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Sample records for east german regions

  1. The Battle of Tanga, German East Africa 1914

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-06

    31 7. Schutztruppe Concentration in Kilimanjaro ................................................. 31 8. IEF “B... Kilimanjaro and rough, barren, mountain ranges marks the northern border of German East Africa. The German perimeter was broken by the great lakes of...miles of the Uganda railway.34 The proximity of the vital Uganda Rail line to the Kilimanjaro region, and the lack of troops to protect the border

  2. Sexual maturation in East German girls.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, L; Willers, B; Pelz, L

    1995-12-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification (Tanner, 1962; van Wieringen, 1971), sexual maturation was investigated in 8703 healthy East German girls by means of the status quo method and probit regression analysis. The third, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of breasts, axillary and pubic hair, and the shape of the hips. The findings were compared with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B2/B5, AH2/AH3, etc.

  3. Sexual maturation in East German boys.

    PubMed

    Willers, B; Engelhardt, L; Pelz, L

    1996-07-01

    According to the internationally accepted classification, sexual maturation was investigated in 8685 healthy East German boys by means of the status quo method and the probit regression analysis. The 3rd, 50th and 97th centiles were calculated for the development of both the male external genitalia and pubic and axillary hairs. The findings are in line with those of recent studies from different European countries. Special attention was paid to the stages at the beginning and at the end of sexual maturation, e.g. B 2, B 5; AH2, AH3; PH 2, PH5/6, etc.

  4. Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP): a health survey in an East German region. Objectives and design of the oral health section.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Elke; Gesch, Dietmar; Biffar, Reiner; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kocher, Thomas; Splieth, Christian; Born, Gabriele; John, Ulrich

    2003-05-01

    The goal of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) was to estimate the prevalence of diseases, identify potential risk factors in a defined region in northeast Germany, and examine the particular living situation of this population after the reunification of East and West Germany. One of the main concerns of the SHIP design is the analysis of the relationships between dental, medical, social, and environmentally and behaviorally determined health factors. SHIP is a cross-sectional study (clinical findings and sociologic interviews). The sample was drawn in two steps: Thirty-two communities in the region were selected, and within these communities, a simple random sample was drawn from residence registries, stratified by gender and age. The final sample included 4,310 males and females, aged 20 to 79 years. This is equivalent to a participation rate of 68.8%. Data collection was completed in May 2001. The data collection and items comprised four parts: oral health examination, medical examination, health-related interview, and a health- and risk-factor-related questionnaire. The oral health examination included the teeth, periodontium, oral mucosa, morphology and function of the craniomandibular system, and prosthodontics. The medical examination included blood pressure measurements; electrocardiography; echocardiography; carotid, thyroid, and liver ultrasound examinations; neurologic screening; and blood and urine sampling. The computer-assisted interview consisted of questions on symptoms of disease, utilization of medical and dental services, self-assessment of general and oral health, health behavior and knowledge, and socioeconomic variables. The self-administered questionnaire comprised housing conditions, social network, work conditions, subjective well-being, and individual consequences of the German reunification.

  5. Was East German Education a Victim of West German "Colonisation" after Unification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that during German unification reform structures and ideas were not forced on the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Notes that a divided secondary school structure replaced the GDR unified school, but that was by request. Reveals that the East German's well-developed, pre-school education and childcare system was copied by West Germany.…

  6. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  7. Initiation into Alcohol Use in East and West German Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Masche, J. Gowert

    This paper investigates the patterning and positioning effects in the onset of drinking in East and West German adolescents and young adults. Differences between the timing of first drinking (positioning effects) and differences in influences on the timing of initiation (patterning effects) are studied. Four reasons for studying the age of onset…

  8. After the Wall: The Remaking of East German Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Huge changes are taking place throughout the former East German society. Comments from students, teachers, and administrators at Potsdam's William and Alexander Humboldt High School, just outside Berlin, highlight the difficult tasks involved in reforming an impoverished and repressive school system. (MLF)

  9. After the Wall: The Remaking of East German Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Huge changes are taking place throughout the former East German society. Comments from students, teachers, and administrators at Potsdam's William and Alexander Humboldt High School, just outside Berlin, highlight the difficult tasks involved in reforming an impoverished and repressive school system. (MLF)

  10. East German Children's and Adolescents' Friendship and Moral Reasoning before and after German Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship…

  11. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  12. East German children's and adolescents' friendship and moral reasoning before and after German reunification.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship concept) as well as their moral decisions and reasoning in a friendship dilemma. Overall, results show that in 2005, East German participants referred to normative and interpersonal-altruistic-empathic concerns significantly more often than participants interviewed in 1990. Reference to relationship concerns decreased from 1990 to 2005. With few exceptions, these cohort effects were equally found in younger (children) and older (adolescents) age groups.

  13. [Ethnic Germans from East bloc countries and Germans from the German Democratic Republic--quantitative development and structure].

    PubMed

    Fleischer, H; Proebsting, H

    1989-09-01

    This article focuses on two types of migration to West Germany: the migration of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and migration from East Germany. Information is included on the volume of this migration between 1950 and 1988, countries of origin, family characteristics, age and sex structure, religion, labor force participation, and occupational structure. Comparisons are also made with data for the native population of West Germany.

  14. The importance of regional availability of health care for old age survival - Findings from German reunification.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias C; Vaupel, James W

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the importance of regional health care availability for old age survival. Using German reunification as a natural experiment, we show that spatial variation in health care in East Germany considerably influenced the convergence of East German life expectancy toward West German levels. We apply cause-deleted life tables and continuous mortality decomposition for the years 1982-2007 to show how reductions in circulatory mortality among the elderly affected the East German catch-up in life expectancy. Improvements in remaining life expectancy at older ages were first seen in towns with university hospitals, where state-of-the-art services became available first. Our results suggest that the modernization of the health care system had a substantial effect on old-age life expectancy and helped to significantly reduce circulatory diseases as the main cause of death in East Germany.

  15. East Texas post oak region

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes information on forest area and timber volume in a 26-county area designated as the post oak region of east Texas. These counties are on the western fringe of lands capable of supporting productive southern forests. The information here is from the first detailed forest inventory of the region, made during 1965 in cooperation with the Texas...

  16. Using Classroom Recordings in Educational History Research. An East German Civics Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehle, May; Blessing, Benita

    2014-01-01

    Students learned in civics lessons in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) that their socialist society uniquely guaranteed all individuals the right to work, and that, as good socialists, they had the duty to take on socially meaningful work. Using the example of a video recording of an East German civics lesson and its…

  17. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  18. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  19. Child-Free and Unmarried: Changes in the Life Planning of Young East German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Marina A.

    2004-01-01

    Using evidence from demographic and survey data, this research examines how one decade of post-socialism has changed the life planning of young East German women. Aggregate data reflect marriage and fertility postponement and increased nonmarital birth rates and cohabitation. The analysis shows East German women's stubbornness (Dolling, 2003) in…

  20. The Legacy of Nazism and the History Curriculum in the East German Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Gregory P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the Marxist-Leninist curriculum assumptions about history instruction in East German schools on the legacy of Nazism. Suggests that questions raised to legitimize history instruction for East German students are relevant for students in capitalist countries. Discusses Hitler's rise to power, Soviet contributions to defeat fascism,…

  1. Estimating the contribution of mortality selection to the East-West German mortality convergence.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias C; Missov, Trifon I

    2017-09-19

    Before German reunification, old-age mortality was considerably higher in East Germany than West Germany but converged quickly afterward. Previous studies attributed this rapid catch-up to improved living conditions. We add to this discussion by quantifying for the first time the impact of mortality selection. We use a gamma-Gompertz mortality model to estimate the contribution of selection to the East-West German mortality convergence before and after reunification. We find that, compared to the West, frailer East Germans died earlier due to deteriorating mortality conditions leading to converging mortality rates for women and men already over age 70 before 1990. After 1990, the selection of frailer individuals played only a minor role in closing the East-west German mortality gap. However, our study suggests that, after reunification, old-age mortality improved quickly because the more robust population in the East benefitted greatly from ameliorating external factors such as health care and better living standards. Our results from a natural experiment show that selection of frail individuals plays an important role in population-level mortality dynamics. In the case of the German reunification, East German old-age mortality already converged before 1990 because of stronger selection pressure.

  2. Estimating the contribution of mortality selection to the East-West German mortality convergence.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Tobias C; Missov, Trifon I

    2017-01-01

    Before German reunification, old-age mortality was considerably higher in East Germany than West Germany but converged quickly afterward. Previous studies attributed this rapid catch-up to improved living conditions. We add to this discussion by quantifying for the first time the impact of mortality selection. We use a gamma-Gompertz mortality model to estimate the contribution of selection to the East-West German mortality convergence before and after reunification. We find that, compared to the West, frailer East Germans died earlier due to deteriorating mortality conditions leading to converging mortality rates for women and men already over age 70 before 1990. After 1990, the selection of frailer individuals played only a minor role in closing the East-west German mortality gap. However, our study suggests that, after reunification, old-age mortality improved quickly because the more robust population in the East benefitted greatly from ameliorating external factors such as health care and better living standards. Our results from a natural experiment show that selection of frail individuals plays an important role in population-level mortality dynamics. In the case of the German reunification, East German old-age mortality already converged before 1990 because of stronger selection pressure.

  3. German: The German Language in Education in Alsace, France. 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Schaaf, Alie, Comp.; Morgen, Daniel, Comp.

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of the European Union-- Alsace, a part of France along the German border. Details about the features of the educational system, recent educational policies, divisions of responsibilities,…

  4. Lifelong Learning in German Learning Cities/Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reghenzani-Kearns, Denise; Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the policies and lessons learned from two consecutive German national programs aimed at developing learning cities/regions. Known as Learning Regions Promotion of Networks, this first program transitioned into the current program, Learning on Place. A case study chosen is from the Tolzer region where a network has self-sustained…

  5. Rebooting the East: Automation in University Libraries of the Former German Democratic Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seadle, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Provides a history of the automation efforts at former East German libraries that have made their resources available for the first time. Highlights include World Wide Web home page addresses; library problems, including censorship; automation guidelines, funding, and cooperation; online catalogs; and specific examples of university libraries'…

  6. Proceedings Region East Perceptual Motor Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    This book of conference proceeding presents speeches and panel discussions from the Region East Perceptual-Motor Conference. The purpose of the conference was to seek an understanding of children and their perceptual-motor development through (a) exchange of knowledge and practices in perceptual-motor development, (b) examination of program…

  7. [Foreign citizens in German cities: regional pattern and economic structure].

    PubMed

    Gans, P

    1997-01-01

    "The German cities in the old federal states showed a remarkable increase in foreigners from 1980 to 1994. Their number grew from 5.2 to 15.1 per cent. This is mostly a result of migration gains. The regional pattern is closely related to the economic structures and functions of the cities. But administrative and legal measures as well as differences in the composition of nationalities have influenced the diffusion pattern since the recruitment-stop in 1973." (EXCERPT)

  8. Changes in Psychological Distress among East German Adolescents Facing German Unification: The Role of Commitment to the Old System and of Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Juang, Linda P.

    2004-01-01

    Abrupt social change, such as the breakdown of a political system of the former communist states, presents a major adaptive challenge to the individual. The authors analyzed whether commitment to the old political system and high self-efficacy beliefs measured before German unification would predict change in psychological distress in East German…

  9. [Occurrence, distribution and control of cockroaches in the East German district of Rostock].

    PubMed

    Steinbrink, H

    1987-03-01

    The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is the prevalent species in the district of Rostock. There was also an occurrence of Blatta orientalis and, in one case, of Periplaneta australasiae. Periplaneta americana is occasionally introduced from warmer regions of the globe via containers. Extent and intensity of infestation of many buildings has increased making large-scale control measures necessary. Most control measures have been taken in food industry enterprises. The quantity of cockroach control increases with growing population density.

  10. East Java Maritime Connectivity and Its Regional Development Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purboyo, H.; Ibad, M. Z.

    2017-07-01

    The study presents an evolution of maritime connectivity index of East Java which is associated with accessibility and mobility index of regions in East Java. The findings show that East Java increased connectivity more than three times from 1996 to 2011. Initially, the East Java is importer but then become exporter to national territory. For accessibility, the inland regions of East Java in general is higher than the coastal areas. And for mobility, inland regions initially have a small index, but in subsequent years its index is greater than the coastal areas.

  11. Should I stay or should I go--cognitive conflict in multi-attribute signals probed with East and West German 'Ampelmännchen' traffic signs.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Claudia; Olk, Bettina; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2013-01-01

    In post-unification Germany, lingering conflicts between East and West Germans have found some unusual outlets, including a debate of the relative superiority of East and West German 'Ampelmännchen' pedestrian traffic signs. In our study, we probed the visual efficacy of East and West German Ampelmännchen signs with a Stroop-like conflict task. We found that the distinctive East German man-with-hat figures were more resistant to conflicting information, and in turn produced greater interference when used as distractors. These findings demonstrate Stroop-like effects for real-life objects, such as traffic signs, and underline the practical utility of an East German icon.

  12. Should I Stay or Should I Go – Cognitive Conflict in Multi-Attribute Signals Probed with East and West German ‘Ampelmännchen’ Traffic Signs

    PubMed Central

    Peschke, Claudia; Olk, Bettina; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2013-01-01

    In post-unification Germany, lingering conflicts between East and West Germans have found some unusual outlets, including a debate of the relative superiority of East and West German ‘Ampelmännchen’ pedestrian traffic signs. In our study, we probed the visual efficacy of East and West German Ampelmännchen signs with a Stroop-like conflict task. We found that the distinctive East German man-with-hat figures were more resistant to conflicting information, and in turn produced greater interference when used as distractors. These findings demonstrate Stroop-like effects for real-life objects, such as traffic signs, and underline the practical utility of an East German icon. PMID:23717653

  13. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  14. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  15. Desertification risk in Kakheti Region, East Georgia.

