas, Andres F.; Krebes, Kristi; Hussey, Michael M.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Kim, Hyuong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in glenohumeral joint morphology between North American and East Asian populations that may influence sizing and selection of shoulder arthroplasty systems. Methods Computed tomography reconstructions of 92 North American and 58 East Asian patients were used to perform 3-dimensional measurements. The proximal humeral position was normalized in all patients by aligning it with the scapular plane utilizing anatomic landmarks. Measurements were performed on the humerus and scapula and included coronal and axial humeral head radius, humeral neck shaft and articular arc angles, glenoid height and width, and critical shoulder angle. Glenohumeral relationships were also measured and included lateral distance to the greater tuberosity and acromion, abduction lever arm, and acromial index. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses were used to compare population metrics. Results East Asian glenohumeral measurements were significantly smaller for all linear metrics (p < 0.05), with the exception of acromial length, which was greater than in the North American cohort (p < 0.001). The increase in acromial length affected all measurements involving the acromion including abduction lever arms. No difference was found between the neck shaft and articular angular measurements. Conclusions The East Asian population exhibited smaller shoulder morphometrics than their North American cohort, with the exception of an extended acromial overhang. The morphologic data can provide some additional factors to consider when choosing an optimal shoulder implant for the East Asian population, in addition to creating future designs that may better accommodate this population. PMID:27583111

  15. The Academic Success of East Asian American Youth: The Role of Shadow Education

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483

  16. Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

    2013-02-01

    The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats. PMID:22524237

  17. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Purvish M; Raja, T; Mula-Hussain, L; Baral, R P; Ingle, P; Narayanan, P; Tsikai, N; Baki, M O; Satyapal, N; Adusei, K O; Popoola, A; Musibi, A; Nyaim, E; Tsomo, U; Opio, C; Jamshed, A; Reddy, P

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps. PMID:24818109

  18. Molecular phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Z; Odahara, S; Ishida, M; Kato, T; Sasazaki, S; Nozawa, K; Mannen, H

    2013-02-01

    The domestic goat is one of the most important livestock species, but its origins and genetic diversity still remain uncertain. Multiple highly divergent maternal lineages of goat have been reported in previous studies. Although one of the mitochondrial DNA lineages, lineage B, was detected only in eastern and southern Asia, the geographic distribution of these lineages was previously unclear. Here, we examine the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Asian goats by mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphological characteristics. The analyses of a total of 1661 Asian goats from 12 countries revealed a high frequency of lineage B in Southeast Asia. The frequency of this lineage tended to be higher in mountain areas than in plain areas in Southeast Asian countries, and there was a significant correlation between its frequency and morphological traits. The results suggest an original predominance of lineage B in Southeast Asia and the recent infiltration of lineage A into Southeast Asian goats.

  19. Actinic lichen planus in a Japanese man: first case in the East Asian population.

    PubMed

    Dekio, Itaru; Matsuki, Shingo; Furumura, Minao; Morita, Eishin; Morita, Akimichi

    2010-12-01

    Actinic lichen planus (ALP) is a rare variant of lichen planus in which lichen planus develops on the light-exposed areas of the skin. ALP is reported to occur in the African, Middle Eastern,and Indian populations, with very few cases reported in Caucasians. Here, we report a case of ALP in a Japanese man; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of ALP in the East Asian population. A 52-year-old Japanese man developed recurrent painful annular erythema on the face and hands. Histopathological examination of his skin biopsy revealed lichenoid-type infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes. We established a diagnosis of ALP on the basis of the distribution of eruptions only on the sunlight-exposed areas and histological findings. Oral administration of systemic steroids proved effective in improving his condition. Lichen planus is known to be induced by an irritant (Koebner phenomenon);we believe that our patient is genetically susceptible to sunlight exposure and that sunlight acted as an irritant stimulating the development of ALP.

  20. Reintroduction of a Homocysteine Level-Associated Allele into East Asians by Neanderthal Introgression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ya; Ding, Qiliang; He, Yungang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of Neanderthal introgression at the dipeptidase 1 gene, DPEP1. A Neanderthal origin for the putative introgressive haplotypes was demonstrated using an established three-step approach. This introgression was under positive natural selection, reached a frequency of >50%, and introduced a homocysteine level- and pigmentation-associated allele (rs460879-T) into East Asians. However, the same allele was also found in non-East Asians, but not from Neanderthal introgression. It is likely that rs460879-T was lost in East Asians and was reintroduced subsequently through Neanderthal introgression. Our findings suggest that Neanderthal introgression could reintroduce an important previously existing allele into populations where the allele had been lost. This study sheds new light on understanding the contribution of Neanderthal introgression to the adaptation of non-Africans. PMID:26392408

  1. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations to increase in eastern China (4.4%), southern China (10%), western China (2.3%), and the Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  2. Genome-wide association study in East Asians suggests UHMK1 as a novel bone mineral density susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung Jin; Park, Hyojung; Zhang, Lei; Kim, Jung Hee; Kim, Ye An; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Pei, Yu-Fang; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hui; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Deng, Hong-Wen; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Soo

    2016-10-01

    To identify genetic variants that influence bone mineral density (BMD) in East Asians, we performed a quantitative trait analysis of lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck BMD in a Korean population-based cohort (N=2729) and follow-up replication analysis in a Chinese Han population and two Caucasian populations (N=1547, 2250 and 987, respectively). From the meta-analysis of the stage 1 discovery analysis and stage 2 replication analysis, we identified four BMD loci that reached near-genome-wide significance level (P<5×10(-7)). One locus on 1q23 (UHMK1, rs16863247, P=4.1×10(-7) for femoral neck BMD and P=3.2×10(-6) for total hip BMD) was a novel BMD signal. Interestingly, rs16863247 was very rare in Caucasians (minor allele frequency<0.01), indicating that this association could be specific to East Asians. In gender specific analysis, rs1160574 on 1q32 (KCNH1) was associated with femoral neck BMD (P=2.1×10(-7)) in female subjects. rs9371538 in the known BMD region on 6q25 ESR1 was associated with lumbar spine BMD (P=5.6×10(-9)). rs7776725 in the known BMD region on 7q31 WTN16 was associated with total hip BMD (P=8.6×10(-9)). In osteoblasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was increased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown decreased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression increased its differentiation. In osteoclasts, endogenous UHMK1 expression was decreased during differentiation and UHMK1 knockdown increased its differentiation, while UHMK1 overexpression decreased its differentiation. In conclusion, our genome-wide association study identified the UHMK1 gene as a novel BMD locus specific to East Asians. Functional studies suggest a role of UHMK1 on regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:27424934

  3. The Lepidostoma coreanum Species Complex (Trichoptera, Lepidostomatidae) in the Asian Far East.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomiko

    2016-01-01

    A total of 68 species of genus Lepidostoma Rambur (Trichoptera; Lepidostomatidae) has been reported from the Asian Far East. L. coreanum (Kumanski & Weaver 1992) was originally described from North Korea. Detail examination of specimens of this species and its related specimens collected in the Asian Far East revealed the hypothetical definition of L. coreanum and the presence of 4 new related species, L. niigataense sp. nov., L. hattorii sp. nov., L. yuwanense sp. nov., and L. ishigakiense sp. nov. The species assemblage is named as the Lepidostoma coreanum Species Complex. PMID:27395509

  4. Signature of positive selection of PTK6 gene in East Asian populations: a cross talk for Helicobacter pylori invasion and gastric cancer endemicity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pankaj; Lu, Dongsheng; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-10-01

    Analysis of natural selection events is an attractive strategy for identification of functional variants shaped by gene-environmental interactions and human adaptation. Here, we identified PTK6, a Src-related tyrosine kinase gene, underlying positive selection in East Asian populations. Interestingly, PTK6 variant showed significant correlation with gastric cancer incidences which was the highest in East Asian populations. The high prevalence of gastric cancer in East Asians was also believed to be strongly affected by Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary habit. Therefore, we speculated a competitive interaction of cancer-associated molecules for activation/reduction, where PTK6 likely plays a role through CagA-driven signaling pathway after H. pylori infection. This hypothesis was also supported by our gene expression analysis and the dating of the selective event which was estimated to be ~16,500 years ago, much later than H. pylori invasion in human 50,000 years ago. Establishment of cross talk between PTK6 and CagA by functional studies may further elucidate the underlying biology of H. pylori-mediated gastric cancer.

  5. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  6. Academic Oral Communication Needs of East Asian International Graduate Students in Non-Science and Non-Engineering Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soonhyang

    2006-01-01

    East Asian students, the largest international student group in US higher education, are as a group typically known to be silent or reticent in class. This survey examined views of East Asian international graduate students concerning required academic listening and speaking skill levels in their university courses, their own difficulties in…

  7. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  8. The Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices of East Asian Families and Emotional Intelligence of Older Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Helen Y.

    2010-01-01

    Academic success among East Asian students is well known and almost stereotypical. Yet the attention to emotional well-being continues to be minimal. The discrepancy between academic success and social/emotional difficulties appears to be a problem among East Asian adolescents. This qualitative grounded theory study examines how the cultural…

  9. Brain Structure in Young and Old East Asians and Westerners: Comparisons of Structural Volume and Cortical Thickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Michael Wei Liang; Zheng, Hui; Goh, Joshua Oon Soo; Park, Denise; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2011-01-01

    There is an emergent literature suggesting that East Asians and Westerners differ in cognitive processes because of cultural biases to process information holistically (East Asians) or analytically (Westerners). To evaluate the possibility that such differences are accompanied by differences in brain structure, we conducted a large comparative…

  10. East Asian Heritage Language Education for a Plurilingual Reality in the United States: Practices, Potholes, and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang; Wen, Keying

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research about East Asian (mainly Chinese, Korean, and Japanese) heritage language (HL) teaching and learning in three contexts--the home, community heritage language schools, and programs in U.S. K-12 schools--this article discusses the challenges that East Asian subethnic groups face in improving HL education in each context.…

  11. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Yun; Shi, Guangyu; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-02-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF10 China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are US-China collaborative projects and the latter is a part of the China’s National Basic Research program (or often referred to as “973 project”). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  12. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-04-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are U.S.-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  13. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E.; Looger, Loren L.; Zhou, Xu-jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Harley, John B.; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,492 SLE cases and 12,675 controls from six East-Asian cohorts, to identify novel and better localize known SLE susceptibility loci. We identified 10 novel loci as well as 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the novel loci, the most significant was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta=3.75×10−117, OR=2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We localized the most likely functional variants for each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene regulation data. Ten putative variants are known to alter cis- or trans-gene expression. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B- and T-cell biology. Together with previously known loci, the explained heritability of SLE increases to 24%. Novel loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci, and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics. PMID:26808113

  14. High-density genotyping of immune-related loci identifies new SLE risk variants in individuals with Asian ancestry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Celi; Molineros, Julio E; Looger, Loren L; Zhou, Xu-Jie; Kim, Kwangwoo; Okada, Yukinori; Ma, Jianyang; Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Kim-Howard, Xana; Motghare, Prasenjeet; Bhattarai, Krishna; Adler, Adam; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Young Mo; Suh, Chang-Hee; Chung, Won Tae; Park, Yong-Beom; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shim, Seung Cheol; Kochi, Yuta; Suzuki, Akari; Kubo, Michiaki; Sumida, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Young Jin; Han, Bok-Ghee; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Wren, Jonathan D; Harley, John B; Shen, Nan; Chua, Kek Heng; Zhang, Hong; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Nath, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics.

  15. Potential Mental Health Problems of South East Asian Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Maryann

    1980-01-01

    Reports on the findings of a workshop conducted to study the mental health problems of Southeast Asian refugees and to project possible future problems. Findings show the refugees' preconceived notions of America, their inability to communicate, and their feelings of alienation and homesickness underlie most of the emotional problems. (PJM)

  16. Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Chu, Yangxi; Xia, Zehui; Zhou, Xinying; Li, Xiangzhong; Chu, Zhuding; Liu, Xiangjun; Shao, Da; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is an important millennial climate event during the last deglaciation. The substantial decreasing of monsoon strength in the East Asian monsoon region during the H1, as shown by stalagmite δ18O records, has been attributed to the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is caused by the slowdown/collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, records from different Asian monsoon regions show various trends in precipitation changes during the H1, and these trends cannot be solely interpreted by the southward shift of the ITCZ. In the present study, we reconstructed time-series of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 25,000 and 10,000 a BP from floodplain sediments in the Huai River Basin. A white sediment layer, distinct from other layers in the profile, contains significantly low TOC, tree pollen and fern spore contents, and more positive δ13Corg, and it is deposited during the H1 event. The determined TOC, pollen and δ13Corg time-series, together with previously reported stalagmite δ18O, indicate a catastrophic (severe) drought in Jianghuai Region, one of the East Asian monsoon regions, during the H1. The La Niña condition in tropical Pacific likely also contributes to the catastrophic drought in Jianghuai Region and the precipitation variations in the Asian monsoon region during the H1.

  17. Assessment of the Impact of The East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality Over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Nan; Ding, Aijun; Safieddine, Sarah; Valks, Pieter; Clerbaux, Cathy; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. In this region, studies showed that the East Asian monsoon plays a significant role in characterizing the temporal variation and spatial patterns of air pollution, since monsoon is a major atmospheric system affecting air mass transport, convection, and precipitation. Knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of Asian monsoon impact on the air quality in China under the background of global climate change. For the first time satellite observations of tropospheric ozone and its precursors will be integrated with the ground-based, aircraft measurements of air pollutants and model simulations to study the impact of the East Asian monsoon on air quality in China. We apply multi-platform satellite observations by the GOME-2, IASI, and MOPITT instruments to analyze tropospheric ozone and CO, precursors of ozone (NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO) and other related trace gases over China. Two years measurements of air pollutants including NO2, HONO, SO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a regional back-ground site in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China will be presented. The potential of using the current generation of satellite instruments, ground-based instruments and aircraft to monitor air quality changes caused by the East Asian monsoon circulation will be presented. Preliminary comparison results between satellite measurement and limited but valuable ground-based and aircraft measurements will also be showed.

  18. Beyond Language Barriers: Teaching Self-Efficacy among East Asian International Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunha

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined roles that perceived English fluency and sociocultural adaptation difficulty play in predicting self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in a sample of 119 international teaching assistants (ITAs) from East Asian countries of China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Results showed that a positive relationship between perceived English…

  19. The Dialectical Self-Concept: Contradiction, Change, and Holism in East Asian Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Boucher, Helen C.; Mori, Sumi C.; Wang, Lei; Peng, Kaiping

    2009-01-01

    Naïve dialecticism refers to a set of East Asian lay beliefs characterized by tolerance for contradiction, the expectation of change, and cognitive holism. In five studies, the authors examined the cognitive mechanisms that give rise to global self-concept inconsistency among dialectical cultures. Contradictory self-knowledge was more readily available (Study 1) and simultaneously accessible (Study 2) among East Asians (Japanese and Chinese) than among Euro-Americans. East Asians also exhibited greater change and holism in the spontaneous self-concept (Study 1) and inconsistency in their implicit self-beliefs (Study 3). Cultural differences in self-concept inconsistency were obtained when controlling for alternative explanatory variables, including self-criticism (Study 4) and self-concept certainty (Studies 2 and 3) and were fully mediated by a direct measure of dialecticism (Study 5). Naïve dialecticism provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding these cultural differences and the contradictory, changeable, and holistic nature of the East Asian self-concept. PMID:19106076

  20. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  1. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  2. Academic Difficulties Encountered by East Asian International University Students in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boram; Farruggia, Susan P.; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on learning difficulties experienced by East Asian International (EAI) students. Participants were 117 EAI students undertaking tertiary study at a major university, all were surveyed and 21 students were interviewed. The findings suggest that language limitations, academic content and learning styles were associated with…

  3. The Contents of Physics in the National Curricula of East Asian Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Young-Joon; Song, Jinwoong

    2001-01-01

    Describes the different social and cultural structures in East Asian countries compared to western countries. Discusses the ineffectiveness of imported educational theories in local practice. Compares the content of physics at the secondary school level in Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan. (Author/YDS)

  4. Do East Asian and Euro-Canadian women differ in sexual psychophysiology research participation?

    PubMed

    Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

    2010-07-01

    Evidence from studies of ethnic differences in sexual conservativeness and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing behaviors suggests that there may be culture-linked differences in rates of participation in physically invasive sexuality studies, resulting in volunteer bias. The effects of ethnicity and acculturation on participation in female psychophysiological sexual arousal research were investigated in a sample of Euro-Canadian (n = 50) and East Asian (n = 58) women. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and were given either course credits or $10 for their participation. Participants were then informed about the opportunity to participate in a second phase of the study, which involved psychophysiological sexual arousal testing and which was completely optional. Contrary to expectations, the results showed that the East Asian women were more likely to participate in Phase 2 than the Euro-Canadian women. Among the East Asian women, greater heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation predicted a lower likelihood of Phase 2 participation. The findings suggest the need to be wary of overgeneralizing female psychophysiological sexual arousal research results and may have implications for improving Pap testing behaviors in East Asian women.

  5. Silent Participation: East Asian International Graduate Students' Views on Active Classroom Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soonhyang

    2008-01-01

    The author reports on perceptions of East Asian international graduate students (EAGS) regarding active classroom participation, as revealed through two focus group interviews with 15 EAGS at a large Midwestern research university in the U.S. The findings indicate that most EAGS shared similar views with their university instructors and American…

  6. Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents from Mexican and East Asian Immigrant Families in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Acock, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the National Educational Longitudinal Survey 1988 (NELS:88), this study identified (1) the growth pattern of academic achievement of adolescent children from Mexican and East Asian immigrant families; (2) investigated to what extent ethnicity and family capital influenced the trajectories in the academic achievement of children from…

  7. Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…

  8. East Asian Higher Education: Traditions and Transformations. Issues in Higher Education Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Albert H., Ed.

    This volume contains 15 papers on higher education in 13 East Asian societies as well as the region as a whole, including analysis of leading issues such as tyranny versus democracy and state-funded versus proprietary higher education. Following an editorial by A. H. Yee, the papers include: "The University of Tokyo: The Graduate School…

  9. Motivational Orientations and Second Learner Variables of East Asian Language Learners in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jean Sook Ryu

    2003-01-01

    College Students enrolled in East Asian language classes were surveyed about their language learning motivational orientations (MOs). MOs were classified and measured on seven subscales; integrative, instrumental, heritage-related, travel, interest, school-related, and language use. Learners were highly influenced by interest, language use, and…

  10. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  11. Decadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode and its influence on the East Asian trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunhui; Zhou, Botao; Ding, Yihui

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the decadal variation of the stratosphere-troposphere coupled system around the year 2000 by using the NCEP reanalysis-2 data. Specifically, the relationship between the Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode (NAM) and the tropospheric East Asian trough is investigated in order to find the effective stratospheric signals during cold air outbreaks in China. Statistical analyses and dynamic diagnoses both indicate that after 2000, increased stratospheric polar vortex disturbances occur and the NAM is mainly in negative phase. The tropospheric polar areas are directly affected by the polar vortex, and in the midlatitudes, the Ural blocking high and East Asian trough are more active, which lead to enhanced cold air activities in eastern and northern China. Further investigation reveals that under this circulation pattern, downward propagations of negative NAM index are closely related to the intensity variation of the East Asian trough. When negative NAM anomalies propagate down to the upper troposphere and reach a certain intensity (standardized NAM index less than-1), they result in apparent reinforcement of the East Asian trough, which reaches its maximum intensity about one week later. The northerly wind behind the trough transports cold air southward and eastward, and the range of influence and the intensity are closely associated with the trough location. Therefore, the NAM index can be used as a measure of the signals from the disturbed stratosphere to give some indication of cold air activities in China.

  12. East Asian International Students and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…

  13. Putting Higher Education in Its Place in (East Asian) Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessop, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article relates changes in higher education (HE) and research in East Asian societies to recent trends in political economy and, in particular, the reorientation of developmental states (DSs) in the region. The DS is oriented to catch-up competitiveness and, as the horizon of development shifts, so do its appropriate institutional forms and…

  14. Addressing Indigenous (ICT) Approaches in South-East Asian Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a structural overview about indigenous approaches to learning in South East Asian countries, with a particular reference to education initiatives that have been operating in this region; and especially to investigate information and communication technologies (ICT) systems, in combination with…

  15. An Emergent Leadership Model Based on Confucian Virtues and East Asian Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, LingLing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    For more than 2000 years, Confucian teaching has had tremendous influence on the history, politics, economy, and culture of East Asian countries and regions. Despite the rapid growth in gross domestic product (GDP), people's standard of living, and economic advancements, Confucian Asia continues to adhere to the Confucian cultural values that they…

  16. Larvae of two East-Asian species of Nemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae).

    PubMed

    Teslenko, Valentina A

    2016-01-01

    Associated larvae of the two East-Asian Nemoura species, N. papilla Okamoto and N. ussuriensis Zhiltzova are described and illustrated in detail for the first time. The main diagnostic features of late instar larvae of both species are color and pigment patterns, the chaetotaxy of the pronotum, legs, abdomen, and cercal segments. PMID:27615981

  17. The dialectical self-concept: contradiction, change, and holism in East asian cultures.

    PubMed

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Boucher, Helen C; Mori, Sumi C; Lei Wang; Kaiping Peng

    2009-01-01

    Naïve dialecticism refers to a set of East Asian lay beliefs characterized by tolerance for contradiction, the expectation of change, and cognitive holism. In five studies, the authors examined the cognitive mechanisms that give rise to global self-concept inconsistency among dialectical cultures. Contradictory self-knowledge was more readily available (Study 1) and simultaneously accessible (Study 2) among East Asians (Japanese and Chinese) than among Euro-Americans. East Asians also exhibited greater change and holism in the spontaneous self-concept (Study 1) and inconsistency in their implicit self-beliefs (Study 3). Cultural differences in self-concept inconsistency were obtained when controlling for alternative explanatory variables, including self-criticism (Study 4) and self-concept certainty (Studies 2 and 3) and were fully mediated by a direct measure of dialecticism (Study 5). Naïve dialecticism provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding these cultural differences and the contradictory, changeable, and holistic nature of the East Asian self-concept.

  18. The Evolving Teacher Identities of 12 South/East Asian Teachers in US Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Nugrahenny Tourisia

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the evolving teacher identities of 12 South/East Asian teachers during their study in the United States. Grounded in poststructuralist views of identities, the study employed narrative analysis to capture the complexities of teacher identity construction. Narrative data were collected through in-depth individual interviews,…

  19. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome (Asian variant) in a Caucasian patient.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Chakrabarty, Jennifer H; Kern, William F; Magharyous, Hany; Gehrs, Bradley C; Li, Shibo

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is an aggressive and extremely rare extranodal lymphoma with neoplastic lymphoid cells confined exclusively within intravascular spaces. The histopathologic findings are subtle due to the rarity of the neoplastic cells in blood vessels. Clinical presentations are non-specific and focal space-occupying lesions or lymphoadenopathy are always lacking. It is a diagnostic challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is uncommon and is typically associated with infection, malignancy, and suppressed immune states. Intravascular lymphoma has a strong association with hemophagocytic syndrome in Asian patients, the so-called "Asian variant", but not in Western patients. We report a case of intravascular B-cell lymphoma in a Caucasian patient associated with secondary hemophagocytic syndrome. The patient was diagnosed by core liver biopsy and successfully treated. This case demonstrates the importance of high index of suspicion and astute histopathologic examination in recognition of this unusual clinical and pathologic combination.

  20. Role of the North Pacific sea surface temperature in the East Asian winter monsoon decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianqi; Wu, Sha; Ao, Juan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a possible mechanism for the decadal variability in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is proposed. Specifically, the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) may play an important role. An analysis of the observations shows that the North Pacific SST has a remarkable decadal pattern whose phase shifted around the mid-1980s. This North Pacific SST decadal pattern can weaken the East Asian trough and enhance the North Pacific Oscillation through changing air-sea interactions over the North Pacific. The weak East Asian trough enhances the zonal circulation and weakens the meridional circulation over East Asia, consequently leading to a weaker southward cold surge and East Asia warming around the mid-1980s. The numerical experiment further confirms the pronounced physical processes. In addition, over the longer period of 1871-2012, the indices of the EAWM and North Pacific SST decadal pattern are also highly consistent on the decadal timescale, which further confirms the impact of the North Pacific SST decadal pattern on the EAWM decadal variability.

  1. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models

  2. Attribution of East Asian summer interdecadal variations: one simulation study by the GFDL AM2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Hoerling, M.; Perlwitz, J.

    2006-12-01

    East Asia has been experiencing significant climatological severity in the recent quarter century. In summer, more floods occurred in south China along with more droughts in north China. The drier-than-before deserts in northern north China cause more and more dust storms, which tends to adhere toxic contaminants to reach densely-populated areas of China, Japan, and Korea. It has become one public health concern in these countries. In addition to these surface climate trends, the troposphere over East Asia has exhibited a cooling trend, in contrast with the warming in the other areas at the same mid-latitudes. However, the causality for these East Asian interdecadal variations remains controversy and unclear. In this study, the GFDL AM2 is used to study the attribution of this climate trend, since one validation suggests that this model simulates the observed East Asian summer monsoon well and is thus appropriate for the present purpose. Several sets of forced experiments are performed with separate or combined external forcings, including global or extratropical or tropical SST trend change, the greenhouse gas concentration increase, and the aerosol change. The simulated response difference between two 20-year periods, 1950-1969 and 1980-1999, is analyzed. The results demonstrate that the East Asian interdecadal variations can be attributed considerably to the direct influence of the global SST trend change, especially the warming of tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. In contrast, the direct influences from greenhouse gas concentration increase or from aerosol change including the increased emission of human-made aerosols are secondary. Further diagnoses indicate that the simulated response of the monsoon circulation systems, including the west Pacific subtropical anticyclone, the south Asian high, the lower-level southwesterly air flow to East Asia, and the across-equator trade wind, to the SST trend resembles the observed.

  3. Choosing Canadian Graduate Schools from Afar: East Asian Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education. A synthesis model is developed to explain their decision-making "process," while a push-pull model is used to understand the strengths of and relationships among various "factors" that influence the choice…

  4. East-Asian Students' Choice of Canadian Graduate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing the enrollment decision, and to describe possible implications both for education-exporting countries and universities offering graduate…

  5. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-01-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529

  6. Incretin-based drugs for type 2 diabetes: Focus on East Asian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Seino, Yutaka; Kuwata, Hitoshi; Yabe, Daisuke

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes in East Asians is characterized primarily by β-cell dysfunction, and with less adiposity and less insulin resistance compared with that in Caucasians. Such pathophysiological differences can determine the appropriate therapeutics for the disease. Incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, are secreted in response to meal ingestion, and enhance insulin secretion glucose-dependently. Incretin-based drugs, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, that ameliorate β-cell dysfunction with limited hypoglycemia risk are now widely used in type 2 diabetes management. Recent meta-analyses of clinical trials on DPP-4i and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists found that the drugs were more effective in Asians, most likely because of amelioration of β-cell dysfunction. In addition, we found increased glycated hemoglobin-lowering effects of DPP-4i to be associated with intake of fish in type 2 diabetes, which suggests that dietary customs of East Asians might also underlie the greater efficacy of DPP-4i. Despite the limited risk, cases of severe hypoglycemia were reported for DPP-4i/sulfonylureas combinations. Importantly, hypoglycemia was more frequent in patients also receiving glibenclamide or glimepiride, which activate exchange protein directly activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate 2, a critical mediator of incretin signaling, and was less frequent in patients receiving gliclazide, which does not activate exchange protein directly activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate 2. Prevention of insulin-associated hypoglycemia by DPP-4i has gained attention with regard to the enhancement of hypoglycemia-induced glucagon secretion by insulinotropic polypeptide, but remains to be investigated in East Asians. Despite the safety issues, which are paramount and must be carefully monitored, the incretin-based drugs could have potential as a first choice therapy in

  7. Selection and reduced population size cannot explain higher amounts of Neandertal ancestry in East Asian than in European human populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bernard Y; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2015-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data.

  8. Selection and Reduced Population Size Cannot Explain Higher Amounts of Neandertal Ancestry in East Asian than in European Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bernard Y.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the greater proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans is due to the fact that purifying selection is less effective at removing weakly deleterious Neandertal alleles from East Asian populations. Using simulations of a broad range of models of selection and demography, we have shown that this hypothesis cannot account for the higher proportion of Neandertal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans. Instead, more complex demographic scenarios, most likely involving multiple pulses of Neandertal admixture, are required to explain the data. PMID:25683122

  9. The IAU's East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2014-09-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.

  10. Comparison of efficacy and safety of two starting insulin regimens in non-Asian, Asian Indian, and East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc analysis of the PARADIGM study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Linong; Min, Kyung Wan; Oliveira, Juliana; Lew, Thomas; Duan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of insulin lispro mix 25 (25% insulin lispro and 75% insulin lispro protamine suspension [LM25]) or insulin glargine plus insulin lispro (G+L) in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes from different racial/ethnic groups. Methods Three subgroups from the PARADIGM study were analyzed post hoc: non-Asian (n=130), Asian Indian (n=106), and East Asian (n=89). Results All subgroups recorded glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reductions: non-Asian (LM25, −2.07%; G+L, −2.05%), Asian Indian (LM25, −1.75%; G+L, −1.60%), and East Asian (LM25, −2.03%; G+L, −1.76%); end point HbA1c values were higher in Asian Indians and East Asians than in non-Asians. Fewer Asian Indians (LM25, 43.2%; G+L, 29.2%) and East Asians (LM25, 37.5%; G+L, 36.1%) reached HbA1c <7% versus non-Asians (LM25, 51.7%; G+L, 48.1%); differences were not significant (P=0.12 and P=0.06, respectively). The mean total daily insulin dose (U/kg) for non-Asians was 0.67 (LM25) and 0.61 (G+L), for Asian Indians was 0.91 (LM25) and 0.90 (G+L), and for East Asians was 0.53 (LM25) and 0.59 (G+L). The ratio of mealtime to total insulin dose in the G+L arm for non-Asians was 0.19±0.23, for Asian Indians was 0.33±0.25, and for East Asians was 0.34±0.27. Overall incidence (%) of hypoglycemia in non-Asians was 94.1 (LM25) and 91.8 (G+L), in Asian Indians was 90.4 (LM25) and 88.5 (G+L), and in East Asians was 69.8 (LM25) and 77.3 (G+L). Conclusion Asian Indians showed least improvement in glycemic HbA1c reduction despite greater insulin use. East Asians and non-Asians achieved similar HbA1c reduction in the LM25 arm with a lower rate of hypoglycemia. Asians required more mealtime insulin coverage than non-Asians. This study added important insight into the effect of ethnicity on insulin treatment outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27563254

  11. Health impact assessment needs in south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.

    2003-01-01

    A situation analysis was undertaken to assess impediments to health impact assessment (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were assessed on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329

  12. Possible influence of Arctic oscillation on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jingxuan; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Li, Sang

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the possible influence of the springtime Arctic oscillation (AO) on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt has been studied for the period of 1979 to 2014. To capture the features of the large-scale variability of the atmospheric circulation and precipitation, singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was performed. The domain for precipitation is from 21.25 to 33.75° N and 111.25 to 133.25° E, and the 1000 hPa heights are from 20° N northward. Prior to analysis, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals were linearly fitted and subtracted from the variables of interest. The first paired modes explain 51.1 % of the total squared covariance. The spatial feature of the pressure mode is almost identical to that of the positive AO pattern, while the precipitation mode displays an overall less-than-normal anomaly along the rain belt. The AO indices are highly correlated with the time coefficients of the pressure mode at a value of 0.91, and for the time coefficients of the precipitation mode, the correlation is -0.44, both of which are significant at the 99 % level. The regional atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with the negative phase AO mode display consistent changes, including the anomalous southerly winds and vapor flux convergence in the lower troposphere over East Asia, the stronger East Asian westerly jet stream, and the enhanced ascending air motion between 20 and 30° N. There are two possible mechanisms linking the AO and East Asian circulation and precipitation, i.e., the wave-trains along the westerly jet stream from North Africa to the Middle East and East Asia and the dipole of an anti-cyclone and a cyclone over the North Pacific.

  13. The Association Between Built Environment Attributes and Physical Activity in East Asian Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Chan, Edwin Shih-Yen

    2016-04-01

    Asian adolescents living in Australia and England were found to be less active than their Western peers. We aimed to systematically examine evidence of the associations between attributes of the built environment and physical activity in adolescents dwelling in East Asian countries. A total of 10 electronic databases for relevant observational studies without time limit were searched. Five studies met the eligibility criteria, which involved a total of 43 817 schoolchildren aged 11 to 17 years. The majority of the built environment attributes measured was significantly associated with reported physical activity. Difficult access to public facilities was associated with physical inactivity. Inconsistent finding of the association between residential density and physical activity was found. Further studies comparing participants from different Asian countries using a longitudinal design with an appropriate period of follow-up and both objective and reported measures of built environment attributes and physical activity are needed.

  14. Acculturative stress and use of the Internet among East Asian international students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiali

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the relationships between acculturative stress of East Asian international students and their use of the Internet, taking into account Internet types (English-language Internet and native-language Internet) and Internet motives. A survey was conducted among 115 East Asian international students who attended a large urban university in the southeastern United States. On average, students used English-language Internet more than native-language Internet. A positive correlation was found between using English-language Internet and English proficiency. The analysis identified three Internet motives: information seeking, relaxation/entertainment, and social utility. Perceived discrimination was a positive predictor of the motives of social utility and relax/entertainment. Fear was a positive predictor of the motive of social utility. PMID:15938655

  15. Validating the dynamic downscaling ability of WRF for East Asian summer climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiangbo; Hou, Wenjuan; Xue, Yongkang; Wu, Shaohong

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the regional climate model (RCM) performance for East Asian summer climate and the influencing factors, this study evaluated the dynamic downscaling ability of the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) RCM. According to the comprehensive comparison studies on different physical processes and experimental settings, the optimal combination of WRF model setups can be obtained for East Asian precipitation and temperature simulations. Furthermore, based on the optimal combination, when compared with climate observations, WRF shows high ability to downscale NCEP DOE Reanalysis-2, which provided initial and lateral boundary conditions for the WRF, especially for the precipitation simulation due to the better simulated low-level water vapor flux. However, the strengthened Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) from WRF simulation results in the positive anomaly for summer rainfall.

  16. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis

    PubMed Central

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country’s most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu’s maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species. PMID:26488600

  17. The Relationship between the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and the East Asian Surface Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Kim, Ga-Young; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The tropospheric ozone is known as one of the short-lived climate pollutants and the greenhouse gases, but little is known about it. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the relationship between the western North Pacific subtropical high and the East Asian surface ozone. For the study, we used the trajectory enhanced tropospheric ozone residual (TTOR) for 9 years (2005-2013) and GEOS-Chem model data for 41 years (1971-2011). Despite the short period, the observation well shows the ozone concentration changes according to the WNPSH strength and the model as well. WNPSH enhances the convection along the East Asian monsoon band and the surface ozone concentration decreases. The ozone concentration increases in the area around the rainband. Depending on the location of the rain band, the ozone concentration changes. This study indicates that the ozone concentration is affected by not only the emission of ozone precursors and but also the meteorological condition.

  18. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    PubMed

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  19. The Rapid Arctic Warming and Its Impact on East Asian Winter Weather in Recent Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. J.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than the lower latitudes. In contrast to the rapid Arctic warming, in winters of the recent decade, the cold-air outbreaks over East Asia occur more frequently and stronger than in 1990s. By accompanying the snow over East Asia, the strong cold surges have led to a severe socio-economic impact. Such severe cold surges in recent decade over east Asia is consistent with the more dominant negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), that may be attributed by the Arctic amplification. In both observation-based reanalysis and numerical model experiments, the Arctic sea ice melting leads to the weakening of the AO polarity by reducing the meridional temperature gradient through a heat flux feedback. The Arctic warming and associated sea ice melting over the Kara-Barents area in late fall and early winter first release a lot of heat to the atmosphere from the ocean by a strong contrast in temperature and moisture and higher height anomaly is developed over the Kara/Barents and the Ural mountains The anomalous anticyclonic anomaly over the Arctic strengthen the Siberian High and at the same time the east Asian trough is developed over the western coast of the North Pacific. Through the passage between the margin of the Siberian High and east Asian tough, an extremely cold air is transported from east Siberia to east Asia for sometimes more than a week. Such a severe sold air brings about the moisture from nearby ocean, largely influencing the daily lives and economy in north East China, Korea, and Japan. The recent Arctic and associated sea ice melting is not only contributed to the local climate and weather, but also a severe weather in mid-latitudes through a modulation in polar vortex.

  20. Non-local Impact of South and East Asian Aerosols on Monsoon Onset and Withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollasina, M. A.; Bartlett, R. E.; Booth, B.; Dunstone, N. J.; Marenco, F.

    2015-12-01

    The powerful Asian monsoon is of vital importance to the billions of people who are reliant on its rainfall, especially considering that society within its domain is largely agrarian. This monsoon system comprises smaller regional components, including the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon. These components are linked to one another through large scale circulation. The impacts of rapidly increasing anthropogenic aerosols over Asia on the monsoon have been widely studied. However, most studies consider only regional impacts, and not the subsequent effects on other geographical components of the system. We use observational and modelling methods to investigate the links between the regional components of the Asian monsoon and how they are affected by aerosols. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth are used in conjunction with precipitation and atmospheric reanalysis data to investigate the problem at interannual timescales. Modelling experiments using HadGEM2-ES and GFDL CM3 are used to look at longer timescales and the potential influence of long term feedbacks. The HadGEM2 experiments use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with the same time-evolving greenhouse gases. The GFDL CM3 experiments are forced by historical regional anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Using these methods, we look at the separate impact that South and East Asian aerosols have on monsoon onset and withdrawal. We focus on impacts in regions non-local to the aerosol source. We will also present proposed mechanisms for the apparent effects based on analysis of large scale circulation and atmospheric heating.

  1. How much of the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by SST?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Wu, Bo; Li, Chunhui; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the interannual variability of East Asian summer rainfall is forced by sea surface temperature (SST), and SST anomalies are widely used as predictors of East Asian summer rainfall. But it is still not very clear what percentage of the interannual rainfall variability is contributed by SST anomalies. In this study, Atmospheric general circulation model simulations forced by observed interannual varying SST are compared with those forced by the fixed annual cycle of SST climatology, and their ratios of interannual variance (IAV) are analyzed. The output of 12 models from the 5th Phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are adopted, and idealized experiments are done by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). Both the multi-model median of CMIP5 models and CAM4 experiments show that only about 18 % of the IAV of rainfall over East Asian land (EAL) is explained by SST, which is significantly lower than the tropical western Pacific, but comparable to the mid-latitude western Pacific. There is no significant difference between the southern part and the northern part of EAL in the percentages of SST contribution. The remote SST anomalies regulates rainfall over EAL probably by modulating the horizontal water vapor transport rather than the vertical motion, since the horizontal water vapor transport into EAL is strongly modulated by SST but the vertical motion over EAL is not. Previous studies argued about the relative importance of tropical Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean to East Asian summer rainfall anomalies. Our idealized experiments performed by CAM4 suggest that the contributions from these two ocean basins are comparable to each other, both of which account for approximately 6 % of the total IAV of rainfall over EAL.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. METHOD This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. RESULTS Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%–55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1–30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. PMID:24152086

  3. A hypervariable STR polymorphism in the CFI gene: southern origin of East Asian-specific group H alleles.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Isao; Jin, Feng; Harihara, Shinji; Matsusue, Aya; Fujihara, Junko; Takeshita, Haruo; Akane, Atsushi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Saitou, Naruya; Chattopadhyay, Prasanta K

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of four populations revealed that a hypervariable short tandem repeat (iSTR) in intron 7 of the human complement factor I (CFI) gene on chromosome 4q was unique, with 17 possible East Asian-specific group H alleles observed at relatively high frequencies. To develop a deeper anthropological and forensic understanding of iSTR, 1161 additional individuals from 11 Asian populations were investigated. Group H alleles of iSTR and c.1217A allele of a SNP in exon 11 of the CFI gene were associated with each other and were almost entirely confined to East Asian populations. Han Chinese in Changsha, southern China, showed the highest frequency for East Asian-specific group H alleles (0.201) among 15 populations. Group H alleles were observed to decrease gradually from south to north in 11 East Asian populations. This expansion of group H alleles provides evidence that southern China and Southeast Asia are a hotspot of Asian diversity and a genetic reservoir of Asians after they entered East Asia. The expected heterozygosity values of iSTR ranged from 0.927 in Thais to 0.874 in Oroqens, higher than those of an STR in the fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) gene on chromosome 4q. Thus, iSTR is a useful marker for anthropological and forensic genetics.

  4. Biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins: a case study of Hynobius biogeography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Fu, Cuizhang; Lei, Guangchun

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping patterns and processes of extant animal distributions within East Asian margins. We select Hynobius salamanders (Amphibia: Hynobiidae) as a model to examine biogeographical consequences of Cenozoic tectonic events within East Asian margins. First, we use GenBank molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships of Hynobius by bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. Second, we estimate the divergence time using the bayesian relaxed clock approach and infer dispersal/vicariance histories under the 'dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis' model. Finally, we test whether evolutionary history and biogeographical processes of Hynobius should coincide with the predictions of two major hypotheses (the 'vicariance'/'out of southwestern Japan' hypothesis). The resulting phylogeny confirmed Hynobius as a monophyletic group, which could be divided into nine major clades associated with six geographical areas. Our results show that: (1) the most recent common ancestor of Hynobius was distributed in southwestern Japan and Hokkaido Island, (2) a sister taxon relationship between Hynobius retardatus and all remaining species was the results of a vicariance event between Hokkaido Island and southwestern Japan in the Middle Eocene, (3) ancestral Hynobius in southwestern Japan dispersed into the Taiwan Island, central China, 'Korean Peninsula and northeastern China' as well as northeastern Honshu during the Late Eocene-Late Miocene. Our findings suggest that Cenozoic tectonic evolution plays an important role in shaping disjunctive distributions of extant Hynobius within East Asian margins.

  5. Multifactorial approaches for correction of the drooping tip of a long nose in East asians.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Geun; Jeong, Hoijoon; Ye, Choon Ho

    2014-11-01

    A long nose with a drooping tip is a major aesthetic problem. It creates a negative and aged appearance and looks worse when smiling. In order to rectify this problem, the underlying anatomical causes should be understood and corrected simultaneously to optimize surgical outcomes. The causes of a drooping tip of a long nose are generally classified into two mechanisms. Static causes usually result from malposition and incorrect innate shape of the nasal structure: the nasal septum, upper and lower lateral cartilages, and the ligaments in between. The dynamic causes result from the facial expression muscles, the depressor septi nasi muscle, and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle. The depressor septi nasi depresses the nasal tip and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi pulls the alar base upwards. Many surgical methods have been introduced, but partial approaches to correct such deformities generally do not satisfy East Asians, making the problem more challenging to surgeons. Typically, East Asians have thick nasal tip soft tissue and skin, and a depressed columella and alar bases. The authors suggest that multifactorial approaches to static and dynamic factors along with ancillary causes should be considered for correcting the drooping tip of the long noses of East Asians.

  6. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4,311). Less than 10% of East Asian adolescents have ever had sexual intercourse. However, most of these sexually active adolescents have engaged in risky sexual behaviours, including multiple sexual partners and non-condom use at last intercourse. In particular, nearly half of sexually active girls reported not using a condom at last intercourse. Compared to immigrant students whose primary language at home was not English, immigrant and Canadian-born students speaking English at home were more likely to experience sexual intercourse. Among students who have never had sexual intercourse, two most common reasons for sexual abstinence were not feeling ready and waiting to meet the right person. Findings suggest the need for sexual health interventions tailored to gender and sociocultural contexts in which adolescents live. PMID:27087776

  7. Performance of different SNP panels for parentage testing in two East Asian cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Strucken, E M; Gudex, B; Ferdosi, M H; Lee, H K; Song, K D; Gibson, J P; Kelly, M; Piper, E K; Porto-Neto, L R; Lee, S H; Gondro, C

    2014-08-01

    The International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) proposed a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for parentage testing in cattle (a core panel of 100 SNPs and an additional list of 100 SNPs). However, markers specific to East Asian taurine cattle breeds were not included, and no information is available as to whether the ISAG panel performs adequately for these breeds. We tested ISAG's core (100 SNP) and full (200 SNP) panels on two East Asian taurine breeds: the Korean Hanwoo and the Japanese Wagyu, the latter from the Australian herd. Even though the power of exclusion was high at 0.99 for both ISAG panels, the core panel performed poorly with 3.01% false-positive assignments in the Hanwoo population and 3.57% in the Wagyu. The full ISAG panel identified all sire-offspring relations correctly in both populations with 0.02% of relations wrongly excluded in the Hanwoo population. Based on these results, we created and tested two population-specific marker panels: one for the Wagyu population, which showed no false-positive assignments with either 100 or 200 SNPs, and a second panel for the Hanwoo, which still had some false-positive assignments with 100 SNPs but no false positives using 200 SNPs. In conclusion, for parentage assignment in East Asian cattle breeds, only the full ISAG panel is adequate for parentage testing. If fewer markers should be used, it is advisable to use population-specific markers rather than the ISAG panel.

  8. Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.

    PubMed

    Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

  9. Vitamin D in North-East Asian clinical nutrition practice.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Sound clinical nutrition practice is grounded in evidence and stimulated by research. Yet, there are unanswered questions about food-health relationships. Clinical nutrition involves the identification of nutritional disorders and the motivation to rectify them with all required care. Vitamin D health exemplifies the biomedical, societal and environmental dimensions of clinical nutrition, its science and practice. It depends most of all on access to sunshine and food and probably represents a paradigm in human health which is still at its beginning. Nevertheless, the problem of its deficiency is much more widespread and common than has been thought since it was first identified as a cause of rickets and osteomalacia. It is now known to spare no body organ or system. The problem in North-East Asia is comparable to much of the rest of the world, but the risk profile for it is exaggerated by atmospheric pollution, cultures with sun-avoidance on account of skin colour and potentially mitigated by foodstuffs like fish, eggs, organ meats and mushrooms which can partially offset sunshine-deficiency. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and confirmation by biochemistry which may not be affordable. Therefore a close working relationship between public health and clinical nutritionist is essential.

  10. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  11. Distinguishing interannual variations of the northern and southern components of the East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhang; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) related climate anomalies have shown large year-to-year variations in both the intensity and the meridional extent. The present study distinguishes the interannual variations of the low-latitude and mid-high-latitude components of the EAWM to gain a better understanding of the characteristics and factors of the EAWM variability. Through composite analysis based on two indices representing the northern and southern components of the EAWM variability, the present study clearly reveals features unique to the northern and southern components. The northern component is associated with changes in the mid-high-latitude circulation systems, including the Siberian high, the Aleutian low, the East Asian trough, and the East Asian westerly jet stream, whereas the southern component is closely related to circulation changes over the global tropics, the North Atlantic, and the North America. A strong northern component is accompanied by positive, negative, and positive surface temperature anomalies in the Indochina Peninsula, mid-latitude Asia, and northeast Russia. A strong southern component features lower temperature over tropics and higher temperature over mid-high-latitude Asia. On the interannual time scale, the northern component is significantly associated with both western and eastern autumn Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) anomalies, while the southern component is closely related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation do not have an obvious influence on both two components. The processes connecting autumn Arctic SIC anomalies to winter Asian circulation and temperature anomalies include anomalous pressure pattern around the Arctic through thermodynamic effect of Arctic SIC anomalies in autumn and downstream extension of circulation anomalies to Asia via wave activity propagation in winter.

  12. Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  13. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  14. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  15. Possible relationship between East Asian summer monsoon and western North Pacific tropical cyclone genesis frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the fact that strong positive correlations have existed between East Asian summer monsoons (EASMs) and western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the last 37 years was found. To figure out the cause of these correlations, 7 years (positive East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) phase) that have the highest values and 7 years (negative EASMI phase) that have the lowest values in the normalized EASM index were selected and the differences in averages between the two phases were analyzed. In the positive EASMI phase, TCs mainly occurred in the northwestern waters of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific and showed a tendency to move from the far eastern waters of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move northward toward Korea and Japan. On the 500 hPa streamline, whereas anomalous anticyclones developed in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous cyclones developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. Therefore, in this phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, western North Pacific summer monsoons (WNPSMs) were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. In addition, in the case of the East China Sea and the southern waters of Japan located between the two anomalous pressure systems, TCs could move some more toward the East Asia middle-latitude region in this phase. According to an analysis of the 850 hPa relative vorticity, negative anomalies were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region while positive anomalies were strengthened in the region south to 25 N. Therefore, in the positive EASMI phase, whereas EASMs were weakened, WNPSMs were strengthened so that some more TCs could occur. According to an analysis of the 850 and 200 hPa horizontal divergence, whereas anomalous downward flows were strengthened in the East Asia middle-latitude region, anomalous upward flows were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific. According to an analysis

  16. Nonmetric tooth crown traits in the Ami tribe, Taiwan aborigines: comparisons with other east Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Y; Rokutanda, A; Kitagawa, Y

    1992-10-01

    The frequencies of occurrence of 17 tooth crown traits in the living Ami tribe, which inhabits the east coast of Taiwan, were investigated and compared with other East Asian populations based on Turner's (1987) Mongoloid dental variation theory. Principal coordinate analysis based on Smith's mean measure of divergence using frequencies of the 17 traits suggests that the Ami tribe together with the Yami tribe and the Bunun tribe is included in the sinodont group typical of the Chinese mainland and northeast Asia. In light of these results and the estimated distribution of sinodonty and sundadonty in the past and the present, we speculate that the gene flow from Chinese mainlanders to native sundadonts, who seem to have migrated northward to Taiwan, contributed significantly to the formation of the living Taiwan aboriginal groups, sinodonts. Among the aboriginal tribes of Taiwan, the Ami have characteristics intermediate between those of the Yami and the Bunun. The relative positions of these tribes in East Asian populations suggests that the extent of sinodontification and of genetic isolation is one of the causes of the intertribal variation.

  17. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  18. Predictability of the East Asian winter monsoon indices by the coupled models of ENSEMBLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Se-Hwan; Lu, Riyu

    2014-11-01

    The seasonal predictability of various East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) indices was investigated in this study based on the retrospective forecasts of the five state-of-the-art coupled models from ENSEMBLES for a 46-year period of 1961-2006. It was found that the ENSEMBLES models predict five out of the 21 EAWM indices well, with temporal correlation coefficients ranging from 0.54 to 0.61. These five indices are defined by the averaged lower-tropospheric winds over the low latitudes (south of 30°N). Further analyses indicated that the predictability of these five indices originates from their intimate relationship with ENSO. A cross-validated prediction, which took the preceding (November) observed Niño3.4 index as a predictor, gives a prediction skill almost identical to that shown by the model. On the other hand, the models present rather low predictability for the other indices and for surface air temperature in East Asia. In addition, the models fail to reproduce the relationship between the indices of different categories, implying that they cannot capture the tropical-extratropical interaction related to EAWM variability. Together, these results suggest that reliable prediction of the EAWM indices and East Asian air temperature remains a challenge.

  19. Investigation of East Asian clouds with polarization light detection and ranging.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Sergei N; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon

    2015-04-10

    In this paper we present results of investigation of the main optical properties of East Asian clouds with a ground-based polarization lidar placed in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Asian dust is located in elevated layers of the atmosphere in spring, travels long distances, and causes significant damage to ecology. We present backscattering matrices of clouds obtained from polarimetric remote measurements which comprise information on the scattering and absorption properties of cloud particles, their morphology, and spatial orientation. Theory of our applied lidar polarization experiment is presented in terms of the instrumental vectors of a transmitter and a receiver. Methods of solving linear and nonlinear systems of equations comprising echo signals are considered. Some numerical and measurement results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and versatility of the method of estimating the cloud parameters.

  20. Two distinct mechanisms on East Asian surface temperature variability during summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Won, Yujin; Yeo, Sae-Rim; Yim, Bo Young

    2016-04-01

    The surface air temperature (SAT) in East Asia was examined in order to find global scale versus local scale factors that affected its variability during the summer (June-July-August). It was found that there exist a distinguished sub-seasonal variation, showing remarkable differences in its variability between early summer (June) and late summer (July and August). In particular, we pay attention to the variability of Korean SAT. This study revealed that Korean SAT during early and late summer is affected by different principal modes of SAT over East Asia domain. In particular, there was a significant warming trend in the Korean SAT during early summer, which was primarily influenced by a global warming trend that manifested in East Asia. Meanwhile, there exists the local scale variability of the Korean SAT, which is independent from the global warming signal. During late summer, on the other hand, the SAT variability in Korea was not significantly influenced by a warming trend, although the warming signal still accounts for majority of the SAT variance over East Asia. Instead, Korean SAT during late summer appears to be closely related to the atmospheric variability originated from the western tropical sea surface temperature (SST) forcing. These results implied that the East Asian SAT variability during early and late summer has different sources.

  1. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  2. Simple metrics for representing East Asian winter monsoon variability: Urals blocking and western Pacific teleconnection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Zhou, Wen

    2016-06-01

    Instead of conventional East Asian winter monsoon indices (EAWMIs), we simply use two large-scale teleconnection patterns to represent long-term variations in the EAWM. First, the Urals blocking pattern index (UBI) is closely related to cold air advection from the high latitudes towards western Siberia, such that it shows an implicit linkage with the Siberian high intensity and the surface air temperature (SAT) variations north of 40°N in the EAWM region. Second, the well-known western Pacific teleconnection index (WPI) is connected with the meridional displacement of the East Asian jet stream and the East Asian trough. This is strongly related to the SAT variations in the coastal area south of 40°N in the EAWM region. The temperature variation in the EAWM region is also represented by the two dominant temperature modes, which are called the northern temperature mode (NTM) and the southern temperature mode (STM). Compared to 19 existing EAWMIs and other well-known teleconnection patterns, the UBI shows the strongest correlation with the NTM, while the WPI shows an equally strong correlation with the STM as four EAWMIs. The UBI-NTM and WPI-STM relationships are robust when the correlation analysis is repeated by (1) the 31-year running correlation and (2) the 8-year high-pass and low-pass filter. Hence, these results are useful for analyzing the large-scale teleconnections of the EAWM and for evaluating this issue in climate models. In particular, more studies should focus on the teleconnection patterns over extratropical Eurasia.

  3. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  4. Asynchronous Patterns of East Asian Monsoon Climate Proxies during the Past 28 000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Y.; Li, L.; Jia, G.; He, J.; Dong, L.; Ma, X.; Shi, J.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The monsoon system serves as a "bridge" in the atmosphere; it connects the circulation between high and low latitudes, influencing the most densely populated regions on Earth. However, what role it played in the geological history is still elusive despite its significance. The climate of South China Sea and the ambient land masses are dominated by the East Asian monsoon, composed of the temperature-cooling East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the rain-bearing East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). In this study, high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST), terrestrial input and humidity changes since ~28 ka were reconstructed based on alkenones and long chain n-alkanes records in core MD12-3428 in northern South China Sea. Our results demonstrated complex and dynamic paleoclimatic situations since the last glacial superimposed on the overall glacial-interglacial trend. During the last deglacial, the rising of the sea level can be dated back to 17 ka and ended at ~12 ka, according to the gradual decrease of long chain n-alkanes concentrations. However, the SST warming began at ~15 ka (~2 000 years after the initial sea level uplift) and achieved a relatively stable state in mid-Holocene (~6 000 years after the sea level stablization). The humidity varibility linked with EASM based on C31/C27 and ACL record indicated highly humid conditions within the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) period, followed by a rapid drying towards the glacial level during Younger Dryas (YD). EASM gradually strengthened after YD when the sea level had run up to almost the present state, and weakened after ~6 ka when sea level and SST both reached the plateau. These large fluctuations of C31/C27 and ACL implied that humidity was more sensitive to climate events since the last deglacial when compared with SST and sea level. The asynchronous patterns of East Asian monsoon climate proxies in the present work indicated the complex heat transport and atmospheric circulation between low and high latitudes.

  5. Long-term changes in the relationship between stratospheric circulation and East Asian Winter Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, K.

    2015-12-01

    Using two generations of reanalysis datasets from the NCAR, ECMWF, and JMA, we showed that on the interannual timescale the two leading modes of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) are associated with tropospheric annular mode (AM) and stratospheric polar vortex (SPV), respectively. The relationship between AM and the first EAWM mode remained stable during 1958 to 2013, whereas that between SPV and the second EAWM mode increased since the late 1980s. The SPV-related circulation and planetary wave activities are intensified in the latter period. We suggested that this change might be caused by the global warming and ozone depletion.

  6. Exchange rate regimes, saving glut and the Feldstein Horioka puzzle: The East Asian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya-Bahçe, Seçil; Özmen, Erdal

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates whether the recent experience of the emerging East Asian countries with current account surpluses is consistent with the “saving glut” hypothesis and the Feldstein and Horioka puzzle. The evidence suggests that the saving retention coefficients declined substantially in most of the countries after an endogenous break date coinciding with a major exchange rate regime change with the 1997-1998 crisis. Exchange rate flexibility appears to be enhancing financial integration. The results are consistent with an “investment slump” explanation rather than the “saving glut” postulation.

  7. A potential vorticity-based index for the East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Wang, Bin; Wright, Jonathon S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel dynamically based index that reflects the strength of the regional potential vorticity (PV) intrusion on the 300 K isentropic surface is proposed as a reliable measure of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) intensity. The index captures essential aspects of the EAWM, including its climatic influences on East Asia, its continuous weakening trend since the 1980s, and its close relationships with the Siberian high, Arctic Oscillation, and El Niño. The use of a potential vorticity framework enables the definition of a new metric called continuous PV intrusion duration (CPVID), which can be used to monitor and explain wintertime weather extremes like the extreme snowfall event that occurred in south China during January 2008. The CPVID of March is comparable to that of December, indicating that data from this month should be included in estimates of the strength of the EAWM.

  8. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    PubMed

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified.

  9. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years.

  10. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    PubMed

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. PMID:27596560

  11. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years. PMID:24559735

  12. Relationship between early autumn Arctic sea ice and East Asian wintertime transient eddy activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Qigang

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice is suggested with wide impacts on the winter climate over East Asia. In this study, the relationship between the early autumn Arctic sea ice and the wintertime transient eddy activity over East Asia is investigated. Our singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis between the Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) and transient eddy kinetic energy (EKE) shows that with the decrease in SIC over the Siberia coast, Kara sea and Barents sea, the EKE around the Tibetan Plateau and the downstream regions increase significantly. This leading mode indicates that more than 60% variance of the wintertime East Asian transient eddy activity can be predicted from the SIC three month earlier. Possible dynamical processes responsible for the linkage between SIC and EKE are investigated. In the upstream of Tibetan Plateau, a branch of anomalous wave train is detected propagating southward from Ural Mountains to the North China and Tibet. In the downstream region of Tibetan Plateau, with the decrease in SIC, anomalous increase in synoptic eddy generation is found with the enhanced baroclinicity over the north slope of the Tibetan Plateau, which can result in the increase in EKE as well. Those two dynamical processes both act to enhance the transient eddy activity over East Asia.

  13. Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning

    2010-04-27

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as "cryptic domestication," given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East.

  14. East Asian observations of low-latitude aurora during the Carrington magnetic storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Hisashi; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Isobe, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Ryuho; Ebihara, Yusuke; Miyahara, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-10-01

    A magnetic storm around 1859 September 2, caused by a so-called Carrington flare, was the most intense in the history of modern scientific observations, and hence is considered to be a benchmark event concerning space weather. The magnetic storm caused worldwide observations of auroras, even at very low latitudes, such as Hawaii, Panama, or Santiago. Available magnetic-field measurements at Bombay, India, showed two peaks: the main was the Carrington event, which occurred in day time in East Asia; a second storm after the Carrington event occurred at night in East Asia. In this paper, we present results from surveys of aurora records in East Asia, which provide new information concerning the aurora activity of this important event. We found some new East Asian records of low-latitude aurora observations caused by a storm which occurred after the Carrington event. The size of the aurora belt of the second peak of the Carrington magnetic storm was even wider than that of usual low-latitude aurora events.

  15. The troika of business cycle, efficiency and volatility. An East Asian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Shaista; Rizvi, Syed Aun R.

    2015-02-01

    The EMH has been the subject of much debate over the past few decades, with a recent surge in interest in Asian markets. Asian markets which traditionally comprise of many emerging markets are more volatile and speculative in nature. The heart of our study focuses on the East Asian economies, which have experienced massive capital inflows. This begs the question of whether or not the stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our paper differs from existing literature as it focuses on deriving weak form efficiency rankings during different business cycle phases. We endeavour further to assess the volatility and business cycle phases. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency rankings and find firstly, the overall efficiency has improved over the past two decades and secondly, markets are more efficient in growth phases in comparison to its preceding decline. Similarly, employing wavelet decomposition in conjunction with EGARCH, we obtain volatility of stock markets in two distinct time horizons, i.e. short term and long term. We find the markets to be more stable during economic boom than its preceding bust. Our results confer with mainstream literature.

  16. An empirical seasonal prediction model of the east Asian summer monsoon using ENSO and NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2009-09-01

    How to predict the year-to-year variation of the east Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is one of the most challenging and important tasks in climate prediction. It has been recognized that the EASM variations are intimately but not exclusively linked to the development and decay of El Niño or La Niña. Here we present observed evidence and numerical experiment results to show that anomalous North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in spring (April-May) can induce a tripole sea surface temperature pattern in the North Atlantic that persists into ensuing summer and excite downstream development of subpolar teleconnections across the northern Eurasia, which raises (or lowers) the pressure over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea. The latter strengthens (or weakens) the east Asian subtropical front (Meiyu-Baiu-Changma), leading to a strong (or weak) EASM. An empirical model is established to predict the EASM strength by combination of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and spring NAO. Hindcast is performed for the 1979-2006 period, which shows a hindcast prediction skill that is comparable to the 14 state-of-the-art multimodel ensemble hindcast. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool.

  17. An Empirical Seasonal Prediction Model of the East Asian Summer Monsoon Using ENSO and NAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Wang, B.; Li, J.; Jin, F.

    2010-05-01

    How to predict the year-to-year variation of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is one of the most challenging and important tasks in climate prediction. It has been recognized that the EASM variations are intimately but not exclusively linked to the development and decay of El Niño or La Niña. Here, we present observed evidence and numerical experiment results to show that anomalous North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in spring (April-May) can induce a tripole sea surface temperature (SST) pattern in the North Atlantic that persists into ensuing summer and excite downstream development of sub-polar teleconnections across the northern Eurasia, which raises (or lowers) the pressure over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea. The latter strengthens (or weakens) the East Asian subtropical front (Meiyu/Baiu), leading to a strong (or weak) EASM. An empirical model is established to predict the EASM strength by combination of ENSO and spring NAO. Hindcast is performed for the 1979-2006 period, which shows a hindcast prediction skill that is comparable to the 14 state-of-the-art multi-model ensemble hindcast. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool.

  18. See-saw relationship of the Holocene East Asian-Australian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; McRobie, Fiona H.; Ozken, Ibrahim; Stemler, Thomas; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The East Asian-Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (EAIASM) links the Earth's hemispheres and provides a heat source that drives global circulation. At seasonal and inter-seasonal timescales, the summer monsoon of one hemisphere is linked via outflows from the winter monsoon of the opposing hemisphere. Long-term phase relationships between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) are poorly understood, raising questions of long-term adjustments to future greenhouse-triggered climate change and whether these changes could `lock in' possible IASM and EASM phase relationships in a region dependent on monsoonal rainfall. Here we show that a newly developed nonlinear time series analysis technique allows confident identification of strong versus weak monsoon phases at millennial to sub-centennial timescales. We find a see-saw relationship over the last 9,000 years--with strong and weak monsoons opposingly phased and triggered by solar variations. Our results provide insights into centennial- to millennial-scale relationships within the wider EAIASM regime.

  19. Meridional displacement of the East Asian trough and its response to the ENSO forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Y.-T.; Cheung, Hoffman H. N.; Zhou, Wen

    2016-03-01

    This paper examined the underlying dynamic mechanisms associated with the meridional displacement of the East Asian trough (EAT), which is closely related to the temperature variability in the southern part of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). During the southward displacement of the EAT, the Siberian high is stronger and the Aleutian low is displaced southward. This is due mainly to the anomalous cyclonic flow associated with seasonal eddies over the midlatitude central Pacific, which enhances the horizontal advection of cold (warm) air to the southern (northern) part of the EAT in the lower troposphere. The cold (warm) advection narrows (thickens) the height thickness and results in negative (positive) temperature anomalies in the southern (northern) part of the EAT. These anomalous circulation features can be reasonably explained by the phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results are also verified by the numerical experiments with prescribing ENSO-like heat source anomalies over the tropical eastern and western Pacific in an anomaly atmospheric general circulation model. All of these results advance our understanding for the linkage between the ENSO and the EAWM via its modulation of the EAT.

  20. Modeling the East Asian Climate During the Late Cretaceous (80 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junming; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Chengshan; Huang, Yongjian

    In this study, the East Asian climate during the Late Cretaceous ( ca 80 Ma) is examined by using the Community Climate System Model Version 2 (CCSM2) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and the reconstructed palaeogeographic data. The simulation results indicate that the large-scale prevailing wind directions and pressure systems over East Asia showed a remarkable seasonal variation during 80 Ma, so that it can be inferred that there existed a monsoon circulation over East Asia at that time. Compared to the present climate, the atmospheric circulation systems over the Eurasian continent in the Late Cretaceous showed a stronger meridional feature, which was possibly correspondent to a smaller lateral extension of the Eurasian continent at that time. Moreover, under a warmer background in the Late Cretaceous, the winter and summer monsoons over East Asia showed a synchronous variation, with a stronger winter monsoon as well as a stronger summer monsoon. The pattern of annual mean precipitation was similar to that of the present climate, with the maximum precipitation appearing in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) between 10°S and 10°N. There was also more precipitation over the eastern coasts of the continent adjacent to the western Pacific, with the central value exceeding 1200 mm, and there was less precipitation in the midlatitudes of the inland areas. Although a more precipitation belt also appeared near 30°N over the western Pacific, which was similar to the present climate, there was no high precipitation belt over the land of East Asia. This feature implies that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in the formation of the present baiu (plum rains). Moreover, the simulated climate over East Asia during 80 Ma was warmer relative to the present and the surface air temperature was 2 °C higher at the same latitudes compared to the present climate. This simulation result is closer to the estimation from the

  1. The East Asian Sea: A vanished Cenozoic ocean between the Pacific and Indian oceans revealed by subducted slab constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jonny; Lu, Renqi; Suppe, John; Kanda, Ravi V. S.

    2014-05-01

    We have mapped an extensive 2500 km by 7500 km swath of sub-horizontal slabs at 600 to 1200 km depths that we call the 'East Asian Sea'. The northern margin of the East Asian Sea slabs begin at Taiwan and Japan, and extend south to SE Australia near New Zealand, underlying the Philippine Sea, the Caroline Sea, New Guinea, and northern to eastern Australia. When restored with other mapped slabs under Asia-Oceania, the mapped slabs reveal a vanished ocean that existed between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Cenozoic. The subduction of the Asian Sea fills a crucial gap in plate tectonic reconstructions of East Asia by accounting for a significant proportion of fast Pacific and Indo-Australian convergence towards Eurasia since 43 Ma, during which time the Pacific moved ~3000 km WNW and Australia moved ~2500 km northward in a near-orthogonal direction relative to a mantle reference. In addition, the Australian plate expanded up to 2000 km at its northern and eastern margins. Slabs were primarily mapped from the MITP08 global P-wave mantle tomographic model (Li et al., 2008) and compared to other global P- and S-wave global tomography. Reconstructed slab lengths were assessed by quantitative flexural slip unfolding of mid-slab surfaces to a spherical Earth surface model. Seismic tomographic volumes were also calculated for selected serial cross-sections. We present a plate tectonic reconstruction with the slab constraints, with the implication that the East Asian Sea was progressively overrun and subducted beneath the Philippine Sea, the Caroline Sea and the expanding Melanesian arcs. Reconstructions to earlier periods indicate the East Asian Sea was originally Pacific or proto-Pacific mantle lithosphere, and was fragmented from the Pacific plate during the major ~45 Ma Eocene motion change. This implies that the East Asian Sea was initially the upper plate of the Mariana and Tonga-Kermadec Western Pacific subduction zones.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Variants in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes - Relevance of Asian Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Wen; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Weng, Shao-Wen; Liou, Chia-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction involves defective insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, and insulin resistance in insulin-sensitive tissues such as muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondria are recognized as the most important cellular source of energy, and the major generator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular antioxidative systems have been developed to cope with increased oxidative damage. In case of minor oxidative stress, the cells may increase the number of mitochondria to produce more energy. A mechanism called mitochondrial biogenesis, involving several transcription factors and regulators, controls the quantity of mitochondria. When oxidative damage is advanced beyond the repair capacity of antioxidative systems, then oxidative stress can lead to cell death. Therefore, this organelle is central to cell life or death. Available evidence increasingly shows genetic linkage between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Based on previous studies, the mtDNA 16189 variant is associated with metabolic syndrome, higher fasting insulin concentration, insulin resistance index and lacunar cerebral infarction. These data support the involvement of mitochondrial genetic variation in the pathogenesis of T2D. Importantly, phylogeographic studies of the human mtDNAs have revealed that the human mtDNA tree is rooted in Africa and radiates into different geographic regions and can be grouped as haplogroups. The Asian populations carry very different mtDNA haplogroups as compared to European populations. Therefore, it is critically important to determine the role of mtDNA polymorphisms in T2D. PMID:20043036

  3. FTO Gene Variants are Strongly Associated with Type 2 Diabetes but only weakly with Obesity in South Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Bhaskar, Seema; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Prakash, Swami; Mani, K Radha; Weedon, Michael N.; Kale, Shailaja D.; Deshpande, Jayant; Krishnaveni, G. V.; Veena, S. R.; Fall, Caroline H. D.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Chandak, Giriraj R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Variants in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in white Europeans. These associations are not consistent in Asians and there are few reports in South Asian Indians who develop T2D at a much lower body mass index (BMI) than that in the white Europeans. Aims and hypothesis We studied the association of FTO variants with T2D and measures of obesity in South Asian Indians in Pune, India. Methods We genotyped by sequencing, two SNPs rs9939609 and rs7191344, in the FTO gene in 1453 type 2 diabetes patients and 1361 controls and a further 961 population based individuals from India . Results We observed a strong association of the minor allele A at rs9939609 with T2D (OR per allele =1.26 [95% CI, 1.13-1.40], P=3×10-5). The variant was also associated with BMI but this association appeared to be weaker (0.06SDs; 95%CIs:0.01-0.10, p=0.017) than the previously reported effect in Europeans (0.10SDs 95%CIs:0.09-0.12). Unlike in the Europeans, the association with T2D remained when adjusting for BMI (OR per allele for T2D=1.21 (95% CI, 1.06-1.37); P=4.0 × 10-3). Similar results were obtained when using waist circumference and other anthropometric parameters. Conclusions Our study replicates the strong association of FTO variants with type 2 diabetes in South Asian Indians but suggests that the association of FTO with T2D in them might operate through mechanisms other than obesity. This could imply a fundamental difference between Indians and Europeans in the mechanisms linking body size with T2D. PMID:19005641

  4. Investigating the response of East Asian ozone to Chinese emission changes using a linear approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaji, Kazuyo; Uno, Itsushi; Irie, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    To illuminate the issue of trans-boundary O3 pollution and regional O3 reduction policies in East Asia, we have investigated the East Asian ozone (O3) response to perturbations caused by Chinese anthropogenic emissions using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, a regional chemical transport model. The O3 responses have been examined for the range between -100 and +100% changes from the Chinese emissions level in 2004 in 10% intervals. We have found that springtime and summertime O3 responses both at the source and at the downwind areas can be regarded as linear over the range between -30 and +100% changes from the current emissions level. We therefore suggest that the perturbation between -30 and +100% is sufficiently small to avoid nonlinear chemical influence on O3 formation in a model experiment to investigate East Asian scale O3 source-receptor relationships. On the other hand, the O3 response is strongly nonlinear in April at Hong Kong, where the current NMVOCs/NOx ratio is low and the O3 production regime is easily moved to the NMVOCs sensitive region. The O3 responses to the NOx emission changes have been investigated using surface O3 concentrations at remote Japanese sites and tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (NO2 VCD) over central east China both with observations and with model simulations in springtime during 2003-2009. Analysis of satellite data shows that the observed range of NO2 VCD over central east China in 2003-2009 is the range between -25 and +34% from the 2004 level, which corresponds approximately to an emission variation between -21 and +29%. The O3 concentration in the downwind region during 2003-2009 responds linearly to a change of the NO2 VCD over central east China both in the model and in the observation. The corresponding O3 responses derived from surface observations at remote Japanese sites show linear features consistent with this expectation. The doubling of emissions, i.e., approximately 1.9-fold increase in

  5. The Impact of Anthropogenic Aerosol on the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, L.; Highwood, E.; Dong, B.; Sutton, R.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric component of HadGEM2-ES has been used to investigate the impacts of local and non-local emissions of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). We focus on the very different fast responses to sudden changes in emissions from Asia and Europe. During days 1-40, Asian emissions have an impact on the sulphate burden itself over Asia, resulting in changes to the shortwave energy budget, cooling of East Asia and a weakening of the EASM. In contrast, European emissions have no significant impact on the sulphate burden over Asia, but do produce mid-tropospheric cold and dry anomaly over the European sector which is advected into Asia, where it induces atmospheric and surface feedbacks over Asia and the Western North Pacific, also weakening the EASM. The large scale pattern of changes in land-sea thermal contrast, atmospheric circulation and local precipitation over East Asia from day 40 onwards in both simulations exhibits similar structures, indicating a preferred response, and suggesting that emissions from both regions likely contributed to the observed weakening of the EASM. A weakening of the EASM tends to lead to flooding in southern China and drought in the north. Northeast Asia experienced a severe drought in summer 2014 itself within the context of two decades of dry summers. We used HadGEM3-A simulations of summer 2014 to quantify the roles of greenhouse gases, anthropogenic aerosol, and sea surface temperature in the drought. These show reductions in precipitation over East Asia in response to recent changes in sea surface temperature, which are characteristic of the warm phase of the PDO. However, model biases meant that these experiments were unable to capture the observed pattern of precipitation anomalies, thus precluding definitive attribution. These results show mechanisms by which anthropogenic aerosol could have contributed to the observed weakening of the EASM, but suggest that model biases in the Asian

  6. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided.

  7. Measurement of the human allele frequency spectrum demonstrates greater genetic drift in East Asians than in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Keinan, Alon; Mullikin, James C; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2007-10-01

    Large data sets on human genetic variation have been collected recently, but their usefulness for learning about history and natural selection has been limited by biases in the ways polymorphisms were chosen. We report large subsets of SNPs from the International HapMap Project that allow us to overcome these biases and to provide accurate measurement of a quantity of crucial importance for understanding genetic variation: the allele frequency spectrum. Our analysis shows that East Asian and northern European ancestors shared the same population bottleneck expanding out of Africa but that both also experienced more recent genetic drift, which was greater in East Asians.

  8. Late Quaternary East Asian monsoon evolution deduced from elemental XRF scanning data in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; Liu, Z.; Li, J.; Xie, X.

    2010-12-01

    The East Asian monsoon system dominates seasonal patterns of precipitation and runoff and causes monsoon-induced upwelling off middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea. Our investigation is to decipher the evolution of the East Asian monsoon variations during late Quaternary by analyzing high-resolution elemental XRF scanning data from Core MD05-2899 (13°47.66'N, 112°10.89'E, water depth 2393 m), which is located in the western South China Sea upwelling region. Oxygen isotope results indicate that the 38.86 m long core spans over the last 533 ka. The elemental XRF scanning data present clear glacial-interglacial variations for most of elements. We choose K, Ti, and Zr as proxies of terrigenous input, and Ca and Ba as indicators of nutrient and sea surface productivity. Generally, coherent downcore variations in K/Ti, Zr/Ti, Ba/Ti and Ca/Ti ratios indicate obvious glacial-interglacial cyclicity. The highest element ratios occur during interglacial maxima, indicating that both terrigenous input and sea surface productivity increased when the enhanced East Asia summer monsoon causes intensified precipitation, runoff, and upwelling. In contrast, during the glacials the element ratios decreased when the East Asian summer monsoon was weakened. In addition, the Ba/Ti ratio along with the carbonate mass accumulation rate present much higher values in MIS 3 and 9, reflecting the stronger East Asian summer monsoon activity.

  9. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  10. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  11. East Asian winter temperature variation associated with the combined effects of AO and WP pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The combined effects of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) over the last 56 years (1958/59-2013/2014) were investigated using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Park and Ahn, 2015). The study results revealed that the effect of the AO on winter temperature in East Asia could be changed depending on the phases of the WP pattern in the North Pacific. The negative relationship between the EAWM and the AO increased when the AO and WP were in-phase with each other. Hence, when winter negative (positive) AO was accompanied by negative (positive) WP, negative (positive) temperature anomalies were dominant across the entire East Asia region. Conversely, when the AO and WP were of-of-phase, the winter temperature anomaly in East Asia did not show distinct changes. Furthermore, from the perspective of stationary planetary waves, the zonal wavenumber-2 patterns of sea level pressure and geopotential height at 500hPa circulation strengthened when the AO and WP were in-phase but were not significant for the out-of-phase condition. It explained the possible mechanism of the combined effects of the AO and WP on the circulation related to EAWM. Reference Park, H.-J., and J.-B. Ahn (2015) Combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation and the Western Pacific pattern on East Asia winter temperature, Clim. Dyn. DOI:10.1007/s00382-015-2763-2. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant KMIPA2015-2081.

  12. Discovery of common Asian copy number variants using integrated high-resolution array CGH and massively parallel DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Park, Hansoo; Kim, Jong-Il; Ju, Young Seok; Gokcumen, Omer; Mills, Ryan E; Kim, Sheehyun; Lee, Seungbok; Suh, Dongwhan; Hong, Dongwan; Kang, Hyunseok Peter; Yoo, Yun Joo; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Yavartanoo, Maryam; Chang, Young Wha; Ha, Jung-Sook; Chong, Wilson; Hwang, Ga-Ram; Darvishi, Katayoon; Kim, Hyeran; Yang, Song Ju; Yang, Kap-Seok; Kim, Hyungtae; Hurles, Matthew E; Scherer, Stephen W; Carter, Nigel P; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Lee, Charles; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) account for the majority of human genomic diversity in terms of base coverage. Here, we have developed and applied a new method to combine high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data with whole-genome DNA sequencing data to obtain a comprehensive catalog of common CNVs in Asian individuals. The genomes of 30 individuals from three Asian populations (Korean, Chinese and Japanese) were interrogated with an ultra-high-resolution array CGH platform containing 24 million probes. Whole-genome sequencing data from a reference genome (NA10851, with 28.3x coverage) and two Asian genomes (AK1, with 27.8x coverage and AK2, with 32.0x coverage) were used to transform the relative copy number information obtained from array CGH experiments into absolute copy number values. We discovered 5,177 CNVs, of which 3,547 were putative Asian-specific CNVs. These common CNVs in Asian populations will be a useful resource for subsequent genetic studies in these populations, and the new method of calling absolute CNVs will be essential for applying CNV data to personalized medicine.

  13. Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of European Teleconnections on Interannual Variation of East Asian Winter Temperature and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  14. Abrupt variations of Indian and East Asian summer monsoons during the last deglacial stadial and interstadial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bing; Hong, Yetang; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Cai, Cheng; Peng, Haijun; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu; Yuan, Linggui

    2014-08-01

    The phase relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) during the last deglaciation remains controversial. Here, we reconstruct a 15,000-year plant cellulose δ13C proxy record for the ISM from the Yuexi peat bog in southwestern China. The record shows that the ISM abruptly decreases during the Younger Dryas (YD) stadial and abruptly increases during the Bølling-Allerød (BA) interstadial. A comparison of the Yuexi record with other related proxy climate records reveals two types of phenomena. First, the strengths of the two Asian monsoons are inversely related during the YD stadial, i.e., the ISM strength decreases and the EASM increases. During this period, the southern Chinese mainland consisted of a wide arid zone while the northern Chinese mainland was much wetter. The arid zone in southern China resulted from two different types of monsoon processes: the abnormal northward extension of the EASM rain belt, leading to less rainfall in southeast China, or an illusion that the EASM weakened. The other process is a real weakening of the ISM. Second, during the BA interstadial, the strengths of both the ISM and EASM clearly increased. However, the maximum strengths appear to have occurred in the Allerød period. During this period, the entire Chinese mainland, both northern and southern, experienced wet conditions. The abnormal climate pattern of wet in the north and dry in the south during the YD stadial occurs because of the combined effects of the strengthened EASM, intensified westerlies, and weakened ISM, which could be attributed to the response to the abrupt cooling in the high northern latitudes and to the El Niño-like activity in the equatorial Pacific. The widespread wet climate during the BA interstadial may be related to an abrupt increase in the greenhouse gases (GHGs) concentrations in the atmosphere and to the La Niña-like activity in the equatorial Pacific. These results contribute to a better

  15. Effects of sulfate aerosol forcing on East Asian summer monsoon for 1985-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjoong J.; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-02-01

    We examine the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1. One control and two sensitivity model experiments were conducted in order to diagnose the separate roles played by sea surface temperature (SST) variations and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcing changes in East Asia. We find that the SST variation has been a major driver for the observed weakening of the EASM, whereas the effect of the anthropogenic aerosol forcing has been opposite and has slightly intensified the EASM over the recent decades. The reinforcement of the EASM results from radiative cooling by the sulfate aerosol forcing, which decelerates the jet stream around the jet's exit region. Subsequently, the secondary circulation induced by such a change in the jet stream leads to the increase in precipitation around 18-23°N. This result indicates that the increase in anthropogenic emissions over East Asia may play a role in compensating for the weakening of the EASM caused by the SST forcing.

  16. North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable energy mix and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil

    2015-08-01

    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.

  17. Application of vegetation information on the Tibetan Plateau to improve East Asian summer monsoon prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The summer monsoon is the most important climate feature in East Asia. Its unusual behaviors may lead to occurrence of extensive drought/flood disasters in East Asia, which can cause serious consequences on the natural environment and the human society. It is well known that the slowly varying oceanic processes provide the primary source for East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) predictability. In addition to the ocean, land surface can also provide a critical memory function in the climate system at the monthly and longer time scales. However, the memory inherent in the land surface is less well understood or applied toward EASM prediction. Here we investigate the role of vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau for the EASM variation and prediction using observational data. We discuss the possible mechanism explaining the relationship between TP vegetation and EASM. A statistical model is further developed to predict the EASM strength by combination of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the TP vegetation greenness. Hindcast for the period 1982-2006 shows that the use of the TP vegetation information can largely improve the EASM prediction skill compared to that using ENSO alone.

  18. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    PubMed

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  19. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    PubMed

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  20. East Asian Monsoon controls on the inter-annual variability in precipitation isotope ratio in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, N.; Fujiyoshi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Kitagawa, H.

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for how the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) variability have influenced the isotope proxy records in Japan, we explore the primary driver of variations of precipitation isotopes at multiple temporal scales (event, seasonal and inter-annual scales). Using a new 1-year record of the isotopic composition of event-based precipitation and continuous near-surface water vapor at Nagoya in central Japan, we identify the key atmospheric processes controlling the storm-to-storm isotopic variations through an analysis of air mass sources and rainout history during the transport of moisture to the site, and then apply the identified processes to explain the inter-annual isotopic variability related to the EAM variability in the historical 17-year long Tokyo station record in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). In the summer, southerly flows transport moisture with higher isotopic values from subtropical marine regions and bring warm rainfall enriched with heavy isotopes. The weak monsoon summer corresponds to enriched isotopic values in precipitation, reflecting higher contribution of warm rainfall to the total summer precipitation. In the strong monsoon summer, the sustaining Baiu rainband along the southern coast of Japan prevents moisture transport across Japan, so that the contribution of warm rainfall is reduced. In the winter, storm tracks are the dominant driver of storm-to-storm isotopic variation and relatively low isotopic values occur when a cold frontal rainband associated with extratropical cyclones passes off to the south of the Japan coast. The weak monsoon winter is characterized by lower isotopes in precipitation, due to the distribution of the cyclone tracks away from the southern coast of Japan. In contrast, the northward shift of the cyclone tracks and stronger development of cyclones during the strong monsoon winters decrease the contribution of cold frontal precipitation, resulting in higher isotopic values in

  1. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  2. East China Sea δ18O Record Detects Millennial-Scale Changes in the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeman, E.; Clemens, S. C.; Lawman, A. E.; Kubota, Y.; Holbourn, A. E.; Martin, A.

    2015-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) brings heavy summer rainfall to some of Asia's most densely-populated areas, impacting agricultural production and water resources. Sediment cores were recovered from International Ocean Drilling Program Site U1429 in the East China Sea (31° 37.04' N, 128° 59.50' E, 732 mbsl). This location receives runoff from the Yangtze River, which serves as a major drainage system for monsoon-induced precipitation. Hence, the δ18O record of planktonic foraminifera at Site U1429 reflects changes in regional, monsoon-driven salinity. The top 100 meters of core at Site U1429 were sampled at a preliminary resolution of 15 cm and processed to isolate the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber for δ18O mass spectrometry analyses. Abrupt, millennial-scale regional climate variability in the EASM and its linkage to orbital forcings have been reconstructed using stratigraphic analysis of δ18O. The sub-orbital scale structure of the δ18O record over the past 400 kyr matches the structures of both the composite speleothem δ18O from eastern China (Sanbao and Hulu caves) and the planktonic δ18O record from northern South China Sea Site 1146. The similarities between these δ18O records indicate a strong regional response to monsoon forcing. Removal of the temperature component of the δ18O signal by using Mg/Ca (G. ruber) paleothermometry will provide a record of changes in the δ18O composition of seawater in response to Yangtze River runoff.

  3. Preface to special section on East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanqing; Chen, H.; Cribb, M.; Dickerson, R.; Holben, B.; Li, C.; Lu, D.; Luo, Y.; Maring, H.; Shi, G.; Tsay, S.-C.; Wang, P.; Wang, Y.; Xia, X.; Zheng, Y.; Yuan, T.; Zhao, F.

    2007-11-01

    Papers published in this special section report findings from the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE). They are concerned with (1) the temporal and spatial distributions of aerosol loading and precursor gases, (2) aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), (3) aerosol direct radiative effects, (4) validation of satellite products, (5) transport mechanisms, and (6) the effects of air pollution on ecosystems. Aerosol loading is heaviest in mideastern China with a mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.5 and increasing to 0.7 around major cities that reduced daily mean surface solar radiation by ˜30-40 W m-2, but barely changed solar reflection at the top of the atmosphere. Aerosol loading, particle size and composition vary considerably with location and season. The MODIS AOD data from Collection 5 (C5) agree much better with ground data than earlier releases, but considerable discrepancies still exist because of treatments of aerosol SSA and surface albedo. Four methods are proposed/adopted to derive the SSA by means of remote sensing and in situ observation, which varies drastically with time and space. The nationwide means of AOD, Ångström exponent, and SSA (0.5 μm) in China are 0.69 ± 0.17, 1.06 ± 0.26, and 0.89 ± 0.04, respectively. Measurements of trace gases reveal substantial uncertainties in emission inventories. An analysis of aircraft measurements revealed that dry convection is an important mechanism uplifting pollutants over northern China. Model simulations of nitrogen deposition and impact of ozone pollution on net primary productivity indicate an increasing threat of air pollution on the ecosystem.

  4. Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Ma, Xufa

    2014-09-01

    The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8millionyears ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies.

  5. Assessing the Intended Participation of Young Adolescents as Future Citizens: Comparing Results from Five East Asian Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John; Fraillon, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Based on student survey data from five East Asian countries, the paper contains an analysis of attitudes towards the use of personal connections in politics and towards personal morality among politicians. The first part of the analysis describes the extent and variations of these attitudes, which are viewed as of particular relevance within the…

  6. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  7. Acculturation, self-construal, mental and physical health: an explorative study of East Asian students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Shim, Gayoung; Freund, Henning; Stopsack, Malte; Kämmerer, Annette; Barnow, Sven

    2014-08-01

    The present study explores acculturation and its associated aspects of two East Asian student groups with different levels of exposure to German culture (100 international students from East Asian countries [IS]; 61 second generation students of East Asian descent [SGS]). First, we investigated the relationships between acculturation, self-construal, depressive and somatic symptoms, and differences between the student groups in these variables. Second, the four acculturation types (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were examined regarding their relationship to self-construal and health outcomes. The results showed that the acculturation dimensions (mainstream, heritage) were relevant to the level of depressive symptoms for IS which was not the case for SGS. Furthermore, IS reported more somatic symptoms whereas there was no difference between the two groups in the level of depressive symptoms. In the analysis of acculturation types, assimilated and integrated students were characterized by high independent self-construal, while separated and integrated students showed high interdependent self-construal. Assimilated students displayed the least depressive symptoms of all acculturation groups. This study highlights different characteristics of East Asian students in acculturation, self-construal and health outcomes, and discusses the complexity of the relationships between acculturation types and health.

  8. The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…

  9. 77 FR 67725 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... document shall be published in the Federal Register. Dated: September 29, 2012. Hillary Rodham Clinton... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs of...

  10. Fine Motor Skills and Mathematics Achievement in East Asian American and European American Kindergartners and First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Zupei; Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether fine motor skills were related to the initial scores and growth rate of mathematics achievement in American kindergartners and first graders. Participants were 244 East Asian American and 9,816 European American children from the US-based Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). To control sampling bias, two…

  11. The Adaptation of East Asian Masters Students to Western Norms of Critical Thinking and Argumentation in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the adaptation experiences of East Asian masters students in the UK in dealing with western academic norms of critical thinking and debate. Through in-depth interviewing, students' perceptions of their learning experiences were explored, and stages in this adaptation process were identified, with various entry and exit routes.…

  12. Situating the Discourses of Privilege and Marginalization in the Lives of Two East Asian Women Teachers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Using a narrative approach (i.e., Clandinin and Connelly 2000; Dewey 1938 [1963]), this article explores the identity constructions and negotiations of two East Asian women teachers of English in MATESOL programs. The focus of this article explores the ways in which the two women's privileged experiences coexisted with issues of…

  13. Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian American and European Variant Isolates from Cervical Biopsies and Lesions in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Paramita; Sen, Shrinka; Bhattacharya, Amrapali; Roy Chowdhury, Rahul; Mondal, Nidhu Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), a member of the Papillomaviridae family, is the primary etiological agent of cervical cancer. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four HPV16 Asian American variants and four European variants, isolated from cervical biopsies and scrapings in India. PMID:27198009

  14. Nightime VHF and GHz scintillations in the East-Asian sector of the equatorial anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Wernik, A.W.; Franke, S.; Liu, C.H.; Fang, D.J.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements made during solar maximum years in the East Asian sector of the equatorial anomaly show different seasonal patterns of night-time scintillation occurrence at 137 MHz at Lunping and 4 GHz at Hong Kong. These seasonal variations are very similar to that observed at the equatorial station in Guam, indicating strong coupling between equatorial and anomaly irregularities. Model computations indicate that the GHz scintillation observed at Hong Kong is much stronger than one would expect based on VHF scintillation measured at Lunping. It is suggested that this might be an indication of strong latitudinal dependence of scintillation in the anomaly region. We also discuss the possible difference in local ionospheric conditions that were responsible for generating GHz scintillation causing irregularities in the anomaly region and at the equator.

  15. Impact of the east Asian economic crisis on health and health care: Malaysia's response.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, A B; Lye, M S; Yon, R; Teoh, S C; Alias, M

    1998-01-01

    In the wake of the east Asian economic crisis, the health budget for the public sector in Malaysia was cut by 12%. The Ministry of Health responded swiftly with a series of broad-based and specific strategies. There was a careful examination of the operating expenditure and where possible measures were taken to minimise the effects of the budget constraints at the service interface. The MOH reprioritised the development of health projects. Important projects such as rural health projects and training facilities, and committed projects, were continued. In public health, population-based preventive and promotive activities were expected to experience some form of curtailment. There is a need to refocus priorities, maximise the utilisation of resources, and increase productivity at all levels and in all sectors, both public and private, in order to minimise the impact of the economic downturn on health.

  16. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. PMID:27307424

  17. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.

  18. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough.

  19. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    PubMed

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age.