    PubMed

    Basialashvili, Tsisana; Matchavariani, Lia; Lagidze, Lamzira

    2015-01-01

    Desertification or land degradation in drylands is caused by various factors. The most important of these is climate change, a significant global ecological problem. Desertification, like erosion, as an environmental process of ecosystem degradation, is often caused by human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Well-managed lands can recover from drought if the rains return. These practices help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Traditionally, the most vulnerable territories considered under the threat of desertification in Georgia is Kakheti region (East Georgia), which has been selected as one of the priority investigation area. In Eastern Georgia, intervals of atmospheric precipitation do not coincide with the phases of water demand of plants. In recent decades as a result of more frequent droughts in Kakheti, the region has already lost hundreds, thousands of hectares of fertile land. Based on the contemporary climate warming projections, the temperature is expected to increase and precipitation to decrease. This will lead to an increase in evaporation and reduction of river flow. Under such conditions the danger of desertification is evident. To mitigate the negative effects of desertification, it is recommended to put forward set of adaptation activities through rehabilitation of water use systems, prevention of loss of water, reconstruction and expansion of irrigation canals, accumulation of unused autumn-winter river water and spring floods in reservoirs, developing an optimal scheme of distributing water resources among water users, device windbreaks and work on breeding of drought resistant varieties, preparation of water volume forecasts of rivers and their role in planning of water use; application of apply drip and sprinkler irrigation, using artificial precipitation following increase as a result of active influence on clouds. All these activities will provide

  16. Non-separable time preferences, novelty consumption and body weight: Theory and evidence from the East German transition to capitalism.

    PubMed

    Dragone, Davide; Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model to illustrate how diet and body weight change when novel food products become available to consumers. We propose a microfounded test to empirically discriminate between habit and taste formation in intertemporal preferences. Moreover, we show that 'novelty consumption' and endogenous preferences can explain the persistent correlation between economic development and obesity. By empirically studying the German reunification, we find that East Germans consumed more novel Western food and gained more weight than West Germans when a larger variety of food products became readily accessible after the fall of the Wall. The observed consumption patterns suggest that food consumption features habit formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pasture Names with Romance and Slavic Roots Facilitate Dissection of Y Chromosome Variation in an Exclusively German-Speaking Alpine Region

    PubMed Central

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  18. Pasture names with Romance and Slavic roots facilitate dissection of Y chromosome variation in an exclusively German-speaking alpine region.

    PubMed

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  19. Simulated East-west differences in F-region peak electron density at Far East mid-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wan, Weixing; Zhao, Biqiang

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, using Three-Dimensional Theoretical Ionospheric Model of the Earth in Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (TIME3D-IGGCAS), we simulated the east-west differences in F-region peak electron density (NmF2) at Far East mid-latitude region. We found that, after removing the longitudinal variations of neutral parameters, TIME3D-IGGCAS can better represent the observed relative east-west difference (Rew) features. Rew is mainly negative (West NmF2 > East NmF2) at noon and positive (East NmF2 > West NmF2) at evening-night. The magnitude of daytime negative Rew is weak at local winter and strong at local summer, and the daytime Rew show two negative peaks around two equinoxes. With the increasing of solar flux level, the magnitude of Rew mainly become larger, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. With the decreasing of geographical latitude, Rew mainly become positive, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. Our simulation also suggested that the thermospheric zonal wind combined with the geomagnetic field configuration play a pivotal role in the formation of the ionospheric east-west differences at Far East mid-latitude region.

  20. German Energy Security and Its Implications on Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    reduction of waste emissions like GHG that have been linked to global warming . Finally, sustainability also encompasses increased efficiency through more...negative ramifications for climate change on national security, and the benefits of national policy that is less clouded by energy security motivations...fluctuate greatly in their output levels. Critics of German solar energy often cite an unfavorable climate and frequent cloud cover (as much as 6/8 of

  1. Simulated East-west differences in F-region peak electron density at Far East mid-latitude region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhipeng; Zhao, Biqiang; Wan, Weixing; Liu, Libo

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, using Three-Dimensional Theoretical Ionospheric Model of the Earth in Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (TIME3D-IGGCAS), we simulated the east-west differences in Fregion peak electron density (NmF2) at Far East mid-latitude region.We found that, after removing the longitudinal variations of neutral parameters, TIME3D-IGGCAS can better represent the observed relative east-west difference (Rew) features. Rew is mainly negative (West NmF2 > East NmF2) at noon and positive (East NmF2 >West NmF2) at evening-night. The magnitude of daytime negative Rew is weak at local winter and strong at local summer, and the daytime Rew show two negative peaks around two equinoxes. With the increasing of solar flux level, the magnitude of Rew mainly become larger, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. With the decreasing of geographical latitude, Rew mainly become positive, and two daytime negative peaks slight shifts to June Solstice. Our simulation also suggested that the thermospheric zonal wind combined with the geomagnetic field configuration play a pivotal role in the formation of the ionospheric east-west differences at Far East midlatitude region.

  2. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  3. New magnetic anomaly map of East Antarctica and surrounding regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golynsky, A.; Blankenship, D.; Chiappini, M.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Goncharov, A.; Ishihara, T.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Kim, H.R.; König, M.; Masolov, V.; Nogi, Y.; Sand, M.; Studing, M.; ,

    2007-01-01

    community over East Antarctica and surrounding regions, significantly upgrade the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP) compilation and lead to substantial improvements in magnetic anomaly pattern recognition. New data have been matched in one inverse operation by minimizing the data differences for the areas of overlap. The aeromagnetic data show many previously unknown magnetic patterns, lineaments and trends, defining the spatial extent of Ferrar volcanics and plutonic Granite Harbour Intrusives in the Transantarctic Mountains and previously unknown tectonic trends of the East Antarctic craton. Regional aeromagnetic investigations have successfully delineated Early Paleozoic inherited crustal features along the flanks of the West Antarctic Rift System and the southern boundary of the Archean Ruker Terrane in the Prince Charles Mountains. Magnetic records along the East Antarctic continental margin provide new constraints on the breakup of Gondwana.

  4. Alsatian versus Standard German: Regional Language Bilingual Primary Education in Alsace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Michelle Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the current situation of regional language bilingual primary education in Alsace and contends that the regional language presents a special case in the context of France. The language comprises two varieties: Alsatian, which traditionally has been widely spoken, and Standard German, used as the language of reference and…

  5. Alsatian versus Standard German: Regional Language Bilingual Primary Education in Alsace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Michelle Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the current situation of regional language bilingual primary education in Alsace and contends that the regional language presents a special case in the context of France. The language comprises two varieties: Alsatian, which traditionally has been widely spoken, and Standard German, used as the language of reference and…

  6. The IAU's East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2014-09-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world.

  7. The Inner Cold War: State Party Control and East German Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    in an effort to control and conform society to embrace the benefits of a worker’s paradise and its guiding Marxist- Leninist ideology. The SED...the spirit of their new ideological mandate, popular resistance was strong on both sides of the inner German border because of the lost war and

  8. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; hide

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  9. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  10. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  11. Regional stratigraphy and petroleum geology, North Africa-Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The North Africa-Middle East petroleum provinces are part of the broad sedimentary platform that occupied the northern and northeastern borders of the African-Arabian craton adjacent to the ancestral Hercynian (late Paleozoic) and subsequent Tethyan-Alpine oceans. Carbonate-clastic-evaporite sediments of infra-Cambrian through Holocene age were cyclically deposited in a relatively continuous belt around the eastern and northern borders of the craton, mainly on a broad, shallow-water platform adjacent to the proto-Tethys and Tethys seaway. The Paleozoic section reaches a substantial thickness in the subsurface of the Middle East and in northern Africa adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, but all or part of it is absent because of nondeposition or erosion over much of the region. Post-Paleozoic deposition was more or less continuous across the entire craton border region in the Middle East and along the northern border of the Sahara platform in North Africa and in Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. Similar marine and associated sedimentary rock facies are present in all of these regions, although paleotectonic-stratigraphic interrelationships and continental paleolatitude positions have greatly affected petroleum generation and accumulation in the specific provinces along the craton border. A series of regional stratigraphic-sedimentary environment, and continental position, layer maps illustrates the relative influence of these factors through geologic time with respect to the relationship between petroleum reservoirs, source rocks, and confining rock facies.

  12. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-02

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  13. 40 CFR 81.181 - Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.181 Section 81.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.181 Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Down East...

  14. 40 CFR 81.181 - Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.181 Section 81.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.181 Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Down East...

  15. 40 CFR 81.181 - Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.181 Section 81.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.181 Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Down East...

  16. 40 CFR 81.181 - Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.181 Section 81.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.181 Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Down East...

  17. 40 CFR 81.181 - Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.181 Section 81.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.181 Down East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Down East...

  18. 40 CFR 81.130 - Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southern Tier East Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.130 Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.130 - Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern Tier East Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.130 Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.130 - Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southern Tier East Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.130 Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.215 - East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false East Central Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.215 East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The East Central Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  2. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  3. Association of occupation with prevalent hypertension in an elderly East German population: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Barbara; Seidler, Andreas; Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Haerting, Johannes; Greiser, Karin Halina

    2011-04-01

    Hypertension is one of the most relevant risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about differences in hypertension by occupation. The aim of this study was to explore the association between occupational group and prevalent hypertension. Cross-sectional data of the CARLA study were used, a representative sample of an East German population aged 45-83. Job titles of the current or last held occupation of 967 men and 808 women were coded using the German classification of occupation. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg (systolic), ≥90 mmHg (diastolic) or use of antihypertensives. Sex-stratified, age-adjusted prevalence risk ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for 31 occupational groups. Hypertension was prevalent in 79% of the population. In men, highest age-adjusted prevalence ratios were observed in metal-processing workers, carpenters/painters, and electricians with PRs of 1.31 (CI 1.04-1.65), 1.28 (CI 1.00-1.64), and 1.21 (0.95-1.53), respectively, compared to office clerks. In women, highest PRs were found in technicians/forewomen, scrutinisers/storekeepers, and food-processing occupations with PR 1.28 (1.09-1.49), 1.23 (0.99-1.51), and 1.22 (1.01-1.48), respectively. Adjustment for education, smoking, body mass index, and current work hours did not fully explain occupational differences. Excluding currently non-working subjects lead to decreased PRs in men and to increased PR in women. Differences in the prevalences of hypertension by occupational group were only partly explained by conventional risk factors and may require workplace interventions targeted at high-risk occupations. Longitudinal data with large cohorts and work-related exposure assessment are needed to confirm a temporal relationship between occupation and incident hypertension.

  4. [Incentive for Regional Risk Selection in the German Risk Structure Compensation Scheme].

    PubMed

    Wende, Danny

    2017-03-22

    The introduction of the new law GKV-FQWG strengthens the competition between statutory health insurance. If incentives for risk selection exist, they may force a battle for cheap customers. This study aims to document and discuss incentives for regional risk selection in the German risk structure compensation scheme. Identify regional autocorrelation with Moran's l on financial parameters of the risk structure compensation schema. Incentives for regional risk selection do indeed exist. The risk structure compensation schema reduces 91% of the effect and helps to reduce risk selection. Nevertheless, a connection between regional situation and competition could be shown (correlation: 69.5%). Only the integration of regional control variables into the risk compensation eliminates regional autocorrelation. The actual risk structure compensation is leading to regional inequalities and as a consequence to risk selection and distortion in competition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Medical Aid, Repression, and International Relations: The East German Hospital at Metema.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1988, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) built a hospital in a remote part of Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border. The project evolved in a complex combination of contexts, including the general foreign policy goals of the GDR, its specific alliance with Ethiopia, the famine of 1984-85, civil war in Ethiopia, and a controversial resettlement program by the government of Mengistu Haile Mariam. Though almost unknown today, it was a high-profile project at the time, which received the personal support both by Erich Honecker in the GDR and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia. However, their interest was directed more at the political goals the project was expected to serve than at the hospital itself. Both the preparation and the implementation of the project were extremely difficult and almost failed due to problems of transportation, of red tape, and of security. The operation of the hospital was also not ideal, involving frustrated personnel and less than complete acceptance by the local population. Ironically, for all its practical difficulties, the hospital has outlived both governments and their political goals, surviving as a medical institution.

  6. Regional patterns of sea level change in the German North Sea in a worldwide context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Thomas; Frank, Torsten; Jensen, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Sea Level Rise (SLR) is one of the major consequences we are facing in times of a warming climate and it is obvious that a higher sea level influences the heights of occurring storm surges and thus results in a higher risk of inundation for the affected coastal areas. Therefore, regional and global sea level rise are subjects to many recent scientific publications. In contrast, the mean sea level (MSL) and its variability over the last centuries in the German North Sea area have not been analysed in detail up to now. A methodology to analyse observed sea level rise (SLR) in the German Bight, the shallow south-eastern part of the North Sea, is presented. The contribution focuses on the description of the methods used to generate and analyse high quality mean sea level (MSL) time series. Parametric fitting approaches as well as non-parametric data adaptive filters, such as Singular System Analysis (SSA) are applied. For padding non-stationary sea level time series, an advanced approach named Monte-Carlo autoregressive padding (MCAP) is introduced. This approach allows the specification of uncertainties of the behaviour of smoothed time series near the boundaries. The results for the North Sea point to a weak negative acceleration of SLR since 1844 with a strong positive acceleration at the end of the 19th century, to a period of almost no SLR around the 1970s with subsequent positive acceleration and to high recent rates. The comparison between the German North Sea and a global sea level reconstruction clearly reveals the existence of different patterns of SLR. A stronger SLR in the German North Sea area is detected for a period covering some decades starting at the end of the 19th century and for another period covering the last ten to fifteen years. These findings and the indications for the natural variability of this complex system and further research topics will be discussed. This is a German Coastal Engineering Research Council (KFKI) project, funded by the

  7. The Dynamics of Ionospheric D Region over East Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some main results of experimental investigations of the dynamical regime of the ionospheric D-region over East Siberia are presented. Regular measurements of horizontal ionospheric drifts by the radio method of closely spaced receivers, using a long wavelength transmitter operating at a frequency of 200 kHz, were carried out near Irkutsk, USSR, since 1975. The seasonal and inter-annual variations of prevailing wind (zonal and meridional), and amplitudes and phases of semi-diurnal tides are investigated. Evidence is presented to show the response of D-region dynamics to stratospheric warmings. Planetary and gravity waves are found in the wind field. Comparison with results of analogous measurements in Central Europe (Collm, GDR) reveals a longitudinal effect on the dynamical regime of the mid-latitude lower thermosphere.