  20. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themore » different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.« less

  1. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  2. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. PMID:25901012

  3. Tropical-Extratropical Interactions Associated with East Asian Cold Air Outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdillah, M. R.; Kanno, Y.; Iwasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates possible interactions between East Asian cold air outbreak (CAOs) and tropical variability during boreal winter (DJF), particularly in interannual and intraseasonal time scale. The definition of CAOs follows the recent definition that used isentropic coordinate. The CAO definition is based on anomalously large equatorward mass flux below θ=280 K crossing 45°N latitude. This location represents the maxima of extratropical direct (ETD) circulation in the viewpoint of mass-weighted isentropic meridional circulation (MIM; Iwasaki and Mochizuki 2012; Iwasaki et al. 2014; Shoji et al. 2014). Unlike most CAO studies, we utilize quantitative definition of cold air mass (CAM) to estimate the CAO. EOF analysis on the seasonal-mean equatorward CAM flux in East Asia reveals two CAO types that can be easily distinguished as the western type CAO (90°-135°E) and eastern type CAO (135°-180°E). These CAOs are significantly associated with remote forcing in tropics. The western CAO tends to be in phase with La Nina event. Otherwise, eastern CAO is dominant in El Nino event. In sub-seasonal scale, day-lagged analysis of CAO event enables us to identify the impact and precursor during CAO event. The impact of western CAO is robust on the development of precipitation downstream around South China Sea and Philippines. Otherwise, eastern CAO event shows less impact possibly due to rapid disappearance over ocean. Remarkably, the preconditioning time of East Asian CAO is accompanied by large-scale organized convection in tropics. It is revealed that western CAOs favor to occur when the MJO arrives in Maritime Continent (MJO phase 4-5). On the other hand, eastern CAOs tend to occur when the MJO arrives in central Pacific (MJO phase 7-8). We investigated that these remote interactions are possibly driven by upper-tropospheric Rossby wave train forcing and enhanced local Hadley circulation associated with MJO-like tropical precipitation. These indicate potential

  4. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality over China: View from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Qing; Fu, Rong; Cunnold, Derek; Choi, Yunsoo

    2010-05-04

    Tropospheric O3 columns retrieved from OMI and MLS measurements, CO columns from MOPITT, and tropospheric O3 and CO concentrations from TES from May to August in 2006 are analyzed using the Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model (REAM) to investigate the impact of the East Asian summer monsoon on the air quality over China. The observed and simulated migrations of O3 and CO are in good agreement, demonstrating that the summer monsoon significantly affects the air quality over southeastern China and this influence extends to central East China from June to July. Enhancements of CO and O3 over southeastern China disappear after the onset of the summer monsoon and re-emerge in August after the monsoon wanes. The pre-monsoon high O3 concentrations over southern China are due to photochemical production from pollutant emissions and the O3 transport from the stratosphere. In the summer monsoon season, the O3 concentrations are relatively low over monsoon-affected regions because of the transport of marine air masses and weak photochemical activity. We find that the monsoon system strongly modulates the pollution problem over a large portion of East China in summer, depending on its strength and tempo-spatial extension. Model results also suggest that transport from the stratosphere and long-range transport from East China and South/Central Asia all make significant contributions to O3 enhancements over West China. Satellite observations provide valuable information for investigating the monsoon impact on air quality, particularly for the regions with limited in situ measurements.

  5. Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity Structure of East Asian Upper Mantle from Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is a seismically active region featuring active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of East Asia. High quality teleseismic waveforms were collected for both permanent and temporary stations in the target and its adjacent regions, providing good ray path coverage of the study region. Fundamental and overtone wave packets, filtered down to 60 sec, were inverted for isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave structure using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms was then carried out following the methodology described in (Marone and Romanowicz, 2007). The 3D velocity model shows strong lateral heterogeneities in the target region, which correlate well with the surface geology in East Asia. Our model shows that Indian lithosphere has subducted beneath Tibet with a different northern reach from western to eastern Tibet,. We also find variations of the slab geometry in Western Pacific subduction zones. Old and stable regions, such as, Indian shield, Siberia platform, Tarim and Yangtze blocks are found to have higher shear wave velocity in the upper mantle. Lower velocity anomalies are found in regions like Baikal rift, Tienshan, Indochina block, and the regions along Japan island-Ryukyu Trench and Izu-bonin Trench. The dominant fast and slow velocity boundaries in the study region are well correlated with tectonic belts, such as the central Asian orogenic belt and Alty/Qilian-Qinling/Dabie orogenic belt. Our radially anisotropic model shows Vsh> Vsv in oceanic regions and at larger depths(>300km), and Vsv > Vsh in some orogenic zones.. We'll show preliminary results of azimuthally anisotropic joint inversion of SKS

  6. Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975–1995

    PubMed Central

    McCredie, M; Williams, S; Coates, M

    1999-01-01

    Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098772

  7. Antimicrobial peptides from the skin secretions of the South-East Asian frog Hylarana erythraea (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Al-Ghaferi, Nadia; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

    2010-04-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the South-East Asian frog Hylarana erythraea (formerly Rana erythraea partim) has led to the identification of multiple peptides with antimicrobial activity. Structural characterization of the peptides demonstrated that they belong to the brevinin-1 (3), brevinin-2 (2), esculentin-2 (4), and temporin (1) families. The values in parentheses indicate the number of paralogs. In addition, a peptide (GVIKSVLKGVAKTVALG ML.NH(2)) was isolated that shows some structural similarity to the brevinin-2-related peptides (B2RP) previously isolated from North American frogs of the genus Lithobates. A synthetic replicate of the species B2RP showed broad-spectrum growth inhibitory activity against reference strains of Escherichia coli (MIC=12.5 microM), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=12.5 microM) and Candida albicans (MIC=50 microM) and was active against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Acetinobacter baumannii (MIC in the range 6-12.5 microM). The hemolytic activity of the peptide was relatively low (LC(50)=280 microM). Phylogenetic analysis based upon the amino acid sequences of 47 brevinin-2 peptides from 17 Asian species belonging to the family Ranidae provides support for the placement of H. erythraea in the genus Hylarana.

  8. South-East Asia study alliance guidelines on the management of acne vulgaris in South-East Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chee Leok; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Aw, Derrick Chen Wee; Baba, Roshidah; Chan, Lee Chin; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Leong, Hoe Nam; Medina-Oblepias, Marie Socouer; Noppakun, Nopadon; Sitohang, Irma Bernadette; Sugito, Titi Lestari; Wong, Su-Ni

    2015-10-01

    The management of acne in South-East Asia is unique, as Asian skin and local variables require a clinical approach unlike that utilized in other parts of the world. There are different treatment guidelines per country in the region, and a group of leading dermatologists from these countries convened to review these guidelines, discuss current practices and recent advances, and formulate consensus guidelines to harmonize the management of acne vulgaris in the region. Emphasis has been placed on formulating recommendations to impede the development of antibiotic resistance in Propionibacterium acnes. The group adopted the Acne Consensus Conference system for grading acne severity. The group recommends that patients may be treated with topical medications including retinoids, benzoyl peroxide (BPO), salicylic acid, a combination of retinoid and BPO, or a combination of retinoids and BPO with or without antibiotics for mild acne; topical retinoid with topical BPO and a oral antibiotic for moderate acne; and oral isotretinoin if the patient fails first-line treatment (a 6- or 8-week trial of combined oral antibiotics and topical retinoids with BPO) for severe acne. Maintenance acne treatment using topical retinoids with or without BPO is recommended. To prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, topical antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy or used simultaneously with oral antibiotics. Skin care, comprised of cleansing, moisturizing and sun protection, is likewise recommended. Patient education and good communication is recommended to improve adherence, and advice should be given about the characteristics of the skin care products patients should use.

  9. Reticulate evolution, cryptic species, and character convergence in the core East Asian clade of Gaultheria (Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Fritsch, Peter W; Cruz, Boni C; Wang, Hong; Li, De-Zhu

    2010-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of 84 samples representing 30 species in the core East Asian clade of the wintergreen group of Gaultheria (Angiospermae: Ericaceae: Gaultherieae) were estimated from separate and combined DNA sequence data from five genic regions (ITS, matK, rpl16, trnL-trnF, and trnS-trnG) with parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Two major clades were recovered, one comprising several sections and series with leaves generally more than 1 cm long [the ser. Leucothoides sensu lato (s.l.) clade] and another comprising the species of ser. Trichophyllae, with leaves generally less than 1 cm long. The ITS region yielded little phylogenetic resolution, whereas in the combined chloroplast analysis the samples from individual morphospecies in both clades were often nonmonophyletic. This was postulated to result from reticulate evolution in the ser. Leucothoides s.l. clade, particularly in two specific cases of hybridization and a crown clade with likely chloroplast capture following localized introgression. In the ser. Trichophyllae clade, such nonmonophyly was largely attributed to cryptic species and character convergence resulting at least partly from extreme morphological reduction. The relatively low-elevation habitats in which the species of the ser. Leucothoides s.l. clade generally grow are thought to have promoted opportunities for sympatry and reticulation, whereas the high-alpine habitats of ser. Trichophyllae are more likely to have spawned isolated populations and narrow endemism. As in other Sino-Himalayan plant groups, overall low sequence divergence and reticulate evolution suggest rapid radiation in the core East Asian clade of Gaultheria.

  10. Characteristics of Venous Thromboembolism in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in East Asian Ethnics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Chan; Ro, Young Sun; Cho, Junhyeon; Park, Yohan; Lee, Ji Hye; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pancreatic cancer (PC) is known to be frequently associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although treatment and prophylaxis strategies for VTE in PC patients were updated recently, these were mainly based on data from Western populations and were not verified in East Asian ethnic populations. We investigated the clinical characteristics of VTE in East Asian PC patients. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 1334 patients diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2005 to 2010 at single tertiary hospital in Korea. All the patients with newly diagnosed VTE were classified by anatomical site and manifestation of symptoms. The primary outcomes of interest were 2-year cumulative incidence of VTE events. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associations between risk factors and clinical outcomes. A total of 1115 patients were eligible for enrollment. The 2-year cumulative VTE incidence was 9.2%. Major risk factors associated with VTE event were advanced cancer stage, major surgery, and poor performance status. Risk factors associated with mortality after PC diagnosis included advanced cancer stage, poor performance score, leukocytosis, and lower albumin level. The overall VTE did not affected mortality. However in subgroup analysis, symptomatic VTE and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary thromboembolism (DVT/PTE) showed worse prognosis than incidental or intra-abdominal VTE. The overall incidence of VTE events in Korean PC patients was lower than previous studies. Advanced cancer stage was the most important factor for VTE event and mortality. Unlike Western population group, VTE event did not affect overall prognosis after PC diagnosis. However, symptomatic VTE and DVT/PTE showed higher mortality after VTE event. PMID:27124043

  11. Factors Controlling the Distribution of Atmospheric Mercury in the East Asian Free Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, G.; Lee, C.; Lin, N.; Wang, J.; Ouyang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Taiwan is located to the downwind side of both East and Southeast Asia, which are the major anthropogenic mercury (Hg) source region worldwide. Also, it has been suggested that mountain-top monitoring sites, which are frequently in the free troposphere, are essential to the understanding of the global Hg transport. Accordingly, continuous measurements of atmospheric Hg have been conducting at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 2862 m a.s.l.) in Taiwan since April 13, 2006 to study the trans-boundary transport and transformation of Hg in the free troposphere. Three types of atmospheric Hg, including gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg), are measured using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Diurnal variations in the concentrations of GEM, RGM, ozone, and water vapor (WV) mixing ratio indicated the influence of boundary layer air in daytime and the subsidence of free tropospheric air masses from higher altitudes at night. Seasonal variation in GEM concentrations was evident with elevated concentrations usually observed between fall and spring when air masses were more or less under the influence of Asian continent. Low summer GEM values were associated with marine air masses. Spikes of RGM were frequently detected between midnight and early morning with concurrent decreases in GEM and WV mixing ratio and increases in ozone concentrations, suggesting the oxidation of GEM and formation of RGM in free troposphere. Concentrations of PHg were usually low; however, elevated concentrations were detected in spring when the Southeast Asian biomass burning plumes affected the LABS. Analysis of the collected data indicate that at LABS the distribution of atmospheric Hg is dynamically controlled by background atmosphere, exchange and mixing of free troposphere/boundary layer air, chemical transformation, and long-range transport from East and Southeast Asia.

  12. Urban heat mitigation by roof surface materials during the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Ryu, Youngryel; Jiang, Chongya

    2015-12-01

    Roof surface materials, such as green and white roofs, have attracted attention in their role in urban heat mitigation, and various studies have assessed the cooling performance of roof surface materials during hot and sunny summer seasons. However, summers in the East Asian monsoon climate region are characterized by significant fluctuations in weather events, such as dry periods, heatwaves, and rainy and cloudy days. This study investigated the efficacy of different roof surface materials for heat mitigation, considering the temperatures both at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials during a summer monsoon in Seoul, Korea. We performed continuous observations of temperature at and beneath the surface of the roof covering materials, and manual observation of albedo and the normalized difference vegetation index for a white roof, two green roofs (grass (Poa pratensis) and sedum (Sedum sarmentosum)), and a reference surface. Overall, the surface temperature of the white roof was significantly lower than that of the grass and sedum roofs (1.1 °C and 1.3 °C), whereas the temperature beneath the surface of the white roof did not differ significantly from that of the grass and sedum roofs during the summer. The degree of cloudiness significantly modified the surface temperature of the white roof compared with that of the grass and sedum roofs, which depended on plant metabolisms. It was difficult for the grass to maintain its cooling ability without adequate watering management. After considering the cooling performance and maintenance efforts for different environmental conditions, we concluded that white roof performed better in urban heat mitigation than grass and sedum during the East Asian summer monsoon. Our findings will be useful in urban heat mitigation in the region.

  13. Impacts of the East Asian Monsoon on springtime dust concentrations over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Sijia; Russell, Lynn M.; Yang, Yang; Xu, Li; Lamjiri, Maryam A.; DeFlorio, Michael J.; Miller, Arthur J.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Ying; Singh, Balwinder

    2016-07-01

    We use 150 year preindustrial simulations of the Community Earth System Model to quantify the impacts of the East Asian Monsoon strength on interannual variations of springtime dust concentrations over China. The simulated interannual variations in March-April-May (MAM) dust column concentrations range between 20-40% and 10-60% over eastern and western China, respectively. The dust concentrations over eastern China correlate negatively with the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) index, which represents the strength of monsoon, with a regionally averaged correlation coefficient of -0.64. Relative to the strongest EAM years, MAM dust concentrations in the weakest EAM years are higher over China, with regional relative differences of 55.6%, 29.6%, and 13.9% in the run with emissions calculated interactively and of 33.8%, 10.3%, and 8.2% over eastern, central, and western China, respectively, in the run with prescribed emissions. Both interactive run and prescribed emission run show the similar pattern of climate change between the weakest and strongest EAM years. Strong anomalous northwesterly and westerly winds over the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts during the weakest EAM years result in larger transport fluxes, and thereby increase the dust concentrations over China. These differences in dust concentrations between the weakest and strongest EAM years (weakest-strongest) lead to the change in the net radiative forcing by up to -8 and -3 W m-2 at the surface, compared to -2.4 and +1.2 W m-2 at the top of the atmosphere over eastern and western China, respectively.

  14. Speleothem Evidence for Temporal-Spatial Variation in East Asian Summer Monsoon since Medieval Warm Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.-C.; Chu, P. C.; Fan, C. W.

    2012-04-01

    Published annual-to-decadal resolution stalagmite δ18O records since AD 900 from six caves (Dongge, Furong, Heshang, Buddha, Shihua and Wanxiang) in China were analyzed to detect temporal and spatial variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon strength which strongly affects wet/dry conditions in eastern China. The empirical mode decomposition method (Huang et al., 1998) was used to obtain trends of the six cave records. After the base trend was determined, δ18O anomalies of each record were computed by subtracting the base trend. Mean δ18O anomaly values of the detrended time series for each cave record were calculated for four periods: (1) medieval warm period (MWD, AD 900 - 1250), (2) little ice age phase-1 (LIA-1, AD 1250 -1550), (3) little ice age phase-2 (LIA-2, AD 1550 - 1850), and (4) modern period (MD-1, AD 1850 - 2000). From these anomalies, the temporal and spatial variability of wet/dry conditions has been identified. Positive values of the mean δ18O anomalies indicating drier conditions appeared in lower Yangtze River Drainage Area and Southeast Coast Area during MD-1, LIA-1 and MWD, whereas negative values existed in North, South and Yangtze areas of the eastern China. The results agree with Dryness/Wetness index reconstructed by Chinese historic records in general. These results illustrate that wet and dry conditions in different regions of the eastern China could be opposite under the monsoon influence, so that no single speleothem δ18O record could represent monsoonal climate in this vast region. The climatic patterns in the monsoonal region can either warm/wet (cold/dry) or cold/wet (warm/dry) on annual-to-centennial scales. A 128-yr periodic cycle exists in all six cave records, whereas 64-yr and 42-yr periodicities appear in the Shihua, Heshang and Dongge records. These cycles may reflect the influence of the solar activity on the East Asian Summer Monsoon.

  15. Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma constrained by new subducted slab reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jonny; Suppe, John; Lu, Renqi; Kanda, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    We reconstructed Philippine Sea and East Asian plate tectonics since 52 Ma from 28 slabs mapped in 3-D from global tomography, with a subducted area of ~25% of present-day global oceanic lithosphere. Slab constraints include subducted parts of existing Pacific, Indian, and Philippine Sea oceans, plus wholly subducted proto-South China Sea and newly discovered "East Asian Sea." Mapped slabs were unfolded and restored to the Earth surface using three methodologies and input to globally consistent plate reconstructions. Important constraints include the following: (1) the Ryukyu slab is ~1000 km N-S, too short to account for ~20° Philippine Sea northward motion from paleolatitudes; (2) the Marianas-Pacific subduction zone was at its present location (±200 km) since 48 ± 10 Ma based on a >1000 km deep slab wall; (3) the 8000 × 2500 km East Asian Sea existed between the Pacific and Indian Oceans at 52 Ma based on lower mantle flat slabs; (4) the Caroline back-arc basin moved with the Pacific, based on the overlapping, coeval Caroline hot spot track. These new constraints allow two classes of Philippine Sea plate models, which we compared to paleomagnetic and geologic data. Our preferred model involves Philippine Sea nucleation above the Manus plume (0°/150°E) near the Pacific-East Asian Sea plate boundary. Large Philippine Sea westward motion and post-40 Ma maximum 80° clockwise rotation accompanied late Eocene-Oligocene collision with the Caroline/Pacific plate. The Philippine Sea moved northward post-25 Ma over the northern East Asian Sea, forming a northern Philippine Sea arc that collided with the SW Japan-Ryukyu margin in the Miocene (~20-14 Ma).

  16. Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Nitrogen Compounds From the Asian Continent Over the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, M.; Nakamura, T.; Endo, M.; Narita, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The growth of economy and population is rapid among in the east Asian countries. Within two decades, emission from east Asia could roughly account for half of the nitrogen released to the atmosphere from all anthropogenic sources worldwide. The Asia/western Pacific region has a unique mixture of aerosols and trace gases because of these distinctive patterns of emissions in combination with the local meteorological conditions affecting the region. Continental outflows can alter bilogical and chemical processes along the coastal Asia and, therefore, modify biogeochemical fluxes and feedbacks that may have serious implications to human health and climate implications. We made atmospheric measurements on board R/V Hakuho Maru over the western North Pacific and the East China Sea from 26 September to 9 October 2002 (the KH02-3 Cruise) in the autumn and from 4 to 20 March 2004 (the KH04-1 Cruise) in the spring. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of nitrogen compounds (ammonium, nitrate, and organic N) to the marine environment were investigated as a part of the IGBP/SOLAS project. Size segregated ambient aerosols (d<2.5μ m and d>2.5μ m) were collected at every 4-12 hours intervals on a PTFE fiber filter by using a high-volume dichotomous virtual impactor air sampler. Atmospheric average total ammonium concentration over the East China Sea was 2.3 μ g N m-3, and that of nitrate was 0.48 μ g N m-3. However, >90 percent of paticulate ammonium occurred in the fine fraction whereas >80 percent of particulate nitrate was in the coarse fraction. By using empirical dry deposition velocities for two size categories, we estimated the ammonium and nitrate dry deposition fluxes over the East China Sea to be 160 Gg N yr-1 and 270 Gg N yr-1, respectively. Our results clearly show that particle size is critical for different components and flux estimation. The atmospheric inputs of the nitrogen compounds to the East China Sea are found to be comparable to their fluxes of 190 Gg N yr

  17. Responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon to Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings in the 17 Latest CMIP5 Models

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Fengfei; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

    2014-01-31

    In this study, we examined the responses of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) to natural (solar variability and volcanic aerosols) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gasses and aerosols) forcings simulated in the 17 latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Program phase 5 (CMIP5) models with 105 realizations. The observed weakening trend of low-level EASM circulation during 1958-2001 is partly reproduced under all-forcing runs. A comparison of separate forcing experiments reveals that the aerosol-forcing plays a primary role in driving the weakened low-level monsoon circulation. The preferential cooling over continental East Asia caused by aerosol affects the monsoon circulation through reducing the land-sea thermal contrast and results in higher sea level pressure over northern China. In the upper-level, both natural-forcing and aerosol-forcing contribute to the observed southward shift of East Asian subtropical jet through changing the meridional temperature gradient.

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Intra-Host Populations Are Characterized by Numerous High Frequency Variants

    PubMed Central

    Borucki, Monica K.; Lao, Victoria; Hwang, Mona; Gardner, Shea; Adney, Danielle; Munster, Vincent; Bowen, Richard; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen related to SARS virus. In vitro studies indicate this virus may have a broad host range suggesting an increased pandemic potential. Genetic and epidemiological evidence indicate camels serve as a reservoir for MERS virus but the mechanism of cross species transmission is unclear and many questions remain regarding the susceptibility of humans to infection. Deep sequencing data was obtained from the nasal samples of three camels that had been experimentally infected with a human MERS-CoV isolate. A majority of the genome was covered and average coverage was greater than 12,000x depth. Although only 5 mutations were detected in the consensus sequences, 473 intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Many of these variants were present at high frequencies and could potentially influence viral phenotype and the sensitivity of detection assays that target these regions for primer or probe binding. PMID:26790002

  19. The 10-30-day intraseasonal variation of the East Asian winter monsoon: The temperature mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Suxiang; Sun, Qingfei; Huang, Qian; Chu, Peng

    2016-09-01

    East Asia is known for its monsoon characteristics, but little research has been performed on the intraseasonal time scale of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). In this paper, the extended reanalysis (ERA)-Interim sub-daily data are used to study the surface air temperature intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of the EAWM. The results show that the air temperature (2-m level) of the EAWM has a dominant period of 10-30 days. Lake Baikal and south China are the centers of the air temperature ISO. An anomalous low frequency (10-30-day filtered) anticyclone corresponds to the intraseasonal cold air. The 10-30-day filtered cold air spreads from Novaya Zemlya to Lake Baikal and even to South China. The ISO of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index influences the temperature of the EAWM by stimulating Rossby waves in middle latitude, causing meridional circulation, and eventually leads to the temperature ISO of the EAWM. RegCM4 has good performance for the simulation of the air temperature ISO. The simulated results indicate that the plateau is responsible for the southward propagation of the intraseasonal anticyclone. The anticyclone could not reach South China when there was no plateau in western China and its upper reaches.

  20. Feedback Attributions to the Interannual Variation of the Dominant Modes of the East Asian Winter Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yana; Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the interannual variation and feedback attributions of the East Asian Winter Monsoon for the period of 1979-2013. The variations of winter mean surface air temperature are dominated by two distinct principal modes, which account for 70.9% of the total variance. The interannual variation of the northern mode features high correlations with the variations of the Arctic Oscillation, the Siberia High, and the tropoical Indian Ocean Dipole, while the southern mode is strongly linked to the East Asia trough and the atmospheric circulation over the northwestern Pacific. To find the main factors which affect the two different modes, this study decomposes the surface air temperature interannual variation into various feedback attributions by applying a climate feedback-response analysis method. The results indicate that the surface cooling associated with the northern mode is mainly contributed by the feedback processes of atmospheric dynamics, cloud, and sensible heating. For the southern mode, the surface cooling is mainly attributed to the atmospheric dynamic process, sensible heating, and water vapor, while the oceanic dynamics and heat storage process induces a negative effect that warms the surface.

  1. SST variability in the East Asian marginal sea: mechanisms for local and remote atmospheric impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Japan/East Sea (JES), a part of East Asian Marginal Seas, is a semi-enclosed sea located upstream of the North Pacific storm track. SST variability in the JES and the ensuing air-sea process are important for local winter atmospheric condition. It is believed that the marginal sea processes also influence the storm track evolution far downstream. Dynamical processes leading to local and remote atmospheric circulation response to leading JES SST anomaly patterns are investigated using a hemispheric WRF atmospheric model with two-way multi-nesting capabilities. The atmospheric circulation in direct contact with anomalous diabatic forcing exhibits a linear baroclinic response with respect to sign of SST anomalies; that is, the northwesterly surface wind is strengthened (weakened) and the local precipitin is enhanced (reduced) over the warm (cold) SSTs. The linearity of the local response confirms the importance of fine-scale SST patterns to the predictability of regional weather and climate conditions. The downstream response, in contrast, is nonlinear, with an enhanced intraseasonal equivalent barotropic ridge emerging in the Gulf of Alaska irrespective of the polarity of JES SST anomalies. This downstream blocking high response is maintained by the positive low-frequency height tendency due to transient eddy vorticity flux convergence associated with altered storm track. The significant remote response in the North Pacific storm track and the blocking suggests that the marginal sea process is an active part of the North Pacific climate variability.

  2. Asthma, allergy, and atopy in three south-east Asian populations.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, R.; Ho, P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Whilst many recent reports have suggested a rise in the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in Western countries, little is known about the epidemiology of these common conditions in south-east Asia. This study compared the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease amongst secondary school students in three south-east Asian populations--Hong Kong, Kota Kinabalu in Malaysia, and San Bu in China--and investigated the associations with atopy and family history. METHODS--Secondary school students were given standard questionnaires on respiratory and allergic symptoms for completion by parents with response rates of 89.2% in Hong Kong (611 male, 451 female; mean (SD) age = 13.9 (1.8 years), 87.6% in Kota Kinabalu (134 male, 275 female; 15.5 (2.1) years), and 98.6% in San Bu (492 male, 245 female; 16.4 (1.8) years). Skin tests were performed in a subsample of students to determine atopic status. RESULTS--The respective prevalence (and 95% CI) for hayfever, eczema, and wheeze or asthma were 15.7% (13.5, 17.9), 20.1% (17.7, 22.5), 11.6% (9.3, 13.9) in Hong Kong, 11.2% (8.2, 14.3), 7.6% (5.0, 10.1), 8.2% (5.5, 10.9) in Kota Kinabalu, and 2.1% (1.2, 3.1), 7.2% (5.4, 9.1), 1.9% (0.7, 3.1) in San Bu. Atopy was common and was present in 49.0-63.9% of subjects in the three populations. Dust mite and cockroach were the commonest allergens that gave positive reactions in 42.8-60.5% and 25.7-35.9% of students respectively. A higher proportion of students in Hong Kong had severe degree of reactivity on skin test than the other two populations. Family history was associated with asthma and allergic symptoms in the three populations conferring a 3-80-fold increase in risk to family members and was a stronger predictor for asthma and allergy than atopy. CONCLUSIONS--Prevalence of asthma and allergic disease is low compared with Western countries, but considerable differences exist between the three south-east Asian populations despite similar rates of atopy. Asthma

  3. Recent Progresses in Impacts of Indo-Western Pacific Ocean on East Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping

    2016-04-01

    Some progresses in impacts of Western Pacific Ocean (WPO) on East Asian monsoon and stratosphere climate are reviewed from the following aspects. (1) Impact of the IPOD (a cross-basin dipole pattern of SSTA variability between the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) and North Pacific Ocean) on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM).The IPOD exhibits a considerable correlation with the EASM. In summers with a positive IPOD phase, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) weakens and shrinks with WPSH ridge moving northwards, which favours an intensified EASM and a decrease in summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. (2) TheIndo-Western Pacific convection oscillation (IPCO),which is an out-of-phase fluctuation in convection anomalies between the north Indian Ocean and the western North Pacific region,is closely related to the EASM.Negative IPCO phases, which exhibit an enhanced convection over the north Indian Ocean and a suppressed convection over the western North Pacific, favor a weakened EASM and an increase of summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley with the joint actions of the stronger than normal Ural and Okhotsk blocking highs and the subtropical western Pacific high, and vice versa.(3) Asymmetric influence of the two types of ENSO on summer rainfall in China. The two types of ENSO have asymmetric impacts on summer rainfall over the Yangtze River Valley. The relation between summer rainfall over this valley and the cold tongue (CT) El Niño is significantly positive, while the relation with the CT La Niña is not significant. The negative phase of the warm pool (WP) ENSO has a significant positive influence, whereas no significant relation with the positive phase. They indicated that this asymmetric response of the EASM is likely to be linked to the different spatial patterns of the two types of ENSO.(4) Linkage between recent winter precipitation increase in the middle-lower Yangtze River valley (MLY) since the late 1970s andwarming in the

  4. Seasonal Transitions and the Westerly Jet in the Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) was characterized by a trend to weaker monsoon intensity paced by orbital insolation. Here, we attribute the stronger EASM intensity in the early-mid Holocene to changes in the timing of the transition between the EASM seasonal stages - Spring, pre Mei- Yu, Mei-Yu, and Summer - during that time. Following the recent 'jet transition hypothesis' (Chiang et al., 2015), we explore the role of north-south displacement of the westerlies relative to the Tibetan Plateau that is hypothesized to control the downstream EASM seasonality changes across the Holocene. To this end, we analyze model simulations of the Holocene EASM, compare the simulated Holocene climate with the paleodata observations, and examine the role of atmospheric circulation and specifically the westerlies in modulating the East Asia summer climate. The PMIP3 climate model simulations suggest that, compared to the pre-industrial, the Mei-Yu onset and the transition from Mei-Yu to Summer rainfall occur earlier in the mid-Holocene. The advanced seasonal rainfall transition is accompanied by the weakened and northward-shifted upstream westerlies. In our atmospheric general circulation model (coupled to a slab ocean) simulations of various time periods across the Holocene (9ka, 6ka, 3ka, and pre-industrial), we quantitatively show that the timing and the length of each rainfall stage are closely related to the jet position over East Asia. We also show that the simulated changes in the maximum annual rainfall band and dust emission over East Asia largely agree with the paleo-proxy observations. In addition, we find that changes to the seasonal rainfall transitions, latitudinal westerly position, and stationary eddy activity over East Asia co-vary across the Holocene. In particular, we argue that the changes in the rainfall seasonal transitions are tied to an altered stationary wave pattern, resembling today's the so-called 'Silk Road Pattern', riding along the

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study on Behaviors When Death Is Approaching in East Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shao-Yi; Suh, Sang-Yeon; Morita, Tatsuya; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Koh, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yoshie, Taeko; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively. While 50% of the Japanese physicians reported that they often or very often experienced families as being reluctant to discuss end-of-life issues, the corresponding figures were 59% in Korea and 70% in Taiwan. Two specific reasons to avoid end-of-life discussion, “bad things happen after you say them out loud” and “a bad life is better than a good death” were significantly more frequently observed in Taiwan. Prioritizing the oldest of the family in breaking bad news and having all family members present at the time of death were significantly more frequently observed in Korea and Taiwan. Half of Taiwanese physicians reported they often or very often experienced the patients/family wanted to go back home to die because the soul would not be able to return from the hospital. In all countries, more than 70% of the physicians reported certain family members were expected to care for the patient at home. At the time of death, while no Japanese physicians stated that they often experienced patients wanted a religious person to visit, the corresponding figure in Korean and Taiwan was about 40%. Uncovered expression of emotion was significantly frequently observed in Korean and Taiwan, and 42% of the Japanese physicians reported family members cleaned the dead body of the patient themselves. There seem to be significant intercountry differences in beliefs and practices when

  6. Predictability and Prediction of Early- and Peak-summer East Asian rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, S. Y.; Wang, B.; Xing, W.; Kim, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall has a profound influence on the lives of billions of people. The seasonal prediction of the EASM rainfall, however, has long been an outstanding challenge in climate science. Traditional seasonal forecast of EASM deals with JJA mean rainfall anomalies, which may not be the best strategy because the EASM rainy season is typically from May to August and pronounced differences exist between early summer (May-June, MJ) and peak summer (July-August, JA): both climatological mean states and the principal modes of interannual variability exhibit distinct spatial and temporal structures. The present study explores the sources and limit of the predictability of the early and peak summer rainfall over the East Asian (EA) region. Since the climate models' seasonal forecasts have rather limited skills, it is important to find the causes of the low skills, to improve seasonal prediction, and to better estimate the predictability of EASM rainfall. We address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method. Four empirical modes of variability for peak summer rainfall are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific-EA teleconnection mode, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high-dipole feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-ENSO mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train mode. These modes are named according to the major sources of predictability. Based on the understanding of predictability sources for each mode, a suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading principal components (PCs). All four modes can be predicted with significant cross-validated correlation skills(0.59-0.65). Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, a 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the EA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill is 0.37, which is higher than the MME hind cast skill (0.13). The estimated potential attainable pattern correlation coefficient skill averaged over the entire domain is

  7. On the robustness of relationship between ENSO and East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuguang; Yang, Xiuqun; Greatbatch, Richard; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    In observations, the leading mode of variability of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) features enhanced precipitation along the Yangtze River Valley, and mainly occurs in El Nino decaying summer (Sun et al. 2010). Kiel Climate Model (KCM) developed by Park et al. (2009) in GEOMAR, Germany is capable of reproducing these EASM characteristics in its 1000-year twentieth century equivalent (20C) control simulation. Moreover, consistent with the results of ERA-40 reanalysis data, the 1000-year 20C simulation of KCM also demonstrates an unstable relationship of EASM and ENSO, and the reason is particularly investigated in this study. The simulated El Nino events are selected and grouped into 4 categories according to their intensities and their relationships with EASM, i.e., Strong ENSO Strong Relation (SESR), Strong ENSO Weak Relation (SEWR), Weak ENSO Strong Relation (WESR) and Weak ENSO Weak Relation (WEWR). Their comparisons indicate that in situations of strong EASM-ENSO relationship, the suppressed precipitation in the northwest Pacific is more significant, so are the major components of EASM, such as western Pacific anticyclone (WPA) anomaly, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), and the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) regardless of strong or weak ENSO, and vice versa. As for the strong ENSO, the robust EASM-ENSO relation mainly comes from the mid-eastern tropical Pacific where obvious large positive ENSO SST anomalies exist. However, it is primarily from the much warmer tropical Indian Ocean for the weak ENSO. Furthermore, correlation results show that EASM-ENSO relationship is getting more robust when much warmer interdecadal SST anomalies appear in the tropical Indian Ocean, tropical Atlantic Ocean and mid-western off-equatorial Pacific Ocean, which causes remarkably reduced convection and precipitation over the western Pacific, and then enhanced WPA anomaly, WPSH and EASWJ. Finally, the interdecadal changes of oceanic and atmospheric basic

  8. Variability of Moisture Sources and Moisture Transport in the East Asian Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremme, Astrid; Sodemann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The rainfall of the East Asian Monsoon is of key importance for livelihoods in the densely populated area of China, Japan and Korea. The interplay of many factors, including land surface processes, makes monsoon precipitation difficult to predict. To contribute to improved precipitation prediction we investigate the atmospheric mechanisms importing moisture to the region. In previous studies moisture transport has mainly been analysed by examining a combination of temperature, pressure, winds and water vapour content. However this has been done without linking precipitation to its moisture sources directly. In this project we use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART and the diagnostic tool WaterSip to analyse ERA Interim reanalysis data to obtain a link between precipitation and its moisture sources. The total atmospheric mass is subdivided into millions air parcels, which are traced backwards for 20 days for each rainfall event in the 34 year ERA-Interim period. Specific humidity changes are interpreted as evaporation and precipitation in the area beneath the parcel with the help of a sophisticated accounting method related to target precipitation. Results on the relationship between source and sink areas reflect changes in the conditions of the source regions and in moisture transport. We investigate the moisture transport mechanisms for both seasonal and inter-annual variations during the study period 1979-2013. Preliminary results show that the sources for precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV) in China have a clear seasonal cycle in terms of location and evaporation conditions. Land areas outside the YRV Region contribute most of the moisture. The second largest source is inside the YRV region itself. For monthly means the sum of all direct oceanic sources rarely exceeds 20%. Recycling of moisture from land surfaces outside the target regions therefore seems to play a pivotal role in the East Asian Monsoon's moisture budget. Contrasting

  9. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Sinha, Ishani; Kelkar, Ashwin; Habib, Farhat; Pradhan, Saurabh J; Sukumar, Raman; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    The Asian elephant Elephas maximus and the African elephant Loxodonta africana that diverged 5-7 million years ago exhibit differences in their physiology, behaviour and morphology. A comparative genomics approach would be useful and necessary for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of elephants. We performed sequencing of E. maximus and map to L. africana at ~15X coverage. Through comparative sequence analyses, we have identified Asian elephant specific homozygous, non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that map to 1514 protein coding genes, many of which are involved in olfaction. We also present the first report of a high-coverage transcriptome sequence in E. maximus from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We have identified 103 novel protein coding transcripts and 66-long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. We also report the presence of 181 protein domains unique to elephants when compared to other Afrotheria species. Each of these findings can be further investigated to gain a better understanding of functional differences unique to elephant species, as well as those unique to elephantids in comparison with other mammals. This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome and genome sequences in the Asian elephant.

  10. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Puli Chandramouli; Sinha, Ishani; Kelkar, Ashwin; Habib, Farhat; Pradhan, Saurabh J; Sukumar, Raman; Galande, Sanjeev

    2015-12-01

    The Asian elephant Elephas maximus and the African elephant Loxodonta africana that diverged 5-7 million years ago exhibit differences in their physiology, behaviour and morphology. A comparative genomics approach would be useful and necessary for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of elephants. We performed sequencing of E. maximus and map to L. africana at ~15X coverage. Through comparative sequence analyses, we have identified Asian elephant specific homozygous, non-synonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that map to 1514 protein coding genes, many of which are involved in olfaction. We also present the first report of a high-coverage transcriptome sequence in E. maximus from peripheral blood lymphocytes. We have identified 103 novel protein coding transcripts and 66-long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. We also report the presence of 181 protein domains unique to elephants when compared to other Afrotheria species. Each of these findings can be further investigated to gain a better understanding of functional differences unique to elephant species, as well as those unique to elephantids in comparison with other mammals. This work therefore provides a valuable resource to explore the immense research potential of comparative analyses of transcriptome and genome sequences in the Asian elephant. PMID:26648035

  11. A new species of the genus Xenylla Tullberg, 1869 (Collembola: Hypogastruridae) from Korea, with a key for East Asian species.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Hypogastruridae from Korea, Xenylla namia sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species is easily distinguished from previously described Xenylla species by a combination of the following characters: labral setae arrangement of 2/5,5,4, labial papilla E with one guard seta (e3), head without c2 seta, thoracic sterna II and III with a pair of medial setae, abdominal sternum III with 1 median seta above the retinaculum, abdominal sternum IV with seta m1. An identification key to East Asian species of Xenylla with detailed differences between East Asian Xenylla species is provided. PMID:27395598

  12. Neanderthal introgression at chromosome 3p21.31 was under positive natural selection in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiliang; Hu, Ya; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Jiucun; Jin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Studies of the Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes demonstrate archaic hominin introgression in Eurasians. Here, we present evidence of Neanderthal introgression within the chromosome 3p21.31 region, occurring with a high frequency in East Asians (ranging from 49.4% to 66.5%) and at a low frequency in Europeans. We also detected a signal of strong positive selection in this region only in East Asians. Our data indicate that likely candidate targets of selection include rs12488302-T and its associated alleles--among which four are nonsynonymous, including rs35455589-G in HYAL2, a gene related to the cellular response to ultraviolet-B irradiation. Furthermore, suggestive evidence supports latitude-dependent selection, implicating a role of ultraviolet-B. Interestingly, the distribution of rs35455589-G suggests that this allele was lost during the exodus of ancestors of modern Eurasians from Africa and reintroduced to Eurasians from Neanderthals.

  13. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  14. A numerical study of the effect of different aerosol types on East Asian summer clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yiquan; Liu, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiuqun; Wang, Minghuai

    2013-05-01

    The impact of anthropogenic aerosol on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated with NCAR CAM5, a state-of-the-art climate model with aerosol’s direct and indirect effects. Results indicate that anthropogenic aerosol tends to cause a weakened EASM with a southward shift of precipitation in East Asia mostly by its radiative effect. Anthropogenic aerosol induced surface cooling stabilizes the boundary layer, suppresses the convection and latent heat release in northern China, and reduces the tropospheric temperature over land and land-sea thermal contrast, thus leading to a weakened EASM. Meanwhile, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), anthropogenic aerosol can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration but decrease the cloud droplet effective radius over Indochina and Indian Peninsulas as well as over southwestern and northern China, inhibiting the precipitation in these regions. Thus, anthropogenic aerosol tends to reduce Southeast and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation by its indirect effect.

  15. Multi-Decadal Modulations in the Variability of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Machimura, T.; Ogawa, S.; Kosaka, Y.; Nishii, K.; Miyasaka, T.

    2015-12-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon fluctuates from its climatological activity on monthly and interannual time scales, and the most dominant pattern of the variability is known as the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern. Characterized by a meridional teleconnection in anomalous activity of the Meiyu/Baiu rainband, tropical storms and a surface subtropical anticyclone (the Bonin High) in between, the PJ pattern exerts substantial influence on summertime climatic conditions over East Asia and the western North Pacific. Despite the recent warming trend observed in its background state, no assessment thus far has been made on how substantially the PJ has undergone, if any, multi-decadal modulations in its structure and/or dominance. Through an EOF analysis applied to a new dataset of global atmospheric reanalysis (JRA-55), the predominance of the PJ pattern is confirmed as being extracted in the leading EOF of lower-tropospheric monthly vorticity anomalies over 55 recent years. Both efficient barotropic/baroclinic energy conversion from the climatological-mean state and efficient generation of available potential energy through anomalous convective activity over the tropical western Pacific are shown to be essential for the maintenance of the monthly atmospheric anomalies of the PJ pattern over the entire 55-year period. At the same time, however, the same EOF analysis as above but applied separately to each of the sub-periods reveals a distinct signature of long-term modulations in amplitude and thus the dominance of the PJ pattern. While being extracted in the first EOF up to the 1980s, the PJ pattern is extracted in the second EOF in the period since the 1990s with marked reductions in both the variance fraction explained and the efficiency of energy conversion/generation. The resultant modulations of the summertime meridional teleconnection are also discussed with implications for future changes.

  16. Competing Atmospheric and Surface-Driven Impacts of Absorbing Aerosols on the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persad, G.; Paynter, D.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols, by attenuating shortwave radiation within the atmosphere and reemitting it as longwave radiation, redistribute energy both vertically within the surface-atmosphere column and horizontally between polluted and unpolluted regions. East Asia has the largest concentrations of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols globally, and these, along with the region's scattering aerosols, have both reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface regionally ("solar dimming") and increased shortwave absorption within the atmosphere, particularly during the peak months of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). We here analyze how atmospheric absorption and surface solar dimming compete in driving the response of EASM circulation to anthropogenic absorbing aerosols, which dominates, and why—issues of particular importance for predicting how the EASM will respond to projected changes in absorbing and scattering aerosol emissions in the future. We probe these questions in a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM) using a combination of realistic and idealized aerosol perturbations that allow us to analyze the relative influence of absorbing aerosols' atmospheric and surface-driven impacts on EASM circulation. In combination, our results make clear that, although absorption-driven dimming has a less detrimental effect on EASM circulation than purely scattering-driven dimming, aerosol absorption is still a net impairment to EASM strength when both its atmospheric and surface effects are considered. Because atmospheric heating is not efficiently conveyed to the surface, the surface dimming and associated cooling from even a pure absorber is sufficient to counteract its atmospheric heating, resulting in a net reduction in EASM strength. These findings elevate the current understanding of the impacts of aerosol absorption on the EASM, improving our ability to diagnose EASM responses to current and future regional changes in aerosol emissions.

  17. Impact of GMI rain rate on East Asian Multi-Satellite Integrated Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Shi, C.; Xie, P.

    2015-12-01

    During the last three years, the East Asian Multi-Satellite Integrated Precipitation (EMSIP) was developed at China Meteorological Administration (CMA) National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC), partially through cooperation with NOAA/CPC. IR TBB data from the FY-2 Geostationary satellite and PMW rain rate retrievals from FY-3B, TRMM, NOAA-18/19, METOP-A/B, and DMSP-F16/17/18 were integrated to produce high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates over East Asia. While the current version of the product relies on retrievals from TMI to inter-calibrate inputs from other platforms, work is underway to improve the quality of EMSIP using retrievals from the GMI. As an important step to infuse the GMI into our integration system, a comprehensive evaluation is performed for the precipitation retrievals from the GMI and the 8 other above mentioned PMW sensors with an emphasis on their performance on detecting and quantifying light rain and snowfall. PMW retrievals are compared against in situ measurements from a dense network of automatic rain gauges over China for a cold season month (January 2015). Impacts of infusing GMI precipitation retrievals into our integrated estimates are examined. Results showed improved capacity of the current version GMI retrievals in capturing light rain and snowfall than other sensors for the test period over China. The FAR score, however, is about the same as that for the TMI's. Partially due to the limited test period, only minor improvements are observed in the EMSIP through infusing GMI. Compared with CMORPH, the correlation of EMSIP and the GMI infused EMSIP is still a little lower over whole china, but sometimes over Tibet Plateau the correlation of EMSIP+GMI is higher than EMSIP and CMORPH.

  18. Absence of ethnic differences in the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin, simvastatin, and meloxicam among three East Asian populations and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, Tomoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Jang, In‐Jin; Yimin, Cui; Kaneko, Masaru; Saito, Yoshiro; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Uyama, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine whether strict control of clinical trial conditions could reduce apparent differences of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters among ethnic groups. Methods Open‐label, single dose PK studies of moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam were conducted in healthy male subjects from three East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese and Koreans) and one Caucasian population as a control. These three drugs were selected because differences in PK parameters have been reported, even though the backgrounds of these East Asian populations are similar. Moxifloxacin (400 mg) was administered orally to 20 subjects, and plasma and urine levels of moxifloxacin and its metabolite (M2) were measured. Simvastatin (20 mg) was given to 40 subjects, and plasma levels of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were measured. Meloxicam (7.5 mg) was given to 30 subjects and its plasma concentration was determined. Intrinsic factors (polymorphism of UGT1A1 for moxifloxacin, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and CYP2C9 for meloxicam) were also examined. Results AUCinf values for moxifloxacin, simvastatin and meloxicam showed no significant differences among the East Asian groups. Cmax values of moxifloxacin and simvastatin, but not meloxicam, showed significant differences. There were no significant differences of data for M2 or simvastatin acid. Genetic analysis identified significant differences in the frequencies of relevant polymorphisms, but these differences did not affect the PK parameters observed. Conclusions Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies. PMID:26774055

  19. Ethnic Related Selection for an ADH Class I Variant within East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Gu, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoyun; Speed, William C.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Golub, Efim I.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2008-01-01

    Background The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely studied enzymes and the evolution of the mammalian gene cluster encoding these enzymes is also well studied. Previous studies have shown that the ADH1B*47His allele at one of the seven genes in humans is associated with a decrease in the risk of alcoholism and the core molecular region with this allele has been selected for in some East Asian populations. As the frequency of ADH1B*47His is highest in East Asia, and very low in most of the rest of the world, we have undertaken more detailed investigation in this geographic region. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report new data on 30 SNPs in the ADH7 and Class I ADH region in samples of 24 populations from China and Laos. These populations cover a wide geographic region and diverse ethnicities. Combined with our previously published East Asian data for these SNPs in 8 populations, we have typed populations from all of the 6 major linguistic phyla (Altaic including Korean-Japanese and inland Altaic, Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-Mien, Austro-Asiatic, Daic, and Austronesian). The ADH1B genotyping data are strongly related to ethnicity. Only some eastern ethnic phyla or subphyla (Korean-Japanese, Han Chinese, Hmong-Mien, Daic, and Austronesian) have a high frequency of ADH1B*47His. ADH1B haplotype data clustered the populations into linguistic subphyla, and divided the subphyla into eastern and western parts. In the Hmong-Mien and Altaic populations, the extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) and relative EHH (REHH) tests for the ADH1B core were consistent with selection for the haplotype with derived SNP alleles. In the other ethnic phyla, the core showed only a weak signal of selection at best. Conclusions/Significance The selection distribution is more significantly correlated with the frequency of the derived ADH1B regulatory region polymorphism than the derived amino-acid altering allele ADH1B*47His. Thus, the real focus of selection may be the regulatory region

  20. Cloud-Aerosol Interaction and Its Impact on the Onset of the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K.-M.; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee

    2004-01-01

    Effect of aerosols from biomass burning on the early development of East Asian monsoon is investigated using various satellites and in situ observations including TOMS Aerosol Index (AI). GPCP precipitation, ISCCP cloud cover, and GISS surface air temperature. Based on TRMM fire produce and mean winds fields at 85Omb. we identified the source and interaction regions of aerosols and investigated aerosol-cloud-precipitation characteristics in those regions. During March-April, northern Thailand, Myanmar. and Laos are major source of smoke from the combustion of agricultural waste. Excessive smoke. represented by high AI, is observed especially during dry and cloud-free year. On the other hand. there is no ground source of smoke in the interaction region. The most of aerosols in this area are believed to be transported from the source region. AI is appeared to be correlated with more clouds and less precipitation in interaction region. It suggests that the aerosol-cloud interaction can alter the distribution of cloud and the characteristics of regional hydrology. Aerosol-induced changes in atmospheric stability and associated circulation turns out to be very important to pre-monsoon rainfall pattern in southern China. Prolonged biomass burning is especially effective in changing rainfall pattern during April and May. Results suggest that excessive aerosol transported from source region may intensify pre-monsoon rain band over central China in May and lead to early monsoon onset.

  1. The Dependence on Smokeless Tobacco in the South Asian Communities in East London

    PubMed Central

    Khaja, Amjad Hussain; Zwiad, Abdulsalam Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Gazal, Giath; Albaba, Feras; KalajI, Nader; Petro, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The purpose of the study was to understand the dependency on smokeless tobacco. Methods: The major aspect of the interview was to study the type of chewing tobacco used, frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco, change in attitude and behavior after the use of chewing tobacco. This study was done in 2005 in London. Of the 110 respondents interviewed 88 were used for the data analysis. Study Design: An exploratory study was conducted in East London, United Kingdom. The selected sample was interviewed through a questionnaire, based on the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Dependence Scale. Results: Cross tabulations report that in a sample of 88 South Asian UK resident men 46.6% used leaf (paan), 43.2% used processed form of chewing tobacco and 10.2% used gutka. Older age (67%) respondents were more likely than the younger age (30%) respondents to chew tobacco. The frequency of purchase of chewing tobacco is reported high (67.2%) in the older age group than the younger age group (50%). Conclusion: This current study used an amended form of the Severson Smokeless Tobacco Scale questionnaire to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. The study could be developed in the selection of the sample, which would include both males and females to study the dependency on smokeless tobacco. PMID:26234985

  2. Impact of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole on the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Jinqing; Li, Weijing; Sun, Chenghu; Xu, Li; Ren, Hong-Li

    2013-07-01

    A strong (weak) East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is usually concurrent with the tripole pattern of North Atlantic SST anomalies on the interannual timescale during summer, which has positive (negative) SST anomalies in the northwestern North Atlantic and negative (positive) SST anomalies in the subpolar and tropical ocean. The mechanisms responsible for this linkage are diagnosed in the present study. It is shown that a barotropic wave-train pattern occurring over the Atlantic-Eurasia region likely acts as a link between the EASM and the SST tripole during summer. This wave-train pattern is concurrent with geopotential height anomalies over the Ural Mountains, which has a substantial effect on the EASM. Diagnosis based on observations and linear dynamical model results reveals that the mechanism for maintaining the wave-train pattern involves both the anomalous diabatic heating and synoptic eddy-vorticity forcing. Since the North Atlantic SST tripole is closely coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the relationships between these two factors and the EASM are also examined. It is found that the connection of the EASM with the summer SST tripole is sensitive to the meridional location of the tripole, which is characterized by large seasonal variations due to the north-south movement of the activity centers of the NAO. The SST tripole that has a strong relationship with the EASM appears to be closely coupled with the NAO in the previous spring rather than in the simultaneous summer.

  3. Copy number variations in East-Asian population and their evolutionary and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Tae-Min; Hu, Hae-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hong; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, Seung-Hun; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Recent discovery of the copy number variation (CNV) in normal individuals has widened our understanding of genomic variation. However, most of the reported CNVs have been identified in Caucasians, which may not be directly applicable to people of different ethnicities. To profile CNV in East-Asian population, we screened CNVs in 3578 healthy, unrelated Korean individuals, using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 5.0. We identified 144 207 CNVs using a pooled data set of 100 randomly chosen Korean females as a reference. The average number of CNVs per genome was 40.3, which is higher than that of CNVs previously reported using lower resolution platforms. The median size of CNVs was 18.9 kb (range 0.2–5406 kb). Copy number losses were 4.7 times more frequent than copy number gains. CNV regions (CNVRs) were defined by merging overlapping CNVs identified in two or more samples. In total, 4003 CNVRs were defined encompassing 241.9 Mb accounting for ∼8% of the human genome. A total of 2077 CNVRs (51.9%) were potentially novel. Known CNVRs were larger and more frequent than novel CNVRs. Sixteen percent of the CNVRs were observed in ≥1% of study subjects and 24% overlapped with the OMIM genes. A total of 476 (11.9%) CNVRs were associated with segmental duplications. CNVS/CNVRs identified in this study will be valuable resources for studying human genome diversity and its association with disease. PMID:20026555

  4. The East Asian Summer Monsoon in pacemaker experiments driven by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Lu, Jian; Cash, Ben

    2015-03-01

    The variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is studied using a pacemaker technique driven by ENSO in an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) coupled to a slab mixed layer model. In the pacemaker experiments, sea surface temperature (SST) is constrained to observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific through a q- flux that measures the contribution of ocean dynamics to SST variability, while the AGCM is coupled to the slab model. An ensemble of pacemaker experiments is analyzed using a multivariate EOF analysis to identify the two major modes of variability of the EASM. The results show that the pacemaker experiments simulate a substantial amount (around 45 %) of the variability of the first mode (the Pacific-Japan pattern) in ERA40 from 1979 to 1999. Different from previous work, the pacemaker experiments also simulate a large part (25 %) of the variability of the second mode, related to rainfall variability over northern China. Furthermore, we find that the lower (850 hPa) and the upper (200 hPa) tropospheric circulation of the first mode display the same degree of reproducibility whereas only the lower part of the second mode is reproducible. The basis for the success of the pacemaker experiments is the ability of the experiments to reproduce the observed relationship between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the EASM.

  5. The East Asian Summer Monsoon in pacemaker experiments driven by ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Greatbatch, Richard; Lu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    The variability of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is studied using a pacemaker technique in a atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) coupled to a slab mixed layer model. In the pacemaker experiment, sea surface temperature (sst) is constrained to observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific throughout a q-flux that measures the contribution of ocean dynamics to SST variability, while the AGCM is still coupled to the slab model. An ensemble of pacemaker experiments is analysed using a multivariate EOF analysis to identify the two major modes of variability of the EASM. Results show that the pacemaker experiments simulate part of the variability of the first mode seen in the ERA40 reanalysis (correlation up to 0.67 for the model ensemble mean), as expected. Different from previous study, the pacemaker experiments also simulate part of the variabilty (correlation up to 0.51 for the model ensemble mean) of the second mode, a mode of variability that is related to that of the Indian Summer Monsoon. A possible reason is the success of the pacemaker experiments at reproducing the relationship between El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the second mode of EASM.

  6. The effect of transient eddy on interannual meridional displacement of summer East Asian subtropical jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yang; Yang, Xiuqun

    2012-05-01

    Using ERA-40 reanalysis daily data for the period 1958-2002, this study investigated the effect of transient eddy (TE) on the interannual meridional displacement of summer East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) by conducting a detailed dynamical diagnosis. The summer EASJ axis features a significant interannual coherent meridional displacement. Associated with such a meridional displacement, the TE vorticity forcing anomalies are characterized by a meridional dipole pattern asymmetric about the climatological EASJ axis. The TE vorticity forcing anomalies yield barotropic zonal wind tendencies with a phase meridionally leading the zonal wind anomalies, suggesting that they act to reinforce further meridional displacement of the EASJ and favor a positive feedback in the TE and time-mean flow interaction. However, The TE thermal forcing anomalies induce baroclinic zonal wind tendencies that reduce the vertical shear of zonal wind and atmospheric baroclinicity and eventually suppress the TE activity, favoring a negative feedback in the TE and time-mean flow interaction. Although the two types of TE forcing tend to have opposite feedback roles, the TE vorticity forcing appears to be dominant in the TE effect on the time-mean flow.

  7. Prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Intraseasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): pre-Meiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. Here, we use stepwise regression to determine the predictors for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the sea surface temperature (SST)/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the pre-Meiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the western North Pacific (WNP), which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode is related to the WNP subtropical high, induced by the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the Pacific-Japan pattern, and monsoon gyre mode is primarily associated with a persistent SST cooling over the tropical Indian Ocean by the preceding ENSO signal. This study carries important implications for prediction by establishing valuable precursors of the four modes including nonlinear characteristics.

  8. Prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2015-12-01

    Intraseasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): pre-Meiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. Here, we use stepwise regression to determine the predictors for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the sea surface temperature (SST)/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the pre-Meiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the western North Pacific (WNP), which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor that results in strong baroclinic instability. A major precursor for the Changma&Meiyu mode is related to the WNP subtropical high, induced by the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the Pacific-Japan pattern, and monsoon gyre mode is primarily associated with a persistent SST cooling over the tropical Indian Ocean by the preceding ENSO signal. This study carries important implications for prediction by establishing valuable precursors of the four modes including nonlinear characteristics.

  9. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  10. Predictability of the East Asian winter monsoon interannual variability as indicated by the DEMETER CGCMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Huijun

    2012-05-01

    The interannual variability of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) circulation from the Development of a European Multi-Model Ensemble (MME) System for Seasonal to Inter-Annual Prediction (DEMETER) hindcasts was evaluated against observation reanalysis data. We evaluated the DEMETER coupled general circulation models (CGCMs)' retrospective prediction of the typical EAWM and its associated atmospheric circulation. Results show that the EAWM can be reasonably predicted with statistically significant accuracy, yet the major bias of the hindcast models is the underestimation of the related anomalies. The temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) of the MME-produced EAWM index, defined as the first EOF mode of 850-hPa air temperature within the EAWM domain (20°-60°N, 90°-150°E), was 0.595. This coefficient was higher than those of the corresponding individual models (range: 0.39-0.51) for the period 1969-2001; this result indicates the advantage of the super-ensemble approach. This study also showed that the ensemble models can reasonably reproduce the major modes and their interannual variabilities for sea level pressure, geopotential height, surface air temperature, and wind fields in Eurasia. Therefore, the prediction of EAWM interannual variability is feasible using multimodel ensemble systems and that they may also reveal the associated mechanisms of the EAWM interannual variability.

  11. Impact of topography and land-sea distribution on east Asian paleoenvironmental patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. S.; Wang, H. J.; Guo, Z. T.; Jiang, D. B.

    2006-03-01

    Much geological research has illustrated the transition of paleoenvironmental patterns during the Cenozoic from a planetary-wind-dominant type to a monsoon-dominant type, indicating the initiation of the East Asian monsoon and inland-type aridity. However, there is a dispute about the causes and mechanisms of the transition, especially about the impact of the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat. Thirty numerical sensitivity experiments under different land-sea distributions and Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau topography conditions are performed here to simulate the evolution of climate belts with emphasis on changes in the rain band, and these are compared with the changes in the paleoenvironmental patterns during the Cenozoic recovered by geological records, The consistency between simulations and the geological evidence indicates that both the Tibetan Plateau uplift and the Paratethys Sea retreat play important roles in the formation of the monsoon-dominant environmental pattern. Furthermore, the simulations show the monsoon-dominant environmental pattern comes into being when the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau reaches 1000-2000 m high and the Paratethys Sea retreats to the Turan Plate.

  12. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study. PMID:27138104

  13. The climatology of East Asian winter monsoon and cold surges from 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zhang; Sperber, K.; Boyle, J.

    1996-04-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon, which is associated with the Siberian high and active cold surges, is one of the most energetic monsoon circulation systems. The dramatic shift of northeasterlies and the outbreak of cold surges dominate the winter weather and local climate in the East Asian region, and may exert a strong impact on the extratropical and tropical planetary-scale circulations and influence the SSTs in the tropical western Pacific. General characteristics of the winter monsoon and cold surges and their possible link with tropical disturbances are revealed in many observational studies. Little attention has been given to the climatological aspects of the winter monsoon and cold surges. The purpose of this study is to compile and document the East Asian mean winter circulation, and present the climatology of cold surges and the Siberian high based on the 1979--1995 NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Of particular interest is the interannual variation of winter monsoon circulation and cold surge events. Given that the cold surge activity and the Indonesian convection are much reduced during the 1982--83 period, one of the goals is to determine whether there exists a statistically significant relationship between ENSO and the interannual variation of winter monsoon and cold surges.

  14. East Asian origin of central Greenland last glacial dust: just one possible scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Svensson, Anders; Klötzli, Urs Stephan; Manning, Christina; Németh, Tibor; Kovács, János

    2016-04-01

    Dust in Greenland ice cores is used to reconstruct the activity of dust emitting regions and atmospheric circulation for the last glacial period. However, the source dust material to Greenland over this period is the subject of considerable uncertainty. Here we use new clay mineral and Sr-Nd isotopic data from eleven loess samples collected around the Northern Hemisphere and compare the 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic signatures of fine (<10 μm) separates to existing Greenland ice core dust data (GISP2, GRIP; [1]; [2]). Smectite contents and kaolinite/chlorite (K/C) ratios allow exclusion of continental US dust emitting regions as potential sources, because of the very high (>3.6) K/C ratios and extremely high (>~70%) smectite contents. At the same time, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions demonstrate that ice core dust isotopic compositions can be explained by East Asian (Chinese loess) and/or Central/East Central European dust contributions. Central/East Central European loess Sr-Nd isotopic compositions overlap most with ice core dust, while the Sr isotopic signature of Chinese loess is slightly more radiogenic. Nevertheless, an admixture of 90‒10 % from Chinese loess and circum-Pacific volcanic material would also account for the Sr‒Nd isotopic ratios of central Greenland LGM dust. At the same time, sourcing of ice core dust from Alaska, continental US and NE Siberia seems less likely based on Sr and Nd isotopic signatures. The data demonstrate that currently no unique source discrimination for Greenland dust is possible using both published and our new data [3]. Thus, there is a need to identify more diagnostic tracers. Based on initial Hf isotope analyses of fine separates of three loess samples (continental US, Central Europe, China), an apparent dependence of Hf isotopic signatures on the relative proportions of radiogenic clay minerals (primarily illite) was found, as these fine dust fractions are apparently zircon-free. The observed difference between

  15. Potential Influence of Arctic Sea Ice to the Inter-annual Variations of East Asian Spring Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea ice (ASI) and its potential climatic impacts have received increasing attention during the past decades, yet the relevant mechanisms are far from being understood, particularly on how anomalous ASI affects climate in midlatitudes. The spring precipitation takes up as much as 30% of the annual total and has significant influences to agriculture in East Asia. Here, observed evidence and numerical experiment results manifest that the ASI variability in the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea in preceding winter is intimately connected with interannual variations of the East Asian spring precipitation (EAP). The former can explain about 14% of the total variances of the latter. The ASI anomalies persist from winter through the ensuing spring and excite downstream tele-connections of a distinct Rossby wave train prevailing over the Eurasian continent. For the reduced ASI, such a wave train pattern is usually associated with an anomalous low pressure center over Mongolian Plateau, which accelerates the East Asian subtropical westerly jet. The intensified subtropical westerly jet, concurrent with lower-level convergence and upper-level divergence, enhances the local convection and consequently favors rich spring precipitation over East Asia. For the excessive ASI, the situation tends to be opposite. Given that seasonal prediction of the EAP remains a challenging issue, the winter ASI variability may provide another potential predictability source besides El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  16. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Intra-Host Populations Are Characterized by Numerous High Frequency Variants

    DOE PAGES

    Borucki, Monica K.; Lao, Victoria; Hwang, Mona; Gardner, Shea; Adney, Danielle; Munster, Vincent; Bowen, Richard; Allen, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-20

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen related to SARS virus. In vitro studies indicate this virus may have a broad host range suggesting an increased pandemic potential. Genetic and epidemiological evidence indicate camels serve as a reservoir for MERS virus but the mechanism of cross species transmission is unclear and many questions remain regarding the susceptibility of humans to infection. Deep sequencing data was obtained from the nasal samples of three camels that had been experimentally infected with a human MERS-CoV isolate. A majority of the genome was covered and average coverage was greater thanmore » 12,000x depth. Although only 5 mutations were detected in the consensus sequences, 473 intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Lastly, many of these variants were present at high frequencies and could potentially influence viral phenotype and the sensitivity of detection assays that target these regions for primer or probe binding.« less

  17. Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons during the last 21,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Shaowu; Cheng, Jun; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the past significant changes of the East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) and Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is critical for improving the projections of future climate over East Asia. One key issue that has remained outstanding from the paleo-climatic records is whether the evolution of the EASM and EAWM are correlated. Here, using a set of long-term transient simulations of the climate evolution of the last 21,000 years, we show that the EASM and EAWM are positively correlated on the orbital timescale in response to the precessional forcing, but are anti-correlated on millennial timescales in response to North Atlantic melt water forcing. The relation between EASM and EAWM can differ dramatically for different timescales because of the different response mechanisms, highlighting the complex dynamics of the East Asian monsoon system and the challenges for future projection. PMID:27328616

  18. Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons during the last 21,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Shaowu; Cheng, Jun; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the past significant changes of the East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) and Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is critical for improving the projections of future climate over East Asia. One key issue that has remained outstanding from the paleo-climatic records is whether the evolution of the EASM and EAWM are correlated. Here, using a set of long-term transient simulations of the climate evolution of the last 21,000 years, we show that the EASM and EAWM are positively correlated on the orbital timescale in response to the precessional forcing, but are anti-correlated on millennial timescales in response to North Atlantic melt water forcing. The relation between EASM and EAWM can differ dramatically for different timescales because of the different response mechanisms, highlighting the complex dynamics of the East Asian monsoon system and the challenges for future projection.

  19. Correlation and anti-correlation of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons during the last 21,000 years.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhengyu; Wang, Shaowu; Cheng, Jun; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the past significant changes of the East Asia Summer Monsoon (EASM) and Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is critical for improving the projections of future climate over East Asia. One key issue that has remained outstanding from the paleo-climatic records is whether the evolution of the EASM and EAWM are correlated. Here, using a set of long-term transient simulations of the climate evolution of the last 21,000 years, we show that the EASM and EAWM are positively correlated on the orbital timescale in response to the precessional forcing, but are anti-correlated on millennial timescales in response to North Atlantic melt water forcing. The relation between EASM and EAWM can differ dramatically for different timescales because of the different response mechanisms, highlighting the complex dynamics of the East Asian monsoon system and the challenges for future projection. PMID:27328616

  20. Seasonal prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon with a partial-least square model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Yu, Lulu

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) strength is probably one of the most challenging and crucial issues for climate prediction over East Asia. In this paper, a statistical method called partial-least square (PLS) regression is utilized to uncover principal sea surface temperature (SST) modes in the winter preceding the EASM. Results show that the SST pattern of the first PLS mode is associated with the turnabout of warming (or cooling) phase of a mega-El Niño/Southern Oscillation (mega-ENSO) (a leading mode of interannual-to-interdecadal variations of global SST), whereas that of the second PLS mode leads the warming/cooling mega-ENSO by about 1 year, signaling precursory conditions for mega-ENSO. These indicate that mega-ENSO may provide a critical predictability source for the EASM strength. Based on a 40-year training period (1958-1997), a PLS prediction model is constructed using the two leading PLS modes and 3-month-lead hindcasts are performed for the validation period of 1998-2013. A promising skill is obtained, which is comparable to the ensemble mean of versions 3 and 4 of the Canadian Community Atmosphere Model (CanCM3/4) hindcasts from the newly developed North American Multi-model Ensemble Prediction System regarding the interannual variations of the EASM strength. How to improve dynamical model simulation of the EASM is also examined through comparing the CanCM3/4 hindcast (1982-2010) with the 106-year historical run (1900-2005) by the Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). CanCM3/4 exhibits a high skill in the EASM hindcast period 1982-2010 during which it also has a better performance in capturing the relationship between the EASM and mega-ENSO. By contrast, the simulation skill of CanESM2 is quite low and it is unable to reproduce the linkage between the EASM and mega-ENSO. All these results emphasize importance of mega-ENSO in seasonal prediction and dynamical model simulation of the EASM.

  1. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. PMID:26842398

  2. Evaluation of Common Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants in a South Asian Population of Sri Lankan Descent

    PubMed Central

    Hassanali, Neelam; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Robertson, Neil; Rayner, N. William; Barrett, Amy; Bennett, Amanda J.; Groves, Christopher J.; Matthews, David R.; Katulanda, Prasad; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Most studies seeking common variant associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have focused on individuals of European ancestry. These discoveries need to be evaluated in other major ancestral groups, to understand ethnic differences in predisposition, and establish whether these contribute to variation in T2D prevalence and presentation. This study aims to establish whether common variants conferring T2D-risk in Europeans contribute to T2D-susceptibility in the South Asian population of Sri Lanka. Methodology Lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) at 37 T2D-risk loci attaining genome-wide significance in Europeans were genotyped in 878 T2D cases and 1523 normoglycaemic controls from Sri Lanka. Association testing was performed by logistic regression adjusting for age and sex and by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test after stratifying according to self-identified ethnolinguistic subgroup. A weighted genetic risk score was generated to examine the combined effect of these SNPs on T2D-risk in the Sri Lankan population. Results Of the 36 SNPs passing quality control, sixteen showed nominal (p<0.05) association in Sri Lankan samples, fifteen of those directionally-consistent with the original signal. Overall, these association findings were robust to analyses that accounted for membership of ethnolinguistic subgroups. Overall, the odds ratios for 31 of the 36 SNPs were directionally-consistent with those observed in Europeans (p = 3.2×10−6). Allelic odds ratios and risk allele frequencies in Sri Lankan subjects were not systematically different to those reported in Europeans. Genetic risk score and risk of T2D were strongly related in Sri Lankans (per allele OR 1.10 [95%CI 1.08–1.13], p = 1.2×10−17). Conclusion Our data indicate that most T2D-risk variants identified in Europeans have similar effects in South Asians from Sri Lanka, and that systematic difference in common variant associations are unlikely to explain inter-ethnic differences

  3. Recent trends and tele-connections among South and East Asian summer monsoons in a warming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preethi, B.; Mujumdar, M.; Kripalani, R. H.; Prabhu, Amita; Krishnan, R.

    2016-06-01

    Recent trends, variations and tele-connections between the two large regional sub-systems over the Asian domain, the South Asian and the East Asian monsoons are explored using data for the 1901-2014 period. Based on trend analysis a dipole-type configuration with north-drought and south-flood over South as well as East Asia is observed. Two regions over South Asia, one exhibiting a significant decreasing trend in summer monsoon rainfall over northeast India and the other significant increasing trend over the northern parts of the west coast of India are identified. Similarly two regions over East Asia, one over South Korea-southern parts of Japan and the other over South China are also identified both indicating a significant increasing trend in the summer monsoon rainfall. These trends are examined post 1970s. Possible factors associated with the recent trends are explored. Analysis of sea surface temperature (SST), mean sea level pressure and winds at lower troposphere indicates that the entire monsoon flow system appears to have shifted westwards, with the monsoon trough over South Asia indicating a westward shift by about 2-3° longitudes and the North Pacific Subtropical High over East Asia seems to have shifted by about 5-7° longitudes. These shifts are consistent with the recent rainfall trends. Furthermore, while the West Indian Ocean SSTs appear to be related with the summer monsoon rainfall over northern parts of India and over North China, the West Pacific SSTs appear to be related with the rainfall over southern parts of India and over South Korea- southern Japan sector.

  4. Simulation of the Indian and East-Asian summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S.; Hameed, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ability of the ECMWF model (Cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high frequency temporal variabilitY serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. More generally, the results indicate the importance of evaluating high frequency time scales as a component of the climate system. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian Monsoon, while T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma/Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East-Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangize River Valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional scale monsoon flows.

  5. Effects of water table dynamics on regional climate: A case study over east Asian monsoon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xing; Xie, Zhenghui; Zheng, Jing; Tian, Xiangjun; Yang, Zongliang

    2008-11-01

    Groundwater is an important component of the hydrologic cycle, and its anomaly will result in variations of soil moisture, water, and energy balances between the land surface and atmosphere, which ultimately influence climate. In this study, we implement a groundwater model into the regional climate model RegCM3, which is called RegCM3_GW, and investigate the effects of water table dynamics on regional climate. Numerical experiments by RegCM3_GW and RegCM3 over the east Asian monsoon area show that incorporating the water table dynamics into the regional climate model reduces the systematic biases of the simulated precipitation by 38.5% and 39.8% over semiarid and humid regions, respectively, and increases the bias slightly by 5.6% over semihumid regions. To seek the reasons for the differences of simulated precipitation, we analyze the atmospheric water vapor budget and the local water cycle among the water table, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), and convective precipitation. It is found that the top and root zone soil layers become wetter and enhance the bare soil evaporation but do not always increase the transpiration. Because of the variations of each ET's component, the obvious enhancements of ET occur in semiarid regions and contribute to more instable profiles of pseudoequivalent potential temperature. The atmospheric moisture budget analysis indicates that the recycling rate and precipitation efficiency increase greatly over semiarid regions, which presents a local aquifer-atmosphere feedback, while the variations of atmospheric water vapor transport control the development of precipitation over semihumid and humid regions. Therefore, the effects of water table dynamics on regional climate consist of the local aquifer-atmosphere interaction and the changes of circulation originated from ambient aquifer-atmosphere interaction, and the latter factor plays an important role in the monsoon area. Sensitivity of the results to a change in convection

  6. A NAO-ENSO-based seasonal prediction model for East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianping; Wu, Zhiwei; Feng, Juan; Zheng, Fei; Xu, Hanlie; Wang, Bin; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2013-04-01

    The observational analysis shows that the relationship between the preceding winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the following East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the past 60 years is strengthened. Both the observational and numerical evidences demonstrate that spring North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may exert significant influences on the enhancement of the EASM-ENSO relationship. Anomalous spring NAO may cause a tripole SSTA pattern in North Atlantic which can persist into ensuring summer from spring. In summer, the tripole SSTA impacts EASM through two pathways. One is the tripole SSTA pattern excites the Atlantic-Eurasian (AEA) teleconnection which is a distinct Rossby wave train prevailing over the Atlantic and northern Eurasia. As a result, the blocking highs over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea can be modulated. Another is it can force a simple Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response over western Pacific, consequently, the linkage between the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and ENSO is enhanced. The co-effects of the two teleconnection patterns help to strengthen (or weaken) the subtropical Meiyu-Baiu-Changma front, the primary rain-bearing system of the EASM. As such, spring NAO is tied to the strengthened connection between ENSO and the EASM. Then we may establish a NAO-ENSO-based seasonal prediction model for EASM. The hindcast experiments show a good performances of this prediction model for EASM. The NAO-ENSO-based model is employed to make seasonal prediction for EASM strength and summer rainfall over middle reach of Yangtze river in 2012, and the results show a good performance of the approach, implying the model could be a useful tool for seasonal prediction of EASM.

  7. The influences of East Asian Monsoon on summer precipitation in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Shen, Baizhu; Sui, Bo; Huang, Bohua

    2016-05-01

    A unique dataset of 53-year (1961-2013) rainfall measurements from 104 stations uniformly distributed in the Northeast China, combined with the observation-based NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, is used to analyze the precipitation anomalies in Northeast China during late boreal summer (July-August) and their relationship with the anomalous moisture transport associated with the fluctuations of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) circulation. Based on this analysis, a new EASM influence index (I EASM ) is proposed to quantify the EASM effects on the Northeast China summer precipitation. The relationship between the IEASM variations and patterns of the anomalous regional atmospheric circulation is demonstrated. The characteristics of several precursors that lead to the major fluctuations of the I EASM index are also explored. The results show that the EASM influence index is closely linked to the anomalous rainfall in Northeast China and can be used as a major factor to measure the physical processes that affect the regional dry and wet conditions. The I EASM index responds to the large-scale anomalies of the atmospheric circulation sensitively. Specifically, the high I EASM values are associated with the intensified Mongolia cyclone, blocking developing near the Ural Mountains and a northwestward shift of subtropical high over the western Pacific. The low I EASM values are associated with a reversed pattern of these features. The I EASM anomalous fluctuation has some precursors. A major high (low) index during the summer is likely preceded with the pattern of the sea surface temperature anomalies of an El Niño (La Niña) event in the Pacific from the previous early fall to early winter.

  8. Benzotriazole, benzothiazole, and benzophenone compounds in indoor dust from the United States and East Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-05-01

    Organic corrosion inhibitors (OCIs), including ultraviolet light filters, are widely used in plastics, rubbers, colorants, and coatings to increase the performance of products. Derivatives of benzotriazole (BTR), benzothiazole (BTH), and benzophenone (BP) are high-production volume OCIs that have been detected in the environment and human tissues. However, knowledge of their occurrence in indoor environments, as well as human exposure to them, is still lacking. In this study, BTR, BTH, BP and their 12 derivatives were determined in indoor dust for the first time. All three groups of OCIs were found in all 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S. and three East Asian countries (China, Japan, and Korea). The geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of six BTRs (GM CΣBTRs) ranged from 20 to 90 ng/g among the four countries studied, with a maximum CΣBTRs of ∼2000 ng/g found in a dust sample from China. Tolyltriazole was the major derivative of BTR measured in dust. GM CΣBTHs in indoor dust from the four countries ranged from 600 to 2000 ng/g. 2-OH-BTH was the predominant BTH in dust from the U.S., Japan, and Korea. GM CΣBPs in dust ranged from 80 to 600 ng/g, with 2-OH-4-MeO-BP and 2,4-2OH-BP, contributing to the majority of ∑BP concentrations. Based on the concentrations of three types of OCIs in indoor dust, human exposure through dust ingestion was calculated. Daily intake of OCIs through dust ingestion was higher for people in the U.S., Japan, and Korea than in China; the residents in urban China are exposed to higher levels of OCIs via dust ingestion than are those in rural China.

  9. Boreal spring Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode, Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, and East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Sulan; Li, Jianping; Yuan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The relationships among the boreal spring Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM), the Indian Ocean (IO) sea surface temperature (SST), and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are examined statistically in this paper. The variability of boreal spring SAM is closely related to the IO SST. When the SAM is in its strong positive phase in boreal spring, with low-pressure anomalies over the south pole and high-pressure anomalies over middle latitudes, SST over the subtropics and middle latitudes of the South Indian Ocean (SIO) increases, which persists into the summer. Following the positive SST anomalies over the subtropics and midlatitudes of the SIO, SST in the equatorial Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal increases in summer. Moreover, the variability of SST in the equatorial Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal is closely related to EASM. When SST in the equatorial Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal increases, EASM tends to be weak. Therefore the IO SST may play an important role bridging boreal spring SAM and EASM. The atmospheric circulations and surface heat exchanges contribute to the SST anomalies in the SIO. When the spring SAM is in its strong positive phases, the regional Ferrel Cell weakens, and the anomalous upward motions at 20°S-30°S cause an increase of low cloud cover and downward longwave radiation flux. The surface atmospheric circulations also transport more (less) warmer (cooler) air from middle latitudes north of 50°S (high latitudes south of 60°S) into 50°S-60°S and warm the air, which reduces the temperature difference between the ocean and atmosphere and consequently reduces sensible heat flux from the ocean to atmosphere. The increased downward longwave radiation and decreased sensible heat are responsible for the SST increase in the SIO. The atmospheric circulation and surface heat flux anomalies are of opposite signs following the strong negative phases of SAM.

  10. Eddy contributions at multiple timescales to the evolution of persistent anomalous East Asian trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Marco Yu-Ting; Zhou, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Persistent strong and weak East Asian trough (EAT) cases during boreal winter are captured by projecting 12 UTC geostrophic vorticity onto that of a seasonal strong EAT. The persistent cases are investigated in terms of seasonal, intraseasonal, and synoptic temporal scales. The evolution of persistent strong and weak EAT cases displays characteristics of intraseasonal temporal variation. The onset and decay of strong (weak) cases is associated with the passage of an intraseasonal negative (positive) 500 hPa height anomaly from Northeast Asia to the midlatitude central Pacific, through the region of the EAT. The onset and decay stages of persistent strong (weak) EAT cases occur in conjunction with a seasonal stronger-than-normal (weaker-than-normal) EAT. In addition, it is noted that the difference between the number of strong and weak cases exhibits significant covariability with the strength of the seasonal EAT. Meanwhile the seasonal EAT also plays a role in the development and decay of persistent cases. The contributions of dynamic and thermodynamic processes during the evolution of persistent strong and weak EAT cases are investigated. Since the forcing of horizontal temperature advection and that of adiabatic and diabatic processes are likely to offset each other, dynamic processes make a more important contribution to the evolution of the EAT than do thermodynamic processes. Furthermore, horizontal absolute vorticity advection is dominant in the dynamic processes and is caused mainly by the advection of synoptic and intraseasonal vorticity by seasonal wind. The seasonal wind transports positive vorticity to (away from) the EAT, which results in a remarkable strengthening (weakening) of the EAT during the onset (decay) stage for persistent strong EAT cases.

  11. Distinguished ENSO response and moisture supply of dominant intraseasonal modes in the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyoeun; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Chu, Jung-Eun; Yun, Kyung-Sook

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of various self-organizing map (SOM) analysis, a kind of artificial neural network, the dominant modes of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are identified as the Meiyu-Baiu, Changma, post-Changma, and the dry-spell modes. The SOM approach supposes that sudden phase change during summer monsoon period results from the presence of non-linear coupled features of intraseasonal phases. Thus, the origin and nature of the moisture supply in the dominant intraseasonal modes of the EASM rainfall can be identified in terms of each mode. To discuss the uniqueness of EASM major modes, the horizontal and vertical moisture supply are examined using moisture budget equation consisting of convergence, advection and transient eddy terms. Strong moisture convergence region can be found over the southern part of Meiyu-Baiu rainband. The Changma mode has zonal-oriented moisture source which confined to low-level from surface to 925-hPa over the Korean peninsula. Furthermore, convective instability deeply developed in the Changma mode. It means advection of moist, warm air by low-level wind from the south and cold, dry air from the north are fundamental for generating convective instability and sustaining convective activity. On the contrary to Changma mode, post-Changma mode has meridional-oriented moisture source with its deep vertical profile. Moisture divergence regions cover the northern China, Korea, and Japan for dry-spell mode. Besides the moisture convergence and advection, the transient eddies play a role in supplying moisture over the boundary region of mean flow. Detailed analyses for the relationship between external components such as El Niño Southern Oscillation which can be affected slowly on the inter-annual time scale have been discussed.

  12. Genome-wide Association Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the East Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Shimada, Takafumi; Otowa, Takeshi; Wu, Yu-Yu; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Tochigi, Mamoru; Iwata, Yasuhide; Umekage, Tadashi; Toyota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Kano, Yukiko; Nishida, Hisami; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Mori, Norio; Yamada, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Kasai, Kiyoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic basis. To identify common genetic variations conferring the risk of ASD, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study using ASD family and healthy control samples obtained from East Asian populations. A total of 166 ASD families (n = 500) and 642 healthy controls from the Japanese population were used as the discovery cohort. Approximately 900,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 chips. In the replication stage, 205 Japanese ASD cases and 184 healthy controls, as well as 418 Chinese Han trios (n = 1,254), were genotyped by TaqMan platform. Case-control analysis, family based association test, and transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) were then conducted to test the association. In the discovery stage, significant associations were suggested for 14 loci, including 5 known ASD candidate genes: GPC6, JARID2, YTHDC2, CNTN4, and CSMD1. In addition, significant associations were identified for several novel genes with intriguing functions, such as JPH3, PTPRD, CUX1, and RIT2. After a meta-analysis combining the Japanese replication samples, the strongest signal was found at rs16976358 (P = 6.04 × 10(-7)), which is located near the RIT2 gene. In summary, our results provide independent support to known ASD candidate genes and highlight a number of novel genes warranted to be further investigated in a larger sample set in an effort to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of ASD.

  13. YAG laser iridotomy treatment for primary angle closure in east Asian eyes

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, W.; Foster, P.; Devereux, J.; Uranchimeg, D.; Johnson, G.; Baasanhu, J.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To assess the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser iridotomy as initial treatment for primary angle closure in a community setting in rural Mongolia.
METHODS—Subjects with occludable drainage angles in two glaucoma prevalence surveys in Mongolia (carried out in 1995 and 1997) were treated with YAG laser iridotomy at the time of diagnosis. These patients were re-examined in 1998. Patency of iridotomy, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, and gonioscopic findings were recorded. Iridotomy was classified unsuccessful in eyes where further surgical intervention was required or in which there was a loss of visual acuity to <3/60 from glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
RESULTS—164 eyes of 98 subjects were examined. Patent peripheral iridotomies were found in 98.1% (157/160) of eyes that had not undergone surgery. Median angle width increased by two Shaffer grades following iridotomy. Iridotomy alone failed in 3% eyes with narrow drainage angles and either peripheral anterior synechiae or raised IOP, but normal optic discs and visual fields. However, in eyes with established glaucomatous optic neuropathy at diagnosis iridotomy failed in 47%. None of the eyes with occludable angles that were normal in all other respects, and underwent iridotomy, developed glaucomatous optic neuropathy or symptomatic angle closure within the follow up period.
CONCLUSIONS—Nd: YAG laser iridotomy is effective in widening the drainage angle and reducing elevated IOP in east Asian people with primary angle closure. This suggests that pupil block is a significant mechanism causing closure of the angle in this population. Once glaucomatous optic neuropathy associated with synechial angle closure has occurred, iridotomy alone is less effective at controlling IOP.

 PMID:11049950

  14. Brain Structure in Young and Old East Asians and Westerners: Comparisons of Structural Volume and Cortical Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Michael Wei Liang; Zheng, Hui; Goh, Joshua Oon Soo; Park, Denise; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2012-01-01

    There is an emergent literature suggesting that East Asians and Westerners differ in cognitive processes because of cultural biases to process information holistically (East Asians) or analytically (Westerners). To evaluate the possibility that such differences are accompanied by differences in brain structure, we conducted a large comparative study on cognitively matched young and old adults from two cultural/ethnic groups—Chinese Singaporeans and non-Asian Americans—that involved a total of 140 persons. Young predominantly White American adults were found to have higher cortical thickness in frontal, parietal, and medial-temporal polymodal association areas in both hemispheres. These findings were replicated using voxel-based morphometry applied to the same data set. Differences in cortical thickness observed between young volunteers were not significant in older subjects as a whole. However, group differences were evident when high-performing old were compared. Although the observed differences in gray matter may be rooted in strategic differences in cognition arising from ethnic/cultural differences, alternative explanations involving genetic heritage and environmental factors are also considered. PMID:20433238

  15. Where West Meets East: The Complex mtDNA Landscape of the Southwest and Central Asian Corridor

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Chaix, Raphaëlle; Wells, R. Spencer; Behar, Doron M.; Sayar, Hamid; Scozzari, Rosaria; Rengo, Chiara; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Semino, Ornella; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Silvana; Coppa, Alfredo; Ayub, Qasim; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Qasim Mehdi, S.; Torroni, Antonio; McElreavey, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The southwestern and Central Asian corridor has played a pivotal role in the history of humankind, witnessing numerous waves of migration of different peoples at different times. To evaluate the effects of these population movements on the current genetic landscape of the Iranian plateau, the Indus Valley, and Central Asia, we have analyzed 910 mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from 23 populations of the region. This study has allowed a refinement of the phylogenetic relationships of some lineages and the identification of new haplogroups in the southwestern and Central Asian mtDNA tree. Both lineage geographical distribution and spatial analysis of molecular variance showed that populations located west of the Indus Valley mainly harbor mtDNAs of western Eurasian origin, whereas those inhabiting the Indo-Gangetic region and Central Asia present substantial proportions of lineages that can be allocated to three different genetic components of western Eurasian, eastern Eurasian, and south Asian origin. In addition to the overall composite picture of lineage clusters of different origin, we observed a number of deep-rooting lineages, whose relative clustering and coalescent ages suggest an autochthonous origin in the southwestern Asian corridor during the Pleistocene. The comparison with Y-chromosome data revealed a highly complex genetic and demographic history of the region, which includes sexually asymmetrical mating patterns, founder effects, and female-specific traces of the East African slave trade. PMID:15077202

  16. Simulations of the 100-hPa South Asian High and precipitation over East Asia with IPCC coupled GCMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ningfang; Yu, Yongqiang; Qian, Yongfu

    2006-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) and precipitation over East Asia simulated by 11 coupled GCMs associated with the forthcoming Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report are evaluated. The seasonal behavior of the SAH is presented for each model. Analyses of the results show that all models are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle of the SAH. Locations of the SAH center are also basically reproduced by these models. All models underestimate the intensity and the extension of coverage in summer. The anomalous SAH can be divided into east and west modes according to its longitudinal position in summer on the interannual timescale, and the composite anomalies of the observed precipitation for these two modes tend to have opposite signs over East Asia. However, only several coupled GCMs can simulate the relationship between rainfall and SAH similar to the observed one, which may be associated with the bias in simulation of the subtropical anticyclone over the West Pacific (SAWP) at 500 hPa. In fact, it is found that any coupled GCM, that can reproduce the reasonable summer mean state of SAWP and the southward (northward) withdrawal (extension) for the east (west) mode of SAH as compared to the observed, will also simulate similar rainfall anomaly patterns for the east and west SAH modes over East Asia. Further analysis indicates that the observed variations in the SAH, SAWP and rainfall are closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the equatorial tropical Pacific. Particularly, some models cannot simulate the SAWP extending northward in the west mode and withdrawing southward in the east mode, which may be related to weak major El Niño or La Niña events. The abilities of the coupled GCMs to simulate the SAWP and ENSO events are associated partly with their ability to reproduce the observed relationship between SAH and the rainfall anomaly over East Asia.