  8. Youth Research in West and East. Special Report. German Youth Institute Offers Benefit of Its Experience. Sozial-Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertens, Rita

    This social report concerns the efforts of the German Youth Institute in working with other institutes and with other countries to develop youth policies and programs. It begins by describing German and Soviet youth researchers working together to develop a concept for a long-term youth policy based on democratic structures. The German approach to…

  9. East and central farming and forest region and Atlantic basin diversified farming region: LRRs N and S

    Treesearch

    Brad D. Lee; John M. Kabrick

    2017-01-01

    The central, unglaciated US east of the Great Plains to the Atlantic coast corresponds to the area covered by LRR N (East and Central Farming and Forest Region) and S (Atlantic Basin Diversified Farming Region). These regions roughly correspond to the Interior Highlands, Interior Plains, Appalachian Highlands, and the Northern Coastal Plains.

  10. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  11. SESAME, a Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East Region

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Sarraf, R.H.; Attal, M.; Tavakoli, K.; Hashemi, H.; Hassanzadegan, H.; Elsisi, A.; Amro, A.; Foudeh, D.; Kalantari, B.; Aladwan, A.; Varnasery, S.; Al-Dmour, E.; Tarawneh, H.

    2003-08-26

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East / Mediterranean region. Most of the applications require hard x-rays up to 20 keV photons. SESAME will be a 2GeV 3rd Generation Ligth Source with an emittance of 17 nmrad and 13 places for the installation of insertion devices with a length around 3 meter. The circumference of the machine will be 120m. As injector the 800 MeVBooster Synchrotron will be used with small changes. Furthermore also the BESSY I quadrupoles and sextupoles can be used. In a later stage these new ones will be replaced in order to increase the length of the straight sections and to introduce mini beta sections for the reduction of the beam cross section. At SESAME around 35 % of the circumference can be used for the installation of insertion devices.

  12. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, M; Bhattacharya, S K; Narain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia.

  13. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, M.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Narain, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child, per year. Risk factors are malnutrition (40% in India), Indoor air pollution, non-breast feeding, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Strengthening of health care delivery system for early detection and treatment and as well as minimization of preventable risk factors can avert a large proportion of death due to pneumonia. PMID:22664492

  14. The East German Research Landscape in Transition. Part B. Non-University Institutes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-02

    inclusion of orbital magnetic polarization, the study of magnetolastic effects, the inclusion of d- and f- electron shells in a molecular dynamics free...metal adsorbed layers on semiconductor surfaces. - Development of a method of parameter-free molecular - dynamic description of heavy atoms, especially of...molecules, #086 drug research, #016 dust in star-forming regions, #078 dust sensor, #004 dynamics , molecular , free of parameters, #089 dynamics , non

  15. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  16. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ope, Maurice; Sonoiya, Stanley; Kariuki, James; Mboera, Leonard E.G.; Gandham, Ramana N.V.; Schneidman, Miriam; Kimura, Mwihaki

    2013-01-01

    The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet) was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC) partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC), EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP). The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities. PMID:23362409

  17. Turbulence driven particle pinch at the pedestal region in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ning; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Liang; Lan, Heng

    2015-11-01

    Existence of an anomalous inward particle flux in tokamak has been realized for a long time. Since particle transport up the density gradient particularly play a key role on the formation of edge pedestal in H-mode plasma, intensive efforts were made to identify the origin of particle pinch in tokamak. However, the mechanism of particle pinch is still a big challenge for plasma physics. In order to improve our understanding on inward particle pinch, turbulent transport have been investigated in boundary plasma with reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements on EAST. A broad turbulence is detected in pedestal after the L-H transition, which shows as fast (300kHz-500kHz) fluctuations in floating potential signals. It appears and gradually saturates after the dithering phase. The broad turbulence is ultimately terminated by the break out of ELMs. It is observed that most of the particle transport is outward directed before the emergence of broad turbulence. However, the particle transport is reversed to inward direction once the broad turbulence initializes in pedestal. Moreover, the edge pedestal starts to establish at the onset of the observed broad turbulence. It gradually stabilizes with the saturation of broad turbulence. During this period, the fluctuations and associated transport in the SOL are almost unaffected, which suggests a signature of particle pinch induced by the broad turbulence originating at the pedestal region. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China

  18. Reconstructing the Past? Low German and the Creating of Regional Identity in Public Language Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reershemius, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with language contact between a dominant standard language--German--and a lesser-used variety--Low German--in a situation in which the minoritised language is threatened by language shift and language loss. It analyses the application of Low German in forms of public language display and the self-presentation of the community in…

  19. Crustal Structure of the Middle East from Regional Seismic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Caron, Pierre; Ghalib, Hafidh; Chen, Youlin

    2010-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated ten broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. This network was supplemented by the five-element broadband Iraq Seismic Array (KSIRS) in 2007. More recently, the former Iraq Seismic Network (ISN), destroyed during the war with Iran, was reestablished with the deployment of six broadband stations throughout Iraq. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of the Middle East, including Eastern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. To achieve this goal, we derive crustal velocity models using receiver function, surface wave and body wave analyses. These refined velocity models will eventually be used to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of preliminary hypocenter locations produced a clearer picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Surface wave velocity analysis resulted in a clear demarcation of the tectonic features in the region. The Arabian shield, Zagros thrust zone and the Red Sea are apparent through distinct velocity distributions separating them from each other. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity of the crust in North Iraq appears to be 10% higher than that of the Iranian plateau. The velocity anomaly of the Zagros mountains appears to be present into the upper mantle beyond the resolving limit of our model. Analysis of waveform data for obstructed pathways indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases

  20. Characteristics of regional nucleation events in urban East St. Louis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shi; Sakurai, Hiromu; McMurry, Peter H.

    Continuous measurements of aerosol size distributions (3 nm-2 μm) were carried out over a 26 month period (1 April 2001-31 May 2003; 650 days with valid data) in urban East St. Louis, IL, as a part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Supersite program. This paper analyzes data for the 155 days on which "regional nucleation events" were observed during this study. Such events were observed during every month of the study except January 2003. We observed some differences, however, between events in the summer (defined here as April-September) and winter (December-February). Regional nucleation events were observed more frequently in summer months (36±13% of days) than in winter (8±7%), and nucleated particles grew faster in the summer (6.7±4.8 nm h -1) than in winter (1.8±1.9 nm h -1). The daily maximum in the number concentration of nanoparticles formed by nucleation (4.8±3.5×10 4 cm -3) was highly variable and showed no clear seasonal dependence. Particle formation increased particle concentrations by an average factor of 3.1±2.8. Maximum daily rates of 3 nm particle production (17±20 cm -3 s -1) were also highly variable and without a clear seasonal dependence. During these events, particle formation rates were typically near their maxima at 08:00-09:00 a.m., but particle production sometimes persisted at diminishing rates until late in the afternoon (15:00-16:00 p.m.).

  1. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  2. Holocene biome shifts in the East Asian monsoon margin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Yongbo; Cao, Xianyong; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    East Asia is affected by three major atmospheric circulation systems determining the regional climate and vegetation distribution: The moisture advected by the Indian and East Asian monsoon support the growing of forest in large parts of Eastern China. The influence of the monsoon gets weaker further on the continent yielding a transition of forest to steppe and of steppe to desert in Central East Asia (e.g. Inner Mongolia) where the dry westerly winds prevail. Particularly in these transition zones, vegetation is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change and strong feedbacks are expected in case of climate and vegetation shifts due to large environmental changes (Feng et al., 2006). During mid-Holocene, cyclic variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun led to an enhancement of the Asian monsoon system probably causing strong shifts in the biome distribution. According to reconstructions, the steppe-forest margin moved to the northwest by about 500km (Yu et al., 2000) and the desert area in China and Inner Mongolia was substantially reduced compared to today (Feng et al., 2006). However, in the complex environment of Asia, the locally limited reconstructions may not portray the general vegetation change. To get a systematic overview on the spatial pattern of biome shifts in the Asian monsoon - westerly wind transition zone since mid-Holocene, we use the diagnostic vegetation model BIOME4 and force this model with climate anomalies from different transient Holocene climate simulations performed in coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models. The main aims of this study are to a) get a consistent ensemble of possible changes in biome distribution since the mid-Holocene b) test the robustness of the simulated vegetation changes and quantify the differences between the models, and c) allow for a better comparison of simulated and reconstructed vegetation changes. Preliminary results confirm the general trend seen in the reconstructions. The simulations reveal

  3. Association of neighbourhood unemployment rate with incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus in five German regions.

    PubMed

    Müller, G; Wellmann, J; Hartwig, S; Greiser, K H; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Maier, W; Meisinger, C; Tamayo, T; Rathmann, W; Berger, K

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the association of neighbourhood unemployment with incident self-reported physician-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes in a population aged 45-74 years from five German regions. Study participants were linked via their addresses at baseline to particular neighbourhoods. Individual-level data from five population-based studies were pooled and combined with contextual data on neighbourhood unemployment. Type 2 diabetes was assessed according to a self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes. We estimated proportional hazard models (Weibull distribution) in order to obtain hazard ratios and 95% CIs of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking into account interval-censoring and clustering. We included 7250 participants residing in 228 inner city neighbourhoods in five German regions in our analysis. The incidence rate was 12.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 11.4-13.8). The risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher in men [hazard ratio 1.79 (95% CI 1.47-2.18)] than in women and higher in people with a low education level [hazard ratio 1.55 (95% CI 1.18-2.02)] than in those with a high education level. Independently of individual-level characteristics, we found a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in neighbourhoods with high levels of unemployment [quintile 5; hazard ratio 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42)] than in neighbourhoods with low unemployment (quintile 1). Low education level and high neighbourhood unemployment were independently associated with an elevated risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies examining the impact of the residential environment on Type 2 diabetes mellitus will provide knowledge that is essential for the identification of high-risk populations. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  4. Explaining state autonomy and state capacity: A comparison of US and West German policies on arms and nuclear exports and East-West trade

    SciTech Connect

    Hofhansel, C.

    1988-01-01

    Two central theoretical concerns of the recent statist literature, state autonomy and state capacity are analyzed in the context of policy making in two states (West Germany and the United States) across three different issue areas (nuclear exports, conventional arms exports, and East-West trade). The empirical core of the thesis consists of six case studies involving a West German reactor export to Argentina, an American reactor export to the Philippines, U.S. and West German arms exports to Saudi Arabia, the West German participation in the Siberian gas pipeline deal of 1982, and the attempt by the Reagan administration to block this deal. The larger theoretical goal was to make a contribution towards an overall evaluation of the liberal, statist, and neo-Marxist approaches to state autonomy and state capacity. The evidence presented suggests that the strong/weak state distinction has limited utility for understanding foreign economic policy making and is in fact flawed. Institutional factors, which are at the core of the statist approach, did not have the predicted effects.

  5. Variations in the power dissipation index in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kin Sik; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the variability of the power dissipation index (PDI) for different regions of the East Asia region during the period 1960-2013. The annual PDI (APDI) in the region is calculated as the sum of the PDI, defined as the cube of the maximum sustained wind speed at landfall of each tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall at that region. Upward and downward trends in APDI are found in the northern and southern parts of East Asia respectively, suggesting a possible northward shift in TC landfall locations. Interdecadal variations of the APDI can also be found in some regions. The APDI in various regions show a close relation with the PDI distribution over the western North Pacific (WNP) with three characteristic patterns. The ENSO and basin-wide mode represents the PDI patterns associated with ENSO events and the overall PDI over the WNP. The east-west dipole mode and the north-south dipole mode denote the east-west and north-south shifts of PDI respectively. Based on the steering flow (average winds within the 850-300 hPa layer) near the East Asian coast, a three-cell model for TC landfall in East Asia is proposed, which corresponds to three major modes of the atmospheric circulation in the WNP. Each of these modes shows an anomalous circulation located east of Taiwan, east of Japan and the South China Sea, respectively and each of which has a significant impact on the APDI in some regions along the coast of East Asia. A northward shift in the APDI along the East Asian coast is identified in the period 1997-2013 as a result of the change in steering flow pattern, northward shift in TC genesis location and weaker vertical wind shear over the ocean near the coastal areas.

  6. Ocean forecasting for the German Bight: from regional to coastal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Staneva, Joanna; Grayek, Sebastian; Grashorn, Sebastian; Behrens, Arno; Koch, Wolfgang; Pein, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes recent developments based on advances in coastal ocean forecasting in the fields of numerical modeling, data assimilation, and observational array design, exemplified by the Coastal Observing System for the North and Arctic Seas (COSYNA). The region of interest is the North and Baltic seas, and most of the coastal examples are for the German Bight. Several pre-operational applications are presented to demonstrate the outcome of using the best available science in coastal ocean predictions. The applications address the nonlinear behavior of the coastal ocean, which for the studied region is manifested by the tidal distortion and generation of shallow-water tides. Led by the motivation to maximize the benefits of the observations, this study focuses on the integration of observations and modeling using advanced statistical methods. Coastal and regional ocean forecasting systems do not operate in isolation but are linked, either weakly by using forcing data or interactively using two-way nesting or unstructured-grid models. Therefore, the problems of downscaling and upscaling are addressed, along with a discussion of the potential influence of the information from coastal observatories or coastal forecasting systems on the regional models. One example of coupling coarse-resolution regional models with a fine-resolution model interface in the area of straits connecting the North and Baltic seas using a two-way nesting method is presented. Illustrations from the assimilation of remote sensing, in situ and high-frequency (HF) radar data, the prediction of wind waves and storm surges, and possible applications to search and rescue operations are also presented. Concepts for seamless approaches to link coastal and regional forecasting systems are exemplified by the application of an unstructured-grid model for the Ems Estuary.

  7. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC): An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanqing; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Yun; Shi, Guangyu; Xia, X.; Yin, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Zhuang, G.

    2011-02-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas. Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC). The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF10 China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE). The former two are US-China collaborative projects and the latter is a part of the China’s National Basic Research program (or often referred to as “973 project”). Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies. The wealth of general and specialized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system. Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc. In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  8. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  9. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  10. The Science Education of the East Asian Regions--What We Can Learn from PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…

  11. The Science Education of the East Asian Regions--What We Can Learn from PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…

  12. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  13. Update on polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick Michael; Allison, Robert; Thapa, Arun; Bahl, Sunil; Chunsuittiwat, Supamit; Hasan, Mainul; Khan, Zainul; Sedai, Tika

    2014-11-01

    There has been a tremendous amount of progress toward polio eradication in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region particularly over the past 4 years. In 1988, there were >25,000 reported cases of wild poliovirus infection in the South-East Asia Region, and because of substantial underreporting the estimated polio burden was probably 10-fold higher. Following the initiation of mass polio immunization campaigns in the mid-1990s and years of intense effort, the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region reported no cases of wild poliovirus infection in 2012. With India reporting the last wild poliovirus case in the region, on 13 January 2011, and its subsequent removal from the list of polio-endemic countries, in February 2012, the South-East Asia Region is firmly on track for polio-free certification in early 2014.

  14. [Domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region of the German cockroach retroposon R1].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2010-08-01

    Using cosmid vector, a gene library of German cockroach Blattella germanica was constructed. From this library, clones containing full-length copies of two subfamilies of R1 retroposons were selected. Retroposons R1 of German cockroach belonging to different subfamilies were shown to be different in domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region. For the first time, retroposons transmembrane domains were identified in the sequences of R1. It was demonstrated that two retroposon R1 subfamilies of German cockroach arose as a result of intragenomic divergence rather than via horizontal transfer of alien mobile element into cockroach genome. The differences in domain organization appeared not as a result of saltatory recombination processes, but as a consequence of gradual mutation accumulation, which led to either degeneration, or to domain formation.

  15. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively.

  16. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tehsin, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  17. Insight into the incidence of acute aortic dissection in the German region of Berlin and Brandenburg.

    PubMed

    Kurz, S D; Falk, V; Kempfert, J; Gieb, M; Ruschinski, T M; Kukucka, M; Tsokos, M; Grubitzsch, H; Herbst, H; Semmler, J; Buschmann, C

    2017-08-15

    Stanford acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a potentially lethal condition. Epidemiology studies show a statistical incidence in Europe of approximately 2-16 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year. In Germany, the estimated incidence (here subsumed under "thoracic aortic dissection" with 4.63 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year) is mainly extracted from medical death certificates by the German Federal Statistical Office. The prehospital incidence of ATAAD deaths is largely unknown. Since patients often die in the pre-hospital setting, the incidence of ATAAD is therefore likely to be higher than current estimates. For the period from 2010 to 2014, we retrospectively analyzed all in-hospital ATAAD data from two of the largest cardiac surgical centers that treat ATAAD in the Berlin-Brandenburg region. In addition, autopsy reports of all forensic medicine institutes and of one large pathological provider in the region were analyzed to identify additional non-hospitalized ATAAD patients. Based on these findings, the regional incidence of ATAAD was calculated. In addition to in-hospital ATAAD patients (n=405), we identified additional 145 lethal ATAAD cases among 14,201 autopsy reports. The total of 550 ATAAD cases led to an estimated incidence of 11.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants/year for the whole Berlin-Brandenburg region. Arterial hypertension, pre-existing aortic dilatation, and hereditary connective tissue disorder were found in, respectively, 62.7%, 10%, and 1.8% of patients. ATAAD is more frequent than previously reported. Our results show that when patients who die outside of cardiac surgery centers are included, the incidence of ATAAD significantly exceeds the rate reported by the Federal Statistical Office. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hot and Saline Spring Behaviour in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and the North-East German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacace, M.; Kissling, W.

    2012-04-01

    Hot springs occur in geothermal regions worldwide, and often have important economic or cultural values which can be threatened by geothermal developments. In this paper we describe models of hot springs in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, and of saline springs in the Northeast German Basin (NEGB). In New Zealand, the operation of the Wairakei geothermal power station in the 1950's and early 1960's lead to the collapse of the thermal area known as 'Geyser Valley', and more recently, the spring and Geyser activity in Rotorua was threatened by the widespread and uncontrolled drawoff of geothermal water for domestic use. Similarly, in the NEGB, discharge of saline springs poses serious challenges for groundwater management for agricultural and domestic use, having additional implications for future geothermal energy projects. Despite their obviously very different nature the springs in NEGB and TVZ do have some common characteristics: they both feed fluid to the surface from deeper (geothermal) aquifers through embedded hydrogeological heterogeneities (e.g. fracture systems, erosional gaps and unconformities in the internal stratigraphic sequence), and data shows that they both exhibit irregular flowrates, temperatures and chemistries. Currently used models of hot/saline springs do not show these types of behaviour and offer no understanding of the mechanisms of variability in either setting, or indeed the nature of the connections to deeper aquifers. In this paper we present early results from a study aimed at identifying the most important physical mechanisms governing the dynamics of these systems. We use the simulation code NaCl-Tough2 (Kissling, 2005a,b) to accurately represent the thermodynamics of fluids in both systems. Though relatively simplistic in terms of the modelled geometry these models provide new important insights into the variability of the observed flow dynamics as well as in their causative processes at depths. The results obtained

  19. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassiouny, Noha

    2012-01-01

    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  20. Toward a Sustainable Society in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) Region: Roadmap and Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassiouny, Noha

    2012-01-01

    The Business and Society Research Cluster (BSRC) at the German University in Cairo, the El-Khazindar Business Research and Case Center at the American University in Cairo and Misr El-Kheir (MEK) Foundation, Egypt, hosted the region's first sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) case studies conference, entitled "Toward a…

  1. Assessment of production risks for winter wheat in different German regions under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersebaum, K. C.; Gandorfer, M.; Wegehenkel, M.

    2012-04-01

    The study shows climate change impacts on wheat production in selected regions across Germany. To estimate yield and economic effects the agro-ecosystem model HERMES was used. The model performed runs using 2 different releases of the model WETTREG providing statistically downscaled climate change scenarios for the weather station network of the German Weather Service. Simulations were done using intersected GIS information on soil types and land use identifying the most relevant sites for wheat production. The production risks for wheat yields at the middle of this century were compared to a reference of the present climate. The irrigation demand was determined by the model using an automatic irrigation mode. Production risks with and without irrigation were assessed and the economic feasibility to reduce production risks by irrigation was evaluated. Costs and benefits were compared. Additionally, environmental effects, e.g. groundwater recharge and nitrogen emissions were assessed for irrigated and rain fed systems. Results show that positive and negative effects of climate change occur within most regions depending on the site conditions. Water holding capacity and groundwater distance were the most important factors which determined the vulnerability of sites. Under climate change condition in the middle of the next century we can expect especially at sites with low water holding capacity decreasing average gross margins, higher production risks and a reduced nitrogen use efficiency under rainfed conditions. Irrigation seems to be profitable and risk reducing at those sites, provided that water for irrigation is available. Additionally, the use of irrigation can also increase nitrogen use efficiency which reduced emissions by leaching. Despite the site conditions results depend strongly on the used regional climate scenario and the model approach to consider the effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

  2. 40 CFR 81.130 - Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.130 Section 81.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.130 Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  3. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  4. 40 CFR 81.263 - East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.263 Section 81.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.263 East Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  5. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the... participants in the Regional Water Rescue Exercise. Basis and Purpose The Pierce County, Washington,...

  6. Culture and Civilization of the German Speaking States. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Iowa Regional AATG Workshop, University of Northern Iowa, March 21-22, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odwarka, Karl, Ed.

    These Proceedings include 26 addresses and papers on culture and civilization in German-speaking countries. Papers on politics and culture in Switzerland, East and West Germany, and Austria begin the book. These papers were written by Gerhard Weiss, Franz Lehner, Eduard Adler, Sonja Elm and Karl Borchard. Three sections on teaching culture and…

  7. Seasonal Scale Water Deficit Forecasting in East Africa and the Middle East Region Using the NMME Models Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Narapusetty, B.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we report on our ongoing efforts to provide seasonal scale water deficit forecasts in East Africa and the Middle East regions. First, we report on the skill of the seasonal climate forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models over this region. We evaluated deterministic (anomaly correlation), categorical (the equitable threat score) and probabilistic (the ranked probabilistic skill score) skill of the NMME models forecasts over the hindcast period of 1982-2010, focusing on the primary rainy seasons of March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS) and October-December (OND). We also examined the potential predictability of the NMME models using the anomaly correlation between the ensemble mean forecasts from a given model against a single ensemble member of the same model (homogenous predictability) and rest of the models (heterogeneous predictability), and observations (forecast skill). Overall, we found precipitation forecast skill in this region to be sparse and limited (up to three month of lead) to some locations and seasons, and temperature forecast skill to be much more skillful than the precipitation forecast skill. Highest level of skill exists over equatorial East Africa (OND season) and over parts of northern Ethiopia and southern Sudan (JAS season). Categorical and probabilistic forecast skills are also higher in those regions. We found the homogeneous predictability to be greater than the forecast skill indicating potential for forecast skill improvement. In the rest of the presentation we describe implementation and evaluation of a hybrid approach (that combines statistical and dynamical approaches) of downscaling climate forecasts to improve the precipitation forecast skill in this region. For this part of the analysis we mainly focus on two of the NMME models (NASA's GMAO and NCEP's CFSv2). Past research on a hybrid approach focusing only over equatorial East Africa has shown promising results. We found that MAM

  8. An Analysis Of The Strategic Impact Of The Campaign In German East Africa During The First World War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-04

    outfitting two blockade runners and an airship pale in comparison. Since they were cut off from Germany for most of the campaign, the African soldiers...packages for the carriers. 73 The final German resupply attempt was via Zeppelin. Preparations began in June 1917 and by November the airship was...ready. It had a cargo of fifteen tons of weapons, medical supplies and ammunition. However, on November 24, 1917 as the airship was passing over the

  9. Pleasantness bias in flashbulb memories: positive and negative flashbulb memories of the fall of the Berlin Wall among East and West Germans.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dornhe

    2007-04-01

    Flashbulb memories for the fall of the Berlin Wall were examined among 103 East and West Germans who considered the event as either highly positive or highly negative. The participants in the positive group rated their memories higher on measures of reliving and sensory imagery, whereas their memory for facts was less accurate than that of the participants in the negative group. The participants in the negative group had higher ratings on amount of consequences but had talked less about the event and considered it less central to their personal and national identity than did the participants in the positive group. In both groups, rehearsal and the centrality of the memory to the person's identity and life story correlated positively with memory qualities. The results suggest that positive and negative emotions have different effects on the processing and long-term retention of flashbulb memories.

  10. Experiencing the New Geography in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Uli; Burpee, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Considers the difficulties experienced by the East German School system adjusting to a more progressive educational philosophy. Specifically, contrasts the traditional East German geography instruction (focused solely on physical geography) with the West German emphasis on social issues and problem solving. Many East German instructors distrust…

  11. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  12. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  13. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse.

  14. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  15. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  16. Revolution and Journalism Higher Education in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Shaun T.

    2012-01-01

    The disruptions brought by the Arab Spring revolutions in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region in 2010-2011 created a series of personal and professional challenges for those involved in higher education in journalism in the region. This research uses narrative inquiry to examine the impact revolution had on a group of educators in the MENA…

  17. Training Rural Youth for Farming in the Asia and Far East Region. Report No. RAFE 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, G. N.

    In response to the Tenth Food and Agricultural Regional Conference for Asia and the Far East (August/September 1970), a comparative study of the different approaches already tried in the Region was conducted, and as the product of that study, this report briefly describes projects currently operating in India; Ceylon; Thailand; Malaysia;…

  18. Preliminary regional magnitude in the Middle East Region using narrowband Lg coda envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W.R.