  17. Social Exclusion and Its Causes in East Asian Societies: Evidences from SQSQ Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ka; Xu, Yun; Huang, Tianhai; Zhang, Jiahua

    2013-01-01

    Using data from surveys on "social quality survey questionnaires", carried out by the Asian Consortium for Social Quality between 2009 and 2011, this study investigates the causes of social exclusion in six Asian societies. About 6,460 questionnaires were completed and the analysis of the data reveals the features and the causes of social…

  18. A Social Cognitive Examination of East Asian American Career Development: Contextual Factors Influencing Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…

  19. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. PMID:26760713

  20. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  1. The role of East Asian monsoon system in shaping population divergence and dynamics of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hengxia; Yan, Xia; Shi, Yong; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Zhonghu; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lirong; Li, Yi; Li, Xiaoze; Chen, Guoxiong; Li, Xinrong; Nevo, Eviatar; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered a deep divergence occurring at ca. 2.96 Mya between the western and eastern lineages of R. soongarica, and ecological niche modeling analysis strongly supported that the monsoonal climate could have fragmented its habitats in both glacial and interglacial periods and impelled its intraspecific divergence. Additionally, the population from the east monsoonal zone expanded rapidly, suggesting that the local monsoonal climate significantly impacted its population dynamics. The isolation by distance tests supported strong maternal gene flow along the direction of the East Asian winter monsoon, whose intensification induced the genetic admixture along the latitudinal populations of R. soongarica. Our results presented a new case that the development of EAMS had prominently impacted the intraspecific divergence and population dynamics of this desert plant. PMID:26510579

  2. The role of East Asian monsoon system in shaping population divergence and dynamics of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hengxia; Yan, Xia; Shi, Yong; Qian, Chaoju; Li, Zhonghu; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Lirong; Li, Yi; Li, Xiaoze; Chen, Guoxiong; Li, Xinrong; Nevo, Eviatar; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Both of the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) and the development of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) could have comprehensively impacted the formation and evolution of Arid Central Asia (ACA). To understand how desert plants endemic to ACA responded to these two factors, we profiled the historical population dynamics and distribution range shift of a constructive desert shrub Reaumuria soongarica (Tamaricaceae) based on species wide investigation of sequence variation of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal ITS. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered a deep divergence occurring at ca. 2.96 Mya between the western and eastern lineages of R. soongarica, and ecological niche modeling analysis strongly supported that the monsoonal climate could have fragmented its habitats in both glacial and interglacial periods and impelled its intraspecific divergence. Additionally, the population from the east monsoonal zone expanded rapidly, suggesting that the local monsoonal climate significantly impacted its population dynamics. The isolation by distance tests supported strong maternal gene flow along the direction of the East Asian winter monsoon, whose intensification induced the genetic admixture along the latitudinal populations of R. soongarica. Our results presented a new case that the development of EAMS had prominently impacted the intraspecific divergence and population dynamics of this desert plant. PMID:26510579

  3. Preferred response of the East Asian summer monsoon to local and non-local anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Highwood, Eleanor J.; Wilcox, Laura J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the atmospheric component of a state-of-the-art climate model (HadGEM2-ES) that includes earth system components such as interactive chemistry and eight species of tropospheric aerosols considering aerosol direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects, has been used to investigate the impacts of local and non-local emissions of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The study focuses on the fast responses (including land surface feedbacks, but without sea surface temperature feedbacks) to sudden changes in emissions from Asia and Europe. The initial responses, over days 1-40, to Asian and European emissions show large differences. The response to Asian emissions involves a direct impact on the sulphate burden over Asia, with immediate consequences for the shortwave energy budget through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. These changes lead to cooling of East Asia and a weakening of the EASM. In contrast, European emissions have no significant impact on the sulphate burden over Asia, but they induce mid-tropospheric cooling and drying over the European sector. Subsequently, however, this cold and dry anomaly is advected into Asia, where it induces atmospheric and surface feedbacks over Asia and the Western North Pacific (WNP), which also weaken the EASM. In spite of very different perturbations to the local aerosol burden in response to Asian and European sulphur dioxide emissions, the large scale pattern of changes in land-sea thermal contrast, atmospheric circulation and local precipitation over East Asia from days 40 onward exhibits similar structures, indicating a preferred response, and suggesting that emissions from both regions likely contributed to the observed weakening of the EASM. Cooling and drying of the troposphere over Asia, together with warming and moistening over the WNP, reduces the land-sea thermal contrast between the Asian continent and surrounding oceans. This leads to high sea level

  4. Projected response of East Asian summer monsoon system to future reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2016-09-01

    The response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system to reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors at the end of the twenty-first century projected by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 is studied using an aerosol-climate model with aerosol direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects included. Our results show that the global annual mean aerosol effective radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is +1.45 W m-2 from 2000 to 2100. The summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over the East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the TOA and surface increased by +3.9 and +4.0 W m-2, respectively, due to the reductions of aerosols in 2100 relative to 2000. Changes in radiations affect local thermodynamic and dynamic processes and the hydrological cycle. The summer mean surface temperature and pressure averaged over the EAMR are shown to increase by 1.7 K and decreased by 0.3 hPa, respectively, due to the reduced aerosols. The magnitudes of these changes are larger over land than ocean, causing a marked increase in the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure in the EAMR, thus strengthening the EASM. The summer mean southwest and south winds at 850 hPa are enhanced over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans, and the East Asian subtropical jet shifted northward due to the decreases of aerosols. These factors also indicate enhanced EASM circulation, which in turn causes a 10 % increase in summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR.

  5. Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial times in the past 470 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D.-D.; Wu, N.; Pei, Y.; Li, F.

    2009-04-01

    Chinese loess sequences are interpreted as a reliable record of the past variation of the East Asian monsoon regime through the alternation of loess and paleosols units, dominated by the winter and summer monsoon, respectively. Different proxies have been used to describe this system, mostly geophysical, geochemical or sedimentological. Terrestrial mollusks are also a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and are often preserved in large numbers in loess deposits. The analysis of the mollusk remains in the Luochuan sequence, comprising L5 loess to S0 soil, i.e. the last 500 ka, shows that for almost all identified species, the abundance is higher at the base of the interval (L5 to L4) than in the younger deposits. Using the present ecological requirements of the identified mollusk species in the Luochuan sequence allows the definition of two main mollusk groups varying during the last 500 kyr. The cold-aridiphilous individuals indicate the so-called Asian winter monsoon regime and predominantly occur during glacials, when dust is deposited. The thermal-humidiphilous mollusks are prevalent during interglacial or interstadial conditions of the Asian summer monsoon, when soil formation takes place. In the sequence, three events with exceptionally high abundance of the Asian summer monsoon indicators are recorded during the L5, L4 and L2 glacial intervals, i.e., at about 470, 360 and 170 kyr, respectively. The L5 and L4 events appear to be the strongest (high counts). Similar variations have also been identified in the Xifeng sequence, distant enough from Luochuan, but also in Lake Baikal further North, to suggest that this phenomenon is regional rather than local. The indicators of the summer monsoon within the glacial intervals imply a strengthened East-Asian monsoon interpreted as corresponding to marine isotope stages 12, 10 and 6, respectively. The L5 and L2 summer monsoons are coeval with Mediterranean sapropels S12 and S6, which characterize a strong

  6. Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial conditions in the past 470 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D.-D.; Wu, N.; Pei, Y.; Li, F.

    2008-12-01

    Chinese loess sequences are interpreted as a reliable record of the past variation of the East Asian monsoon regime through the alternation of loess and paleosols units, dominated by the winter and summer monsoon, respectively. Different proxies have been used to describe this system, mostly geophysical, geochemical or sedimentological. Terrestrial mollusks are also a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and are often preserved in large numbers in loess deposits. The analysis of the mollusk remains in the Luochuan sequence, comprising L5 loess to S0 soil, i.e. the last 500 ka, shows that for almost all identified species, the abundance is higher at the base of the interval (L5 to L4) than in the younger deposits. Using the present ecological requirements of the identified mollusk species in the Luochuan sequence allows the definition of two main mollusk groups varying during the last 500 kyr. The cold-aridiphilous individuals indicate the so-called Asian winter monsoon regime and predominantly occur during glacials, when dust is deposited. The thermal-humidiphilous mollusks are prevalent during interglacial or interstadial conditions of the Asian summer monsoon, when soil formation takes place. In the sequence, three events with exceptionally high abundance of the Asian summer monsoon indicators are recorded during the L5, L4 and L2 glacial intervals, i.e., at about 470, 360 and 170 kyr, respectively. The L5 and L4 events appear to be the strongest (high counts). Similar variations have also been identified in the Xifeng sequence, distant enough from Luochuan, but also in Lake Baikal further North, to suggest that this phenomenon is regional rather than local. The indicators of the summer monsoon within the glacial intervals imply a strengthened East-Asian monsoon interpreted as corresponding to marine isotope stages 6, 10 and 12, respectively. The L5 and L2 summer monsoons are coeval with Mediterranean sapropels S12 and S6, which characterize a strong

  7. Association of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet with the Southwest Asian summer monsoon: A diagnostic analysis on heavy rain events in Yunnan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Yunnan province, China is a typical area that is influenced by Southwest Asian summer monsoon (SASM) during boreal summer. Although the interannual variation of summer precipitation in Yunnan Province is closely related to that of the SASM, the East Asian subtropical westerly jet (EASWJ) may have an important role in heavy rainfall events in Yunnan Province during boreal summer. By using daily observations and the NACAR/NCEP data during 1960-2011, a diagnostic analysis is performed to investigate the association of the EASWJ with the SASM on heavy rain events in Yunnan Province during boreal summer. The analysis shows an anomalous divergence circulation pattern at upper level (200 hPa) over Eurasian continent that corresponds well to the negative anomaly of EASWJ during heavy rain events in boreal summer in Yunnan Province. At the same time, a low-level jet stream with abundant water vapor originated from the Arabian Sea and Bengal gulf provides necessarily dynamic and water conditions for heavy rain mechanism. The study further shows that the weakening of the EASWJ during heavy rain events in Yunnan Province is associated with the decrease in the meridional temperature gradient in northern mid-latitude (30o-40o N).

  8. Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols Above a Pristine South East Asian Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, N. H.; Allan, J. D.; Williams, P. I.; Coe, H.; Hamilton, J.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S.; Trembath, J.

    2009-04-01

    The tropics emit a huge amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Earth's atmosphere. The processes by which these gases are oxidised to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are currently not well understood or quantified. Intensive field measurements were carried out as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects around pristine rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first campaign of its type in a South East Asian rainforest. We present detailed organic aerosol composition measurements made using an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) at Bukit Atur, a Global Atmosphere Watch site located in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This is a state-of-the-art field deployable instrument that can provide real time composition, mass loading and aerodynamic particle sizing information. In addition, the mass spectral resolution is sufficient to perform an analysis of the elemental composition of the organic species present. Other tools such as positive matrix factorisation (PMF) have been used to help assess the relative source contributions to the organic aerosol. A suite of supporting aerosol and gas phase measurements were made, including size resolved number concentration measurements with Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS), as well as absorption measurements made with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP). The ground site data are compared with Aerodyne Compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) measurements made on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft. Airborne measurements were made above pristine rainforest surrounding the Danum Valley site, as well as nearby oil palm agricultural sites and palm oil rendering plants. Airborne hygroscopicity was measured using a Droplet Measurement Technology Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter (DMT CCN counter) in

  9. ENSO and East Asian winter monsoon relationship modulation associated with the anomalous northwest Pacific anticyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Won; An, Soon-Il; Jun, Sang-Yoon; Park, Hey-Jin; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Using observational datasets and numerical model experiments, the mechanism on the slowly varying change in the relationship between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is investigated. The decadal-window (11-, 15-, and 21-year) moving correlations show a significant change in the boreal wintertime ENSO-EAWM relationship between two sub-periods of 1976‒1992 and 1997‒2013. Such recent change in ENSO-EAWM relationship is mainly attributed to the changes in the intensity and zonal location of the anomalous lower-tropospheric northwest Pacific anticyclone (NWP-AC). NWP-AC commonly develops near the region of the Philippine Sea during the ENSO's peak phase and plays an important role of bridging the tropical convection and mid-latitude teleconnection. On one hand, the intensity of the NWP-AC is influenced by the interdecadal variation in a linkage between ENSO and the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability, referring that a strong connection between the Pacific and Indian Oceans results in the strengthening of NWP-AC response to ENSO. On the other hand, the zonal displacement of the NWP-AC is associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). That is, the tropical Pacific mean state (i.e., zonal SST gradient between climatologically warm western Pacific and cold eastern Pacific)—strengthened by either the negative PDO phase or the positive AMO phase—drives the anomalous ENSO-induced convection to be shifted to the west. With this westward shift, the zonal center of the NWP-AC also migrates westward over the Philippine Islands and exerts stronger connection between ENSO and EAWM. In contrast, the relaxed zonal SST contrast associated with either the positive PDO phase or the negative AMO phase tends to exhibit weaker ENSO-EAWM relationship via both of eastward shifted zonal centers of the anomalous ENSO-induced convection and the NWP-AC. Finally, a

  10. Holocene East Asian summer monsoon records in northern China and their inconsistency with Chinese stalagmite δ18O records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianbao; Chen, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Fahu

    2016-04-01

    Monsoon precipitation over China exhibits large spatial differences. It has been found that a significantly enhanced East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is characterized by increased rainfall in northern China and by reduced rainfall in southern China, and this relationship occurs on different time scales during the Holocene. This study presents results from a diverse range of proxy paleoclimatic records from northern China where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an EASM proxy. Our aim is to evaluate the evolution of the EASM during the Holocene and to compare it with all of the published stalagmite δ18O records from the Asian Monsoon region in order to explore the potential mechanism(s) controlling the Chinese stalagmite δ18O. We found that the intensity of the EASM during the Holocene recorded by the traditional EASM proxy of moisture (or precipitation) records from northern China are significantly different from the Chinese stalagmite δ18O records. The EASM maximum occurred during the mid-Holocene, challenging the prevailing view of an early Holocene EASM maximum mainly inferred from stalagmite δ18O records in eastern China. In addition, all of the well-dated Holocene stalagmite δ18O records, covering a broad geographical region, exhibit a remarkably similar trend of variation and are statistically well-correlated on different time scales, thus indicating a common signal. However, in contrast with the clear consistency in the δ18O values in all of the cave records, both instrumental and paleoclimatic records exhibit significant spatial variations in rainfall on decadal-to- centennial time scales over eastern China. In addition, both paleoclimatic records and modeling results suggest that Holocene East Asian summer monsoon precipitation reached a maximum at different periods in different regions of China. Thus the stalagmite δ18O records from the EASM region should not be regarded as a reliable indicator of the strength of the East

  11. Dynamics of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in Present and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinqiang

    This thesis aims at enhancing our fundamental understanding of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and mechanisms implicated in its climatology in present-day and warmer climates. We focus on the most prominent feature of the EASM, i.e., the so-called Meiyu-Baiu (MB), which is characterized by a well-defined, southwest to northeast elongated quasi-stationary rainfall band, spanning from eastern China to Japan and into the northwestern Pacific Ocean in June and July. We begin with an observational study of the energetics of the MB front in present-day climate. Analyses of the moist static energy (MSE) budget of the MB front indicate that horizontal advection of moist enthalpy, primarily of dry enthalpy, sustains the front in a region of otherwise negative net energy input into the atmospheric column. A decomposition of the horizontal dry enthalpy advection into mean, transient, and stationary eddy fluxes identifies the longitudinal thermal gradient due to zonal asymmetries and the meridional stationary eddy velocity as the most influential factors determining the pattern of horizontal moist enthalpy advection. Numerical simulations in which the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is either retained or removed show that the TP influences the stationary enthalpy flux, and hence the MB front, primarily by changing the meridional stationary eddy velocity, with reinforced southerly wind on the northwestern flank of the north Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) over the MB region and northerly wind to its north. Changes in the longitudinal thermal gradient are mainly confined to the near downstream of the TP, with the resulting changes in zonal warm air advection having a lesser impact on the rainfall in the extended MB region. Similar mechanisms are shown to be implicated in present climate simulations in the Couple Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. We find that the spatial distribution of the EASM precipitation simulated by different models is highly correlated

  12. Role of the tropical Pacific Ocean in strengthening the East Asian Monsoon: Climate model study of MIS-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, M.; Herold, N.; Yin, Q.; Berger, A.

    2012-12-01

    Studying past climates is a valuable approach to improve our understanding of the present and future climate systems. Among the significant events in the history of climate, the interglacial periods are good candidates for representation of the future climate because of their astronomical characteristics and their similarity to predicted anthropogenic warming. Moreover, some interglacials exhibited significant changes in atmospheric and oceanic properties due to only small changes in their climatic forcing (greenhouse gases and solar insolation) which also make them a good case for investigating past climates. For instance, the interglacial stage of around 0.5 Ma identified as Marine Isotopic stage 13 (MIS-13), the focus of this study, was characterized by extremely strong East Asian and Indian summer monsoons while the CO2 and CH4 levels were lower and seasonal radiation energy could reach up to 50 Wm-2 higher than today. The extreme monsoon precipitation is quite unexpected for a climate with such forcing. To understand the physics-based mechanism that enhances the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) during MIS-13, we used two fully coupled general circulation models, the HadCM3 and CCSM3. In MIS-13 experiments, concentrations of greenhouse gases were prescribed lower than in pre-industrial and seasonal insolation characterised by Northern-Hemisphere (NH) summer occurring at perihelion instead of aphelion as it does today. Results of both models confirm increased summer precipitation in the monsoon regions. We find that the tropical Pacific Ocean plays a major role in strengthening the EASM in MIS-13. Simulations of MIS-13 show stronger easterly surface winds along the equatorial Pacific and a subsequent increase in the mean thermocline tilt, in addition to a westward shift of the cold tongue. These changes alter the background climatic state of the equatorial Pacific towards a La Niña-type state. The interannual variability around the La Niña-like background

  13. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  14. A comparison of East Asian summer monsoon simulations from CAM3.1 with three dynamic cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ting; Wang, Lanning; Dong, Wenjie; Dong, Min; Zhang, Jingyong

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity of CAM3.1 simulations of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to the choice of dynamic cores using three long-term simulations, one with each of the following cores: the Eulerian spectral transform method (EUL), semi-Lagrangian scheme (SLD) and finite volume approach (FV). Our results indicate that the dynamic cores significantly influence the simulated fields not only through dynamics, such as wind, but also through physical processes, such as precipitation. Generally speaking, SLD is superior to EUL and FV in simulating the climatological features of EASM and its interannual variability. The SLD version of the CAM model partially reduces its known deficiency in simulating the climatological features of East Asian summer precipitation. The strength and position of simulated western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and its ridge line compare more favourably with observations in SLD and FV than in EUL. They contribute to the intensification of the south-easterly along the south of WPSH and the vertical motion through the troposphere around 30° N, where the subtropical rain belt exists. Additionally, SLD simulates the scope of the westerly jet core over East Asia more realistically than the other two dynamic cores do. Considerable systematic errors of the seasonal migration of monsoon rain belt and water vapour flux exist in all of the three versions of CAM3.1 model, although it captures the broad northward shift of convection, and the simulated results share similarities. The interannual variation of EASM is found to be more accurate in SLD simulation, which reasonably reproduces the leading combined patterns of precipitation and 850-hPa winds in East Asia, as well as the 2.5- and 10-year periods of Li-Zeng EASM index. These results emphasise the importance of dynamic cores for the EASM simulation as distinct from the simulation's sensitivity to the physical parameterisations.

  15. Recent Reversal of the Upper-Tropospheric Temperature Trend and its Role in Intensifying the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Siyao; Li, Jian; Yu, Rucong; Chen, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the July and August (JA) mean upper-tropospheric temperature over East Asia shows a significant increasing trend, contrary to the decreasing trend in the late 1970 s. The largest warming center is over northern China (between 30°N–45°N and 85°E–120°E) around 300 hPa. Together with the temperature rising, the geo-potential height rises above the warming center and drops below, which connects closely to a correspondingly significant decadal shift of the general circulation over East Asia. In the upper-level of the troposphere, an anomalous anti-cyclone dominates, and the 200–hPa westerly jet strengthens due to the increasing pole-ward geo-potential height gradient. In the lower-troposphere, the anomalous southerly wind increases around Yangtze River Valley and the East Asian summer monsoon intensifies. The integrated circulation changes seriously impact summer precipitation over East Asia. The so-called “southern flood and northern drought” (SFND) pattern since the 1970 s over eastern China has changed. As the cooling center in the 1970 s moves southward, the dry belt moves southward as well. A wet belt dominates the Huaihe River Valley after the temperature trend reversal at 2005 while southern China experiences a dry condition. PMID:26135966

  16. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin-Shuai; Chen, Chen; Comes, Hans Peter; Sakaguchi, Shota; Liu, Yi-Hui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sakio, Hitoshi; Qiu, Ying-Xiong

    2012-10-01

    East Asia's temperate deciduous forests served as sanctuary for Tertiary relict trees, but their ages and response to past climate change remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we elucidated the evolutionary and population demographic history of Cercdiphyllum, comprising species in China/Japan (Cercdiphyllum japonicum) and central Japan (Cercdiphyllum magnificum). Fifty-three populations were genotyped using chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequences and microsatellite loci to assess molecular structure and diversity in relation to past (Last Glacial Maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modelling. Late Tertiary climate cooling was reflected in a relatively recent speciation event, dated at the Mio-/Pliocene boundary. During glacials, the warm-temperate C. japonicum experienced massive habitat losses in some areas (north-central China/north Japan) but increases in others (southwest/-east China, East China Sea landbridge, south Japan). In China, the Sichuan Basin and/or the middle-Yangtze were source areas of postglacial northward recolonization; in Japan, this may have been facilitated through introgressive hybridization with the cool-temperate C. magnificum. Our findings challenge the notion of relative evolutionary and demographic stability of Tertiary relict trees, and may serve as a guideline for assessing the impact of Neogene climate change on the evolution and distribution of East Asian temperate plants. PMID:22845876

  17. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin-Shuai; Chen, Chen; Comes, Hans Peter; Sakaguchi, Shota; Liu, Yi-Hui; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sakio, Hitoshi; Qiu, Ying-Xiong

    2012-10-01

    East Asia's temperate deciduous forests served as sanctuary for Tertiary relict trees, but their ages and response to past climate change remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we elucidated the evolutionary and population demographic history of Cercdiphyllum, comprising species in China/Japan (Cercdiphyllum japonicum) and central Japan (Cercdiphyllum magnificum). Fifty-three populations were genotyped using chloroplast and ribosomal DNA sequences and microsatellite loci to assess molecular structure and diversity in relation to past (Last Glacial Maximum) and present distributions based on ecological niche modelling. Late Tertiary climate cooling was reflected in a relatively recent speciation event, dated at the Mio-/Pliocene boundary. During glacials, the warm-temperate C. japonicum experienced massive habitat losses in some areas (north-central China/north Japan) but increases in others (southwest/-east China, East China Sea landbridge, south Japan). In China, the Sichuan Basin and/or the middle-Yangtze were source areas of postglacial northward recolonization; in Japan, this may have been facilitated through introgressive hybridization with the cool-temperate C. magnificum. Our findings challenge the notion of relative evolutionary and demographic stability of Tertiary relict trees, and may serve as a guideline for assessing the impact of Neogene climate change on the evolution and distribution of East Asian temperate plants.

  18. Recent intensification of the South and East Asian monsoon contrast associated with an increase in the zonal tropical SST gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Kyung-Sook; Lee, June-Yi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2014-07-01

    Observed analysis of the 35 years of 1979-2013 reveals considerable interdecadal change and significant recent intensification in the difference of convective precipitation between the South Asian monsoon (SAM) and East Asian monsoon (EAM) systems during the major summer monsoon season (June-July). We propose that the recent strengthening of the zonal gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) between the Indian Ocean, western Pacific, and eastern Pacific is a possible cause for the intensification of the convective precipitation contrast. It is noted that the strengthening of the zonal SST gradient associated with the recent mega-La Niña trend tends to reinforce the negative connection between SAM and EAM systems by inducing enhanced convection over the maritime continent and then facilitating the northwestward emanation of Rossby waves. Consequently, a cyclonic circulation anomaly that effectively changes the local Hadley circulation has been formed over the SAM region, resulting in the noticeable difference between the SAM and EAM. The years 2013 and 1983 are further investigated as the strongest extreme years for positive and negative phases of submonsoon contrast, respectively. The result confirms that the meridional dipole height pattern along the Asian Jet stream, which is caused by the strong zonal gradient of tropical SST, serves as a key trigger in strengthening the submonsoon contrast.

  19. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies eight new loci for type 2 diabetes in east Asians.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Shin; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Hu, Cheng; Long, Jirong; Ong, Rick Twee Hee; Sim, Xueling; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Wu, Ying; Go, Min Jin; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Kwak, Soo Heon; Ma, Ronald C W; Yamamoto, Ken; Adair, Linda S; Aung, Tin; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Gao, Yutang; Hu, Frank B; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Yun; Liu, Jian Jun; Lu, Wei; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Tay, Wan Ting; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wong, Tien Yin; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Congrong; So, Wing Yee; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Hara, Kazuo; Cho, Young Min; Cho, Nam H; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Bao, Yuqian; Hedman, Åsa K; Morris, Andrew P; McCarthy, Mark I; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Park, Kyong Soo; Jia, Weiping; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Chan, Juliana C N; Maeda, Shiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Young; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Teo, Yik Ying; Tai, E Shyong; Shu, Xiao Ou; Mohlke, Karen L; Kato, Norihiro; Han, Bok-Ghee; Seielstad, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in east Asian populations. We followed our stage 1 meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases with T2D and 11,865 controls) with a stage 2 in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, which is involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels. The evidence of an association with T2D for PEPD and HNF4A has been shown in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings, derived from an east Asian population, provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D. PMID:22158537

  20. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Polymorphism and the Risk of Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis among East Asians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene has been implicated in the development of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) in East Asians. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations between the ALDH2 polymorphism and the risk of ALC. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang and Veipu databases up to January 10, 2015. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using either the fixed- or random effects model. Results A total of twelve case-control studies included 1003 cases and 2011 controls were included. Overall, the ALDH2 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of ALC (*1/*2 vs. *1/*1: OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.61–0.99). However, in stratification analysis by country, we failed to detect any association among Chinese, Korean or Japanese populations. Conclusion The pooled evidence suggests that ALDH2 polymorphism may be an important protective factor for ALC in East Asians. PMID:27189280

  1. The peatlands developing history in the Sanjiang Plain, NE China, and its response to East Asian monsoon variation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenqing; Xing, Wei; Wang, Guoping; Tong, Shouzheng; Lv, Xianguo; Sun, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Studying the peatlands accumulation and carbon (C) storage in monsoonal areas could provide useful insights into the response of C dynamics to climate variation in the geological past. Here, we integrated 40 well-dated peat/lake sediment cores to reveal the peatlands evolution history in the Sanjiang Plain and examine its links to East Asian monsoon variations during the Holocene. The results show that 80% peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain initiated after 4.7 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP), with the largest initiating frequency around 4.5 ka. The mean C accumulation rate of peatlands in the Sanjiang Plain exhibits a synchronous increase with the peatlands expansion during the Holocene. Such a peatlands expanding and C accumulating pattern corresponds well to the remarkable drying event subsequent to the Holocene monsoon maximum. We suggest that in addition to the locally topographic conditions, Holocene variations of East Asian summer monsoon (especially its associated precipitation) have played a critical role in driving the peatlands initiation and expansion in the Sanjiang Plain. PMID:26076653

  2. Cold surges and dust events: Establishing the link between the East Asian Winter Monsoon and the Chinese loess record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Wei, Junhong; Lin, Zhaohui; Shao, Yaping; He, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese loess/palaeosol succession is one of the most comprehensive and intensively studied archives of Neogene and Quaternary global palaeoclimate events. Its stratigraphic details are widely recognised to indicate close links to the history and function of the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) - one of the most active components of the Earth's climate system. But the formal meteorological links between the EAWM and dust emission, both in the present day and in the past, have not been established and with it, the veracity of the loess record as an indicator of the EAWM questioned. Here we show that present day major dust events over northern China, while largely occurring during spring, are nevertheless 'conditioned' by the strength of the preceding EAWM. We also demonstrate, for the first time, a close link between the occurrence of dust events and the strength of the EAWM. From these findings, linked to global-scale climate model simulations, we conclude that the Chinese loess succession provides a convincing proxy record of the strength of the East Asian Winter Monsoon.

  3. Lead-lag connection of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation(AMO) with East Asian surface air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Luo, F.; Li, C.

    2011-12-01

    The lead-lag connection of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) with East Asian surface air temperatures (EATs) is analyzed by using instrumental records, and the result is compared with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). One maximum correlation is found when EATs leads AMO by 5-7 years (with the coefficient of 0.72, whereas the correlation is -0.91 when AMO leads EATs by 24-28 years). This is different from the PDO, which is found to be mostly correlated with EATs when PDO leads EATs by 13-15 years (with the coefficient of 0.67, whereas the correlation is -0.76 when EATs leads PDO by 24-26 years). Besides, the PDO is found to lead AMO by 19-21 years (with the coefficient of 0.71, whereas the correlation is -0.84 when the AMO leads PDO by 16-18 years). The present result puts forward a previous understanding that the EATS is positively simultaneous correlated with the AMO, and implies that the observed East Asian warming trend may have been slowing down since the early 2010s.

  4. The zonal movement of the Indian-East Asian summer monsoon interface in relation to the land-sea thermal contrast anomaly over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Lan, Guangdong; Su, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Based on atmospheric circulation reanalysis, global gridded precipitation, and outgoing longwave radiation datasets, this study reveals the physical process through which the land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia interrelates with the variability of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon (IIE). The results indicate that the release of latent heating exerted by the low-frequency variability of anomalous land-sea thermal contrast is one of the most important physical processes correlating with the zonal movement of the IIE, in which the release of latent heating over eastern East Asia makes the greatest contribution. When a lower apparent moisture sink occurs over the South China Sea but a higher one over southern China, an anomalously positive land-sea thermal contrast is formed. An anomalous convergent zone in relation to the positive land-sea thermal contrast, located in the eastern part of the IIE, will favor the IIE to move more eastward than normal, and vice versa. An anomalous divergent zone located in the eastern part of the IIE will benefit the IIE to shift more westward than normal. Experiments using a linear baroclinic model confirm the physical processes revealed by the observational analysis.

  5. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  6. Phylogeography of two East Asian species in Croomia (Stemonaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA and ISSR fingerprinting variation.

    PubMed

    Li, En-Xiang; Yi, Sun; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Guo, Jiang-Tao; Comes, Hans Peter; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2008-12-01

    The genus Croomia (Stemonaceae) comprises three herbaceous perennial species that are distributed in temperate-deciduous forests in Southeastern North America (C.pauciflora) and East Asia (C. japonica, C. heterosepala). The two Asian species have abutting ranges in South Japan, but C. japonica also occurs disjunctively on the adjacent Asiatic mainland in East China. In our phylogenetic analysis of Croomia, based on chloroplast (cp) DNA sequence variation of the trnL-F region, and rooted with Stemona spp., the two Asian species are identified as sister that likely diverged in the Mid-to-Late Pleistocene (0.84-0.13 mya), whereas the divergence of C. pauciflora dates back to the Late Plio-/Pleistocene (<2.6 mya). Phylogeographical analysis of the two East Asian species detected seven cpDNA (trnL-F) haplotypes across 16 populations surveyed, and all of those were fixed for a particular cpDNA haplotype (H(E)=0.0, G(ST)=1). A survey of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) markers also detected remarkably low levels of within-population diversity (C. japonica: H(E)=0.085; C. heterosepala: H(E)=0.125), and high levels of inter-population differentiation (C. japonica: Phi(ST)=0.736; C. heterosepala: Phi(ST)=0.550), at least partly due to pronounced regional genetic substructure within both species. Non-overlapping distributions of cpDNA haplotypes and strong genetic (cpDNA/ISSR) differentiation among populations and/or regions accord with findings of a nested clade analysis, which inferred allopatric fragmentation as the major process influencing the spatial haplotype distribution of the two species. Based on mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests, we do not find evidence of population expansion in both species. Overall, we conclude that components of temperate-deciduous forest types in South Japan and East China are particularly sensitive to range fragmentation, isolation, and enhanced (incipient) species formation through climate-induced expansions of other

  7. Interdecadal linkages between Pacific decadal oscillation and interhemispheric air mass oscillation and their possible connections with East Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) recently emerged in the literature as a robust signal in the Northern Hemisphere climate variability. Many studies reported that the relationships between PDO and East Asian monsoon (EAM) and climate variability in China are significant. However, the possible mechanisms are still unclear. The present study investigates the interdecadal relationship between Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and interhemispheric air mass imbalance or oscillation (IHO) between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The possible connection of PDO and IHO with both East Asian monsoon and climate variability in China are also assessed in this study. It is found that the interdecadal components (11-38 years) of PDO, IHO, and EAM contribute large variance to low frequency variations, and they are well-matched with each other on (inter)decadal timescale. In particular, their negative phases mainly appeared in the 1970s and late 1990s, while positive phase in period from 1980s to mid 1990s. Decadal change of global mean air columnar temperature may be the key factor for the notable difference between PDO and IHO from mid 1970s to mid 1990s. The spatial distributions of PDO and IHO associated surface air temperature and surface pressure anomalies exhibit highly similar and large scale characteristics, indicative of their intimate linkage with air mass redistribution over global domain especially over 300S-500N. The PDO associated columnar integral of velocity potential anomalies that maintain the air mass redistribution, show a dipole pattern with air mass flux emanating mainly from the eastern hemisphere to the Pacific regions in positive PDO phase. This contributes to hemispherical and land-sea mass exchange and redistribution, and also leads to the decadal displacement of both upward and downward branch of Walker circulation. In positive phase of PDO, an anomalous anticyclone is found in the Mongolian region in both boreal summer and winter seasons

  8. Interdecadal shift in the relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Ding, R.; Wu, Z.; Feng, J.; Ha, K.

    2012-04-01

    Interdecadal shift in the interannual relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies (SSTA) is investigated. The result shows that a notable feature is the enhanced relationship between the previous winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the following EASM in the past 60 years, which is opposite to the weakening relationship between the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) and ENSO since 1970s. It is also found that pronounced changes in the interannual relationship between the EASM and summer SSTA over the tropical Indian Ocean (IO) happen in the late 1970s. Besides, an enhanced relationship between the previous autumn-winter SSTA over western tropical IO and the following EASM occurs in the late 1970s. The observational and numerical evidences manifest that spring North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) may exert notable impacts on the enhancement of the EASM-ENSO relationship. Anomalous spring NAO induces a tripole SSTA pattern in North Atlantic which persists into ensuring summer. The tripole SSTA excites downstream teleconnections of a distinct Rossby wave train prevailing over the northern Eurasia and a simple Gill-Matsuno-type quadrupole response over western Pacific. The former modulates the blocking highs over the Ural Mountain and the Okhotsk Sea. The latter enhances the linkage between the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and ENSO. The co-effects of the two teleconnection patterns help to strengthen (or weaken) the subtropical Meiyu-Baiu-Changma front, the primary rain-bearing system of the EASM. As such, spring NAO is tied to the strengthened connection between ENSO and the EASM. It can be seen from the correlations of the EASM index (EASMI) with the summer IO SSTA between 1953-1975 and 1978-2000 that the SSTA pattern similar to the positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) shows a strongly positive correlation with the EASMI in 1953-1975, but in 1978-2000, significant negative correlation

  9. Role of Atmospheric Circulation and Westerly Jet Changes in the mid-Holocene East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Chiang, J. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) varies on inter-decadal to interglacial-glacial timescales. The EASM is stronger in the mid-Holocene than today, and these changes can be readily explained by orbitally-driven insolation increase during the boreal summer. However, a detailed understanding of the altered seasonal evolution of the EASM during this time is still lacking. In particular, previous work has suggested a close link between seasonal migration of the EASM and that of the mid-latitude westerlies impinging on the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we explore, this problem in PMIP3 climate model simulations of the mid-Holocene, focusing on the role of atmospheric circulation and in particular how the westerly jet modulates the East Asia summer climate on paleoclimate timescales. Analysis of the model simulations suggests that, compared to the preindustrial simulations, the transition from Mei-Yu to deep summer rainfall occurs earlier in the mid-Holocene. This is accompanied by an earlier weakening and northward shift of westerly jet away from the Tibetan Plateau. The variation in the strength and the 3-D structure of the westerly jet in the mid-Holocene is summarized. We find that changes to the monsoonal rainfall, westerly jet and meridional circulation covary on paleoclimate timescales. Meridional wind changes in particular are tied to an altered stationary wave pattern, resembling today's the so-called 'Silk Road' teleconnection pattern, riding along the westerly jet. Diagnostic analysis also reveals changes in moist static energy and eddy energy fluxes associated with the earlier seasonal transition of the EASM. Our analyses suggest that the westerly jet is critical to the altered dynamics of the East Asian summer monsoon during the mid-Holocene.

  10. Contagion in the East: A Look at the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Isadora; Lai, Selena; Francis, Gregory; Brunette, Rachel

    The 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and its aftermath have brought to light a number of crucial economic lessons. This curriculum unit focuses on some of the purported causes of the crisis, the workings of the International Monetary Fund, and the general nature of economies affected by financial turmoil. Lesson 1, "A Story of Boom and Bust in Asia,…

  11. Classification of typical summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region and their association with the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Zhao, Junhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region during 1951-2015 were objectively classified into four typical categories: the northern China rainfall pattern (NCP), the intermediate rainfall pattern (IRP), the Yangtze River rainfall pattern (YRP), and the South China rainfall pattern (SCP). The periods of the four patterns show significant decadal characteristics. The NCP occurred mainly between the late 1950s and the early 1980s, and the IRP in the late 1950s to the early 1970s and the 2000s. The YRP occurred mainly between the 1980s and the 1990s, and the SCP between the mid-1990s and the early 21st century. The relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASM I WF) and the four rainfall patterns was comparatively analyzed. The results confirmed that the four rainfall patterns have obvious differences in the EASM. In the NCP, IRP, or SCP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a positive phase and a strong summer monsoon; in the YRP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a negative phase and a weak summer monsoon.

  12. Predictors of Complicated Grief after a Natural Disaster: A Population Study Two Years after the 2004 South-East Asian Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Pal; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined predictors of complicated grief (CG) in Norwegians 2 years after bereavement in the 2004 South-East Asian tsunami. A cross-sectional postal survey retrospectively covering disaster experiences and assessing CG according to the Inventory of Complicated Grief yielded 130 respondents (35 directly disaster-exposed and 95 not…

  13. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake": Japanese Americans and the…

  14. A solar variability driven monsoon see-saw: switching relationships of the Holocene East Asian-Australian summer monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Ozken, Ibrahim; McRobie, Fiona; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Kurths, Juergen

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian-Indonesian-Australian monsoon is the predominant low latitude monsoon system, providing a major global scale heat source. Here we apply newly developed non-linear time series techniques on speleothem climate proxies, from eastern China and northwestern Australia and establish relationships between the two summer monsoon regimes over the last ˜9000 years. We identify significant variations in monsoonal activity, both dry and wet phases, at millennial to multi-centennial time scales and demonstrate for the first time the existence of a see-saw antiphase relationship between the two regional monsoon systems. Our analysis attributes this inter-hemispheric linkage to the solar variability that is effecting both monsoon systems.

  15. Culture in Asian American community psychology: beyond the East-West binary.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.

  16. Effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon based on the CAM5.1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongyun; Jiang, Zhihong; Song, Jie; Dai, Aiguo; Yang, Xiuqun; Huo, Fei

    2016-05-01

    The effects of urban land-use change in East China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using a Community Atmosphere Model Version 5.1. The results show that the urban land-use change in East China causes spatially-varying changes in surface net radiation and heat fluxes, atmospheric circulation, and water budgets. It results in significant surface warming (cooling) and precipitation decrease (increase) in a large region north (south) of 30°N. Urban expansion agglomerated in (29°-41°N, 110°-122°E) alters the surface energy budget and warms the surface, resulting in strengthened southwesterly airflow south of 25°N and increased convergence below the mid-troposphere between 20° and 30°N. A concomitant northward downdraft associated with the increased convection generates an anomalous high pressure north of 30°N. Meanwhile, the downdraft not only produces adiabatic warming but also inhibits the dynamic condition for precipitation formation. The anomalous high pressure formed in North China prevents the southwesterly airflow from advancing northward, leading to increase the convergence and precipitation in South China. These changes reduce the meridional temperature gradient in the mid-lower troposphere and weaken the westerly airflow near 30°N. In addition, horizontal transport of vorticity north of 35°N weakens significantly, which leads to an anomalous barotropic structure of anticyclonic there. As a result, the anomalous anticyclonic circulation and descent north of 30°N are strengthened. At the same time, the anomalous cyclonic circulation and ascent south of 30°N are enhanced. These process induced by the thermal state changes due to urbanization weakens the EASM.

  17. Characterization of aerosols in East Asia with the Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-Net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Matsui, Ichiro; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2014-11-01

    Continuous observations of aerosols are being conducted with the Asian Dust and aerosol lidar observation Network (AD-Net). Currently, two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) polarization-sensitive (532 nm) lidars are operated at 20 stations in East Asia. At the primary stations (6 stations), nitrogen vibrational Raman scattering is also measured to obtain the extinction coefficient at 532 nm. Recently, continuous observations with a three-wavelength (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) lidar having a high-spectral-resolution receiver at 532 nm and a Raman receiver at 355 nm and polarization-sensitive receivers at 532 nm and 355 nm) was started in Tsukuba. Also, continuous observations with multi-wavelength Raman lidars are being prepared in Fukuoka, Okinawa Hedo, and Toyama. A data analysis method for deriving distributions of aerosol components (weak absorption fine (such as sulfate), weak absorption coarse (sea salt), strong absorption fine (black carbon), non-spherical (dust)) has been developed for these multi-parameter lidars. Major subjects of the current studies with AD-Net include data assimilation of multi-parameter lidars, mixing states of Asian dust with air pollution particulate matter, and validation of EarthCARE ATLID based on the aerosol component analysis method.

  18. Meta-analysis identifies multiple loci associated with kidney function-related traits in east Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Sim, Xueling; Go, Min Jin; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Seielstad, Mark; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S-J Cathy; Mei, Hao; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Ogihara, Toshio; Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Kooner, Jaspal S; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for kidney function-related traits, including 71,149 east Asian individuals from 18 studies in 11 population-, hospital- or family-based cohorts, conducted as part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network (AGEN). Our meta-analysis identified 17 loci newly associated with kidney function-related traits, including the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels (eGFRcrea) (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)). We further examined these loci with in silico replication in individuals of European ancestry from the KidneyGen, CKDGen and GUGC consortia, including a combined total of ∼110,347 individuals. We identify pleiotropic associations among these loci with kidney function-related traits and risk of CKD. These findings provide new insights into the genetics of kidney function. PMID:22797727

  19. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  20. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  1. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  2. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries

    PubMed Central

    Ng, KH; Wong, JHD

    2008-01-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong. The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations. SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7). In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled “Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning”. PMID:21614324

  3. Genetic evidence of an East Asian origin and paleolithic northward migration of Y-chromosome haplogroup N.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Qi, Xuebin; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N) is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12-18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12-14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0-10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22-18 kya) in mainland East Asia.

  4. Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Ma, Runlin Z.; Su, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N) is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe. Previous studies suggested a counterclockwise prehistoric migration of Hg N from eastern Asia to eastern and northern Europe. However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia. We first genotyped 6,371 males from 169 populations in China and Cambodia, and generated data of 360 Hg N individuals, and then combined published data on 1,210 Hg N individuals from Japanese, Southeast Asian, Siberian, European and Central Asian populations. The results showed that the sub-haplogroups of Hg N have a distinct geographical distribution. The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12–18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12–14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0–10.0 kya. This northward migration of Hg N likewise coincides with retreating ice sheets after the Last Glacial Maximum (22–18 kya) in mainland East Asia. PMID:23840409

  5. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  6. Consistent responses of East Asian summer mean rainfall to global warming in CMIP5 simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xia; Huang, Gang; Zhou, Wen

    2014-07-01

    East Asia summer rainfall is of great social-economic importance. Based on observations, reanalysis and simulations of 16 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, the responses of East Asia summer precipitation, as well as some relevant features, to global warming are investigated. The CMIP5 historical simulation reasonably reproduces the climatology of summer rainfall, the associated circulation, the moisture and its transportation, and the mid-troposphere horizontal advection of temperature as well. Under global warming, the rainfall enhancement is robustly projected in the state-of-the-art models over North China, Northeast China, northern coast of Japan and the Kuroshio. As well, the total summer rainfall over East Asia is consistently increased in the models. For the consistent responses, the moisture budget analysis based on the simulations shows that two factors are responsible: one is increased moisture. As East Asia is a climatological ascent region in northern summer, increased moisture induced by global warming leads to more moisture transported upward and thus the rainfall rise. The other is enhanced evaporation, which may be caused by surface warming and provides more precipitable water to the atmosphere column. Furthermore, the results may provide some implications to the long-term variability of East Asia summer rainfall over the last several decades.

  7. Gene-centric meta-analysis of lipid traits in African, East Asian and Hispanic populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 100 loci associated with lipid levels, but our knowledge in other ethnicities remains limited. To address this, we performed dense genotyping of circa 2,000 candidate genes in 7,657 African Americans, 1,315 Hi...

  8. Migration of waterfowl in the East Asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, John Y; Newman, Scott H; Xiao, Xiangming; Prosser, Diann J; Spragens, Kyle A; Palm, Eric C; Yan, Baoping; Li, Tianxian; Lei, Fumin; Zhao, Delong; Douglas, David C; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Ji, Weitao

    2010-03-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by

  9. Migration of waterfowl in the east asian flyway and spatial relationship to HPAI H5N1 outbreaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, J.Y.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.; Prosser, D.J.; Spragens, K.A.; Palm, E.C.; Yan, B.; Li, T.; Lei, F.; Zhao, D.; Douglas, D.C.; Muzaffar, S.B.; Ji, W.

    2010-01-01

    Poyang Lake is situated within the East Asian Flyway, a migratory corridor for waterfowl that also encompasses Guangdong Province, China, the epicenter of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1. The lake is the largest freshwater body in China and a significant congregation site for waterfowl; however, surrounding rice fields and poultry grazing have created an overlap with wild waterbirds, a situation conducive to avian influenza transmission. Reports of HPAI H5N1 in healthy wild ducks at Poyang Lake have raised concerns about the potential of resilient free-ranging birds to disseminate the virus. Yet the role wild ducks play in connecting regions of HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Asia is hindered by a lack of information about their migratory ecology. During 2007-08 we marked wild ducks at Poyang Lake with satellite transmitters to examine the location and timing of spring migration and identify any spatiotemporal relationship with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks. Species included the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), northern pintail (Anas acuta), common teal (Anas crecca), falcated teal (Anas falcata), Baikal teal (Anas formosa), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), garganey (Anas querquedula), and Chinese spotbill (Anas poecilohyncha). These wild ducks (excluding the resident mallard and Chinese spotbill ducks) followed the East Asian Flyway along the coast to breeding areas in northern China, eastern Mongolia, and eastern Russia. None migrated west toward Qinghai Lake (site of the largest wild bird epizootic), thus failing to demonstrate any migratory connection to the Central Asian Flyway. A newly developed Brownian bridge spatial analysis indicated that HPAI H5N1 outbreaks reported in the flyway were related to latitude and poultry density but not to the core migration corridor or to wetland habitats. Also, we found a temporal mismatch between timing of outbreaks and wild duck movements. These analyses depend on complete or representative reporting of outbreaks, but by

  10. East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE): Preliminary Results from 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Li, C.; Li, Z.; Marufu, L. T.; Stehr, J.; Chen, H.; Wang, P.; Wang, Y.; Wen, T.; Xia, X.