    1997-07-01

    Because many regional seismic discriminants are functions of magnitude, it is important to obtain a stable measurement especially for smaller events that will likely have very limited station coverage. We have collected and analyzed regional broad band waveforms from stations in the middle east region for the purpose of calibrating a stable regional magnitude scale that can be applied to events that are too small to detect teleseismically. Our approach is to obtain frequency-dependent empirical Greens function coda envelopes for narrow frequency bands that can be used to correct for gross path effects. We make the assumption that the moment-rate spectra are generally flat below{approximately}2 Hz for these events smaller than Mw{approximately}3.5. In a least squares sense, we obtain frequency-dependent corrections to the Lg coda measurements to fit the scalar moment estimates. These frequency-dependent corrections remove the effects of the S-to-Lg coda transfer function, thus correcting back to the S-wave source spectra. Due to the averaging nature of Lg coda waves we are then able to obtain a stable single-station estimate of the source spectra.To avoid regional biases we tie our coda envelope amplitude measurements to seismic moments obtained from long period 1-D waveform modeling for moderate sized earthquakes (A4w-3.5.- 4.5). Most importantly, we can now apply the same corrections to significantly smaller events that cannot be observed teleseismically. Our empirical approach takes into account scattering,absorption, and waveguide losses as well as frequency-dependent site effects.Moreover, the use of the coda envelope mitigates the undesirable effects of source anisotropy, random site interference, path variability, and directivity that plague direct wave measurements. This approach was successfully applied to other regions where it was observed that the coda-derived Mw estimates showed significantly smaller dependence on lateral path variation and source

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  20. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  1. St. Louis Metro East region sediment and geomorphic study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straub, T.D.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Judy's Branch, a small basin (8.64 mi2) near Glen Carbon, Illinois, is selected as a pilot site to determine sediment yield and channel erosion of streams draining the bluffs of the American Bottoms in the Metro East area of Illinois. This paper presents results of an on-going sediment and geomorphic study in Judy's Branch. The average suspended-sediment yield from two upland sub-basins (drainage area equals 0.23 and 0.40 miles2) is 851 tons/mile2-year between October 2000 and September 2003. The suspended-sediment yield at the Route 157 gage (2,188 tons/mile 2-year) (near outlet of the watershed; drainage area = 8.33 miles2) is approximately 1300 tons/mile2-year greater than the average of the upland gages for the same time period. This result is unexpected in that generally the suspended-sediment yield decreases as the watershed area increases because of sediment being stored in the channel and floodplain. The difference indicates a possible increase in yield from a source, such as streambank erosion, and supports the theory that land-use changes increase streamflows that may result in higher rates of streambank erosion. The best estimate of sediment yield from streambank erosion is 1,009 tons/mile 2-year at Route 157. This value is obtained utilizing both bank-rod data and resurveyed cross-section data.

  2. Pressure effects on regional mean sea level trends in the German Bight in the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Frauke; Weisse, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The effect of large-scale atmospheric pressure changes on regional mean sea level projections in the German Bight in the twenty-first century are considered. A developed statistical model is applied to climate model data of sea level pressure for the twenty-first century to assess the potential contribution of large-scale atmospheric changes to future sea level changes in the German Bight. Using 78 experiments, an ensemble mean of 1.4-cm rise in regional mean sea level is estimated until the end of the twenty-first century. Changes are somewhat higher for realisations of the special report on emission scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, but generally do not exceed a few centimeters. This is considerably smaller than the changes expected from steric and self-gravitational effects. Large-scale changes in sea level pressure are thus not expected to provide a substantial contribution to twenty-first century sea level changes in the German Bight.

  3. Time-transgressive onset of the Holocene Optimum in the East Asian monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Zhan, Tao; Huang, Wen; Zhou, Xinying; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Yuhong; He, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Qiao, Yansong; Ge, Junyi; Yan, Pei; Yan, Qing; Shao, Da; Chu, Zhuding; Yang, Wenqing; Smol, John P.

    2016-12-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon affects precipitation and hence vegetation in the densely populated Northwest Pacific region, yet a long-standing controversy exists concerning the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Holocene Optimum (HO) in the East Asian Monsoon Region. Here we use a detailed 14,000-year record reconstructing vegetation variations from a strategically selected crater lake from Northeast China, as well as a compilation of previous paleoclimatic studies, to show that the HO began around 6,000 Cal a BP in Northeast China, significantly later than generally recognized. By comparing our paleoenvironmental data with Holocene vegetation records from other regions of East Asia, we identified a marked northward shift for the onset of the HO from ∼ 10 , 260 Cal a BP in South China to ∼ 6 , 000 Cal a BP in Northeast China. The gradual northward transgression of the vegetation change could be caused by both the temperature and precipitation changes in different regions. Finally, we fitted a regression model of the start of the HO period versus latitude, which allowed us to make predictions for the beginning of the HO at different geographical locations. This study reveals a strong relationship between latitude and the initiation of the HO, and provides a window towards better understanding the forcing of vegetation changes in the East Asian monsoon region.

  4. Cenamps: adding value to the North East region.

    PubMed

    Maw, Alex; Pitkethly, Mike; Gohir, Shak; McMurray, Amanda; Robbins, Dave

    2006-12-01

    Cenamps' highly talented and commercially experienced team work closely with business leaders to stimulate and manage market-led innovation, enabling businesses to develop new products and services as well as strengthen the regional economic foundation, R&D capabilities and performance. Cenamps achieves this by establishing new state-of-the-art R&D facilities and applied research projects for developing new technologies that will yield significant societal, economic and commercial benefits.

  5. Sub-Regional Cooperation in East Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    consolidation and resolution of the so- called “ gypsy -question” by helping the Romas integrate into these societies and improve their living...and more criticism is being leveled against the countries in the region concerning their politics towards the gypsies .33 Many... Roma and Sinti nation. 35 Human Rights Watch: Rights Denied: The Roma of Hungary, Available online at: http://hrw.org/reports/1996

  6. Snow Cover Variability in the Black Forest Region as an Example of a German Low Mountain Range under the Influence of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbein, J.; Schneider, C.

    2003-04-01

    During the last decades high snow cover variability was observed in the German low mountain ranges. In addition, average snow cover periods have decreased at most localities. This process involves a strong economic impact on skiing resorts of low mountain ranges. Based on data sets from weather stations of the German meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD)) which cover up to the last 60 years, the temporal development of the mean seasonal snow cover period in the low mountain ranges of Black Forest (south-west), Harz (north), and Bavarian Forest (south-east) of Germany was examined. Mean wintertime air temperature in the low mountain ranges is increasing more rapidly compared to the annual mean air temperature. Additionally the south west is the warmest region in Germany. Therefore, the snow cover of the Black Forest is much more susceptible to an increase in air temperature than in the other low mountain ranges in Germany. In the Black Forest region air temperatures near the melting point are observed even in January. Snow cover in the Bavarian Forest region with its much more continental climate is less affected by temperature variations but subject to variations in wintertime precipitation. Seasonal snow cover in the Harz region starts about two weeks earlier compared to Bavarian Forest and the Black Forest. The future snow cover development of Black Forest was examined using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prognosis of future air temperature development and trend analysis within observed time series at low mountain range weather stations. The IPCC scenarios were adopted specifically with respect to region, season and altitude and afterwards compared to the observed trend. A transfer function describes the relation between seasonal air temperature change and snow cover duration. A mean reduction of snow cover duration until 2025 for each mountain range is approximated. For instance, the period of a snow cover with a minimum height

  7. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-17

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  8. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 - 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. - May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. - Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons.

  9. Since 2015 the SinoGerman research project SIGN supports water quality improvement in the Taihu region, China.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin Rachel; der Beek, Tim Aus; Dai, Xiaohu; Dong, Bingzhi; Dopp, Elke; Eichinger, Florian; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Haußmann, Regina; Holbach, Andreas; Hollert, Henner; Illgen, Marc; Jiang, Xia; Koehler, Jan; Koester, Stephan; Korth, Andreas; Kueppers, Stephan; Li, Aili; Lohmann, Matthias; Moldaenke, Christian; Norra, Stefan; Qin, Boqiang; Qin, Yanwen; Reese, Moritz; Riehle, Edmund; Santiago-Schuebel, Beatrix; Schaefer, Charlotte; Simon, Anne; Song, Yonghui; Staaks, Christian; Steinhardt, Joerg; Subklew, Guenter; Tao, Tao; Wu, Tingfeng; Yin, Daqiang; Zhao, Fangfang; Zheng, Binghui; Zhou, Meiyue; Zou, Hua; Zuo, Jiane; Tiehm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The Taihu (Tai lake) region is one of the most economically prospering areas of China. Due to its location within this district of high anthropogenic activities, Taihu represents a drastic example of water pollution with nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate), organic contaminants and heavy metals. High nutrient levels combined with very shallow water create large eutrophication problems, threatening the drinking water supply of the surrounding cities. Within the international research project SIGN (SinoGerman Water Supply Network, www.water-sign.de), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), a powerful consortium of fifteen German partners is working on the overall aim of assuring good water quality from the source to the tap by taking the whole water cycle into account: The diverse research topics range from future proof strategies for urban catchment, innovative monitoring and early warning approaches for lake and drinking water, control and use of biological degradation processes, efficient water treatment technologies, adapted water distribution up to promoting sector policy by good governance. The implementation in China is warranted, since the leading Chinese research institutes as well as the most important local stakeholders, e.g. water suppliers, are involved.

  10. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    world in the 1940s and 1950s. In the case of Asia, the new regional scheme was in some ways a repackaging of the old, just purged of its Eurocentric... egoism , and contentiousness.10 Critics found it easy to poke holes in Asian Values.11 Some pointed to the implausibility of dichotomiz- ing Asia and...dynastic management, even if these dynas- ties were non-Chinese as in the case of the Manchus. Southeast Asia was less isolated and more open to outside

  11. Stakeholder-based evaluation categories for regional climate services - a case study at the German Baltic Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-08-01

    In this study, categories, dimensions, and criteria for evaluating regional climate services are derived by a participatory approach with potential service users at the German Baltic Sea coast. The development is carried out within nine face-to-face interviews conducted with decision makers, working in climate sensitive sectors at the German Baltic Sea coast. Three main groups of categories were localized which seem to matter most to the considered stakeholders and which seem to be crucial evaluation categories for regional climate services: (1) credibility, (2) relevance, and (3) appropriateness. For each of these evaluation categories several dimensions emerged, indicating certain perspectives of stakeholder demands. When summarizing these evaluation categories and their dimensions, 13 evaluation criteria for regional climate services can be derived (see Table 1). The results show that stakeholders do mainly address components other than those found in the literature (e.g. inputs, process, outputs, outcomes, and impacts). This might indicate that an evaluation, following solely literature-based (non-participative) components, is not sufficient to localize deficiencies or efficiencies within a regional climate service, since it might lead to results which are not relevant for potential users.

  12. Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks: Readiness for Openness in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia Region Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Belinda; James, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports in brief the pilot study, Distance Education Regulatory Frameworks, undertaken by the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) in 2010-2012 and the implications for openness for higher education in Southwest Pacific/South East Asia region nations. The project developed a methodological approach to…

  13. Trends in Articulation Arrangements for Technical and Vocational Education in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Adrian R.

    Trends in articulation arrangements for technical and vocational education (TVE) in the South East Asia region were studied. A key feature of articulation is the existence of pathways that allow graduates of one course of study to progress to other courses. Effective articulation opens up advancement for individuals and helps to create a flexible…

  14. 40 CFR 81.130 - Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Tier East Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial...

  15. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives,…

  16. The East African food crisis: did regional early warning systems function?

    PubMed

    Ververs, Mija-Tesse

    2012-01-01

    This opinion paper evaluates the early warning regional systems in East Africa in 2010 and 2011 and their abilities to predict and warn about the current food insecurity crisis. It provides information on which systems worked and which did not. It explains the potential reasons why and provides future recommendations. Finally, it notes that many organizations/systems assess only individual countries and thus are not able to see the larger regional picture and, therefore, the wider implications of the crisis and response.

  17. Catastrophic drought in East Asian monsoon region during Heinrich event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Sun, Liguang; Chu, Yangxi; Xia, Zehui; Zhou, Xinying; Li, Xiangzhong; Chu, Zhuding; Liu, Xiangjun; Shao, Da; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    Heinrich event 1 (H1) is an important millennial climate event during the last deglaciation. The substantial decreasing of monsoon strength in the East Asian monsoon region during the H1, as shown by stalagmite δ18O records, has been attributed to the southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which is caused by the slowdown/collapse of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, records from different Asian monsoon regions show various trends in precipitation changes during the H1, and these trends cannot be solely interpreted by the southward shift of the ITCZ. In the present study, we reconstructed time-series of East Asian monsoon precipitation between 25,000 and 10,000 a BP from floodplain sediments in the Huai River Basin. A white sediment layer, distinct from other layers in the profile, contains significantly low TOC, tree pollen and fern spore contents, and more positive δ13Corg, and it is deposited during the H1 event. The determined TOC, pollen and δ13Corg time-series, together with previously reported stalagmite δ18O, indicate a catastrophic (severe) drought in Jianghuai Region, one of the East Asian monsoon regions, during the H1. The La Niña condition in tropical Pacific likely also contributes to the catastrophic drought in Jianghuai Region and the precipitation variations in the Asian monsoon region during the H1.

  18. 2011 Operations and Maintenance Activities in the East Region of UNAVCO's Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Kasmer, D.; Jenkins, F.; Mencin, D.

    2011-12-01

    2011 marked Year 3 of Operations and Maintenance of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In the East Region of PBO, it was a year characterized by several major projects as well as scheduled ongoing maintenance activities. The most significant major project was a USGS/ARRA funded communications upgrade in Yellowstone National Park. This upgrade consisted of bringing 8 existing PBO stations within the Yellowstone volcanic region to near real-time communications. This work will be completed on time and in collaboration with the National Park Service. The upgrade promises to provide much faster latency for invaluable data being recorded for one of the most geodetically critical regions of the current PBO network. Another significant ongoing project in the East Region has been supporting the community that continues to use PBO data. In particular, support of Kristine Larson (Univ of CO) both in installing webcams at PBO sites for monitoring snow depth as well as supporting vegetative surveys at current PBO sites. Similarly, the East Region responded promptly to the community with requests for data quality issues that are station hardware related, including replacing GPS antennae and receivers. With regards to ongoing operations and maintenance projects, reasons for site visits in 2011 were dominated by two significant situations: battery replacement and CDMA modem swaps. 83 site visits were required as part of the Operations and Maintenance strategic battery plan of 5 year battery replacements. This proved to be a considerable challenge due to the scale and geography of the scheduled replacements- the sites were spread throughout the entire network, east to west and north to south. 20 station visits were required due to a Verizon upgrade of the older Alltel network purchased by Verizon. These stations are predominantly in the Rocky Mountain region, but often times had limited access to due weather. Overall, despite record snowfalls throughout the west, state of health

  19. Observation-based Understanding of the Cloud Properties over East China Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud properties over East China are described based on observations from satellite (MODIS), ground site and aircraft. Based on satellite observations, 10-year averaged cloud fraction over the whole China region is around 66%, similar to the average value of global, with the largest cloud occurrence in Summer; the cloud fraction increases slightly during last 10 years; more clouds are found at southeast region than at northwest region; cloud droplet effective radius shows the smallest values around 10 um at mid-latitude regions and largest values at high latitude regions; further PDF analysis shows that cloud droplet effective radius demonstrates a bimodal distribution with maximum occurrences around 10-16 um. Ground site observations show that cloud fraction at Taihu site is around 65% for 2013, consistent with that found by MODIS at the closest grid to the site; more clouds are found at night than during day. In-situ aircraft observations over Huanghua city show that cloud droplet effective radius increases with height, with values from 3-5 um at low altitude, 7-9 um at mid altitude, to 10-13 um at high altitude. While the aircraft observation sample volume is limited, the in-situ observed cloud properties demonstrate that cloud droplet re increases with height, consistent with many findings by in-situ aircraft at other locations. The consistency of satellite observed cloud droplet re between East China and other regions is likely caused by the fact that the cloud properties observed by satellite is more representative of those clouds at high altitudes which are weakly affected by the aerosols within the boundary layers. On the other hand, the cloud droplet re at the cloud bases over East China is much smaller than those found at other locations, likely demonstrating the significant impacts by the heavy aerosol loadings at this region. Further studies with more site and aircraft observations over East China are needed.

  20. East meets West: cross-cultural perspective in end-of-life decision making from Indian and German viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Simon, Alfred

    2008-06-01

    Culture creates the context within which individuals experience life and comprehend moral meaning of illness, suffering and death. The ways the patient, family and the physician communicate and make decisions in the end-of-life care are profoundly influenced by culture. What is considered as right or wrong in the healthcare setting may depend on the socio-cultural context. The present article is intended to delve into the cross-cultural perspectives in ethical decision making in the end-of-life scenario. We attempt to address the dynamics of the roles of patient, family and physician therein across two countries from East and West, namely, India and Germany. In India, where illness is more a shared family affair than an individual incident, a physician is likely to respect the family's wishes and may withhold the [Symbol: see text]naked truth' about the diagnosis of a fatal disease to the patient. In Germany, a physician is legally required to inform the patient about the disease. In India, advance directive being virtually non-existent, the family acts as the locus of the decision-making process, taking into account the economic cost of available medical care. In Germany, advance directive is regarded as mandatory and healthcare is covered by insurance. Family and the physician appear to play larger roles in ethical decision making for patients in India than for those in Germany, who place greater emphasis on autonomy of the individual patient. Our study explicates how culture matters in ethical decision-making and why the bioethical discourse is necessary in the concrete realities of the socio-cultural context. To explore the possibility of finding a common ground of morality across different cultures while acknowledging and respecting cultural diversity, thus remains a formidable challenge for the bioethicists.

  1. Impact of East Asian summer monsoon circulation on the regional aerosol distribution in observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongli; Xie, Xiaoning; Yan, Libin; Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can change the spatio-temporal distribution of aerosols by influencing the aerosol horizontal and vertical transports and the wet deposition of aerosols over East Asia. In this paper, we examined the aerosol optical depth (AOD) during summer together with the intensity of the EASM based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer products on board the Terra satellite and the modeling results from the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model 5.1 in the mid-latitude monsoonal East Asia (20-45° N, 105-130° E). Our results from both observations and simulations show positive correlations of AOD with the monsoon intensity over the Northeast Asia sub-region (32.5-45° N, 105-130° E), and negative correlations with that over the southeast Asia sub-region (20-32.5° N, 105-130° E). The observed and simulated AODs were much larger over the northern sub-region and much smaller over the southern sub-region in the strongest monsoon years compared with those in the weakest monsoon years. The model results suggest that the mechanism responsible for the north-south difference in the aerosol distribution was mainly caused by lower-tropospheric meridional wind anomalies related to EASM. Compared with the weakest monsoon years, the strongest monsoon years experienced southerly wind anomalies, which enabled more aerosols to be transported northward and resulted in a convergence of aerosols over the northern sub-region. In addition, the wet deposition of aerosols reduced (enhanced) the aerosol concentrations in the northern (southern) sub-region during the strongest monsoon years compared with the weakest monsoon years, which partly offset the impact of the lower southerly winds on the aerosol distribution over East Asia.

  2. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region - borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    2016-04-01

    We present a regional 3D numerical crustal temperature model and analyze the present-day conductive thermal field of the Danish-German border region located in the North German Basin. A comprehensive analysis of borehole and well-log data on a regional scale is conducted to derive both the model parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity and new heat-flow values. The latter one are used to setup the numerical lower boundary condition. Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (59 values from 24 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results (calibration and validation). The prediction uncertainties between observed and modelled temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 3.5°C). For eight deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived, ranging between 72 and 84 mW/m² (mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m²). Those values are up to 20 mW/m² higher than low values reported in some previous studies for this region. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 33 and 40 mW/m² (q1-q3; mean of 37 ± 7 mW/m²). Pronounced lateral temperature variations are caused mainly by complex geological structures, including a large amount of salt structures and marked lateral variations in the thickness of basin sediments. The associated variations in rock thermal conductivity generate significant variations in model heat flow and large variations in temperature gradients. Major geothermal sandstone reservoirs (e.g. Rhaetian and Middle Buntsandstein) are mainly found with temperatures within the range of 40-80°C, which is suitable for low enthalpy heating purposes in most of the area. Higher temperatures of up to 120-160°C, of interest for the production of electricity, are observed only in the very south-eastern part of the study area (Glückstadt-Graben area). In combination with the structural geological model and information on reservoir hydraulic properties, the presented temperature model will

  3. Seasonal drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Greg; Funk, Chris

    2014-05-01

    In East Africa, agriculture is mostly rainfed and hence sensitive to interannual rainfall variability, and the increasing food and water demands of a growing population place further stresses on the water resources of this region. Skillful seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform timely water and agricultural management decisions, support the proper allocation of the region's water resources, and help mitigate socio-economic losses. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal drought forecast system that is being used for providing seasonal outlooks of agricultural drought in East Africa. We present a test case of the evaluation and applicability of this system for March-April-May growing season over equatorial East Africa (latitude 20 south to 80 North and 360 E to 460E) that encompasses one of the most food insecure and climatically and socio-economically vulnerable regions in East Africa. This region experienced famine as recently as in 2011. The system described here combines advanced satellite and re-analysis as well as station-based long term and real-time observations (e.g. NASA's TRMM, Infra-red remote sensing, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis), state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system (NCEP's Climate Forecast System Verison-2) and large scale land surface models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity, NASA's Land Information System) to provide forecasts of seasonal rainfall, soil moisture and Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) throughout the season - with an emphasis on times when water is the most critical: start of season/planting and the mid-season/crop reproductive phase. Based on the hindcast assessment of this system, we demonstrate the value of this approach to the US Agency for International Development (USAID)'s efforts to mitigate future losses of lives and economic losses by allowing a proactive approach of drought management that includes early warning and timely action.

  4. Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of East Africa are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in East Africa using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in East Africa.

  5. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention in children and adolescents in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Shibl, Atef; Tufenkeji, Haysam; Khalil, Mohamed; Memish, Ziad

    2012-03-01

    Facing the availability of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo®, Menactra® and others pending for license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries of the Middle East region met at a "Meningococcal Leadership Forum" (MLF), which took place in May 2010 in Dubai. The participants of the conference discussed the importance of introducing the concept of conjugate vaccines - especially for children and adolescents - and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision makers with their expertise. In experts' opinion, conjugate vaccines are the best choice for the prevention of meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y. As quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines are registered and available in the Middle East region, they should replace plain polysaccharide vaccines and be integrated in pediatric and adolescent vaccination schedules, including infant vaccination concomitantly with basic EPI vaccines when licensed.

  6. International migration within and from the East and Southeast Asian region: a review essay.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the literature on the trends and characteristics of international migration within and from East and Southeast Asia, with a focus on the past 25 years. "Five migration systems are described: settler, student, contract labor, skilled labor, and refugee. Settler migration to the U.S., Canada and Australia has consisted primarily of family members.... Contract labor migration, particularly to the Middle East, has provided jobs, foreign currency through remittances and greater participation of women, but also led to illegal migration, skills drain, and labor abuses. The hierarchy of development has led to intra-regional flows: (1) skilled labor mainly from Japan to other countries in the region, and (2) contract labor and illegal migration from the LDCs to the NIEs [newly industrializing economies] and Japan."

  7. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  8. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia).

    PubMed

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  9. Tracing the Origin of the East-West Population Admixture in the Altai Region (Central Asia)

    PubMed Central

    González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos, Cristina; Jordana, Xavier; Simón, Marc; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Gigli, Elena; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-01-01

    A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture) in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1) whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly), or 2) whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a ‘contact zone’ between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan). Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk), but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia. PMID:23152818

  10. Propagation of Regional Phases and Their Codas in Southern Asia and the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    be as high as a thousand or more. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Attenuation, Rayleigh waves, Q, Middle East i 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION | OF REPORT...stable continental regions where shear-wave Q may be as high as a thousand or more. These low values may indicate that fluids reside in faults...years, high -quality data and increasing numbers of favorably located, modern, digital stations have enabled seismologists to apply tomographic

  11. A Study of Mobile Trough Genesis Over The Yellow Sea-East China Sea Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    Mongolian Plateau. The maximum that extends over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is the only region of enhanced mobile trough formation which is...Gammon used PTD to further investigate mobile troughs and extratropical cyclones. An investigation of mobile trough formation over the Mongolian Plateau...over the Mongolian plateau. The results from the previous studies provide a measure of confidence for this research. Two case studies were chosen using

  12. Change in land water storage in the East Africa region inferred from GRACE and altimetry data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Cazenave, A.

    2008-12-01

    Drought can be regarded as one of the most damaging of natural disasters in human, environmental, and economic terms. It occurs as a result of extremes in climate that are driven by natural variability but may be exacerbated or dampened by anthropogenic influences. In East Africa rainfall exhibits a great spatial and temporal variability. Such events have impact on the water budget of this region. But water use and more generally anthropogenic forcing also affect regional hydrology. In this study, we investigate water storage change (surface and ground) using in synergy satellite radar altimetry, GRACE satellite gravity and other data to quantify recent change in surface waters and total land storage in East Africa over the recent years. Water levels of most East African lakes display significant decrease since the strong ENSO event of 1997- 1998. GRACE data available since 2002 also show decrease in total water storage over this region. The volume of water stored within lakes and reservoirs is a sensitive proxy for precipitation and may be used to study the combined impact of climate change and water-resource management. We also combine GRACE, altimetry and precipitation data sets to explore the relative contributions of the source term to the seasonal and interannual hydrological balance of this area and its link with the western Indian Ocean thermal change

  13. A regional surface wave magnitude scale for the earthquakes of Russia's Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, O. S.; Gusev, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The modified scale M s(20R) is developed for the magnitude classification of the earthquakes of Russia's Far East based on the surface wave amplitudes at regional distances. It extends the applicability of the classical Gutenberg scale M s(20) towards small epicentral distances (0.7°-20°). The magnitude is determined from the amplitude of the signal that is preliminarily bandpassed to extract the components with periods close to 20 s. The amplitude is measured either for the surface waves or, at fairly short distances of 0.7°-3°, for the inseparable wave group of the surface and shear waves. The main difference of the M s(20R) scale with the traditional M s(BB) Soloviev-Vanek scale is its firm spectral anchoring. This approach practically eliminated the problem of the significant (up to-0.5) regional and station anomalies characteristic of the M s(BB) scale in the conditions of the Far East. The absence of significant station and regional anomalies, as well as the strict spectral anchoring, make the M s(20R) scale advantageous when used for prompt decision making in tsunami warnings for the coasts of Russia's Far East.

  14. Crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region: implications for the isostatic compensation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, Dogan; Sandvol, Eric; Sandvol, Christine; Brindisi, Carrie; Barazangi, Muawia

    2001-12-01

    We present a new 3-D crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region that includes detailed topography, sediment thickness, and Moho depth values. The model is obtained by collecting, integrating, and interpolating reliable, published sedimentary rock thickness and Moho depth measurements in the Middle East and North Africa region. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, the 3-D gravity response of the model is calculated and compared with available observed Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region. The gravity modelling shows that the new crustal model predicts large portions of the observed Bouguer anomalies. However, in some regions, such as the Red Sea and Caspian Sea regions, where crustal structure is relatively well-determined, the residual anomalies are of the order of a few hundred milligals. Since the new crustal model results in large residual anomalies in regions where reasonably good constraints exist for the model, these large residuals cannot simply be explained by inaccuracies in the model. To analyse the cause of these residuals further we developed an isostatically compensated (Airy-type) Moho-depth model and calculated its gravity response. Isostatic gravity anomalies are in nearly perfect agreement with the observed gravity values. However, the isostatic model differs significantly from the new (3-D) crustal model. If isostasy is to be maintained, crustal and/or upper mantle lateral density variations are needed to explain the large observed gravity residuals.