    2005-12-01

    In order to gain a basic knowledge of the characteristics of aerosols and gases and an understanding of their climatic effects, a team of scientists from the U.S. and China conducted major field campaigns on the ground and from the air in the spring of 2005, and in addition established long-term and nation-wide observation facilities. Research flights on a small, instrumented aircraft investigated the role of meteorology in lofting pollutants and mineral dust and in large-scale impacts. Ahead of fronts, transport along warm conveyor belts and in convection, often dry convection, lifted trace gases and aerosols to altitudes where stronger winds and longer lifetimes transform these pollutants from local air quality problems to hemispheric atmospheric chemistry problems. Air behind cold fronts often contained high concentrations of mineral dust at altitudes of 3000 m or higher. At the central station in Xianghe (70 km east of Beijing), extensive measurements are made including 1) radiative quantities (direct, diffuse and total SW and LW fluxes) using broadband and narrow radiometers, and spectrometers; 2) cloud properties (cloud fraction and height, optical depth, liquid water path, particle size); 3) aerosol optical quantities (optical depth, scattering and absorbing coefficients, vertical attenuation profiles) using Cimel sun-photometer, Nephelometer, Aethalometers, PSAP; 4) aerosol physical quantities (size distribution, mass and condensation number) using aerosol filter samplers, cascade impactors, particle sizers; 5) aerosol compositions using OC/EC analyzer, aerosol filters and sample analyzers, 6) trace gases O3, NO, NOx, NOy, CO, SO2.

  11. Distinct effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the East Asian summer monsoon between multidecadal strong and weak monsoon stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoning; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhaosheng; Liu, Yangang

    2016-06-01

    Because industrial emissions of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia have greatly increased in recent decades, the interactions between atmospheric aerosols and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) have attracted enormous attention. To further understand the aerosol-EASM interaction, we investigate the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the EASM during the multidecadal strong (1950-1977) and weak (1978-2000) EASM stages using the Community Atmospheric Model 5.1. Numerical experiments are conducted for the whole period, including the two different EASM stages, with present day (PD, year 2000) and preindustrial (PI, year 1850) aerosol emissions, as well as the observed time-varying aerosol emissions. A comparison of the results from PD and PI shows that, with the increase in anthropogenic aerosols, the large-scale EASM intensity is weakened to a greater degree (-9.8%) during the weak EASM stage compared with the strong EASM stage (-4.4%). The increased anthropogenic aerosols also result in a significant reduction in precipitation over North China during the weak EASM stage, as opposed to a statistically insignificant change during the strong EASM stage. Because of greater aerosol loading and the larger sensitivity of the climate system during weak EASM stages, the aerosol effects are more significant during these EASM stages. These results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols from the same aerosol emissions have distinct effects on the EASM and the associated precipitation between the multidecadal weak and strong EASM stages.

  12. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  13. East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem research using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.; Chung, T.; Oh, J.; Bae, D.

    1997-05-01

    Investigations of East Asian hydroclimate and agro-ecosystem response to hydroclimate variability have been initiated using the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Regional Climate System Model (RCSM). This system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post-processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow modeling suite, and (4) a crop response modeling suite. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. Integration of the fourth component - the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) into the RCSM is part of our current research plan. This paper provides a brief overview of agro-ecosystem modeling, the RCSM, applications of the RCSM to East Asia, and future directions.

  14. A one step multiplex PCR assay for rapid screening of East Asian mtDNA haplogroups on forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Yoon, Jung Ah; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup typing has become an essential tool to study human evolutionary history and to infer the matrilineal bio-geographic ancestry. In forensic field, the screening of mtDNA haplogroups by genotyping of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help guarantee the quality of mtDNA sequence data as well as can reduce the need to sequence samples that do not match. Here, a multiplex mutagenically separated (MS) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for simultaneous rapid detection of 14 coding region SNPs and one deletion motif representing common mtDNA haplogroups of East Asia. The multiplex MS PCR system we developed has the advantage of being a one step procedure that requires only a single PCR amplification with allele-specific primers and allowing straightforward designation of haplogroups along the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Therefore, it would be a simple, rapid, and reliable detection method useful for large-scale screening of mtDNA variations to determine East Asian mtDNA haplogroups.

  15. Distinct effects of anthropogenic aerosols on the East Asian summer monsoon between multidecadal strong and weak monsoon stages

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Xiaoning; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Xiaodong; Li, Jiandong; Wang, Zhaosheng; Liu, Yangang

    2016-06-18

    Industrial emissions of anthropogenic aerosols over East Asia have greatly increased in recent decades, and so the interactions between atmospheric aerosols and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) have attracted enormous attention. In order to further understand the aerosol-EASM interaction, we investigate the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the EASM during the multidecadal strong (1950–1977) and weak (1978–2000) EASM stages using the Community Atmospheric Model 5.1. Numerical experiments are conducted for the whole period, including the two different EASM stages, with present day (PD, year 2000) and preindustrial (PI, year 1850) aerosol emissions, as well as the observed time-varying aerosolmore » emissions. A comparison of the results from PD and PI shows that, with the increase in anthropogenic aerosols, the large-scale EASM intensity is weakened to a greater degree (-9.8%) during the weak EASM stage compared with the strong EASM stage (-4.4%). The increased anthropogenic aerosols also result in a significant reduction in precipitation over North China during the weak EASM stage, as opposed to a statistically insignificant change during the strong EASM stage. Because of greater aerosol loading and the larger sensitivity of the climate system during weak EASM stages, the aerosol effects are more significant during these EASM stages. Moreover, these results suggest that anthropogenic aerosols from the same aerosol emissions have distinct effects on the EASM and the associated precipitation between the multidecadal weak and strong EASM stages.« less

  16. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and influence of Asian outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-06-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The average ozone concentrations were 51.8 ± 15.9 ppbv during June 2003-December 2010. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a summer minimum (37.8 ppbv) and a spring maximum (61.1 ppbv), and was largely affected by seasonal wind pattern over East Asia. The fractional contribution of ozone at IORS could be attributed to six well distinguished air masses that were classified by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air from the Pacific Ocean represents a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32.2 ppbv in summer. In spring and winter the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 61.6 and 49.3 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS, of which extent was apt to be changed by meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  17. Variations of surface ozone at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in the East China Sea and the influence of Asian outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Shin, B.; Lee, M.; Hwang, G.; Kim, J.; Shim, J.; Lee, G.; Shim, C.

    2015-11-01

    Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), a research tower (~ 40 m a.s.l.) for atmospheric and oceanographic observations, is located in the East China Sea (32.07° N, 125.10° E). The IORS is almost equidistant from South Korea, China, and Japan and, therefore, it is an ideal place to observe Asian outflows without local emission effects. The seasonal variation of ozone was distinct, with a minimum in August (37 ppbv) and two peaks in April and October (62 ppbv), and was largely affected by the seasonal wind pattern over east Asia. At IORS, six types of air masses were distinguished with different levels of O3 concentrations by the cluster analysis of backward trajectories. Marine air masses from the Pacific Ocean represent a relatively clean background air with a lowest ozone level of 32 ppbv, which was most frequently observed in summer (July-August). In spring (March-April) and winter (December-February), the influence of Chinese outflows was dominant with higher ozone concentrations of 62 and 49 ppbv, respectively. This study confirms that the influence of Chinese outflows was the main factor determining O3 levels at IORS and its extent was dependent on meteorological state, particularly at a long-term scale.

  18. The Achievement Gap, Revisited: An Empirical Assessment of What We Can Learn from East Asian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czehut, Katherine Jessica Drake

    2012-01-01

    International mathematics assessments have established students in East Asia as among the best in the world and their U.S. counterparts as mediocre. What is not clear is why this "achievement gap" exists. The last major study to address this question, Stevenson and Stigler's (1992) "The Learning Gap," was published prior…

  19. Review Essay: Moving beyond Global Encounters toward Global Reciprocity: Christian Education in East Asian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Christianity as a world religion was propagated from Europe and North America to Africa and Asia. Global Christianity spread to East Asia when Robert Morrison (1782-1843) arrived in Canton, China in 1807, and later in the late 19th-century Protestant missionaries from North America arrived in Japan and Korea. This Christianity experienced a modern…

  20. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  1. Southern East Asian origin and coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family with Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tao; Comas, Iñaki; Luo, Dan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Jie; Wei, Lanhai; Yang, Chongguang; Liu, Qingyun; Gan, Mingyu; Sun, Gang; Shen, Xin; Liu, Feiying; Gagneux, Sebastien; Mei, Jian; Lan, Rushu; Wan, Kanglin; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The Beijing family is the most successful genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and responsible for more than a quarter of the global tuberculosis epidemic. As the predominant genotype in East Asia, the Beijing family has been emerging in various areas of the world and is often associated with disease outbreaks and antibiotic resistance. Revealing the origin and historical dissemination of this strain family is important for understanding its current global success. Here we characterized the global diversity of this family based on whole-genome sequences of 358 Beijing strains. We show that the Beijing strains endemic in East Asia are genetically diverse, whereas the globally emerging strains mostly belong to a more homogenous subtype known as “modern” Beijing. Phylogeographic and coalescent analyses indicate that the Beijing family most likely emerged around 30,000 y ago in southern East Asia, and accompanied the early colonization by modern humans in this area. By combining the genomic data and genotyping result of 1,793 strains from across China, we found the “modern” Beijing sublineage experienced massive expansions in northern China during the Neolithic era and subsequently spread to other regions following the migration of Han Chinese. Our results support a parallel evolution of the Beijing family and modern humans in East Asia. The dominance of the “modern” Beijing sublineage in East Asia and its recent global emergence are most likely driven by its hypervirulence, which might reflect adaption to increased human population densities linked to the agricultural transition in northern China. PMID:26080405

  2. East Asian Monsoon Signals Reflected in Temperature and Precipitation Changes over the Past 300 Years in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di; Zheng, Jingyun

    2015-01-01

    Based on observational data and Asian monsoon intensity datasets from China, the relationships between the East Asian winter monsoon index and winter temperature, the East Asian summer monsoon index and Meiyu precipitation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, were analyzed. We found that the monsoon signals were reflected in the temperature and Meiyu precipitation variations. Thus, we used the reconstructed Meiyu precipitation and winter temperature series for the past 300 years and detected the summer/winter monsoon intensity signals using multi-taper spectral estimation method and wavelet analysis. The main periodicities of Meiyu precipitation and winter temperature, such as interannual cycle with 2–7-year, interdecadal-centennial cycles with 30–40-year and 50–100-year, were found. The good relationships between the East Asian summer and winter monsoons suggested that they were in phase at 31-year cycle, while out of phase at 100-year cycle, but with 20-year phase difference. In addition, the winter monsoon intensity may be regulated by the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Arctic Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and the summer monsoon is closely related to the signal intensities of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. PMID:26107375

  3. Impact of Tropical Pacific Precipitation Anomaly on the East Asian Upper-tropospheric Westerly Jet during the Boreal Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Z.; Guo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The leading mode of boreal winter precipitation variability over the tropical Pacific for the period 1980-2010 shows a west-east dipole pattern with one center over the western North Pacific (WNP) and Maritime Continent and the other center over the equatorial central Pacific (CP). Observational evidences show that the variability of the East Asian upper-tropospheric subtropical westerly jet (EAJ) has a significant correlation with precipitation anomalies over the WNP and CP and that tropical precipitation anomalies over WNP and CP have distinct influence on the variation of EAJ. A series of numerical experiments based on a linear baroclinic model are performed to confirm the influence of the heating anomalies associated with precipitation perturbations over the WNP and CP on the EAJ. The results of numerical experiments indicate that a heat source over the WNP can excite a northward-propagating Rossby wave train in the upper troposphere over East Asia and facilitate a poleward eddy momentum flux. It results in the acceleration of westerly between 30°N and 45°N, which favors a northward displacement of the EAJ. The response induced by a heat sink over the CP features a zonal easterly band between 25°N and 40°N, suggesting that the response to heat sink associated with negative precipitation anomalies over the CP may weaken the EAJ. A strengthened relationship was found between tropical Pacific precipitation and EAJ since 1979. The modeling results suggest that the shift of mean states might be responsible for the strengthened EAJ-rainfall relationship after 1979.

  4. Health Effects of Small Volatile Compounds from East Asian Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guohua; Bennett, Joan Wennstrom

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal fungi, taken whole or as various forms of extracts, have been used to alleviate, cure or prevent human ailments since pre-historic times. In particular, Asian cultures have incorporated a variety of mushrooms into their medical practices. Chemically pure, bioactive metabolites from fungi have been a mainstay of modern pharmacological research and in addition to antibiotics, include anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, enzyme inhibitors, antagonist and agonists of hormones, and a variety of psychotropic substances. However, to date not many studies have focused on the possible health benefits of odorant volatile organic compounds (i.e., gas phase compounds). An analysis of these compounds for their health related effects will expand the range of compounds available for the treatment of chronic and acute diseases. This review highlights phenolic acids and monoterpenes from Asian medicinal mushrooms (AMMs), which not only produce pleasant odors but also have antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Odorant bioactive volatile phase compounds from medicinal mushrooms remain an essentially untapped source for future medicines, and AMMs remain a promising resource for future pharmacological research. PMID:25892909

  5. Seasonal habitat suitability modeling and factors affecting the distribution of Asian Houbara in East Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghania, Ali; Aliabadian, Mansour; Sarhangzadeh, Jalil; Setoodehc, Ahad

    2016-08-01

    In this study, maximum entropy models were developed in four seasons to evaluate habitat suitability and factors affecting Asian Houbara in Iran. Environmental variables used in modeling consisted of 42 environmental and climate variables for Nayband wildlife refuge and 36 environmental and climate variables for Petregan protected area. Also, seasonal overlap area were obtained using the ENM TOOLS software. The results showed that the most important factors affecting habitat suitability of the Asian Houbara in all seasons included the ratio of distance to hill, the type of Artemisia-Gymnocarpus, distance to the slope (8-12%) in the Nayband wildlife refuge, distance to the type of Artemisia aucheri, distance to the Land Passion, and distance to the dry land farming in the Petregan region. In summer, the most suitable habitat is Nayband but is Petergan during fall-winter. there is maximum overlap in summer, and the least overlap in the spring these areas. The results of this study can be used as a valuable tool in implementing conservation and management strategies, in order to increase desirable habitats in the eastern part of Iran. PMID:27570839

  6. International migration within and from the East and Southeast Asian region: a review essay.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on the trends and characteristics of international migration within and from East and Southeast Asia, with a focus on the past 25 years. "Five migration systems are described: settler, student, contract labor, skilled labor, and refugee. Settler migration to the U.S., Canada and Australia has consisted primarily of family members.... Contract labor migration, particularly to the Middle East, has provided jobs, foreign currency through remittances and greater participation of women, but also led to illegal migration, skills drain, and labor abuses. The hierarchy of development has led to intra-regional flows: (1) skilled labor mainly from Japan to other countries in the region, and (2) contract labor and illegal migration from the LDCs to the NIEs [newly industrializing economies] and Japan."

  7. Changes in Marine Environments and Responses of Ecosystem Dynamics in the East Asian Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Ju, Se-Jong

    2014-02-01

    At an international symposium on the marine systems of the Pacific region of East Asia, scientists concluded that changes in the ocean environment are having a significant effect on biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems and, consequently, on humans and the food supply. The meeting, the 6th China-Japan-Korea (CJK) Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research symposium, was held in Japan at the University of Tokyo.

  8. The concurrent variability of East Asian subtropical and polar-front jets and its implication for the winter climate anomaly in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chuliang; Zhang, Yaocun; Lofgren, Brent M.; Nie, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The variability of East Asian upper level westerly jets in winter is studied with regard to the concurrent existence of subtropical jet (East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ)) and polar-front jet (East Asian polar-front jet (EAPJ)) using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis. In the distribution of jet occurrence revealed in 6-hourly data, two jet branches along 30°N and 55°N, corresponding to locations of EASJ and EAPJ, respectively, are separated over the Tibetan Plateau. The leading two modes of zonal-mean zonal wind in East Asia extracted from a mass-weighted empirical orthogonal function analysis are characterized by the intensity changes and location displacements of two jets. The key regions for EASJ and EAPJ are then defined to represent variabilities of these two jets. Correlation analysis indicates that the subseasonal variation of EAPJ precedes EASJ by around 5 days, which can be interpreted as wave-mean flow interactions via synoptic-scale transient eddy activities. Based on the pentad intensity indices of two jets, the concurrent variabilities of EASJ and EAPJ are investigated with typical temperature and precipitation anomalies in China. The results suggest that by taking account of the two jets, we are able to get a more comprehensive understanding of the winter climate.

  9. Spatial analysis of future East Asian seasonal temperature using two regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yura; Jun, Mikyoung; Min, Seung-Ki; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk

    2016-05-01

    CORDEX-East Asia, a branch of the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) initiative, provides high-resolution climate simulations for the domain covering East Asia. This study analyzes temperature data from regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX - East Asia region, accounting for the spatial dependence structure of the data. In particular, we assess similarities and dissimilarities of the outputs from two RCMs, HadGEM3-RA and RegCM4, over the region and over time. A Bayesian functional analysis of variance (ANOVA) approach is used to simultaneously model the temperature patterns from the two RCMs for the current and future climate. We exploit nonstationary spatial models to handle the spatial dependence structure of the temperature variable, which depends heavily on latitude and altitude. For a seasonal comparison, we examine changes in the winter temperature in addition to the summer temperature data. We find that the temperature increase projected by RegCM4 tends to be smaller than the projection of HadGEM3-RA for summers, and that the future warming projected by HadGEM3-RA tends to be weaker for winters. Also, the results show that there will be a warming of 1-3°C over the region in 45 years. More specifically, the warming pattern clearly depends on the latitude, with greater temperature increases in higher latitude areas, which implies that warming may be more severe in the northern part of the domain.

  10. Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Chun Wei; Chan, Yoke Fun; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong; Sam, I-Ching

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis and rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian and East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) and ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology and gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes and neurons) and beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2αK2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses and central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 and PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies and biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

  11. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2012-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has conducted continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment and control of gonococcal disease since 1992. From 2007, this has been enhanced by the inclusion of data from the WHO South East Asian Region (SEAR). Over time, there has been recruitment of additional centres in both regions. This report provides an analysis of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae in the WHO WPR and SEAR derived from results of the 2010 GASP surveillance. In 2010 there were 9,744 N. gonorrhoeae isolates examined for their susceptibility to one or more of the antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea, incorporating External Quality Assurance controlled methods, from reporting centres in 19 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in the 'Asian' countries of WHO WPR and SEAR. In contrast, lower levels of penicillin and quinolone resistance were reported from the Pacific Islands of Fiji and New Caledonia. The proportion of gonococci reported as having 'decreased susceptibility' to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone varied widely, ranging from 1.3% to 55.8%. There is a continued need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels, and to relate these to treatment outcome. Azithromycin resistance was very low in most countries reporting, except in Mongolia where it was 34%. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit high-level plasmid mediated resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and

  12. Validating the Sensitivity of a Regional Climate Model to Land Surface Parameterization Schemes for East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Guo, W.; Xue, Y.; Fu, C.; Qiu, B.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface processes play an important role in East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), and its parameterization schemes may cause uncertainty of dynamic downscaling in regional climate model (RCM) for EASM. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of RCM to land surface parameterization (LSP) schemes for long-term simulations of EASM. Simulations for 22-year EASM using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with four different LSP schemes (Noah-MP, CLM4, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB; Four simulations are named Sim-Noah, Sim-CLM, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB respectively) were conducted. The 22-year averaged spatial distribution and intensity of downscaling large-scale circulation, precipitation and 2-m temperature were compared with ERA-Interim/ observations. Results show that the downscaling ability of RCM for EASM is sensitive to LSP scheme. Furthermore, RCM does add more information than reanalysis/GCM-products. And Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB show closer to observation than Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM for monsoon precipitation and 2-m temperature. To clarify the physical and dynamic mechanisms of the sensitivity, the differences of energy budgets and their atmospheric effects between Ens-Noah-CLM (ensemble mean averaging Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM) and Ens-PX-SSiB (ensemble mean averaging Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB) were compared. We found that the intensity of SH flux over Asian continent in Ens-Noah-CLM is stronger than that in Ens-PX-SSiB, which induces the higher tropospheric temperature over land. The land-sea thermal contrast will be influenced. Then the adaptive modulation of GHT gradients affects wind flow (through geostrophic balance), especially at lower-level. As a result, the simulation of large-scale circulation, monsoon precipitation and 2-m temperature are influenced accordingly.

  13. Three exceptionally strong East-Asian summer monsoon events during glacial times in the past 470 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, D.; Wu, N.; Pei, Y.; Li, F.

    2009-12-01

    Chinese loess sequences are interpreted as a reliable record of the past variation of the East Asian monsoon regime through the alternation of loess and paleosols units, dominated by the winter and summer monsoon respectively. Different proxies have been used to describe this system, mostly geophysical, geochemical or sedimentological. Terrestrial mollusks are also a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and are often preserved in large numbers in loess deposits. The analysis of the mollusk remains in the Luochuan sequence, comprising L5 loess to S0 soil, i.e. the last 500 ka, shows that for almost all identified species, the abundance is higher at the base of the interval (L5 to L4) than in the younger deposits. Using the present ecological requirements of the identified mollusk species in the Luochuan sequence allows the definition of two main mollusk groups varying during the last 500 kyr. In the sequence, three events with exceptionally high abundance of the Asian summer monsoon indicators (thermal-humidiphilous mollusks) are recorded during the L5, L4 and L2 glacial intervals, i.e., at about 470, 360 and 170 kyr respectively. The L5 and L4 events appear to be the strongest (high counts). Similar variations have also been identified in E Asia to suggest that this phenomenon is regional rather than local. The L5 and L2 summer monsoons are coeval with Mediterranean sapropels S12 and S6, which characterize a strong African summer monsoon with relatively low surface water salinity in the Indian Ocean. Changes in the precipitation regime could correspond to a response to a particular astronomical configuration (low obliquity, low precession, summer solstice at perihelion) leading to an increased summer insolation gradient between the tropics and the high latitudes and resulting in enhanced atmospheric water transport from the tropics to the African and Asian continents. However, other climate drivers such as reorganization of marine and atmospheric

  14. Looking for Asian butch-dykes: exploring filmic representations of East Asian butch-dykes in Donna Lee's Enter the Mullet.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Asian butch-dykes have been overlooked in analyses of Chinese cinema, studies that often concentrate on "feminized" transgender roles. This article examines cinematic representations of Asian butch-dykes through film analysis of Enter the Mullet (2004), a five-minute short, and in-depth interviews with the filmmaker, Donna Lee, a Chinese-Canadian in Vancouver. Lee's film is inspired by Enter the Dragon (1973), starring Bruce Lee, the most recognized icon of Asian masculinity. Combining with the mullet hairstyle, which is often associated with White working-class, the filmmaker introduces viewers to the hybrid masculinity of Asian butch-dykes. The article argues that Asian female masculinity can be a strategic means of destabilizing the hegemony of White-male-middle-class masculinity.

  15. Interdecadal Variations of East Asian Monsoon as Inferred by Tree-ring Data From Northeastern Qaidam Basin, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Huang, L.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2006-12-01

    East Asian monsoon is crucial for modulating the climate in China. Especially, the summer monsoon is closely related to the severe flood and drought events in eastern China. To study the characteristics of summer monsoon a long-term record is needed. In this study we attempted to examine the interdecadal variations of East Asian monsoon by using tree-ring data. The summer monsoon index (Ism) for the period of 1873- 2000 was calculated using sea level pressure data. Firstly, we calculated the difference (ΔP) of the sea level pressure between the land (110ºE) and sea (160ºE) from 10ºN to 50ºN with 5º intervals. Then the ΔP values that are smaller than or equal to -5 hPa in June, July and August were summed and defined as the Ism. By this definition Ism values greater than 1.0 represent strong monsoon conditions, and vice versa. Sea level pressure data prior to 1951 were obtained from the Meteorological Office of United Kingdom, and that afterwards were from the NCEP data set. The tree ring data of Qilian junipers (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) are from the northeastern part of the Qaidam Basin, located along the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These tree-ring data have been used to reconstruct local precipitation and soil moisture conditions. Previous studies have revealed that there was a teleconnection in rainfall between eastern China and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. We examined the relationships of the ring-width series with the Ism series over the common period of 1873-2000 AD. We found that the tree-ring widths were statistical significantly correlated with Ism. These negative correlations increased significantly after a low-pass filter was used for both data sets, indicating very good potential for reconstruction of low-frequency variations of Ism in the past. Variability of the Ism series and ring-width series were examined using power spectrum analysis and wavelet transformation. The reconstructed Ism values during the period 1440

  16. Implications of East Asian summer and winter monsoons for interannual aerosol variations over central-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xugeng; Zhao, Tianliang; Gong, Sunling; Xu, Xiangde; Han, Yongxiang; Yin, Yan; Tang, Lili; He, Hongchang; He, Jinhai

    2016-03-01

    Air quality change is generally driven by two factors: pollutant emissions and meteorology, which are difficult to distinguish via observations. To identify the contribution of meteorological factor to air quality change, an aerosol simulation from 1995 to 2004 with the global air quality model GEM-AQ/EC was designed without year-to-year changes in the anthropogenic aerosol (including sulfate and organic and black carbon) emissions over the 10-year span. To assess the impact of interannual variations of East Asian monsoon (EAM) on air quality change in China, this modeling study focused on the region of central-eastern China (CEC), a typical East Asian monsoon (EAM) region with high anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The simulation analysis showed that the interannual variability in surface aerosols over CEC was driven by fluctuation in meteorological factors associated with EAM changes. Large amplitudes of interannual variability in surface aerosol concentrations reaching 20-30% relative to the 10-year averages were found over southern CEC in summer and over northern CEC in winter. The weakened near-surface winds of EAMs in both summer and winter were significantly correlated with aerosol increases over most areas of CEC. The summer and winter monsoon changes enhance the surface aerosol concentrations with increasing trend rates exceeding 30% and 40% over the southern and northern CEC region, respectively, during the 10 years. The composite analyses of aerosol concentrations in weak and strong monsoon years revealed that positive anomalies in surface aerosol concentrations during weak summer monsoon years were centered over the vast CEC region from the North China Plain to the Sichuan Basin, and the anomaly pattern with "northern higher" and "southern lower" surface aerosol levels was distributed over CEC in weak winter monsoon years. Aerosol washout by summer monsoon rainfall exerted an impact on CEC aerosol distribution in summer; aerosol dry depositions in

  17. Using Single-Scattering Albedo Spectral Curvature to Characterize East Asian Aerosol Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral dependence of aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA) has been used to infer aerosol composition. In particular, aerosol mixtures dominated by dust absorption will have monotonically increasing SSA with wavelength while that dominated by black carbon absorption has monotonically decreasing SSA spectra. However, by analyzing SSA measured at four wavelengths, 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm from the Aerosol Robotic Network data set, we find that the SSA spectra over East Asia are frequently peaked at 675 nm. In these cases, we suggest that SSA spectral curvature, defined as the negative of the second derivative of SSA as a function of wavelength, can provide additional information on the composition of these aerosol mixtures. Aerosol SSA spectral curvatures for East Asia during fall and winter are considerably larger than those found in places primarily dominated by biomass burning or dust aerosols. SSA curvature is found to increase as the SSA magnitude decreases. The curvature increases with coarse mode fraction (CMF) to a CMF value of about 0.4, then slightly decreases or remains constant at larger CMF. Mie calculations further verify that the strongest SSA curvature occurs at approx. 40% dust fraction, with 10% scattering aerosol fraction. The nonmonotonic SSA spectral dependence is likely associated with enhanced absorption in the shortwave by dust, absorption by black carbon at longer wavelengths, and also the flattened absorption optical depth spectral dependence due to the increased particle size.

  18. Molecular phylogeography of East Asian Kirengeshoma (Hydrangeaceae) in relation to quaternary climate change and landbridge configurations.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Lee, Joongku; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Comes, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    Kirengeshoma comprises two species inhabiting warm temperate-deciduous forests in East China/South Japan (Kirengeshoma palmata) and South Korea (Kirengeshoma koreana). A survey of chloroplast (cp) DNA and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) variation in Kirengeshoma was carried out to determine the population history of a plant taxon around the East China Sea (ECS). CpDNA and ISSRs revealed lower genetic divergence between China and Japan relative to the other contrasts, in line with intrageneric classification. Molecular dating suggests that K. koreana diverged at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary from the Japanese populations, whereas the latter migrated into China during the early-to-mid Pleistocene via the ECS basin. Vicariant segregation of Chinese and Japanese populations likely occurred during the mid-Pleistocene. Mismatch distributions and neutrality tests indicated that Chinese populations expanded their range during the Late Pleistocene, probably during a cold period, whereas those from Japan showed no significant population growth. We conclude that the current distribution and differentiation of components of presently isolated warm temperate-deciduous forests in China, Japan and Korea likely resulted from a combination of relatively ancient vicariant and immigration events, and those from Japan were particularly sensitive to range fragmentation and long-term refugial isolation throughout the Late Pleistocene.

  19. Plasma amino acid profiles in healthy East Asian subpopulations living in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishikata, Natsumi; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Miyano, Hiroshi; Mori, Maiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Profiles of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) have been utilized as biomarkers to detect various diseases. However, few studies have investigated whether ethnicity or specific subpopulations within East Asia influence PFAA concentrations. Methods A total of 95 healthy volunteers living in Japan, including 31 Japanese individuals, 36 Korean individuals and 28 Chinese individuals, were enrolled. Participants’ PFAA levels were measured by high‐performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and the effects of factors such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and subpopulation on PFAA profiles were analyzed. Results With the exception of glutamine and α‐aminobutyric acid, there were no significant differences among the three examined subpopulations with respect to either the means or the distributions of PFAA concentrations. A multiple regression analysis revealed that most of the PFAA concentrations were significantly related to sex. Ornithine concentrations, glutamate concentrations, and glutamine and α‐aminobutyric acid concentrations were significantly associated with age, BMI, and Chinese subpopulation, respectively. Conclusion The study results indicate that the contributions of subpopulation within East Asia to PFAA profiles are small, particularly relative to the contributions provided by sex. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:236–239, 2016. © 2015 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26407660

  20. Recent developments in legislative and administrative measures in countries of the Association of South-East Asian Nations to counter the illicit traffic in drugs.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, J L; Salleh, M Z

    1987-01-01

    The member States of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have adopted various legislative and administrative measures to combat the illicit traffic in drugs. Some of these measures have been adopted as part of a scheme that aims at establishing uniformity among the methods to be used by ASEAN member States to achieve the common goal of suppressing the illicit traffic in drugs. This article describes some of the latest developments in this area.

  1. On the role of successive downstream development in East Asian polar air outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, C. H.; Hitchman, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Common features were drawn from 16 events of wintertime migration of cold Siberian air moving southeastward across the east Asia coast, accompanied by strong northerly winds. Criteria for including an event as an instance of a typical synoptic scale occurrence comprised a surface pressure gradient over Korea exceeding 2.5 mb/100 km, and a drop in the daily mean temperature of over 5 C in one day. The events were required to have at least a 10 day separation. A sequence of events was discerned, including the formation of troughs and ridges over the western north Atlantic 6-7 days before an event, their development and decay downstream from one another across the Eurasian continent, and then an outbreak of polar weather. The troughs and ridges displayed maximum amplitude in the same places in the majority of cases studied, with the center moving along a curved trajectory of the 300 mb flow at nearly 30 deg longitudinally every day.

  2. The future of South East Asian rainforests in a changing landscape and climate.

    PubMed

    Hector, Andy; Fowler, David; Nussbaum, Ruth; Weilenmann, Maja; Walsh, Rory P D

    2011-11-27

    With a focus on the Danum Valley area of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this special issue has as its theme the future of tropical rainforests in a changing landscape and climate. The global environmental context to the issue is briefly given before the contents and rationale of the issue are summarized. Most of the papers are based on research carried out as part of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme. The issue is divided into five sections: (i) the historical land-use and land management context; (ii) implications of land-use change for atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (iii) impacts of logging, forest fragmentation (particularly within an oil palm plantation landscape) and forest restoration on ecosystems and their functioning; (iv) the response and resilience of rainforest systems to climatic and land-use change; and (v) the scientific messages and policy implications arising from the research findings presented in the issue. PMID:22006959

  3. The future of South East Asian rainforests in a changing landscape and climate

    PubMed Central

    Hector, Andy; Fowler, David; Nussbaum, Ruth; Weilenmann, Maja; Walsh, Rory P. D.

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the Danum Valley area of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, this special issue has as its theme the future of tropical rainforests in a changing landscape and climate. The global environmental context to the issue is briefly given before the contents and rationale of the issue are summarized. Most of the papers are based on research carried out as part of the Royal Society South East Asia Rainforest Research Programme. The issue is divided into five sections: (i) the historical land-use and land management context; (ii) implications of land-use change for atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (iii) impacts of logging, forest fragmentation (particularly within an oil palm plantation landscape) and forest restoration on ecosystems and their functioning; (iv) the response and resilience of rainforest systems to climatic and land-use change; and (v) the scientific messages and policy implications arising from the research findings presented in the issue. PMID:22006959

  4. Taxonomic revision of the East Asian genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhao; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Zhang, Runzhi; Ito, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Ceutorhynchinae: Scleropterini) was revised on the basis of detailed morphological observations. The genus was redefined to include three species from East Asia: S. hypocrita (Hustache, 1916) is redescribed and recorded from northeastern China and northern Korea for the first time; S. horridulus (Voss, 1958) is redescribed with new records from southern Korea; S. insularis Voss, 1971 was moved from synonymy with S. hypocrita to that with S. horridulus (syn. n.), and S. longiprocessus Huang & Yoshitake, sp. n. is described as new, sympatric with S. hypocrita in Japan. All the species are associated with woody Rubus species (Rosaceae). A key to species, habitus photographs, illustrations of important characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species. PMID:25197212

  5. Phylogeography of East Asian Lespedeza buergeri (Fabaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence variations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dong-Pil; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Xu, Bo; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic changes in land configuration during the Quaternary that were accompanied by climatic oscillations have significantly influenced the current distribution and genetic structure of warm-temperate forests in East Asia. Although recent surveys have been conducted, the historical migration of forest species via land bridges and, especially, the origins of Korean populations remains conjectural. Here, we reveal the genetic structure of Lespedeza buergeri, a warm-temperate shrub that is disjunctively distributed around the East China Sea (ECS) at China, Korea, and Japan. Two non-coding regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH) of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrITS) were analyzed for 188 individuals from 16 populations, which covered almost all of its distribution. The nrITS data demonstrated a genetic structure that followed geographic boundaries. This examination utilized AMOVA, comparisons of genetic differentiation based on haplotype frequency/genetic mutations among haplotypes, and Mantel tests. However, the cpDNA data showed contrasting genetic pattern, implying that this difference was due to a slower mutation rate in cpDNA than in nrITS. These results indicated frequent migration by this species via an ECS land bridge during the early Pleistocene that then tapered gradually toward the late Pleistocene. A genetic isolation between western and eastern Japan coincided with broad consensus that was suggested by the presence of other warm-temperate plants in that country. For Korean populations, high genetic diversity indicated the existence of refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum on the Korean Peninsula. However, their closeness with western Japanese populations at the level of haplotype clade implied that gene flow from western Japanese refugia was possible until post-glacial processing occurred through the Korea/Tsushima Strait land bridge. PMID:27206725

  6. Rethinking 'style' for historians and philosophers of science: converging lessons from sexuality, translation, and East Asian studies.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Howard H

    2009-06-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have furnished a wide array of theoretical-historiographical terms to emphasize the discontinuities among different systems of knowledge. Some of the most famous include Thomas Kuhn's "paradigm", Michel Foucault's "episteme", and the notion of "styles of reasoning" more recently developed by Ian Hacking and Arnold Davidson. This paper takes up this theoretical-historiographical thread by assessing the values and limitations of the notion of "style" for the historical and philosophical study of science. Specifically, reflecting on various methodological and theoretical concerns prompted by sexuality, translation, and East Asian studies, this paper argues that the heretofore ways in which historians and philosophers of science have used the notion of "style" are severely restricted in terms of its mere applicability to the intellectual history of Western science. The particular example of the translation of "homosexuality" into Chinese during the May Fourth era reveals that the notion of "style" has the potential of carrying a much more dynamic conceptual weight, as when used in "styles of argumentation". The paper also engages briefly with the historiography of scientific "national styles" and ends with some concluding remarks on the limitations of "social histories from below" and the under appreciated importance of "epistemological histories of possibilities". PMID:19442926

  7. ntermediate frequency atmospheric disturbances: A dynamical bridge connecting western U.S. extreme precipitation with East Asian cold surges

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Tianyu NMI; Evans, Katherine J; Deng, Yi; Dong, Xiquan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an atmospheric river (AR) detection algorithm is developed to investigate the downstream modulation of the eastern North Pacific ARs by another weather extreme, known as the East Asian cold surge (EACS), in both reanalysis data and high-resolution global model simulations. It is shown that following the peak of an EACS, atmospheric disturbances of intermediate frequency (IF; 10 30 day period) are excited downstream. This leads to the formation of a persistent cyclonic circulation anomaly over the eastern North Pacific that dramatically enhances the AR occurrence probability and the surface precipitation over the western U.S. between 30 N and 50 N. A diagnosis of the local geopotential height tendency further confirms the essential role of IF disturbances in establishing the observed persistent anomaly. This downstream modulation effect is then examined in the two simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model version 4 with different horizontal resolutions (T85 and T341) for the same period (1979 2005). The connection between EACS and AR is much better captured by the T341 version of the model, mainly due to a better representation of the scale interaction and the characteristics of IF atmospheric disturbances in the higher-resolution model. The findings here suggest that faithful representations of scale interaction in a global model are critical for modeling and predicting the occurrences of hydrological extremes in the western U.S. and for understanding their potential future changes.

  8. Reply to comment by Rashid et al. on "Asynchronous variation in the East Asian winter monsoon during the Holocene"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liya; Zhang, Xiaojian; Leduc, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    Rashid et al. (2016) questioned the use of the Mg-/Ca-based sea surface temperature (SST) data from the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean as well as the alkenone-based SST data from the western tropical Indian Ocean we used to reflect the winter SSTs or regional changes in the Holocene SSTs. We first would like to reemphasize that the main message we wanted to convey in our article is that the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) strength decreased and then increased again during the Holocene but with a substantial lag in southern China as compared to northern China. We, of course, wanted to back up our model results with published SST data that may have detected such an asynchronous variation in the EAWM. For convenience, we used a series of proxy records extracted from the extended Global database for alkenone-derived HOlocene Sea-surface Temperature (GHOST) database that were initially intended to provide a template of Holocene SST trends for model/data comparison purpose (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.737370). Rashid et al. (2016) questioned our model/data comparison exercise, arguing that the data we present in Zhang et al. (2015a) cannot be used to track leads and lags in winter SSTs in the North Atlantic and northern Indian Ocean. Below we address point by point the issues raised by Rashid et al. (2016) and thank the authors for giving us the opportunity to sharpen our model/data comparison analysis.

  9. A palaeo-ecological assessment of the resilience of south-east Asian dry forests to monsoon extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, R. J.; Penny, D.; Maxwell, A.

    2014-12-01

    Predictions that the frequency and intensity of monsoon extremes will rise in coming decades are being made with increasing confidence. There is concern that these climatic changes may drive tropical monsoon forests across critical thresholds, triggering ecological regime shifts. The global consequences of such shifts, coupled with knowledge gaps around the nature and intensity of drivers needed to instigate ecosystem reorganization, highlights the need for research that analyses the resilience of these seasonal forest to future climatic change. While work has indicated that these forests may be susceptible to reorganization to savanna under changing precipitation regimes, the interactions between climatic drivers and ecosystem response is still poorly understood, particularly in the seasonal forests outside of the neo- and afro-tropics. This study presents results on the threshold dynamics of the extensive south-east Asian seasonally dry tropical forest ecoregion (SASDTF) through analysis of plant microfossils and charcoal archived in sediment cores extracted from two tropical crater lakes in Cambodia. These data are compared with regional paleoclimatic reconstructions to gauge past forest response to monsoon extremes, and provide insight into the magnitude and duration of climatic events most likely to result in the breaching of critical thresholds. Our results suggest that, at a biome level, the SASDTF appears resilient to low-amplitude climatic variations over millennia, despite instrumental observations of strong precipitation-tree cover coupling in global dry forest resilience models.

  10. A detailed East Asian monsoon history surrounding the ‘Mystery Interval’ derived from three Chinese speleothem records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weihong; Wu, Jiangying; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yongjin; Cheng, Hai; Kong, Xinggong; Duan, Fucai

    2014-07-01

    The ‘Mystery Interval’ (MI, 17.5-14.5 ka) was the first stage of the last deglaciation, a key interval for understanding mechanisms of glacial-interglacial cycles. To elucidate possible causes of the MI, here we present three high-resolution, precisely dated oxygen-isotope records of stalagmites from Qingtian and Hulu Caves in China, reflecting changes in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) then. Based on well-established chronologies using precise 230Th dates and annual-band counting results, the two-cave δ18O profiles of ~ 7-yr resolution match well at decadal timescales. Both of the two-cave records document an abrupt weakening (2‰ of δ18O rise within 20 yr) in the EASM at ~ 16.1 ka, coinciding with the transition of the two-phased MI reconstructed from New Mexico's Lake Estancia. Our results indicate that the maximum southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and associated southward shift of polar jet stream may generate this two-phase feature of the MI during that time. We also discover a linear relationship among decreasing EASM intensity, rising atmospheric CO2 and weakening Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation between the MI and Younger Dryas episodes, suggesting a strong coupling of atmospheric/oceanic circulations in response to the millennial-scale forcing, which in turn regulates global climate changes and carbon cycles.

  11. Dynamic-analogue correction of the decadal change of East Asian summer precipitation in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Li, Shangfeng; Hu, Po; Shen, Baizhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    This paper systematically evaluates the deviations that appear in the hindcasts of the East Asian summer precipitation (EASP) decadal change in the late 1990s in two global coupled models (BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM). The possible causes for the deviations between the model hindcasts and observations are analyzed. The results show that the hindcasts of EASP by BCC_CGCM and BCC_CSM deviate from observations, with the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) being -0.01 and -0.09 for the two models, respectively. The SST anomalies in North and West Pacific and the SST index values predicted by the two models also deviate from the observations, indicating that inconsistent SST fields may be the key factor leading to the deviation in the prediction of the EASP decadal shift. Thus, a dynamic-analogue scheme is proposed to correct the precipitation hindcasts by using SSTs, where SST and EASP are highly correlated, to select historical analogue cases. Cross validations show that the average ACC of the temporal-latitude distribution of the EASP between the corrected hindcasts and observations is 0.18 for BCC_CGCM and 0.02 for BCC_CSM; both are much higher than the uncorrected hindcasts. Applying the dynamic-analogue correction scheme in both models successfully improves prediction of the EASP decadal change in the late 1990s.

  12. On the linkage between the Asian summer monsoon and tropopause fold activity over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrlis, Evangelos; Å kerlak, Bojan; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Zittis, George; Lelieveld, Jos

    2014-03-01

    A climatology of tropopause folds occurring over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME) has been established using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the years 1979-2012. The methodology employs an algorithm that detects folds at grid points where the vertical profile features multiple crossings of the dynamical tropopause and allows their classification according to their vertical extent. Our results confirm the findings of an earlier 1 year climatology that recognized a global "hot spot" of summertime fold activity between the eastern Mediterranean and central Asia, in the vicinity of the subtropical jet. Two distinct maxima of activity are identified over Turkey and Iran-Afghanistan where fold frequency exceeds 25%. Occasionally, medium and deep folds form over the two regions at surprisingly low latitudes. This summertime peak in fold activity diverges from the zonal mean seasonal cycle over the subtropics and is driven by the South Asian Monsoon. Starting in late spring, the EMME is gradually brought under the influence of the zonally asymmetric background state induced by the monsoon. As areas of sharply sloping isentropes develop especially over the eastern Mediterranean and Iran-Afghanistan, subsidence and fold formation are favored. Further investigation of the reanalysis data provided empirical evidence that the monsoon also drives the interannual variability of EMME fold activity. An upward trend in fold activity is identified, especially in May, attributed to the recent advanced monsoon onset and the deepening convective activity throughout summer, which promotes upper-level baroclinicity over the EMME and favors folding.

  13. Can potential predictability characterize seasonal forecast skills of the East Asian summer monsoon in the ENSEMBLES coupled models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dejian; Tang, Youmin; Zhang, Yaocun; Yang, Xiuqun

    2013-04-01

    In ensemble forecasts, an important criterion for the reliability and calibration of a forecast system is the correspondence between two types of predictability metrics, the observation-free potential predictability measures and the observation-involved forecast skill measures. In this study, we investigate the ability of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based potential predictability in characterizing seasonal forecast skills of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) in the ENSEMBLES models. It is found that in the ENSEMBLES multi-model ensemble (MME) system, SNR-based potential predictability can well characterize the spatial-temporal variations of seasonal forecast skills of the EASM, deterministic and probabilistic, which indicates the good capability of this MME system in capturing the underlying true seasonal predictability of the EASM . On the other hand, there exists a potential predictability-forecast skill contradiction when comparing the MME with the participating single model ensembles (SMEs), that is, MME outperforms individual models in terms of forecast skills, whereas potential predictability estimated using the former is lower than those estimated using the latter. A simple statistical model is used to explain this contradiction with moderate success.

  14. The impact of the 1997-98 East Asian economic crisis on health and health care in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Waters, Hugh; Saadah, Fadia; Pradhan, Menno

    2003-06-01

    This article identifies the effects of the 1997-98 East Asian economic crisis on health care use and health status in Indonesia. The article places the findings in the context of a framework showing the complex cause and effect relationships underlying the effects of economic downturns on health and health care. The results are based on primary analysis of Indonesian household survey data and review of a wide range of sources from the Indonesian government and international organizations. Comparisons are drawn with the effects of the crisis in Thailand. The devaluation of the Indonesian currency, the Rupiah, led to inflation and reduced real public expenditures on health. Households' expenditures on health also decreased, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of overall spending. Self-reported morbidity increased sharply from 1997 to 1998 in both rural and urban areas of Indonesia. The crisis led to a substantial reduction in health service utilization during the same time period, as the proportion of household survey respondents reporting an illness or injury that sought care from a modern health care provider declined by 25%. In contrast to Indonesia, health care utilization in Thailand actually increased during the crisis, corresponding to expansion in health insurance coverage. The results suggest that social protection programmes play a critical role in protecting populations against the adverse effects of economic downturns on health and health care.