  15. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  16. Recent droughts and effect of climate change on climate extremes in the East African region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Z. T.; Gebremichael, M.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is a region that has been affected by droughts, floods, famine one too many times. 2015 was one of the worst droughts in the region in decades and created a food crisis in the region leading to 15 million people needing food and water assistance. In a region where the climate resilience of the society is low, understanding of the climate and how it's changing is very important. Unfortunately, only a few studies have been done in this area. In this study we looked at the recent droughts in the region and analyzed the trends in relation to historical data. A combination of remote sensing products like TRMM, GPM and MERRA were used in conjunction with gridded observed products like CPC as well as gauge observations to carry out the analysis. The second part of the analysis focused on how climate change will affect the climate extremes in the region focusing on precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration. 20 selected GCMs from CMIP5 were used at a daily timescale to look at climate extremes. Changes in daily intensity of precipitation, seasonal shifts and total rainfall were analyzed for mid-century and end of the century RCP 6.0 scenario and compared to the historical figures. In addition, daily extreme temperature and evapotranspiration as well seasonal shifts were focuses of this study. Spatial variations were also shown to be important in understanding the changes. Even though studies have shown the total rainfall in the region didn't show a significant change in that region under climate change, seasonal shifts, extreme precipitation, extreme temperatures, prolonged droughts, and increase in evapotranspiration were observed in East Africa. In a region where population is expected to double by mid-century this extreme can put the lives of millions in danger. This study will be followed with another focusing on how these changes in extremes and distribution will affect the water resources in the region specifically the Nile.

  17. A rare form of persistent right aorta arch in linkage disequilibrium with the DiGeorge critical region on CFA26 in German Pinschers.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Ute; Menzel, Julia; Distl, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) is a congenital vascular ring anomaly common in several dog breeds. In German Pinscher, the disorder is characterized by a left retroesophageal subclavian artery in combination with a ligamentum arteriosum originating at the aberrant left subclavian artery (PRAA-SA-LA). In this study, we genotyped 38 microsatellite markers on canine chromosome 26 (CFA26) in German Pinschers and tested them for linkage and association. We found a chromosome-wide significantly linked genomic region on CFA26, which corresponds to the human DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR). Therefore, we analyzed sequences from 13 genes of DGCR and the canine t-box gene TBX1. We identified a total of 26 polymorphisms in German Pinschers. Three of these SNPs located within TBX1 and one in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40 gene (MRPL40) were associated with the PRAA-SA-LA phenotype in German Pinscher. Despite linkage and association between PRAA-SA-LA and the canine DGCR, none of these mutations appeared responsible for PRAA-SA-LA. As the orthologue human region on HSA22q11.2 is known for high susceptibility to genomic rearrangements, we suspect that in German Pinschers, chromosomal aberrations might cause PRAA-SA-LA.

  18. Epidemiology of burn injuries in the East Mediterranean Region: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Burn injuries remain one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality in the World Health Organization's East Mediterranean Region. To provide an overview on the epidemiology of burn injuries in this region, a systematic review was undertaken. Methods Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched for publications on burns in this region published between 01/01/1997 and 16/4/2007. Data were extracted to a standard spreadsheet and synthesised using a narrative synthesis. No attempt has been made to quantitatively synthesise the data due to the large degree of clinical heterogeneity between study populations. Results Seventy one studies were included in the review, from 12 countries. Burn injuries were found to be one of the leading causes of injury morbidity and mortality. The reported incidence of burns ranged from 112 to 518 per 100,000 per year. Burn victims were more frequently young and approximately one third of the victims were children aged 0-5 years. Hospital mortality ranged from 5 to 37%, but was commonly above 20%. Intentional self-harm burns particularly involving women were common in some countries of the region and were associated with a very high mortality of up to 79%. Conclusion Burn injuries remain an important public health issue in the East Mediterranean Region therefore further research is required to investigate the problem and assess the effectiveness of intervention programmes. PMID:20170527

  19. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with <95% 2-dose routine MCV coverage, particularly in India and Indonesia, to strengthen routine immunization services, conduct periodic high-quality SIAs, and strengthen measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  20. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-04-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20 °N and 40 °N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe-Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr(-1), which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor.

  1. Health risks of climate change in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-09-01

    Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.

  2. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  3. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-01-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529

  4. Penetrated system' or normal' state An exploration of INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1979-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The thesis explores policy-making processes in the Federal Republic from 1979-1987 in three areas: INF arms control policy, East-West economic relations, and inter-German policy. Each case study assesses the degree of complexity and domestic accountability in policy-making processes and evaluates the relative influence of domestic and external factors on policy choices. It argues that the trends in West German foreign policy toward greater assertiveness reflected the evolution of the FRG as a state, society, and polity. The maturation' of the Federal Republic has introduced greater complexity into foreign policy-making processes, and more frequent societal intervention into what heretofore were elite deliberations. Domestic actors have begun to demand greater accountability, while West German leaders, in turn, have become more assertive and confident in defending German national interests. As the FRG has gained respect and self-respect, it has begun to assume the international role that might be expected of a state of its size, population, geo-political importance, and level of political and economic development. The FRG has become a normal' state.

  5. Regional health workforce monitoring as governance innovation: a German model to coordinate sectoral demand, skill mix and mobility.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, E; Lauxen, O; Larsen, C

    2016-11-28

    As health workforce policy is gaining momentum, data sources and monitoring systems have significantly improved in the European Union and internationally. Yet data remain poorly connected to policy-making and implementation and often do not adequately support integrated approaches. This brings the importance of governance and the need for innovation into play. The present case study introduces a regional health workforce monitor in the German Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate and seeks to explore the capacity of monitoring to innovate health workforce governance. The monitor applies an approach from the European Network on Regional Labour Market Monitoring to the health workforce. The novel aspect of this model is an integrated, procedural approach that promotes a 'learning system' of governance based on three interconnected pillars: mixed methods and bottom-up data collection, strong stakeholder involvement with complex communication tools and shared decision- and policy-making. Selected empirical examples illustrate the approach and the tools focusing on two aspects: the connection between sectoral, occupational and mobility data to analyse skill/qualification mixes and the supply-demand matches and the connection between monitoring and stakeholder-driven policy. Regional health workforce monitoring can promote effective governance in high-income countries like Germany with overall high density of health workers but maldistribution of staff and skills. The regional stakeholder networks are cost-effective and easily accessible and might therefore be appealing also to low- and middle-income countries.

  6. Tectonic Structure, Solid Earth and Cryosphere Interactions in the Casey-Davis Region of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, A. M.; King, M. A.; Halpin, J.; Whittaker, J. M.; White, D.; Cook, S.; Staal, T.

    2016-12-01

    The region of inland East Antarctica between Casey and Davis stations (Wilkes Land to Princess Elizabeth Land) is one of the least investigated parts of the continent with respect to its tectonic and solid Earth structure. This is difficult to estimate because the conjugate margin in plate reconstructions has been lost in the collision between India and Eurasia. The region is also host to some of the greatest uncertainties in Antarctica in glacial-isostatic adjustment observations and models, and where the contribution of heat from underlying rocks is difficult to estimate due to the limited available rock samples. We investigate the solid Earth structure and its interactions with the East Antarctic ice sheet through a new campaign including GPS and seismic instrument deployments, and field measurements to constrain ice retreat history. This presentation provides an overview of the new, multi-year Casey-Davis Glacial Isostatic Adjustment campaign including station locations and deployment progress. The campaign is being supported by Australian Antarctic Division and uses a combination of fixed-wing and helicopter support to access station locations in both coastal locations and the continental interior. A primary long-term objective of the campaign is to remove bias from estimates of East Antarctica's contribution to past and present sea level changes. We also seek to better constrain the geothermal influences on the East Antarctic ice sheet. The GPS determinations of vertical plate motion and the detailed seismic structure await data downloads in future field seasons, however, we are able to present new findings from preliminary studies. We show candidate ancient tectonic reconstructions for this part of East Antarctica and make use of our knowledge of structure of continental regions with a similar evolution to infer the likely structures for the Casey-Davis region. We add these new constraints to the structure currently inferred from a very small number of

  7. Energy inefficiency in the Asia/Near East region and its environmental implications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The report assesses the current and projected energy situation and needs in the Asia/Near East region and describes the status of energy efficiency. It examines the environmental implications of energy supply and use, with specific focus on energy infrastructure and fossil fuel combustion. Energy efficiency activities and achievements are described for Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as for two other countries, Costa Rica and Singapore, which have recently implemented energy efficiency activities that could be replicated in Asia/Near East countries. In conclusion, the report recommends that, in addition to energy efficiency, complementary efforts need to be made to promote the use of cleaner fuels and encourage the incorporation of environmental considerations into all major energy decisions.

  8. Tectonic stability of the Farakka dam and its adjoining regions in east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, C. L.; Singh, V. P.

    1989-11-01

    The results of gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys carried out in the neighbourhood of the Farakka dam in east India are presented. A major deep-seated fault, extending from Kishanganj to south of Malda, has been inferred from gravity data. This fault runs ˜ 20 km east of the Farakka dam, with a north-south trend. Magnetic anomalies over this region are strong and show tight closures. This could indicate the presence of basaltic lava at shallow depths. P-wave velocities vary from 4.6 to 5.6 km s -1 at depths from 35 to 250 m. Borehole data support these findings. Magnetic and seismic observations do not support the fault inferred from gravity data.

  9. Effects of below-cloud scavenging on the regional aerosol budget in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Ya; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Yong Pyo; Woo, Jung-Hun

    2012-10-01

    We examine the effects of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia using wet deposition fluxes observed at Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) sites and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model together with a new below-cloud-scavenging scheme. Typical air quality models, including CMAQ, assume below-cloud scavenging as a simple first-order process with a constant or simple form depending on rain intensity. The scheme used here accounts for the collection efficiency, terminal velocity of raindrops, raindrop-size distributions, and particle-size distributions, which are important factors affecting below-cloud scavenging. We conduct model simulations for spring 2001, including baseline and sensitivity simulations. Our analysis mainly focuses on May 2001 to rule out the effect of dust aerosols. Simulated wet deposition fluxes of SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ by the new scheme are increased by 103, 16, and 108%, respectively, relative to the baseline simulation and show better agreement with observations. The effect of below-cloud scavenging on coarse particles is even greater, producing wet deposition fluxes two orders of magnitude higher than the baseline. The resulting changes in the model indicate the considerable impacts of below-cloud scavenging on regional aerosol simulations over East Asia, where both anthropogenic emissions and natural sources of aerosols are present throughout the year. An accurate wet scavenging simulation is critical to simulate the atmospheric burden and wet deposition fluxes of both fine-mode and coarse-mode aerosols over East Asia.

  10. Developmental defects of enamel in primary teeth - findings of a regional German birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Yvonne

    2016-07-07

    The aim was to assess the prevalence, distribution and associated risk factors of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in 3-year-old Thuringian children in 2013 as part of a prospective cohort study. The subjects (n = 377) were all participants in a Thuringian oral health programme. Children of the birth cohort 2009/2010 were invited to dental examination in the first year of life, followed up with continuous dental care over the next 3 years. Dental caries was scored using the WHO diagnostic criteria expanded to the d1-level without radiography. Enamel defects were assessed according to the modified DDE Index. Data were analysed statistically (multivariate logistic regression). The children were aged 3.3 ± 0.7 years and 52.5 % of them were male. Caries prevalence was 15.6 % and caries experience 0.9 ± 3.3 d1-4mfs. The prevalence of DDE was 5.3 % with an average of 2.7 (±1.4) affected teeth. Second primary molars were the most affected teeth and demarcated opacities the most prevalent type. No child had Amelogenesis imperfecta and six children showed hypomineralised second primary molars. Enamel defects were associated with preterm birth (p = 0.024; OR = 4.9) and hospitalisation in the first year of life (p = 0.013; OR = 4.6). A relatively small proportion of 3-year-old Thuringian children suffered from DDE, with second primary molars as the most affected teeth and demarcated opacities as the most prevalent type of defect. Preterm birth and hospitalisation in first year of life can be considered as risk factors for DDE in the primary dentition. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00003438.

  11. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of East Asia summer blocking on the atmospheric circulation over the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joong-Bae; Park, Yong-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The influence of the boreal summer blocking on atmospheric circulation in East Asia was examined. The summer blocking occurred mostly in North Europe, Ural region, Sea of Okhotsk (OK), and northeastern Pacific. The summer blocking was the major mode in these four regions according to principal component analysis using 500 hPa geopotential heights. Among the four blocking regions, OK blocking frequencies (OK BFs) showed negative and positive correlations with summer temperature and precipitation of Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan, respectively. In particular, the OK BF had a statistically significant correlation coefficient of -0.54 with summer temperatures in the Korean Peninsula. This indicates that the summer temperature and precipitation in this region were closely related to the OK blocking. According to the composite analysis for the years of higher-than-average BF (positive BF years), the OK High became stronger and expanded, while the North Pacific High was weakened over the Korean Peninsula and Japan and an anomalously deep trough was developed in the upper layer (200 hPa). As the cool OK High expanded, the temperature decreased over Northeast Asia centered around the East Sea/Sea of Japan and the lower level (850 hPa) air converged cyclonically, resulting in the increased precipitation, which induced the divergence in the upper layer and thereby strengthened the jet stream. Thus, the boreal summer OK blocking systematically influencing the area as the most dominant mode. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under grant project PJ009353 and Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under grant CATER 2012-3100, Republic of Korea.

  13. [Human Resource Development for Tohoku Region after Great East Japan Earthquake: Remarks of the Chairperson].