  15. Trace elements and pollutants concentrations in shorebirds from Yeongjong Island, Korea in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Park, Seong-Keun; Koo, Tae-Hoe

    2007-07-01

    This study presents concentration levels of trace metals and pollutants (zinc, manganese, copper, lead, and cadmium) in tissues (livers, kidneys, muscles, and bones) of shorebirds from Yeongjong Island, Korea, in the East Asian-Australian migration flyways. Essential trace elements, zinc concentrations in kidneys, and copper concentrations in muscles significantly differed among shorebirds, but manganese concentrations did not differ in each tissue. We suggest that essential elements are within normal range and are maintained there by normal homeostatic mechanism. Lead concentrations in livers, kidneys, muscles, and bones were significantly different among shorebird species. Lead concentrations in livers of Kentish Plovers, Mongolian Plovers, Dunlins, and Great Knots were less than the toxic level, and lead concentrations in livers of Terek Sandpipers were at the background level. Cadmium concentrations in livers, kidneys, muscles, and bones did not vary among shorebirds, and concentrations of cadmium in livers and kidneys were at background level in all shorebirds. In livers of Dunlins from Yeongjong Island, lead and cadmium concentrations were higher than other locations previously reported. PMID:17404831

  16. Interannual Seesaw Between the Somali and the Australian Cross-Equatorial Flows and its Connection to East Asian Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Li, Shuanglin

    2014-05-01

    The correlations among the summer low-level cross-equatorial flows (CEFs) over the Indian-west Pacific Ocean region on the interannual timescale are investigated by using both the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and ERA40 datasets. A significant negative correlation (seesaw) has been illustrated between the Somali CEF and the three CEFs north to Australia (the South China Sea, the Celebes Sea and the New Guinea. They are referred to as the Australian CEF in combination). A seesaw index is thus defined with a higher (lower) value representing the intensified (weakened) Somali CEF but the weakened (intensified) Australian CEF. The connection of the seesaw with East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is then investigated. The results suggest that an enhanced seesaw corresponds to the intensified EASM with more rainfall in North China, the Yellow River valley and the upper reach of the Yangtze River. The seesaw reflects the opposite co-variability between the two atmospheric action centers in the southern hemisphere, the Mascarene subtropical high and the Australian subtropical high. Whether the seesaw-EASM connection is influenced by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Indian Ocean SST Dipole mode (IOD) is analyzed finally. The results keep unchanged when the ENSO-related or IOD-related signals are excluded, although ENSO exerts a significant influence. This implies an additional predictability for EASM from the CEF seesaw.

  17. Probabilistic versus Deterministic Skill in Predicting the Western North Pacific- East Asian Summer Monsoon Variability with Multi-Model Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Yang, X. Q.; Xie, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, X.; Tang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the historical forecasts of three quasi-operational multi-model ensemble (MME) systems, this study assesses the superiorities of the coupled MME over its contributing single-model ensembles (SMEs) and over the uncoupled atmospheric MME in predicting the seasonal variability of the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon. The seasonal prediction skill of the monsoon is measured by Brier skill score (BSS) in the sense of probabilistic forecast as well as by anomaly correlation (AC) in the sense of deterministic forecast. The probabilistic forecast skill of the MME is found to be always significantly better than that of each participating SME, while the deterministic forecast skill of the MME is even worse than that of some SME. The BSS is composed of reliability and resolution, two attributes characterizing probabilistic forecast skill. The probabilistic skill increase of the MME is dominated by the drastic improvement in reliability, while resolution is not always improved, similar to AC. A monotonous resolution-AC relationship is further found and qualitatively understood, whereas little relationship can be identified between reliability and AC. It is argued that the MME's success in improving the reliability possibly arises from an effective reduction of biases and overconfidence in forecast distributions. The coupled MME is much more skillful than the uncoupled atmospheric MME forced by persisted sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. This advantage is mainly attributed to its better capability in capturing the evolution of the underlying seasonal SST anomaly.

  18. Diversity of HLA-B17 alleles and haplotypes in East Asians and a novel Cw6 allele (Cw*0604) associated with B*5701.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Ogawa, A; Tokunaga, K; Ishikawa, Y; Kashiwase, K; Tanaka, H; Park, M H; Jia, G J; Chimge, N O; Sideltseva, E W; Akaza, T; Tadokoro, K; Takahashi, T; Juji, T

    1999-06-01

    The distribution of HLA-B17 alleles and their association with HLA-A, -C and -DRB1 alleles were investigated in seven East Asian populations Japanese, South Korean, Chinese-Korean, Man, Northern Han, Mongolian and Buryat populations). The B17 alleles were identified from genomic DNA using group-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP). In all of these East Asian populations, except Japanese and Chinese-Koreans, B*5701 was detected and strongly associated with A*0101, Cw*0602 and DRB1*0701. In contrast, B*5801 was detected in all the seven populations and strongly associated with A*3303, Cw*0302, DRB1*0301 and DRB1*1302. The A*3303-Cw*0302-B*5801-DRB1*1302 haplotype was observed in South Korean, Chinese-Korean, Buryat and Japanese populations, while A*3303-Cw*0302-B*5801-DRB1*0301 was predominantly observed in the Mongolian population. A similar haplotype, A*0101-Cw*0302-B*5801-DRB1*1302, was observed in the Buryat population. A novel Cw6 allele, Cw*0604, was identified in the Man population. This Cw allele was observed on the haplotype A*0101-B*5701-DRB1*0701. Thus, we confirmed, at the sequence level, that the common haplotypes carrying B*5701 and B*5801 have been conserved and shared in East Asian populations.

  19. Wet removal of black carbon in Asian outflow: Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Matsui, H.; Kajino, M.; Nakamura, H.; Jung, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted over East Asia in March-April 2009. During the A-FORCE campaign, 120 vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were obtained in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere. This study examines the wet removal of BC in Asian outflow using the A-FORCE data. The concentrations of BC and CO were greatly enhanced in air parcels sampled at 3-6 km in altitude over the Yellow Sea on 30 March 2009, associated with upward transport due to a cyclone with modest amounts of precipitation over northern China. In contrast, high CO concentrations without substantial enhancements of BC concentrations were observed in air parcels sampled at 5-6 km over the East China Sea on 23 April 2009, caused by uplifting due to cumulus convection with large amounts of precipitation over central China. The transport efficiency of BC (TEBC, namely the fraction of BC particles not removed during transport) in air parcels sampled above 2 km during the entire A-FORCE period decreased primarily with the increase in the precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during vertical transport, although their correlation was modest (r2 = 0.43). TEBC also depended on the altitude to which air parcels were transported from the PBL and the latitude where they were uplifted locally over source regions. The median values of TEBC for air parcels originating from northern China (north of 33°N) and sampled at 2-4 km and 4-9 km levels were 86% and 49%, respectively, during the A-FORCE period. These median values were systematically greater than the corresponding median values (69% and 32%, respectively) for air parcels originating from southern China (south of 33°N). Use of the A-FORCE data set will contribute to the reduction of large uncertainties in wet removal process of BC in global- and regional-scale models.

  20. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  1. Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuai-Lei; Luo, Jing-Jia; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005-2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initial conditions using the same SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario. We find that projected precipitation trends are subject to considerably larger internal uncertainty and hence have lower confidence, compared to the projected SAT trends in both the boreal winter and summer. Projected SAT trends in winter have relatively higher uncertainty than those in summer. Besides, the lower-level atmospheric circulation has larger uncertainty than that in the mid-level. Based on k-means cluster analysis, we demonstrate that a substantial portion of internally-induced precipitation and SAT trends arises from internal large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. These results highlight the importance of internal climate variability in affecting regional climate projections on multi-decadal timescales.

  2. Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuai-Lei; Luo, Jing-Jia; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005-2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initial conditions using the same SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario. We find that projected precipitation trends are subject to considerably larger internal uncertainty and hence have lower confidence, compared to the projected SAT trends in both the boreal winter and summer. Projected SAT trends in winter have relatively higher uncertainty than those in summer. Besides, the lower-level atmospheric circulation has larger uncertainty than that in the mid-level. Based on k-means cluster analysis, we demonstrate that a substantial portion of internally-induced precipitation and SAT trends arises from internal large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. These results highlight the importance of internal climate variability in affecting regional climate projections on multi-decadal timescales. PMID:26930402

  3. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-03-29

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian-early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼ 42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous.

  4. Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shuai-Lei; Luo, Jing-Jia; Huang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005–2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initial conditions using the same SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario. We find that projected precipitation trends are subject to considerably larger internal uncertainty and hence have lower confidence, compared to the projected SAT trends in both the boreal winter and summer. Projected SAT trends in winter have relatively higher uncertainty than those in summer. Besides, the lower-level atmospheric circulation has larger uncertainty than that in the mid-level. Based on k-means cluster analysis, we demonstrate that a substantial portion of internally-induced precipitation and SAT trends arises from internal large-scale atmospheric circulation variability. These results highlight the importance of internal climate variability in affecting regional climate projections on multi-decadal timescales. PMID:26930402

  5. Oxygen isotopes of East Asian dinosaurs reveal exceptionally cold Early Cretaceous climates.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Buffetaut, Eric; Lécuyer, Christophe; Ding, Zhongli; Fluteau, Frédéric; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing; Zhang, Fusong

    2011-03-29

    Early Cretaceous vertebrate assemblages from East Asia and particularly the Jehol Biota of northeastern China flourished during a period of highly debated climatic history. While the unique characters of these continental faunas have been the subject of various speculations about their biogeographic history, little attention has been paid to their possible climatic causes. Here we address this question using the oxygen isotope composition of apatite phosphate (δ ) from various reptile remains recovered from China, Thailand, and Japan. δ values indicate that cold terrestrial climates prevailed at least in this part of Asia during the Barremian-early Albian interval. Estimated mean air temperatures of about 10 ± 4 °C at midlatitudes (∼ 42 °N) correspond to present day cool temperate climatic conditions. Such low temperatures are in agreement with previous reports of cold marine temperatures during this part of the Early Cretaceous, as well as with the widespread occurrence of the temperate fossil wood genus Xenoxylon and the absence of thermophilic reptiles such as crocodilians in northeastern China. The unique character of the Jehol Biota is thus not only the result of its evolutionary and biogeographical history but is also due to rather cold local climatic conditions linked to the paleolatitudinal position of northeastern China and global icehouse climates that prevailed during this part of the Early Cretaceous. PMID:21393569

  6. Antarctic link with East Asian summer monsoon variability during the Heinrich Stadial-Bølling interstadial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Griffiths, Michael L.; Huang, Junhua; Cai, Yanjun; Wang, Canfa; Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Hai; Ning, Youfeng; Hu, Chaoyong; Xie, Shucheng

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has shown a strong persistence for direct teleconnections between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and high northern latitude climate variability during the last glacial and deglaciation, in particular between monsoon weakening and a reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, less attention has been paid to EASM strengthening as the AMOC was reinvigorated following peak Northern Hemisphere (NH) cooling. Moreover, climate model simulations have suggested a strong role for Antarctic meltwater discharge in modulating northward heat transport and hence NH warming, yet the degree to which Southern Hemisphere (SH) climate anomalies impacted the Asian monsoon region is still unclear. Here we present a new stalagmite oxygen-isotope record from the EASM affected region of central China, which documents two prominent stages of increased 18O-depleted moisture delivery to the region through the transition from Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) to the Bølling-Allerød (B-A) interstadial; this is in general agreement with the other monsoonal records from both NH and SH mid to low latitudes. Through novel comparisons with a recent iceberg-rafted debris (IRD) record from the Southern Ocean, we propose that the two-stage EASM intensification observed in our speleothem records were linked with two massive Antarctic icesheet discharge (AID) events at ∼16.0 ka and ∼14.7 ka, immediately following the peak HS1 stadial event. Notably, the large increase in EASM intensity at the beginning of the HS1/B-A transition (∼16 ka) is relatively muted in the NH higher latitudes, and better aligns with the changes observed in the SH, indicating the Antarctic and Southern Ocean perturbations could have an active role in driving the initial EASM strengthening at this time. Indeed, Antarctic freshwater input to the Southern Ocean during these AID events would have cooled the surrounding surface waters and caused an expansion of sea ice, restricting the

  7. Sensitivity of a regional climate model to land surface parameterization schemes for East Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Xue, Yongkang; Fu, Congbin; Qiu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Land surface processes play an important role in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) system. Parameterization schemes of land surface processes may cause uncertainties in regional climate model (RCM) studies for the EASM. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a RCM to land surface parameterization (LSP) schemes for long-term simulation of the EASM. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with four different LSP schemes (Noah-MP, CLM4, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB), hereafter referred to as Sim-Noah, Sim-CLM, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB respectively, have been applied for 22-summer EASM simulations. The 22-summer averaged spatial distributions and strengths of downscaled large-scale circulation, 2-m temperature and precipitation are comprehensively compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis and dense station observations in China. Results show that the downscaling ability of RCM for the EASM is sensitive to LSP schemes. Furthermore, this study confirms that RCM does add more information to the EASM compared to reanalysis that imposes the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) because it provides 2-m temperature and precipitation that are with higher resolution and more realistic compared to LBC. For 2-m temperature and monsoon precipitation, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB simulations are more consistent with observation than simulations of Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM. To further explore the physical and dynamic mechanisms behind the RCM sensitivity to LSP schemes, differences in the surface energy budget between simulations of Ens-Noah-CLM (ensemble mean averaging Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM) and Ens-PX-SSiB (ensemble mean averaging Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB) are investigated and their subsequent impacts on the atmospheric circulation are analyzed. It is found that the intensity of simulated sensible heat flux over Asian continent in Ens-Noah-CLM is stronger than that in Ens-PX-SSiB, which induces a higher tropospheric temperature in Ens-Noah-CLM than in Ens-PX-SSiB over land. The adaptive

  8. Sensitivity of a regional climate model to land surface parameterization schemes for East Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Xue, Yongkang; Fu, Congbin; Qiu, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Land surface processes play an important role in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) system. Parameterization schemes of land surface processes may cause uncertainties in regional climate model (RCM) studies for the EASM. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a RCM to land surface parameterization (LSP) schemes for long-term simulation of the EASM. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with four different LSP schemes (Noah-MP, CLM4, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB), hereafter referred to as Sim-Noah, Sim-CLM, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB respectively, have been applied for 22-summer EASM simulations. The 22-summer averaged spatial distributions and strengths of downscaled large-scale circulation, 2-m temperature and precipitation are comprehensively compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis and dense station observations in China. Results show that the downscaling ability of RCM for the EASM is sensitive to LSP schemes. Furthermore, this study confirms that RCM does add more information to the EASM compared to reanalysis that imposes the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) because it provides 2-m temperature and precipitation that are with higher resolution and more realistic compared to LBC. For 2-m temperature and monsoon precipitation, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB simulations are more consistent with observation than simulations of Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM. To further explore the physical and dynamic mechanisms behind the RCM sensitivity to LSP schemes, differences in the surface energy budget between simulations of Ens-Noah-CLM (ensemble mean averaging Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM) and Ens-PX-SSiB (ensemble mean averaging Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB) are investigated and their subsequent impacts on the atmospheric circulation are analyzed. It is found that the intensity of simulated sensible heat flux over Asian continent in Ens-Noah-CLM is stronger than that in Ens-PX-SSiB, which induces a higher tropospheric temperature in Ens-Noah-CLM than in Ens-PX-SSiB over land. The adaptive

  9. Atmospheric Transport Modelling confining potential source location of East-Asian radionuclide detections in May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The radionuclide component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is in place to detect tiny traces of fission products from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. The challenge for the interpretation of IMS radionuclide data is to discriminate radionuclide sources of CTBT relevance against emissions from nuclear facilities. Remarkable activity concentrations of Ba/La-140 occurred at the IMS radionuclide stations RN 37 (Okinawa) and RN 58 (Ussurysk) mid of May 2010. In those days also an elevated Xe-133 level was measured at RN 38 (Takasaki). Additional regional measurements of radioxenon were reported in the press and further analyzed in various publications. The radionuclide analysis gives evidence for the presence of a nuclear fission source between 10 and 12 May 2010. Backward Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) with HYSPLIT driven by 0.2° ECMWF meteorological data for the IMS samples indicates that, assuming a single source, a wide range of source regions is possible including the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and parts of China and Russia. Further confinement of the possible source location can be provided by atmospheric backtracking for the assumed sampling periods of the reported regional xenon measurements. New studies indicate a very weak seismic event at the DPRK test site on early 12 May 2010. Forward ATM for a pulse release caused by this event shows fairly good agreement with the observed radionuclide signature. Nevertheless, the underlying nuclear fission scenario remains quite unclear and speculative even if assuming a connection between the waveform and the radionuclide event.

  10. Radiative feedback of dust aerosols on the East Asian dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoye; Gong, Sunling; Chen, Yong; Shi, Guangyu; Li, Wei

    2010-12-01

    A new radiative parameterization scheme of dust aerosol has been developed within a mesoscale dust storm (DS) forecasting model to study the direct radiation of dust aerosol by incorporating both online forecasted dust concentrations and the updated dust reflective index. The radiation-induced temperature variations are fed back online to the model dynamics, resulting in two-way interactions between meteorology and dust aerosols. For a typical DS of 16-18 April 2006 in East Asia, the study shows that the strong extinction by dust leads to significant changes in the radiation flux from surface to the top of atmosphere, which tends to decrease the air temperature in the lower dust aerosol layers but to increase the air temperature in the upper dust aerosol layers. Consequently, variations of 3-D temperature fields reduce the cold air in the upper atmosphere, increase the sea level air pressure, decrease surface wind velocity, and eventually weaken the Mongolian cyclones owing to the blocking effects. These changes, in return, have impacts on the emission, transport, and deposition processes of DS. The interactively simulated total dust emission from the ground is reduced by over 50%, and the 72-hour averaged optical depth of dust aerosols declines by about 33% compared to the one-way model without dust direct radiative feedback, which indicates strong negative feedback effects. The findings of this study also suggest that online calculation of dust direct radiative effects in a mesoscale dust prediction model may lead to an improvement in the prediction of meteorological elements such as temperature, wind, and pressure during the dust events owing to its improved calculation accuracy of regional radiation budgets.

  11. The interdecadal change of ENSO impact on wintertime East Asian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, XiaoJing; Lin, Hai; Ge, JingWen

    2015-12-01

    The interdecadal change in the relationship between the winter mean surface air temperature (SAT) over East Asia (EA) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated using both observational data and a simple general circulation model. The positive phase of the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of SAT over EA is characterized by significant warming over midlatitude to high-latitude EA and is linked to the Arctic Oscillation. The second EOF (SAT-EOF2) is represented by significant cooling extending from 55°N to the tropics and abnormal warming over high-latitude EA. Focus is given to SAT-EOF2 which has a close relationship with the La Niña-type sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. A clear shift in SAT-EOF2 is observed in the mid-1980s. The relationships between SAT-EOF2 and ENSO in two subperiods, i.e., 1957 to 1982 (P1) and 1986 to 2010 (P2), are discussed and compared. Results show that the relationship between SAT-EOF2 and ENSO significantly strengthens after the mid-1980s due to stronger SST and precipitation anomalies in P2 than in P1 associated with ENSO in the tropical western Pacific. In the midlatitudes, the Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern is more closely related to ENSO in P2, whereas in P1, the ENSO-related atmospheric circulation anomalies are more similar to a zonally orientated teleconnection pattern. Numerical experiments suggest that the difference in the ENSO-related circulation anomaly in the midlatitudes is likely related to the difference in the climatological mean flows of these two subperiods.

  12. Longitudinal difference in total electron content over the East Asian region: Feature and explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shimei; Xiao, Zuo; Zhao, Biqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism of the longitudinal difference of ionospheric electron density is in general attributed to the thermospheric wind effect modulated by the local geomagnetic declination. Although this mechanism is tested in many case studies, there are other possible factors such as solar activity and so on which still need further investigations. In this paper, TEC data from two Chinese GPS stations located at almost same geographic latitudes but with a wide longitude span (~38°) are used to study the morphological features of longitudinal differences under various geophysical conditions. A parameter Rew is defined as a normalized measure of the TEC difference between the two stations. All the observed temporal variations of Rew are analyzed statistically, with the results showing that negative east-west differences (Western TEC>Eastern TEC) in the noontime are pronounced during Day of Year (DoY) 90-270, while nighttime positive differences (Western TEC

  13. TESTING TREE-CLASSIFIER VARIANTS AND ALTERNATE MODELING METHODOLOGIES IN THE EAST GREAT BASIN MAPPING UNIT OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested two methods for dataset generation and model construction, and three tree-classifier variants to identify the most parsimonious and thematically accurate mapping methodology for the SW ReGAP project. Competing methodologies were tested in the East Great Basin mapping un...

  14. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for adiponectin levels in East Asians identifies a novel locus near WDR11-FGFR2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Gao, He; Li, Huaixing; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Park, Eun Jung; Wen, Wanqing; Adair, Linda S; Borja, Judith B; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Peng; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Fogarty, Marie P; Gan, Wei; He, Chih-Tsueng; Hsiung, Chao A; Hwu, Chii-Min; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Jo, Jaeseong; Kato, Norihiro; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Kuzawa, Christophor W; Lee, Jeannette J M; Liu, Jianjun; Lu, Ling; McDade, Thomas W; Osawa, Haruhiko; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Teo, Yvonne; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Van Dam, Rob M; Wang, Yiqin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Terri L; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Jingwen; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shin, Chol; Jee, Sun Ha; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Miki, Tetsuro; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L; Tai, E Shyong

    2014-02-15

    Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms.

  15. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for adiponectin levels in East Asians identifies a novel locus near WDR11-FGFR2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Gao, He; Li, Huaixing; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Park, Eun Jung; Wen, Wanqing; Adair, Linda S.; Borja, Judith B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Peng; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Fogarty, Marie P.; Gan, Wei; He, Chih-Tsueng; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hwu, Chii-Min; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Jo, Jaeseong; Kato, Norihiro; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Kuzawa, Christophor W.; Lee, Jeannette J.M.; Liu, Jianjun; Lu, Ling; Mcdade, Thomas W.; Osawa, Haruhiko; Sheu, Wayne H-H.; Teo, Yvonne; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Van Dam, Rob M.; Wang, Yiqin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamamoto, Ken; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Terri L.; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Jingwen; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shin, Chol; Jee, Sun Ha; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Miki, Tetsuro; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Lin, Xu; Mohlke, Karen L; Tai, E Shyong

    2014-01-01

    Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10−14) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10−7). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10−165), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10−22), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10−12), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10−10), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10−7) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10−6). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10−7). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10−4), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10−4) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist–hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10−3). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms. PMID:24105470

  16. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part I: Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Wen; Wang, Bin; Yim, So-Young

    2016-07-01

    The interannual variation of East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall exhibits considerable differences between early summer [May-June (MJ)] and peak summer [July-August (JA)]. The present study focuses on peak summer. During JA, the mean ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical High (WPSH) divides EASM domain into two sub-domains: the tropical EA (5°N-26.5°N) and subtropical-extratropical EA (26.5°N-50°N). Since the major variability patterns in the two sub-domains and their origins are substantially different, the Part I of this study concentrates on the tropical EA or Southeast Asia (SEA). We apply the predictable mode analysis approach to explore the predictability and prediction of the SEA peak summer rainfall. Four principal modes of interannual rainfall variability during 1979-2013 are identified by EOF analysis: (1) the WPSH-dipole sea surface temperature (SST) feedback mode in the Northern Indo-western Pacific warm pool associated with the decay of eastern Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), (2) the central Pacific-ENSO mode, (3) the Maritime continent SST-Australian High coupled mode, which is sustained by a positive feedback between anomalous Australian high and sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over Indian Ocean, and (4) the ENSO developing mode. Based on understanding of the sources of the predictability for each mode, a set of physics-based empirical (P-E) models is established for prediction of the first four leading principal components (PCs). All predictors are selected from either persistent atmospheric lower boundary anomalies from March to June or the tendency from spring to early summer. We show that these four modes can be predicted reasonably well by the P-E models, thus they are identified as the predictable modes. Using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns, we have made a 35-year cross-validated hindcast, setting up a bench mark for dynamic models' predictions. The P-E hindcast

  17. Changes in Indonesian Outflow in relation to East Asian Monsoon and ENSO Activities since the Last Glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) links upper ocean waters of the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, modulates heat and fresh water budgets between these oceans and in turn plays an important role in global climate change. It was suggested that East Asian monsoon and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) exert a strong influence on flux, water properties and vertical stratification of the modern ITF. Possible link of the ITF to ENSO is also supported by significant linear correlation (R2=0.43) between thermocline temperature (TT) of the ITF outflow and NINO3.4 index over the past 50 years. In this work, seawater temperatures and salinity and vertical thermal structure of the ITF outflow since the last glacial were reconstructed from Core SO18462 that was retrieved from exit of the ITF to the Timor Sea (TS) (Holbourn et al., 2011). The records of Core SO18462 were then compared with records of Core 3cBX that were considered to reveal ENSO-like conditions in the center of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) (Sagawa et al., 2012). The results show that surface waters were comparable in the TS and the WPWP prior to ~16ka, and then diverged with much freshening in the TS. On the contrary, thermocline waters were largely diverged, warmer and more saline in the TS than in the WPWP, and then started to converge from ~16ka. Sea surface temperature (SST) remained over 28°C (the temperature defining range of modern WPWP) in both of the regions during 11.5-6ka. SST then slightly decreased below 28°C in the TS when it kept all the way above 28°C in the WPWP towards the late Holocene. In contrast, TT and thermocline depth remained overall unchanged in the WPWP, concurring with decreasing of TT and shoaling of thermocline in the TS during 11.5-6ka. After 6ka, thermocline continued shoaling in the TS, when TT remained decreasing and thermocline salinity approached to be similar in both of the regions. Comparison of TS and WPWP records conspicuously disclose two categories of

  18. Seasonal and annual variations and regional characteristics of wet and dry deposition amounts in East Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Tsuyoshi, O.; Endo, T.; Yagoh, H.; Matsuda, K.

    2011-12-01

    Emission of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Asian region has been remarkably increased with recent rapid economical growth (Ohara et al., 2007). To appropriately assess the influence of air pollutants on the ecosystem, it is important to quantitatively determine the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants. Here, Seasonal and annual variations and regional characteristics of estimated wet and dry deposition amounts at 27 monitoring sites of Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) from 2003 to 2009 are discussed. Wet deposition sample was collected every 24 hours or 1 week by a wet only sampler. Wet deposition amounts were calculated by the product of the volume-weighted concentrations of ionic species (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) in the precipitation and precipitation amount measured by a standard rain gauge at each site. Dry deposition amount was estimated by the inferential method which was originated the model developed by Wesely and Hicks (1977) and modified by Matsuda (2008). The components examined for dry deposition were sulfur compounds (gaseous SO2 and particulate SO42-) and nitrogen compounds (gaseous HNO3 and NH3, particulate NO3- and NH4+). Dry deposition was calculated by the product of the deposition velocity estimated by the inferential method for forest and grass surfaces and the monitored air concentration of each compound. The mean annual dry deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Japanese sites were in the range of 5-37 and 7-50 mmol m-2 year-1, respectively. The regional characteristics of dry deposition amounts in Japan were similar between sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which showed higher deposition in the Sea of Japan side and the western Japan. The mean annual total (wet + dry) deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Japanese sites were in the range of 28-77 and 22-130 mmol m-2 year-1, respectively. The contributions of dry deposition to the total deposition amounts were 10-55% and 13-56% for

  19. Study on the changes in the East Asian precipitation in the mid-1990s using a high-resolution global downscaled atmospheric data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eun-Chul; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Hong, Song-You; Kim, Jung-Eun; Wu, Renguang; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution global atmospheric data set (DA126) is used to understand the East Asian summer precipitation variability. It is found that a fine resolution of the DA126 precipitation data is able to reveal the detailed structures of the rainfall variability over East Asia and southern China in comparison with global analysis precipitation data sets such as the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). The first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the DA126 precipitation data over East Asia accurately reflect a decadal shift in rainfall over southern China in the mid-1990s. Furthermore, the first EOF-related precipitation of the DA126 is related to the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability (i.e., El Niño/Southern Oscillation), and the second EOF-related precipitation is associated with the Indian Ocean SST variability. Consequently, the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean SSTs have different associations with the East Asian monsoon precipitation variability. However, it is difficult to find such a relationship in the first two EOFs of the CMAP data set over East Asia. Using the DA126 precipitation data set, our further analysis indicates that warming of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean causes an increase in the rainfall anomaly over southern China after the mid-1990s, which results in a decadal shift in the rainfall anomaly after the mid-1990s. In addition, the first EOF-related precipitation is associated with both the Pacific-Japan-like (PJ-like) pattern and the Eurasian-like pattern. In contrast, the second EOF-related precipitation is only associated with the PJ-like wave trains from the western Pacific to East Asia.

  20. The CLU gene rs11136000 variant is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyou; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Jiafeng; Li, Jingbo; Li, Hali; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale genomewide association studies have reported that the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people of Caucasian ancestry. Recently, this association was investigated in Asian populations (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). However, these studies reported either a weak association or no association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD. We believe that this discrepancy may be caused by the relatively small sample size of the previous studies and the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD among different populations. For this study, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases. We selected 18 independent studies (6 studies of Asian populations and 12 of populations of Caucasian ancestry) that evaluated the association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD using a case-control experimental design. We evaluated the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in Caucasian and Asian populations. We then investigated the rs11136000 polymorphism by a meta-analysis in Asian populations using allele, dominant, and recessive models. We identified a significant association between rs11136000 and AD with the allele model (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)) and the dominant model (P = 5.00 × 10(-3)). Meanwhile, a similar genetic risk of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD was observed in Asian and Caucasian populations. Further meta-analysis in pooled Asian and Caucasian populations indicated a more significant association with the allele (P = 8.30 × 10(-24)), dominant (P = 4.46 × 10(-17)), and recessive (P = 3.92 × 10(-12)) models. Collectively, our findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the effect of the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism on AD risk in Asian cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) is consistent with the protective effect observed in Caucasian AD cohorts.

  1. Interannual and Decadal Modulations Recently Observed in the Pacific Storm Track Activity and East Asian Winter Monsoon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Izumi, Takuya; Sampe, Takeaki

    2002-07-01

    Interannual variability of the North Pacific storm track observed over 17 recent winters is documented. The local storm track activity is measured by a meridional flux of sensible heat associated with the lower-tropospheric subweekly fluctuations. The interannual variability in the heat flux over the northwestern (NW) Pacific is found to be strongest in midwinter. The first empirical orthogonal function of the interannual variability in midwinter captures the decadal tendency toward the enhanced storm track activity in midwinter over the NW Pacific, in association with the decadal weakening of the east Asian winter monsoon (Siberian high) and the Aleutian low that occurred in the late 1980s. The most marked signature of this enhancement is that the midwinter minimum in the storm track activity, which had been apparent in the early to mid-1980s, almost disappeared afterward. As opposed to linear theory of baroclinic instability, the enhanced activity occurred despite the weakening of the Pacific jet. As the excessively strong westerlies weakened, the eddy temperature field tended to become better correlated with the eddy meridional and vertical velocities, suggesting that eddy structure tends to become more efficient in converting the mean-flow available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy for growth. The weakened jet also acted to prolong the residence time for migratory eddies in the baroclinic zone, which seemingly overcompensated the effect of the reduced mean-flow baroclinicity but appeared to be of secondary importance. Over the Far East, tropospheric warming to the north of the weakened jet appears to be associated with an anomalous overturning in the thermally direct sense, which is not attributable to the feedback from the concomitant enhancement in the local storm track activity.Over the NW Pacific, the enhanced poleward heat transport by the intensified storm track tended to be compensated by the reduced transport by the weakened monsoonal flow

  2. Droughts in the East Asian summer monsoon margin during the last 6 kyrs: Link to the North Atlantic cooling events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiawei; Xiao, Jule; Wen, Ruilin; Zhang, Shengrui; Wang, Xu; Cui, Linlin; Li, He; Xue, Dingshuai; Yamagata, Hideki

    2016-11-01

    Teleconnections to the high latitudes, forcing by the tropical oceans and solar variability have all been suggested as dominant factors in the sub-millennial global climate changes, yet there is little consensus as to the relative importance of these factors for the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) variability. This study presents the results of high-resolution analyses of Ca and Mg concentrations, Mg/Ca ratio, δ18O and δ13C values of endogenic calcites from a sediment core from Dali Lake in the EASM margin, in order to investigate the sub-millennial EASM variability and its possible driving forces during the last 6 kyrs. Increases in these chemical proxy data were interpreted as drought events in the region due to the intensive evaporation losses overwhelming the water input to the lake. The chemical proxy data in this study combined with multi-proxy indicators including grain size component and total organic carbon concentrations from the same sediment core imply that declines in the EASM intensity may have played a dominant role in triggering the drought events during the last 6 kyrs. The results indicate that the EASM intensity significantly declined at the intervals of 5.8-4.75, 3.2-2.8, 1.65-1.15 and 0.65-0.2 kyrs BP. Large declines in the EASM intensity during the last 6 kyrs correspond in time to occurrences of ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic, indicating that millennial-to-centennial scale changes in the EASM intensity were mainly controlled by climatic processes occurring in the northern high latitudes. These data imply that persistent global warming may be favorable for the strengthening of the EASM circulation and for the transportation of more rainfall to the semi-arid regions of northern China on sub-millennial scales.

  3. Tropospheric ozone variability during the East Asian summer monsoon as observed by satellite (IASI), aircraft (MOZAIC) and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, Sarah; Boynard, Anne; Hao, Nan; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Barret, Brice; Ghude, Sachin D.; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project, as well as observations from ground-based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years 2008-2013 of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon seen by a decrease in the tropospheric 0-6 km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. The year-to-year variability is found to be mainly dependent on meteorology. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric 0-6 km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project for the EASM of 2008-2013 are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (12 %) between the 0-6 km O3 column derived from IASI and aircraft data. IASI captures very well the inter-annual variation of tropospheric O3 observed by the aircraft data over the studied domain. Analysis of vertical profiles of the aircraft data shows a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at 10-20° N than elsewhere. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with a decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  4. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2014-03-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  5. Interdecadal change of the controlling mechanisms for East Asian early summer rainfall variation around the mid-1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Kwon, MinHo

    2013-04-01

    East Asian (EA) summer monsoon shows considerable differences in the mean state and principal modes of interannual variation between early summer (May-June, MJ) and late summer (July-August, JA). The present study focuses on the early summer (MJ) precipitation variability. We find that the interannual variation of the MJ precipitation and the processes controlling the variation have been changed abruptly around the mid-1990s. The rainfall anomaly represented by the leading empirical orthogonal function has changed from a dipole-like pattern in pre-95 epoch (1979-1994) to a tripole-like pattern in post-95 epoch (1995-2010); the prevailing period of the corresponding principal component has also changed from 3-5 to 2-3 years. These changes are concurrent with the changes of the corresponding El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolutions. During the pre-95 epoch, the MJ EA rainfall anomaly is coupled to a slow decay of canonical ENSO events signified by an eastern Pacific warming, which induces a dipole rainfall feature over EA. On the other hand, during the post-95 epoch the anomalous MJ EA rainfall is significantly linked to a rapid decay of a central Pacific warming and a distinct tripolar sea surface temperature (SST) in North Atlantic. The central Pacific warming-induced Philippine Sea anticyclone induces an increased rainfall in southern China and decreased rainfall in central eastern China. The North Atlantic Oscillation-related tripolar North Atlantic SST anomaly induces a wave train that is responsible for the increase northern EA rainfall. Those two impacts form the tripole-like rainfall pattern over EA. Understanding such changes is important for improving seasonal to decadal predictions and long-term climate change in EA.

  6. Streptomyces chiangmaiensis sp. nov. and Streptomyces lannensis sp. nov., isolated from the South-East Asian stingless bee (Tetragonilla collina).

    PubMed

    Promnuan, Yaowanoot; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2013-05-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, strains TA4-1(T) and TA4-8(T,) were isolated from the South-East Asian stingless bee (Tetragonilla collina Smith 1857), collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strains TA4-1(T) and TA4-8(T) were consistent with the genus Streptomyces, i.e. the formation of aerial mycelia bearing spiral spore chains, the presence of the ll-isomer of diaminopimelic acid in cell walls, iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids with carbon chain lengths 14-17 atoms as the major fatty acids and MK-9(H8) as the predominant menaquinone plus minor amounts of MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H10). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains TA4-1(T) and TA4-8(T) exhibited 98.8 and 98.1% sequence similarity, respectively, with Streptomyces chromofuscus NRRL B-12175(T) and 98.9% sequence similarity with each other. This study suggested that strains TA4-1(T) and TA4-8(T) were distinct from previously described species of the genus Streptomyces. In addition, the low degrees of DNA-DNA relatedness between the isolates and S. chromofuscus JCM 4354(T) warranted assigning strains TA4-1(T) and TA4-8(T) to two novel species. The names Streptomyces chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (type strain TA4-1(T)  = JCM 16577(T)  = TISTR 1981(T)) and Streptomyces lannensis sp. nov. (type strain TA4-8(T)  = JCM 16578(T)  = TISTR 1982(T)) are proposed. The species names indicate the geographical locations where the stingless bees reside.

  7. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four-country multistage cluster design study.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, Anne; Deurenberg, Paul; Calame, Wim; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; van Beusekom, Christien; Hautvast, Jo; Sandjaja; Bee Koon, Poh; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Parikh, Panam; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is a well-known factor in the growth, health and development of children. It is also acknowledged that worldwide many people have dietary imbalances resulting in over- or undernutrition. In 2009, the multinational food company FrieslandCampina initiated the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a combination of surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, to get a better insight into these imbalances. The present study describes the general study design and methodology, as well as some problems and pitfalls encountered. In each of these countries, participants in the age range of 0·5-12 years were recruited according to a multistage cluster randomised or stratified random sampling methodology. Field teams took care of recruitment and data collection. For the health status of children, growth and body composition, physical activity, bone density, and development and cognition were measured. For nutrition, food intake and food habits were assessed by questionnaires, whereas in subpopulations blood and urine samples were collected to measure the biochemical status parameters of Fe, vitamins A and D, and DHA. In Thailand, the researchers additionally studied the lipid profile in blood, whereas in Indonesia iodine excretion in urine was analysed. Biochemical data were analysed in certified laboratories. Study protocols and methodology were aligned where practically possible. In December 2011, data collection was finalised. In total, 16,744 children participated in the present study. Information that will be very relevant for formulating nutritional health policies, as well as for designing innovative food and nutrition research and development programmes, has become available. PMID:24016763

  8. East Asian summer monsoon dynamics lag continental air temperature changes during the last 130,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, M. A.; Peterse, F.; Zhou, B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Beets, K.; Zheng, H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) precipitation intensity have been derived from loess-paleosol sequences and oxygen isotope (δ18O) records of well-dated stalagmites from several caves in China, and show that the strength of the EASM generally responds to changes in Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer insolation. In contrast, past continental air temperature dynamics are still poorly understood for this area, mainly due to the lack of paleotemperature records. Application of the recently developed MBT-CBT (methylation of branched tetraethers-cyclisation of branched tetraethers) paleothermometer, based on the distribution of soil bacterial membrane lipids [1], on a loess-paleosol sequence from the Mangshan loess plateau provided one of the first continuous, high resolution, absolute air temperature records for southeast Asia [2]. The 34,000-year record indicated that the onset of atmospheric warming and the intensification of the EASM were decoupled during the last deglaciation, and suggested that factors controlling temperature and precipitation were different. Here we present the extended temperature record for this exact same loess-paleosol sequence, so that it now covers the last 130,000 years. Comparison of the MBT-CBT-derived temperature record with speleothem δ18O and monsoon proxy records (grain size and magnetic susceptibility) from the same loess-paleosol sequence shows that EASM precipitation dynamics structurally lag the changes in continental air temperature throughout the whole record. The offset in timing between temperature and precipitation becomes even clearer upon filtration of the proxy records at the 23 kyr band. The filtered MBT-CBT record exactly tracks that of NH summer insolation, whereas all monsoon records (both loess proxies and speleothem) are laggin behind. This supports the earlier suggestion that temperature and precipitation have different driving forces, an observation that may lead us towards a better understanding of

  9. Effects of crop growth and development on regional climate: a case study over East Asian monsoon area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Xie, Zhenghui

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the CERES phenological growth and development functions were implemented into the regional climate model, RegCM3 to give a model denoted as RegCM3_CERES. This model was used to represent interactions between regional climate and crop growth processes. The effects of crop growth and development processes on regional climate were then studied based on two 20-year simulations over the East Asian monsoon area conducted using the original regional climate model RegCM3, and the coupled RegCM3_CERES model. The numerical experiments revealed that incorporating the crop growth and development processes into the regional climate model reduced the root mean squared error of the simulated precipitation by 2.2-10.7% over north China, and the simulated temperature by 5.5-30.9% over the monsoon region in eastern China. Comparison of the simulated results obtained using RegCM3_CERES and RegCM3 showed that the most significant changes associated with crop modeling were the changes in leaf area index which in turn modify the aspects of surface energy and water partitions and lead to moderate changes in surface temperature and, to some extent, rainfall. Further analysis revealed that a robust representation of seasonal changes in plant growth and developmental processes in the regional climate model changed the surface heat and moisture fluxes by modifying the vegetation characteristics, and that these differences in simulated surface fluxes resulted in different structures of the boundary layer and ultimately affected the convection. The variations in leaf area index and fractional vegetation cover changed the distribution of evapotranspiration and heat fluxes, which could potentially lead to anomalies in geopotential height, and consequently influenced the overlying atmospheric circulation. These changes would result in redistribution of the water and energy through advection. Nevertheless, there are significant uncertainties in modeling how monsoon dynamics responds

  10. Study of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in East Asians for association with obesity in a Taiwanese population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Hsin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Chan, Hsin-Lung; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Lin, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of seven previously reported obesity genes in East Asians and to analyse their associations and synergistic effects on obesity in the Taiwanese population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting One medical centre in northern Taiwan. Participants A total of 323 non-obese and 264 obese participants were recruited. The threshold for obesity in this study was a body mass index of ≥27 kg/m2, as defined by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. The study was performed with the approval of the institutional review board of MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (application number 12MMHIS106). Outcome measures We analysed the genotype distributions of seven SNPs localising to the PPARγ2, GNB3, SDC3, ADRB2, FTO, PPARγ and ESR1 genes in obese and non-obese groups and then paired obesity-related SNPs to determine if they have synergistic effects on obesity. Results Analysis of the genotype distributions in obese and non-obese groups revealed only a significant positive correlation between an SNP in rs2282440-syndecan 3 (SDC3) and obesity in the Taiwanese population (p=0.006). In addition, the T/T genotype of SDC3 was significantly associated with a larger waist and hip circumference, higher body fat percentage and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Moreover, the combination of the rs2282440-SDC3T/T genotype with the rs1801282-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene (PPARγ2) G carrier genotype was strongly associated with obesity (OR=6.77). Conclusions We found that the rs2282440-SDC3T/T genotype is associated with obesity in the Taiwanese population. Furthermore, there is a synergistic effect of the high-risk alleles of the SDC3 and PPARγ2 genes on the obese phenotype in the Taiwanese population. Trial registration number 12MMHIS106; Results. PMID:27515755

  11. Probabilistic versus deterministic skill in predicting the western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability with multimodel ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dejian; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Xie, Qian; Zhang, Yaocun; Ren, Xuejuan; Tang, Youmin

    2016-02-01

    Based on historical forecasts of three quasi-operational multimodel ensemble (MME) systems, this study assesses the superiority of coupled MME over contributing single-model ensembles (SMEs) and over uncoupled atmospheric MME in predicting the Western North Pacific-East Asian summer monsoon variability. The probabilistic and deterministic forecast skills are measured by Brier skill score (BSS) and anomaly correlation (AC), respectively. A forecast-format-dependent MME superiority over SMEs is found. The probabilistic forecast skill of the MME is always significantly better than that of each SME, while the deterministic forecast skill of the MME can be lower than that of some SMEs. The MME superiority arises from both the model diversity and the ensemble size increase in the tropics, and primarily from the ensemble size increase in the subtropics. The BSS is composed of reliability and resolution, two attributes characterizing probabilistic forecast skill. The probabilistic skill increase of the MME is dominated by the dramatic improvement in reliability, while resolution is not always improved, similar to AC. A monotonic resolution-AC relationship is further found and qualitatively explained, whereas little relationship can be identified between reliability and AC. It is argued that the MME's success in improving the reliability arises from an effective reduction of the overconfidence in forecast distributions. Moreover, it is examined that the seasonal predictions with coupled MME are more skillful than those with the uncoupled atmospheric MME forced by persisting sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, since the coupled MME has better predicted the SST anomaly evolution in three key regions.

  12. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  13. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Wei; Yen, Shen-Horn; Lees, David C; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of "Agehana" has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, "Agehana" fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present "East Asia-America" disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima.

  14. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Asian Pterourus Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): A Case of Intercontinental Dispersal from North America to East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Lu, Chih-Chien; Yang, Ping-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic status of the well-known Asian butterflies often known as Agehana (a species group, often treated as a genus or a subgenus, within Papilio sensu lato) has long remained unresolved. Only two species are included, and one of them especially, Papilio maraho, is not only rare but near-threatened, being monophagous on its vulnerable hostplant, Sassafras randaiense (Lauraceae). Although the natural history and population conservation of “Agehana” has received much attention, the biogeographic origin of this group still remains enigmatic. To clarify these two questions, a total of 86 species representatives within Papilionidae were sampled, and four genes (concatenated length 3842 bp) were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships and historical scenarios. Surprisingly, “Agehana” fell within the American Papilio subgenus Pterourus and not as previously suggested, phylogenetically close to the Asian Papilio subgenus Chilasa. We therefore formally synonymize Agehana with Pterourus. Dating and biogeographic analysis allow us to infer an intercontinental dispersal of an American ancestor of Asian Pterourus in the early Miocene, which was coincident with historical paleo-land bridge connections, resulting in the present “East Asia-America” disjunction distribution. We emphasize that species exchange between East Asia and America seems to be a quite frequent occurrence in butterflies during the Oligocene to Miocene climatic optima. PMID:26484776

  15. Vertical Variation of Optical Properties of Mixed Asian Dust/Pollution Plumes According to Pathway of Airmass Transport Over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Kyun; Müller, Detlef; Lee, K. H.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y. J.; Noh, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    We use five years (2009 - 2013) of multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements at Gwangju, Korea (35.10° N, 126.53° E) for the identification of changes of optical properties of East Asian dust in dependence of its transport path over China. Profiles of backscatter and extinction coefficients, lidar ratios, and backscatter-related Ångström exponents (wavelength pair 355/532nm) were measured at Gwangju. Linear particle depolarization ratios were used to identify East Asian dust layers. We used backward trajectory modelling to identify the pathway and the vertical position of dust-laden air masses over China during long-range transport. Most cases of Asian dust events can be described by the emission of dust in desert areas and subsequent transport over highly polluted regions of China. The Asian dust plumes could be categorized into two classes according to the height above ground in which these plumes were transported: (I) the dust layers passed over China at high altitude levels until arrival over Gwangju, and (II) the Asian dust layers were transported near the surface and the lower troposphere over industrialized areas before they arrived over Gwangju. We find that the optical characteristics of these mixed Asian dust layers over Gwangju differ in dependence of their vertical position above ground over China and the change of height above ground during transport. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.21±0.06 (at 532 nm), the mean lidar ratios were 52±7 sr at 355 nm and 53±8 sr at 532 nm, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.74±0.31 in case I. In contrast, plumes transported at lower altitudes (case II) showed low depolarization ratios, and higher lidar ratio and Ångström exponents. The mean linear particle depolarization ratio was 0.13 ± 0.04, the mean lidar ratios were 63±9 sr at 355 nm and 62±8 sr at 532 nm, respectively, and the mean Ångström exponent was 0.98±0.51. These numbers show that the optical characteristics of mixed

  16. The Duty to Succeed: Honor versus Happiness in College and Career Choices of East Asian Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundes, Lauren; Cho, Eunice; Kwak, Spencer

    2009-01-01

    To better understand factors underlying educational and career choices, this study used both survey data from an online networking tool and data collected in college classrooms to gauge differences between Asians (primarily Korean) and white students in the United States. More Asians (41%) than whites (9%) prioritized prestige over happiness,…

  17. Observed and expected frequencies of structural hemoglobin variants in newborn screening surveys in Africa and the Middle East: Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Frédéric B.; Adamkiewicz, Thomas V.; Amendah, Djesika; Williams, Thomas N.; Gupta, Sunetra; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to compare observed and expected genotype proportions from newborn screening surveys of structural hemoglobin variants. Methods We conducted a systematic review of newborn screening surveys of hemoglobins S and C in Africa and the Middle-East. We compared observed frequencies to those expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Significant deviations were identified by an exact test. The fixation index FIS was calculated to assess excess homozygosity. We compared newborn estimates corrected and uncorrected for HWE deviations using demographic data. Results Sixty samples reported genotype counts for hemoglobin variants in Africa and the Middle-East. Observed and expected counts matched in 27%. The observed number of sickle-cell anemia (SCA) individuals was higher than expected in 42 samples, reaching significance (p<0.05) in 24. High FIS were common across the study regions. The estimated total number of newborns with SCA, corrected based on FIS, were 33,261 annual births instead of 24,958 for the 38 samples across sub-Saharan Africa and 1,109 annual births instead of 578 for 12 samples from the Middle East. Conclusion Differences between observed and expected genotype frequencies are common in surveys of hemoglobin variants in the study regions. Further research is required to identify and quantify factors responsible for such deviations. Estimates based on HWE might substantially underestimate the annual number of SCA affected newborns (up to one third in sub-Saharan Africa and one half in the Middle East). PMID:26633548

  18. Studying the Genetics of Complex Disease With Ancestry‐Specific Human Phenotype Networks: The Case of Type 2 Diabetes in East Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jingya; Darabos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry‐specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P‐value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all‐inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry‐specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry‐specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry‐specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. PMID:27061195

  19. The Obesity-Mortality Paradox in Patients With Heart Failure in Taiwan and a Collaborative Meta-Analysis for East Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gen-Min; Li, Yi-Hwei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Wu, Yen-Wen; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Hsin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yeh, San-Jou; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2016-10-01

    A global heart failure (HF) registry suggested that the inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality differed by race, particularly stronger in Japanese patients at 1-year follow-up. Whether this finding was consistent across all East Asian populations was unknown. In a multicenter prospective study in Taiwan, we enrolled 1,301 patients hospitalized for systolic HF from 2013 to 2014 and followed up the mortality after their discharge for a median of 1-year period. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to assess the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. The results showed that BMI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio and 95% CI per 5-kg/m(2) increase: 0.75 [0.62 to 0.91]) after adjusting for demographics, traditional risk factors, HF severity, and medications at discharge. Subsequently, we sought previous studies regarding the BMI association with mortality for East Asian patients with HF from Medline, and a random-effect meta-analysis was performed by the inverse variance method. The meta-analysis including 7 previous eligible studies (3 for the Chinese and 4 for the Japanese cohorts) and the present one showed similar results that BMI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.65 [0.58 to 0.73], I(2) = 37%). In conclusion, our study in Taiwan and a collaborative meta-analysis confirmed a strong inverse BMI-mortality association consistently among East Asian patients with HF.

  20. The Obesity-Mortality Paradox in Patients With Heart Failure in Taiwan and a Collaborative Meta-Analysis for East Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gen-Min; Li, Yi-Hwei; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Wu, Yen-Wen; Chu, Pao-Hsien; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hsu, Chih-Hsin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Yeh, San-Jou; Lin, Wei-Shiang

    2016-10-01

    A global heart failure (HF) registry suggested that the inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality differed by race, particularly stronger in Japanese patients at 1-year follow-up. Whether this finding was consistent across all East Asian populations was unknown. In a multicenter prospective study in Taiwan, we enrolled 1,301 patients hospitalized for systolic HF from 2013 to 2014 and followed up the mortality after their discharge for a median of 1-year period. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to assess the association of BMI with all-cause mortality. The results showed that BMI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio and 95% CI per 5-kg/m(2) increase: 0.75 [0.62 to 0.91]) after adjusting for demographics, traditional risk factors, HF severity, and medications at discharge. Subsequently, we sought previous studies regarding the BMI association with mortality for East Asian patients with HF from Medline, and a random-effect meta-analysis was performed by the inverse variance method. The meta-analysis including 7 previous eligible studies (3 for the Chinese and 4 for the Japanese cohorts) and the present one showed similar results that BMI was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.65 [0.58 to 0.73], I(2) = 37%). In conclusion, our study in Taiwan and a collaborative meta-analysis confirmed a strong inverse BMI-mortality association consistently among East Asian patients with HF. PMID:27521221

  1. Orbital forcing of the East Asian summer monsoon based on quantitative paleorainfall records from Chinese Loess using 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, W.; White, L.; Cheng, L.; Wu, Z.; zhou, W.; Kong, X.

    2013-12-01

    Here we outline a method for deriving quantitative records of paleoprecipitation using meteoric 10Be flux as recorded in Quaternary loess sediments, and apply this method to derive a ~500ka rainfall record from Chinese loess. The method involves measuring loess 10Be concentration by AMS, then applying corrections for radioactive decay, recycled 10Be in reaerosolized dust, and for variations in geomagnetic field to correct for atmospheric 10Be production rate variations. 10Be flux is calculated by multiplying the corrected 10Be concentrations with loess accumulation rate, where the later is derived from a (non-orbitally tuned) timescale determined from correlating variations in loess magnetic susceptibility with U/Th dated Chinese speleothem δ18O records. The dependence of 10Be flux on rainfall rate is determined using modern observations of 7Be flux in rainfall, and atmospheric 10Be/7Be cosmogenic nuclide production ratios. Modern rainfall on the Chinese Loess Plateau has been shown to be primarily a function of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) intensity. Our 10Be rainfall proxy shows that glacial to peak interglacial rainfall rates in this region have varied by about a factor of two over the last 0.5 Ma. Our results suggests EASM intensity during interglacials MIS11, MIS 9c and MIS13 were all comparable (~850 mm/yr), but slightly less (by ~8%) than for MIS1, and about 15% less than for MIS5e, which is similar to the high latitude ice volume pattern of response except for MIS11. We note that the 10Be rainfall record of MIS13 differs from typical Chinese loess magnetic susceptibility records that suggest MIS13 was the strongest EASM of the last 6 interglacials. Our record instead indicates a relative subdued MIS13 EASM, more consistent with the Antarctic EPICA ice core deuterium or marine δ18O records. We correlate our results with orbital forced solar insolation variations at high and low latitudes as well as with interhemispheric insolation gradients. We find

  2. An interdecadal change in the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean and the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peilong; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhong, Quanjia

    2016-09-01

    This study reveals that the relationship between the western North Pacific Ocean (WNPO; 0-55°N, 100-165°E) and the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) experiences a well-defined interdecadal change in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The EASM-related WNPO sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) pattern changes from the dipole pattern [WNPO dipole (WNPOD)] that develops over the period between 1968 and 1987 (P1) to a tripole pattern [WNPO tripole (WNPOT)] between 1991 and 2010 (P2). The positive (negative) phase of the WNPOD is characterized by warm (cold) SSTAs in the Japan Sea and Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension region, and cold (warm) SSTAs in the subtropical WNPO, whereas the positive (negative) phase of the WNPOT shows warming (cooling) in the Kuroshio Extension region (KER), and cooling (warming) in the south of Kamchatka Peninsula (SKP) and Philippine Sea (PS). During P1 (P2), the WNPOD (WNPOT) can be regarded as the first (second) leading mode of summer WNPO SST variability, and its positive phase is associated with a weakened WNPO subtropical high and thereby the deficient summer rainfall in the Yangtze River valley, together with a strong EASM, and vice versa. The change in the WNPO-EASM relationship may be caused by interdecadal changes in the relationship of the equatorial central Pacific (ECP) with the WNPO and EASM, and an increase in summer KER SST variability. During P2, because the ECP warming-induced cyclonic anomalies move northwestwards and intensify, summertime ECP warming is able to generate a strong EASM and significant cooling over the two poles of the WNPOT (SKP and PS). These strengthened impacts of the ECP on the WNPOT and EASM contribute to the strengthened WNPOT-EASM relationship during P2. In addition, summer KER SST variability increases between 1991 and 2010, and this may have enhanced the impact of the KER on the EASM during P2. These two factors probably cause the EASM-related WNPO SSTA pattern to change from the WNPOD in P1 to the WNPOT in

  3. Fluxes and In-Canopy Gradients of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Above Contrasting South East Asian Land Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemitz, E.; Misztal, P.; Langford, B.; Oram, D.; Phillips, G.; di Marco, C.; Davison, B.; Hewitt, N.; Cape, N.

    2008-12-01

    Fluxes of volatile organic compounds were measured above tropical rainforest and oil palm plantation in the Malaysian state of Sabah on the island of Borneo. During April and July 2008 an Ionikon proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (ptrms) was operated at the 100 m Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) tower at Bukit Atur, at the edge of the Danum Valley conservation area. An ultrasonic anemometer and air inlet were mounted at 76 m, with the ptrms housed in a laboratory building at the foot of the tower, measuring fluxes over tropical rainforest (selectively logged in 1989) with a typical canopy height of 30 to 40 m. In addition, during the July period, a second ptrms was coupled to a lift system which automatically moved an inlet to sample in-canopy gradients inside the forest canopy, between 2 and 30 m. During May 2008, the ptrms was moved to an oil palm plantation, north of the town of Lahad Datu, were fluxes were measured at a height of 15 m above the 12 m tall canopy, together with concentrations and fluxes of ozone and aerosols. These measurements formed part of two major UK projects: OP3-Danum-2008 (Oxidant and Particle Production Processes above South East Asian Rainforest) was aimed at quantifying biogenic emissions and evaluating their impact on air chemistry and the production of photo-oxidants and biogenic secondary organic aerosol, while ACES (Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System) studies the role of primary biogenic emissions, in-canopy processes and the effect of land-use change on aerosols. Initial results indicate that fluxes of isoprene above forest averaged 1.4 mg m-2 s-1 which is somewhat smaller than previous measurements in Amazonia and than previous estimates derived from leaf- level measurements, reflecting uncertainties in the assumed plant species composition. Concentrations peaked at the top of the canopy during midday. With an average of 5.5 mg m-2s-1, isoprene fluxes above the oil palm plantation were four times larger. Average fluxes

  4. Influence of the vertical absorption profile of mixed Asian dust plumes on aerosol direct radiative forcing over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Young Min; Lee, Kwonho; Kim, Kwanchul; Shin, Sung-Kyun; Müller, Detlef; Shin, Dong Ho

    2016-08-01

    We estimate the aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) and heating rate profiles of mixed East Asian dust plumes in the solar wavelength region ranging from 0.25 to 4.0 μm using the Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficients and single-scattering albedos (SSA) were derived from measurements with a multi-wavelength Raman lidar system. The data are used as input parameters for our radiative transfer calculations. We considered four cases of radiative forcing in SBDART: 1. dust, 2. pollution, 3. mixed dust plume and the use of vertical profiles of SSA, and 4. mixed dust plumes and the use of column-averaged values of SSA. In our sensitivity study we examined the influence of SSA and aerosol layer height on our results. The ADRF at the surface and in the atmosphere shows a small dependence on the specific shape of the aerosol extinction vertical profile and its light-absorption property for all four cases. In contrast, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), the ADRF is largely affected by the vertical distribution of the aerosols extinction. This effect increases if the light-absorption capacity (decrease of SSA) of the aerosols increases. We find different radiative effects in situations in which two layers of aerosols had different light-absorption properties. The largest difference was observed at the TOA for an absorbing aerosol layer at high altitude in which we considered in one case the vertical profile of SSA and in another case the column-averaged SSA only. The ADRF at the TOA increases when the light-absorbing aerosol layer is located above 3 km altitude. The differences between height-resolved SSA, which can be obtained from lidar data, and total layer-mean SSA indicates that the use of a layer-mean SSA can be rather misleading as it can induce a large error in the calculation of the ADRF at the TOA, which in turn may cause errors in the vertical profiles of heating rates.

  5. Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Ben; Sung, Hyuna; Low, Siew-Kee; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lu, Wei; Shi, Jiajun; Long, Jirong; Wen, Wanqing; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Noh, Dong-Young; Shen, Chen-Yang; Matsuo, Keitaro; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hartman, Mikael; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Matsuda, Koichi; Shin, Min-Ho; Park, Min Ho; Zheng, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ji, Bu-Tian; Park, Sue K.; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Ito, Hidemi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kang, Peter; Mariapun, Shivaani; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kang, Han Sung; Chan, Kelvin Y. K.; Man, Ellen P. S.; Iwata, Hiroji; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Miao, Hui; Liao, Jiemin; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Delahanty, Ryan J.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Bingshan; Li, Chun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kang, Daehee; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified three novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene, P = 8.82 × 10−9), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene, P = 1.67 × 10−9), and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene, P = 4.25 × 10−8). These associations were replicated in European-ancestry populations including 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls (P = 0.030, 0.004, and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 may be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer. PMID:25038754

  6. Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Ben; Sung, Hyuna; Low, Siew-Kee; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lu, Wei; Shi, Jiajun; Long, Jirong; Wen, Wanqing; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Noh, Dong-Young; Shen, Chen-Yang; Matsuo, Keitaro; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hartman, Mikael; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Matsuda, Koichi; Shin, Min-Ho; Park, Min Ho; Zheng, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ji, Bu-Tian; Park, Sue K; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Ito, Hidemi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kang, Peter; Mariapun, Shivaani; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kang, Han Sung; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Man, Ellen P S; Iwata, Hiroji; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Miao, Hui; Liao, Jiemin; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Delahanty, Ryan J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Bingshan; Li, Chun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kang, Daehee; Zheng, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified 3 genetic loci newly associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene; P=8.82×10(-9)), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene; P=1.67×10(-9)) and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene; P=4.25×10(-8)). We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE Project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 might be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer.

  7. Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Ben; Sung, Hyuna; Low, Siew-Kee; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lu, Wei; Shi, Jiajun; Long, Jirong; Wen, Wanqing; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Noh, Dong-Young; Shen, Chen-Yang; Matsuo, Keitaro; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hartman, Mikael; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ashikawa, Kyota; Matsuda, Koichi; Shin, Min-Ho; Park, Min Ho; Zheng, Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ji, Bu-Tian; Park, Sue K; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Ito, Hidemi; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kang, Peter; Mariapun, Shivaani; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kang, Han Sung; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Man, Ellen P S; Iwata, Hiroji; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Miao, Hui; Liao, Jiemin; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kubo, Michiaki; Delahanty, Ryan J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Bingshan; Li, Chun; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kang, Daehee; Zheng, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified 3 genetic loci newly associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene; P=8.82×10(-9)), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene; P=1.67×10(-9)) and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene; P=4.25×10(-8)). We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE Project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 might be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer. PMID:25038754

  8. The birth prevalence of PKU in populations of European, South Asian and sub-Saharan African ancestry living in South East England.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, P; Cortina-Borja, M; Munro, A; Jones, H; Cleary, M; Champion, M P; Foo, Y; Scriver, C R; Dezateux, C

    2008-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism (OMIM 261600). Treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet following early ascertainment by newborn screening prevents impaired cognitive development, the major disease phenotype in PKU. The overall birth prevalence of PKU in European, Chinese and Korean populations is approximately 1/10,000. Since the human PAH locus contains PKU-causing alleles and polymorphic core haplotypes that describe and corroborate an out-of-Africa range expansion in modern human populations, it is of interest to know the prevalence of PKU in different ethnic groups with diverse geographical origin. We estimated PKU prevalence in South East England, where a sizeable proportion of the population are of Sub-Saharan African or South Asian ancestry. Over the period 1994 to 2004 167 children were diagnosed with PKU. Using birth registration and census data to derive denominators, PKU birth prevalence per 10,000 live births (95% Bayesian credible intervals) was estimated to be 1.14 (0.96-1.33) among white, 0.11 (0.02-0.37) among black, and 0.29 (0.10-0.63) among Asian ethnic groups. This suggests that PKU is up to an order of magnitude less prevalent in populations with Sub-Saharan African and South Asian ancestry that have migrated to the UK.

  9. High genetic diversity and frequent genetic reassortment of avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses along the East Asian-Australian migratory flyway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Zhanqiang; Zhang, Yanru; Lv, Qiang; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Carr, Michael J; Sun, Shuhong; Shi, Weifeng

    2016-04-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIV) along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway, we collected faecal samples (n=2859) between November 2014 and March 2015 from poultry, environmental sources and wild birds in Dongying, Shandong province and Yancheng, Jiangsu province in eastern China. The presence of AIV RNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and the positivity rate ranged from 0 to 29.3%. In both Dongying and Yancheng, samples collected from live poultry markets had the highest positivity rate for AIV RNA. AIV whole genomes were generated and phylogenetically analysed. Our results demonstrate that most of the viruses belonged to the H9N2 subtype, and could be classified into nine novel genotypes based on the phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the AIV genomes. This revealed a high genetic diversity of H9N2 in this region and suggested that they might have undergone frequent genetic reassortment. In addition, the internal genes (PB2, etc.) of two viruses from wild birds and several viruses from poultry belonged to the same gene constellation, suggesting a potential inter-host transmission of AIV between wild birds and poultry in live markets along routes of migratory flyways. Our results highlight the high genetic diversity of AIV along the East Asian-Australian migration flyway and the need for more extensive AIV surveillance in eastern China.

  10. Influence of genetic polymorphisms of cytokine genes in the outcome of HLA-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a South East Asian population.

    PubMed

    Gan, G G; Leong, Y C; Bee, P C; Chin, E F M; Abdul Halim, H; Nadarajan, V S; Teh, A K H

    2016-02-01

    Non-HLA gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and outcome of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). This study aims to investigate the role of IL6, TNFα, IL10, IL2 and IL12 gene polymorphisms in the outcome of AHSCT in a South East Asian population. A total of 67 patients and 59 donors who underwent HLA-identical matched sibling AHSCT were available for analysis. There was no significant association between the different cytokine genotypes of patients with the incidence and severity of acute GVHD. Patients with IL2 166∗T allele and patients who received donor stem cells who had IL2 166∗G allele appeared to have reduced incidence of cGVHD. Patients who received donor stem cells with IL12 1188∗C allele are found to be associated with better disease free survival. These results suggest a possible role of IL2 and IL12 gene polymorphisms in the outcome of AHSCT in a South East Asian population. PMID:26638029

  11. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  12. Origin and spread of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant (G6PD-Mediterranean) in the Middle East.

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi-Haidar, B; Mason, P J; Berrebi, A; Ankra-Badu, G; al-Ali, A; Oppenheim, A; Luzzatto, L

    1990-01-01

    A common glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variant characterized by severe enzyme deficiency and B-like electrophoretic mobility is called "G6PD-Mediterranean" because it is found in different populations around the Mediterranean Sea. Sequence analysis of Italian subjects has revealed that the molecular basis of G6PD-Mediterranean is a single C-T transition at nucleotide position 563, causing a serine phenylalanine replacement at amino acid position 188. Most G6PD-Mediterranean subjects also have a silent C-T transition (without amino acid replacement) at nucleotide position 1311. Twenty-one unrelated individuals from Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel with both severe G6PD deficiency and B-like electrophoretic mobility were tested for both mutations by using amplification followed by digestion with appropriate restriction enzymes. All but one had the 563 mutation, and, of these, all but one had the 1311 mutation. Another 24 unrelated Middle Eastern individuals with normal G6PD activity or not known to be G6PD deficient were similarly tested. Four had the silent mutation at position 1311 in the absence of the deficiency mutation at position 563. We conclude that (1) the large majority of Middle Eastern subjects with the G6PD-Mediterranean phenotype have the same mutation found in Italy, (2) the silent mutation is an independent polymorphism in the Middle East, with a frequency of about .13, and (3) the mutation leading to the G6PD-Mediterranean deficiency has probably arisen on a chromosome that already carried the silent mutation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1978555

  13. A New Approach to Modeling Aerosol Effects on East Asian Climate: Parametric Uncertainties Associated with Emissions, Cloud Microphysics and their Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Huiping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Yang, Ben; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we adopt a parametric sensitivity analysis framework that integrates the quasi-Monte Carlo parameter sampling approach and a surrogate model to examine aerosol effects on the East Asian Monsoon climate simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). A total number of 256 CAM5 simulations are conducted to quantify the model responses to the uncertain parameters associated with cloud microphysics parameterizations and aerosol (e.g., sulfate, black carbon (BC), and dust) emission factors and their interactions. Results show that the interaction terms among parameters are important for quantifying the sensitivity of fields of interest, especially precipitation, to the parameters. The relative importance of cloud-microphysics parameters and emission factors (strength) depends on evaluation metrics or the model fields we focused on, and the presence of uncertainty in cloud microphysics imposes an additional challenge in quantifying the impact of aerosols on cloud and climate. Due to their different optical and microphysical properties and spatial distributions, sulfate, BC, and dust aerosols have very different impacts on East Asian Monsoon through aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. The climatic effects of aerosol do not always have a monotonic response to the change of emission factors. The spatial patterns of both sign and magnitude of aerosol-induced changes in radiative fluxes, cloud, and precipitation could be different, depending on the aerosol types, when parameters are sampled in different ranges of values. We also identify the different cloud microphysical parameters that show the most significant impact on climatic effect induced by sulfate, BC and dust, respectively, in East Asia.

  14. Aircraft observations of East-Asian cyclone induced uplift and long-range transport of polluted boundary layer air to the lowermost stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, Hans; Arnold, Frank; Aufmhoff, Heinrich; Baumann, Robert; Priola, Lisa; Roiger, Anke; Sailer, Tomas; Wirth, Martin; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    We report on the airborne detection of a large-scale stratified pollution layer in the lowermost stratosphere which contained increased concentrations of sulfur dioxide, reactive nitrogen, water vapour and sulfate aerosols. The measurements were performed over Central Europe with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer and a high spectral resolution Lidar on board the new German research aircraft HALO. Transport model simulations indicate the East-Asian planetary boundary layer (PBL) as the source region of this layer. The PBL air was uplifted by an East Asian warm conveyor belt (WCB) and thereafter experienced mostly horizontal transport and dispersion covering significant part of the northern hemisphere. The pollution layer extent up to 2 km above the thermal tropopause and appears to be trapped in the upper part of the tropopause inversion layer (TIL). Accompanying chemistry and aerosol model simulations indicate efficient SO2 conversion to sulfuric acid during the horizontal transport in the TIL, accelerated by increased OH resulting from the increased water vapour. Low temperature and increased water vapour led to efficient binary H2SO4/H2O nucleation. The uplifted anthropogenic nitrogen oxides experienced OH and particle mediated conversion to HNO3. The layer of sulfate particles formed in the upper part of the TIL was observed in the Lidar backscatter signal. Since mid-latitude East Asia is a region with very large SO2 emissions and a very high frequency of WCBs, SO2 uplift into the lowermost stratosphere from this region may occur frequently, eventually leading very often to corresponding pollution layers in the northern-hemisphere TIL.

  15. The Effect of Schooling Abroad on the Socioeconomic and Language Patterns of First Generation Hispanics and East Asians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, David E.

    The relationship between schooling in the English language abroad and the subsequent acculturation and attainments of Hispanic and Asian immigrants to the United States was investigated. Data were obtained from the 1976 Survey of Income and Education. For the analysis, educational background factors were related to socioeconomic and language…

  16. Impact of ice sheet induced North Atlantic oscillation on East Asian summer monsoon during an interglacial 500,000 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, S.; Yin, Q. Z.; Berger, A.; Muri, H.

    2012-09-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13, an interglacial about 500,000 years ago, is unique due to an exceptionally strong East Asia summer monsoon (EASM) occurring in a relatively cool climate with low greenhouse gas concentrations (GHG). This paper attempts to find one of the possible mechanisms for this seeming paradox. Simulations with an Earth System model LOVECLIM show that the presence of ice sheets over North America and Eurasia during MIS-13 induces a positive phase of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) like feature. The ocean having a longer memory than the atmosphere, the oceanic anomalies associated with NAO persists until summer. The signals of summer NAO are transmitted to East Asia to reinforce the monsoon there through the stationary waves excited at the Asian Jet entrance. The geopotential height shows clearly a mid-latitude wave train with positive anomalies over the eastern Mediterranean/Caspian Sea and the Okhotsk Sea and a negative anomaly over Lake Baikal. This reinforces the effect of the high-latitude wave train induced independently by the Eurasian ice sheet topography as shown in previous study. These features reinforce the Meiyu front and enhance the precipitation over East Asia. The results obtained from LOVECLIM are further confirmed by an atmospheric general circulation model, ARPEGE.

  17. Clay mineral contribution from various provenances in the northern South China Sea over the past 400 kyr: implications for the East Asian monsoon evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Quan; Liu, Zhifei; Xie, Xin; Kissel, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Clay mineralogy of Core MD12-3432 taken at 2125 m water depth (CIRCEA cruise on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne, IPEV) in the northern South China Sea was investigated in order to understand the time series contribution of terrigenous sediments from various provenances. With calibration of a low-resolution analysis on carbonate concentration and major elements, we converted the XRF core scanned calcium data into a high-resolution carbonate content records. Through referring to the well-dated carbonate record of nearby Core MD05-2904, we established a reliable age model, indicating about 400 kyr ago at the bottom of Core MD12-3432. The clay mineral assemblage is dominated by smectite (23-59%) and illite (22-43%), with minor chlorite (13-27%) and kaolinite (4-13%). The time series variation of clay mineral assemblages indicates strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity. In general, the variation in smectite content is similar to that of carbonate concentration, with higher values during interglacials than during glacials, while illite and chlorite contents showing opposite patterns. The change in kaolinite content shows an independent pattern with high values during glacials, corresponding well with the illite crystallinity variation. The provenance analysis of these clay minerals suggests three end-member sources: all smectites derive from Luzon, all kaolinites originate from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite are coming from both the Pearl River and Taiwan. Using the linear separation method of illite crystallinity, a time series of the clay mineral contribution from the three major provenances to the northern South China Sea was reconstructed. Combined with spectral analyses, we suggest the clay mineral contribution from Pearl River was mainly influenced by sea level change, while the East Asian summer monsoon controlled the contribution from Luzon. The strong precipitation rate related to intensive East Asian summer monsoon would have enhanced the denudation and

  18. Multi-proxy Evidence of Australian Summer Monsoon Variability During the Holocene: Links to the East-Asian Monsoon and the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Drysdale, R. N.; Frisia, S.; Gagan, M.; Zhao, J.; Fischer, M.; Ayliffe, L.; Feng, Y.; St Pierre, E.; Hellstrom, J.; Hantoro, W.; Suwargadi, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian summer monsoon (ASM) is the dominant factor controlling rainfall variability and terrestrial productivity in northern Australia and the Indonesian archipelago. Understanding the mechanisms that influence its variability over different time-scales, and their teleconnections with other parts of the global climate system, has proven difficult because we lack high-resolution, precisely dated records of past monsoon behaviour. Linkages between the tropics and North Atlantic have been well documented north of the equator, but the degree to which these teleconnection patterns extend into the southern sub-equatorial tropics and their effects on the ASM are undocumented. We present a precisely dated, high-resolution oxygen isotope and trace element record of ASM variability from stalagmites located on Flores (east Indonesia) over the period 13 kyr B.P. to present. The multi-proxy records are constrained by over 30 TIMS and MC-ICP-MS U-series ages. The δ18O profile displays a gradual intensification of the ASM through the Holocene, which is in phase with precipitation changes in southern Brazil but antiphased with East Asian monsoon (EAM) intensity. The low frequency trend in the oxygen isotopes tracks changes in southern hemisphere summer insolation at 25° S located directly over the heat-low region of the Australian continent. Superimposed upon the δ18O trend are multi-decadal to centennial scale increased ASM events that occur concurrently (within dating errors) with periods of decreased EAM intensity and North Atlantic ice-rafting events. Thus, late-Pleistocene/Holocene cold events in the North Atlantic, related to reductions in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and variations in solar output, were associated with a southward migration of the ITCZ. While precessional forcing appears to be the dominant driver of ASM circulation over orbital time-scales, the high synchroneity between the Flores isotope variations and titanium (Ti) content of

  19. Emerging Asian Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  20. Comment on "Asynchronous variation in the East Asian winter monsoon during the Holocene" by Xiaojian Zhang, Liya Jin, and Na Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Harunur; Marche, Brittany; Vermooten, Marli; Parry, Devon; Webb, Michaela; Brockway, Brent; Langer, Keesha

    2016-02-01

    Comparing paleoproxy records throughout China and two climate models simulation results, Zhang et al. (2015) reported asynchronous Holocene spatiotemporal decline of the East Asian winter monsoon. Six sea surface temperature (SST) proxy records from the Atlantic Ocean and northern Indian Ocean and South China Sea were used to validate climate simulations results. However, the referred Mg/Ca SST record from the western Atlantic Ocean is simply nonexistent and the northeast Atlantic Mg/Ca SST data do not reflect winter SST as Zhang et al. (2015) argued to support the driving mechanisms. Furthermore, the western Indian Ocean SSTs data used in Zhang et al. (2015) do not reflect the winter SSTs or regional changes in the Holocene SSTs. Therefore, we question the validity of model simulation results and hence the reliability of conclusions in Zhang et al. (2015).

  1. Diverse families of antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of three species of East Asian frogs, Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis (Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhong; Xu, Shiqi; Hu, Yonghong; Guo, Chao; Meng, Hao; Li, Jing; Liu, Jingze; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    Twenty-two novel cDNAs encoding 22 peptide precursors for 19 mature peptides including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were identified from East Asian frog species Babina daunchina, Babina adenopleura, and Rana omeimontis skin-derived cDNA libraries. Two atypical members of the brevinin-1 family AMPs, named brevinin-1AN1 (FLTGVLKLASKIPSVLCAVLKTC) and brevinin-1DN1(FLKGVINLASKIPSMLCAVLKTC), were purified from the skin secretions of B. adenopleura and B. daunchina, respectively. A member of the ranatuerin-2 family AMP named ranatuerin-2DN1 (GLFDSITQGLKDTAVKLLDKIKCKLSACPPA) was also purified from the skin secretion of B. daunchina. One AMP named japonicin-2OM1 (FIVPSIFLLKKAFCIALKKNC) was purified from the skin secretion of R. omeimontis. The antimicrobial tests showed that brevinin-1DN1, brevinin-1DN2, brevinin-1AN1, and japonicin-2OM1 possess higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Did glacials and/or interglacials promote allopatric incipient speciation in East Asian temperate plants? Phylogeographic and coalescent analyses on refugial isolation and divergence in Dysosma versipellis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Guan, Bi-Cai; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Comes, Hans Peter

    2009-05-01

    To explore the evolutionary consequences of climate-induced fluctuations in presently fragmented temperate forest habitats in continental East Asia we investigated the phylogeography and demographic history of the temperate-deciduous forest endemic Dysosma versipellis from disjunct montane sites in Central-Southeast China. Based on a survey of chloroplast (cp) DNA sequence variation, our analyses show that this perennial herb consists of morphologically indistinguishable western and central/eastern cpDNA lineages. Coalescent analyses under the 'isolation with migration' (IM) model support an ancient (Mid-Pleistocene) divergence between these lineages, with the western lineage having persisted without significant population growth in a long-term refuge just east of the Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang) Plateau. In contrast, for the central/eastern lineage, we found strong evidence for population expansion from a refuge located south of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and likely coinciding with the last or penultimate interglacial, followed by considerable population isolation and divergence in situ over (at least) the latest glacial-interglacial cycle. In line with recent evidence from palaeomodeling of East Asian forest biomes, our results suggest that the same vicariance factor, i.e. climate-induced eco-geographic isolation through (a)biotic displacement of temperate-deciduous forested habitats, promoted the divergence of D. versipellis lineages and populations at different spatial-temporal scales and over glacial and interglacial periods. Thus, there is no evidence that populations of D. versipellis merged at lower elevations during the last glacial(s). As such, D. versipellis accords with the premise that Late Quaternary refugial isolation is likely to have enhanced allopatric (incipient) species formation of temperate plants in East Asia.

  3. Reconstruction of the springtime East Asian Subtropical Jet and Western Pacific pattern from a millennial-length Taiwanese tree-ring chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, W. E.; Guan, B. T.; Tseng, Y.-H.; Cook, E. R.; Wei, K.-Y.; Chang, S.-T.

    2015-03-01

    The East Asian subtropical jet (EAJ) and the closely related Western Pacific pattern (WP) are among the most important features in global atmospheric dynamics, but little is known about their long-term variability. This study presents reconstructions of the Spring EAJ index (EAJI) and the Spring WP index (WPI) based on significant relationships identified between mean values for these features and a millennial length tree-ring width chronology of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, a high-mountain cloud forest species from northeastern Taiwan. Tree-ring based reconstructions of high pass filtered versions of the EAJI and WPI (EAJI 5YR and WPI 5YR) presented herein explain 42 and 31 % of the WPI 5YR and EAJI 5YR, respectively, and display acceptable reliability back to A.D. 1237. A significant trend present in the long-term variance of the reconstructed EAJI and WPI after A.D. 1860 suggests long-term increasing variability in the spring mean latitudinal placement and/or the strength/breadth of the EAJ core region near Taiwan and Japan and in the trajectory of the EAJ over the North Pacific. Related features affected by changes in the EAJ include the North Pacific storm track and Asian Dust transport.

  4. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and a new strategy for prevention and screening for cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Omori, Tai; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The ethanol in alcoholic beverages and the acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption are Group 1 human carcinogens (WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer). The combination of alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, the inactive heterozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype (ALDH2*1/*2) and the less-active homozygous alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (ADH1B*1/*1) increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in a multiplicative fashion in East Asians. In addition to being exposed to locally high levels of ethanol, the UADT is exposed to a very high concentration of acetaldehyde from a variety of sources, including that as an ingredient of alcoholic beverages per se and that found in tobacco smoke; acetaldehyde is also produced by salivary microorganisms and mucosal enzymes and is present as blood acetaldehyde. The inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde by weakly expressed ALDH2 in the UADT may be cri! tical to the local accumulation of acetaldehyde, especially in ALDH2*1/*2 carriers. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers tend to experience less intense alcohol flushing and are highly susceptible to heavy drinking and alcoholism. Heavy drinking by persons with the less-active ADH1B*1/*1 leads to longer exposure of the UADT to salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde. The ALDH2*1/*2 genotype is a very strong predictor of synchronous and metachronous multiple SCCs in the UADT. High red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV), esophageal dysplasia, and melanosis in the UADT, all of which are frequently found in ALDH2*1/*2 drinkers, are useful for identifying high-risk individuals. We invented a simple flushing questionnaire that enables prediction of the ALDH2 phenotype. New health appraisal models that include ALDH2 genotype, the simple flushing questionnaire, or MCV are powerful tools for devising a new strategy for prevention and screening for UADT cancer in East Asians.

  5. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-10-27

    Glacial-interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ(13)C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ(13)C values (range: -25‰ to -16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10-20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10-20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues. PMID:26460029

  6. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-10-27

    Glacial-interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ(13)C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ(13)C values (range: -25‰ to -16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10-20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10-20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues.

  7. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Glacial–interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ13C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ13C values (range: –25‰ to –16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10–20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10–20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues. PMID:26460029

  8. Profound Climatic Effects on Two East Asian Black-Throated Tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), Revealed by Ecological Niche Models and Phylogeographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjuan; Lin, Congtian; Gao, Bin; Yang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhengwang; Lei, Fumin

    2011-01-01

    Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis–concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis–concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory. PMID:22195047

  9. An Overview of Asian Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; An, Yang; Yang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    East Asian rhinoplasty is an expanding topic in the field of rhinoplasty. Although the main principles of various rhinoplasty techniques apply equally to the East Asian nose, East Asian rhinoplasty is unique owing to its different anatomy and ethnicity. In recent years, there have been some noteworthy developments in East Asian rhinoplasty. Traditional techniques using alloplastic implants with endonasal approach are changing due to the advent of new beauty concept, introduction of new techniques, and development of newly improved materials expended polytetrafluoroethylene as an alloplastic material has gained popularity in Asian augmentation rhinoplasty. Soft expended polytetrafluoroethylene sheets as augmentation material provide promise in the future. In this review, we will highlight some of the recent advances of Asian rhinoplasty with emphasis on dorsal augmentation, advances in implant material, and tip surgery using autologous cartilage. PMID:27404467

  10. Education Fever and the East Asian Fertility Puzzle: A case study of low fertility in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Thomas; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fertility throughout East Asia has fallen rapidly over the last five decades and is now below the replacement rate of 2.1 in every country in the region. Using South Korea as a case study, we argue that East Asia's ultra-low fertility rates can be partially explained by the steadfast parental drive to have competitive and successful children. Parents throughout the region invest large amounts of time and money to ensure that their children are able to enter prestigious universities and obtain top jobs. Accordingly, childrearing has become so expensive that the average couple cannot afford to have more than just one or two children. The trend of high parental investment in child education, also known as ‘education fever’, exemplifies the notion of ‘quality over quantity’ and is an important contributing factor to understanding low-fertility in East Asia. PMID:24883076

  11. Nonlinear effect on the East Asian summer monsoon due to two coexisting anthropogenic forcing factors in eastern China: an AGCM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming

    2016-06-01

    Two anthropogenic forcing factors dominate in eastern China: aerosols and urban land cover. Usually, aerosols induce surface cooling while urban land cover causes surface warming. It is important to explore whether or not a nonlinear effect may result from the coexistence of these two opposing effects, and to what extent such nonlinear effect may become significant in affecting the climate change in East Asia. In this study, the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) coupled with the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is employed to investigate the nonlinear effect on the East Asian summer monsoon due to the coexistence of aerosols and urban land cover. The anthropogenic forcing can be studied by including only aerosol emissions, only urban land cover, or a combination of the two in eastern China. The nonlinear effect obtained in CAM5.1 is evident in eastern China to offset the urbanization effect. Large-scale atmospheric response produces anomalous upward motion and increases total cloud amount and precipitation. This increased total cloud amount and its associated negative shortwave cloud forcing in turn significantly decrease surface air temperature and cool the troposphere, especially in northern China, resulting in a reduced land-sea thermal contrast, which acts to weaken the prevailing southwesterly wind over the Yangtze River Valley and southwestern China and to enhance the wind over the northern South China Sea. The nonlinear effect also indirectly excites strong convection over southern China, leading to a pronounced increase in summer precipitation.

  12. Impact of pollution on the optical properties of trans-Pacific East Asian dust from satellite and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Bingqi; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate changes in the optical properties of a large dust plume originating from East Asian deserts during its transport over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in March 2013. The study makes use of observational products from two sensors in the NASA A-Train satellite constellation, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization. Forward trajectory clustering analysis and satellite observations show that dust initiating from the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts experienced thorough mixing with industrial pollution aerosols shortly after leaving the source region and were lofted by a strong midlatitude weather system to more than 4 km in height. The dust plume accompanied the weather system and reached the east coast of the North American continent within 7-10 days. The dust aerosols became spectrally absorptive during transport due to mixing with other aerosol types such as soot. Furthermore, a decrease in the depolarization ratio suggests that the complexities in aerosol particle morphologies were reduced during transport over the ocean. More than half of the dust aerosol layers surviving the trans-Pacific transport were polluted and exhibited different optical properties and radiative effects from those of pure dust.

  13. The Industrial Revolution in the Twentieth Century, with a Focus on Japan and the East Asian Followers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the suitability of the term "revolution," the national versus transnational focus, and characterizations of the industrial revolution. Considers a late-development model of industrialization and its application to East Asia. Focuses on issues in Japanese industrialization, such as the role of the Japanese government, militarism and…

  14. Development of Information Literacy through School Libraries in South-East Asian Countries (IFAP Project 461RAS5027)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Bangkok, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) and UNESCO co-organized a Regional Workshop on School Library Services in South East Asia. It was followed by a project to examine the current state of information literacy education and recommend action plans to increase school libraries' involvement in the…

  15. Phylogeny and chromosomal variations in East Asian Carex, Siderostictae group (Cyperaceae), based on DNA sequences and cytological data.

    PubMed

    Yano, Okihito; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Jin, Xiao-Feng; Hoshino, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Carex (Cyperaceae) is one of the largest genera of the flowering plants, and comprises more than 2,000 species. In Carex, section Siderostictae with broader leaves distributed in East Asia is thought to be an ancestral group. We aimed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal variations within the section Siderostictae, and to examine the relationship of broad-leaved species of the sections Hemiscaposae and Surculosae from East Asia, inferred from DNA sequences and cytological data. Our results indicate that a monophyletic Siderostictae clade, including the sections Hemiscaposae, Siderostictae and Surculosae, as the earliest diverging group in the tribe Cariceae. Low chromosome numbers, 2n = 12 or 24, with large sizes were observed in these three sections. Our results suggest that the genus Carex might have originated or relictly restricted in the East Asia. Geographical distributions of diploid species are restricted in narrower areas, while those of tetraploid species are wider in East Asia. It is concluded that chromosomal variations in Siderostictae clade may have been caused by polyploidization and that tetraploid species may have been able to exploit their habitats by polyploidization.

  16. Observation of low single scattering albedo of aerosols in the downwind of the East Asian desert and urban areas during the inflow of dust aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Pradeep; Takamura, Tamio; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data observed at Fukue-jima (32.752°N, 128.682°E), the downwind of the East Asian desert and urban areas, during the spring season (March-April) of 2008-2011 aiming to understand the light-absorption capacity of Asian dust aerosols, which is a topic of controversy. We observed the decreasing tendency of single-scattering albedo (SSA) with the decrease of Ångström exponent and the increase of the ratio of dust aerosol optical thickness to total aerosol optical thickness, suggesting the important role of coarse-mode dust aerosols on observed low SSAs. The observational data further indicated that the low SSAs during strong dust events were less likely due to the effect of only strong light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), indicating the association of aerosol size distribution on modulating SSA. Such observational results are justified by numerical calculations showing that aerosol size distribution can be the key factor on modulating SSA even without any change in relative amount of light-absorbing aerosol as well as total aerosol optical thickness. Therefore, the observed low SSAs in the downwind regions during dust events could be partially due to the dominance of coarse-mode aerosols over fine-mode aerosols, which are usual in dust events, along with the effect of mixed light-absorbing aerosols. The study further suggests that such effect of aerosol size distribution on SSA can be one of the important reasons for the low SSAs of dust aerosols in the source region as reported by some studies, if coarse-mode aerosols dominate fine-mode aerosols.

  17. Defining “occludable” angles in population surveys: drainage angle width, peripheral anterior synechiae, and glaucomatous optic neuropathy in east Asian people

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P J; Aung, T; Nolan, W P; Machin, D; Baasanhu, J; Khaw, P T; Alsbirk, P-H; Lee, P S; Seah, S K L; Johnson, G J

    2004-01-01

    Background/aim: A current consensus in epidemiological studies of primary angle closure (PAC) is to diagnose the condition only if the posterior (usually pigmented) trabecular meshwork is seen for less than 90° of the angle circumference, termed an “occludable angle.” The authors sought to assess the validity of this epidemiological classification by exploring the relation between drainage angle width, peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) and glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON). Methods: 918 Mongolians and 995 Chinese Singaporeans, both groups aged 40 years and older were examined in two population based surveys. Gonioscopic angle width was graded in five categories (0 = closed to 4 = wide open) according the scheme described by Shaffer. Cases with secondary PAS were excluded. Results: The rate of PAS was between 0.3% and 1.7% in people with wide angles (grades 3 and 4). In those with grade 2 angles, PAS were seen in between 8% of eyes. In eyes with grade 1 angles, the rate rose to 17% in Chinese Singaporeans, and 31% in Mongolians. The odds of PAS were higher in people with narrower angles. However, there was a greater absolute number of people with PAS whose drainage angles were classified as “not occludable” than those classified “occludable.” Conclusions: The traditional view that primary angle closure becomes a significant possibility in drainage angles of ⩽ grade 2 (approximately 20°) is valid in east Asians. The definition of an “occludable” angle examined here excludes many people with PAS. This probably serves to underemphasise the role of PAC in population surveys of glaucoma prevalence in Asian people. PMID:15031161

  18. Strengthened East Asian summer monsoons during a period of high-latitude warmth? Isotopic evidence from Mio-Pliocene fossil mammals and soil carbonates from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Kaakinen, Anu; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Eronen, Jussi T.; Zhu, Yanming; Zhou, Liping; Cerling, Thure E.; Fortelius, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    The East Asian monsoons have fluctuated in concert with high-latitude warmth during the past several hundred thousand years, with humid summer monsoon-dominant climates characterizing warm intervals, including interglacials and interstadials, and arid winter monsoon-dominant climates characterizing cool intervals, including glacials and stadials. Of the states comprising the mid-Pleistocene to recent climatic regime, interglacials are most similar in terms of high latitude ice volumes and temperatures to those extant during the late Miocene and early Pliocene. Thus, an important question is whether Mio-Pliocene climates in northern China were analogous to a hypothetical 'prolonged interglacial state,' with increased summer monsoon precipitation and expansion of forest and steppe environments at the expense of desert environments. We utilize new and previously published carbon isotopic data from fossil teeth and soil carbonates to place constraints on paleovegetation distributions and to help infer the behavior of the monsoon system between ˜ 7 and 4 Ma. We find that plants u