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    In order to promote further advances of medical systems in the Tohoku region where the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred, the requirement of human resources in clinical laboratory medicine has increased. Therefore, the symposium entitled "Human resource development for Tohoku region after Great East Japan Earthquake" was held in The 47th Tohoku Regional Congress of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine. In Fukushima Prefecture, the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination program has been conducted since Oct. 2011. Educational courses and certification programs for thyroid ultrasound examiners were established for medical doctors and technologists in Fukushima. The need for certified sonographers has also increased because deep venous thrombosis is also one of the health problems in the earthquake-hit area. Human resource development of sonographers was discussed in this symposium. In addition, further advances in clinical laboratory medicine are dependent on the development of specified medical technologists and certified physicians. Projects of human resource development currently performed in the Tohoku region were introduced and future actions were discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Regional Climate Models for Summer Extremes of Temperature and Precipitation over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki

    2014-05-01

    The regional climate models (RCMs) have been widely used to generate more detailed information in space and time of climate patterns produced by the global climate models (GCMs). Recently the international collaborative effort has been set up as the CORDEX (Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) project which covers several regional domains including East Asia. In this study, five RCMs (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project are evaluated in terms of their skills at simulating climatology of summer extremes. We examine bias and RMSE and conduct a Taylor diagram analysis using seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and daily precipitation amount over the East Asia land area from 'historical' experiments of individual RCMs and their multi-model ensemble means (MME). The APHRODITE (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Toward Evaluation) datasets on 0.5° x 0.5° grids are used as observations. Results show similar systematic bias patterns between seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is found along the coast while a warm bias occurs in the northern China. Overall wet bias appears in East Asia but there is a substantial dry bias in South Korea. This dry bias appears related to be a cold SST (sea surface temperature) around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front (Changma) further south than observations. Taylor diagram analyses show that temperature has better skill in means than in extremes because of higher spatial correlation whereas precipitation exhibits better skill in extremes than in means due to better spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events may be better captured although seasonal mean precipitation tends to be overestimated by RCMs. The model performances between mean and extreme are found to be closely related, but not clearly between temperature and precipitation. Temperatures are always better simulated than

  15. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O'Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  16. Evaluation of multiple regional climate models for summer climate extremes over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Min, Seung-Ki; Lee, Donghyun; Cha, Dong-Hyun; Suh, Myoung-Seok; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Hong, Song-You; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Boo, Kyung-On; Kwon, Won-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, five regional climate models (RCMs) participating in the CORDEX-East Asia project (HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, SNU-MM5, SNU-WRF, and YSU-RSM) are evaluated in terms of their performances in simulating the climatology of summer extremes in East Asia. Seasonal maxima of daily mean temperature and precipitation are analyzed using the generalized extreme value method. RCMs show systematic bias patterns in both seasonal means and extremes. A cold bias is located along the coast, whereas a warm bias occurs in northern China. Overall, wet bias occurs in East Asia, but with a substantial dry bias centered in South Korea. This dry bias appears to be related to the colder ocean surface around South Korea, positioning the monsoonal front further south compared to observations. Taylor diagram analyses reveal that the models simulate temperature means more accurately compared to extremes because of the higher spatial correlation, whereas precipitation extremes are simulated better than their means because of the higher spatial variability. The latter implies that extreme rainfall events can be captured more accurately by RCMs compared to the driving GCM despite poorer simulation of mean rainfall. Inter-RCM analysis indicates a close relationship between the means and extremes in terms of model skills, but it does not show a clear relationship between temperature and precipitation. Sub-regional analysis largely supports the mean-extreme skill relationship. Analyses of frequency and intensity distributions of daily data for three selected sub-regions suggest that overall shifts of temperature distribution and biases in moderate-heavy precipitations contribute importantly to the seasonal mean biases.

  17. Silent Epidemic of Depression in Women in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Eloul, Liyam; Ambusaidi, Aamal; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Background: As the world is being gripped by economic depression, international psychological epidemiologists have amassed evidence to suggest that psychological depression and its variants are becoming leading contributors to the global burden of disease with the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region being no exception. Aim: The main aim of the present discourse, based on a review of the available literature, is to discuss critically whether women in the MENA region have a higher rate of psychological depression than those in other parts of the globe. Result: From the present synthesis, it emerges that the rate of depression may not be necessarily unique to the region. Conclusion: Although no society has totally overcome the marginalisation and lack of empowerment of women, in order to come to grips to this complex issue more vigorously designed epidemiological studies, using taxonomies that are standardised for cross-cultural populations, are needed to quantify the psychological functioning of women. PMID:21509269

  18. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  19. Diabetes-related tuberculosis in the Middle East: an urgent need for regional research

    PubMed Central

    Alkabab, Yosra M.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Heysell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease, complicates TB treatment, and increases the risk of a poor TB outcome. As DM prevalence is increasing across the Middle East, this review was performed to identify regional gaps in knowledge and research priorities for DM/TB. Methods Online databases were searched for studies published from Middle East countries on DM and TB and the studies summarized based on topic and major findings. Studies included had a principle hypothesis related to both diseases, or described TB patients with individual data on DM. Results Fifty-nine studies from 10 countries met search criteria. No published studies were found from Lebanon, Bahrain, Syria, Jordan, Cyprus, or the United Arab Emirates. DM prevalence among TB patients was high, but varied considerably across studies. The vast majority of studies were not specifically designed to compare DM/TB and non-DM/TB patients, but many suggested worse treatment outcomes for DM/TB, in accordance with reports from other regions. Conclusions Opportunity exists for the regional study of bidirectional screening, management strategies for both DM and TB diseases, and whether such efforts could take place through the integration of services. PMID:26409203

  20. Bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon linked with the regional carbon cycle in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The regional carbon cycle on continental shelves has created great interest recently due to the enigma of whether these areas are a carbon sink or a source. It is vital for a precise carbon cycle model to take the bioavailability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into account, as it impacts the sink and source capacity, especially on dynamic shelves such as the East China Sea. Nine bio-decomposition experiments were carried out to assess differences in the bioavailability of DOC. Samples were collected from different water masses in the East China Sea, such as the Coastal Current, the Taiwan Current, and the Kuroshio Current, as well as from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), the main contributor of terrestrial DOC in the East China Sea. This study aimed to quantify and qualify bioavailable DOC (BDOC) in the East China Sea. Both the degradation constant of BDOC and the carbon output from microorganisms have been quantitatively evaluated. Qualitatively, excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra (EEMs) were used to evaluate the intrinsic reasons for BDOC variation. By using EEMs in conjunction with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), five individual fluorescent components were identified in this study: three humic-like and two protein-like components (P1, P2). The highest P1 and P2 fluorescence intensities were recorded in the coastal water during a phytoplankton algal bloom, while the lowest intensities were recorded in the Changjiang estuary. Quantitatively, BDOC observed during the incubation ranged from 0 to 26.1 μM. The DOC degradation rate constant varied from 0 to 0.027 (d-1), and was lowest in the Changjiang and highest in algal bloom water and warm shelf water (the Taiwan current). The Taiwan Current and mixed shelf water were the major contributors of BDOC flux to the open ocean, and the East China Sea was a net source of BDOC to the ocean. The results verified the importance of BDOC in regional carbon cycle modeling. Combining the data of BDOC and EEMs

  1. Droughts in East European Plain Since the Middle of 20th Century: Regional Changes and Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmakin, A. B.; Popova, V.; Zolotokrylin, A.; Cherenkova, E.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed statistical study of atmospheric droughts over North Eurasia is carried out for the period 1950-2011 based on daily meteorological records. Criteria for the atmospheric droughts include both low precipitation and high maximum daily temperature. Regions with high frequency of the atmospheric droughts include south of East European plain, south of Western Siberia, and parts of Eastern Siberia and Far East. Large-scale atmospheric circulation situations favourable for the atmospheric droughts include combination of anomalous values of West Pacific and some other indices such as North Atlantic Oscillation, Polar-Eurasian, etc. Changes of the atmospheric drought frequency over the North Eurasia during the last decades are explored and mapped. Overall, the frequency of the atmospheric droughts has increased, especially over certain parts of Siberia and Far East, as well as over East European Plain (the latter due to the 2010 event). To a significant extent, increase of the atmospheric drought frequency is related to the changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation. The statistical relationships between the atmospheric drought frequency and atmospheric circulation indices can vary on the decadal scale. Since the beginning of 1980s, there is a significant trend in some of the circulation indices values, resulting in changes of the atmospheric droughts frequency over North Eurasia. At the same time, some of the drought indices evaluated by monthly temperature and precipitation anomalies do not demonstrate significant anomalies in 2010 as compared to several other drought events (1936, 1938, 1972, etc.). Applicability of various monthly indices for the drought analysis in Eastern Europe is studied.

  2. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield.

  3. Source regions and transport pathways of PM2.5 at a regional background site in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hongliang; Deng, Junjun; Du, Wenjiao; Hong, Youwei; Xu, Lingling; Qiu, Yuqing; Hong, Zhenyu; Wu, Xin; Ma, Qianli; Yao, Jie; Chen, Jinsheng

    2017-10-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected daily at the Lin'an regional background station (LA) in Zhejiang, China during 2014-2015 and the major chemical components including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII) were determined. Backward trajectory clustering and potential source contribution function (PSCF) were adopted for identifying the transport pathways and potential source regions of PM2.5 at LA. The annual mean concentration was 68.9 ± 28.3 μg m-3, indicating severe pollution in East China. Obvious seasonal variations were found, with highest level in winter and lowest in summer. Carbonaceous aerosols and WSII were the predominant compositions, accounting for 30.7% and 53.5% of PM2.5, respectively. Secondary inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) made a total contribution of 45.2% to PM2.5. Heterogeneous formation played a dominant role in SO42- formation and NH4+ formation promoted NO3- formation. Stationary sources played a more important role than mobile sources based on NO3-/SO42- ratio of 0.53. Aerosol environment at LA was ammonium-poor and SO42- was only neutralized sufficiently by NH4+ with the predominant production of (NH4)2SO4 in winter. Four major transport pathways of air masses at LA were found based on trajectory clustering. Air masses from the northwest Gobi areas passing over the heavily polluted regions in North and Central China had the highest levels of PM2.5, followed by the air masses from Central China. PSCF results suggested that surrounding areas in the Yangtze River Delta region were major regional origins of PM2.5 and its major components. Northern region was an important origin for carbonaceous components, and southwestern region was significant for secondary inorganic ions. This study helps understand PM2.5 characteristics, identify potential source regions and effectively control PM2.5 in East China.

  4. Impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning over east North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuma, Gemechu; Sushama, Laxmi; Gulilat, Diro; Francois, Roberge

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two experiments were performed for an east North American domain to assess the impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning. The first experiment is performed with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which treats urban regions as areas of bare soil with a high roughness length. The second experiment is similar to the first experiment, except that the urban regions are modeled using the single layer urban canopy model, TEB (Town Energy Balance). Results show that urban heat island (UHI; defined here as the surface temperature difference between urban and non-urban fractions of a given cell and simulation) is reasonably well simulated by the CLASS+TEB experiment. The UHI exhibits seasonal cycle, with UHI being higher in summer (1 deg. C to 5 deg. C). The experiment with CLASS and TEB also simulate higher urban surface runoff as a result of reduced infiltration. Comparison of surface energy fluxes from the urban and rural surfaces were also performed. As expected, results show higher sensible heat flux for urban regions and reduced latent heat flux due to reduced vegetation, and the presence of impervious surface. Following this, TEB has been implemented in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), and this paper will also present some preliminary results related to the impact of urban regions on the regional climate over the same study domain.

  5. Impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning over east North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuma, G. F.; Sushama, L.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, two experiments were performed for an east North American domain to assess the impact of urban regions on the surface energy and water partitioning. The first experiment is performed with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), which treats urban regions as areas of bare soil with a high roughness length. The second experiment is similar to the first experiment, except that the urban regions are modelled using the single layer urban canopy model, TEB (Town Energy Balance). Results show that urban heat island (UHI; defined here as the surface temperature difference between urban and non-urban fractions of a given cell and simulation) is reasonably well simulated by the CLASS+TEB experiment. The UHI exhibits seasonal cycle, with UHI being higher in summer (1oC to 5oC). The experiment with CLASS and TEB also simulate higher urban surface runoff as a result of reduced infiltration. Comparison of surface energy fluxes from the urban and rural surfaces were also performed. As expected, results show higher sensible heat flux for urban regions and reduced latent heat flux due to reduced vegetation, and the presence of impervious surface. Following this, TEB has been implemented in the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), and this paper will also present some preliminary results related to the impact of urban regions on the regional climate over the same study domain.

  6. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  7. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Hese, Fabian; Mathiesen, Anders; Møller Nielsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Offermann, Petra; Poulsen, Niels Erik; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological model was developed and used as structural basis for the set-up of a regional temperature model. In that frame, new reflection seismic data were obtained to close local data gaps in the border region. The analyses and reinterpretation of available relevant data (old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, borehole data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion (new velocity model) allowed correlation of seismic profiles across the border. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 12 geological/lithological units were drawn, with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface temperature model. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 72-84 mW/m²) were determined and predicted temperature were calibrated and validated by borehole temperature observations. Finally, new temperature maps for major geological sections (e.g. Rhaetian/Gassum, Middle Buntsandstein) and selected constant depth intervals (1 km, 2 km, etc.) were compiled. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Middle Buntsandstein geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures ranging

  8. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR) and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A) were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A) with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A) for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55%) and D7 (41%). Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%). Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results. PMID:21050489

  9. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  10. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  11. Applying Ensemble Kalman Filter to Regional Ocean Circulation Model in the East Asian Marginal Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Gyun-Do; Kim, Young Ho; Chang, Kyung-Il

    2010-05-01

    We successfully apply the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation scheme to the East Sea Regional Ocean Model (ESROM). The ESROM solves the three dimensional ocean primitive equations with the hydrostatic and Boussinesq approximations. The domain of ESROM fully covers East Sea with grid intervals of approximately 0.1˚. The ESROM has one inflow port, the Korea Strait, and two outflow ports, the Tsugaru and Soya straits. High resolution bathymetry of 1/60˚ (Choi et al., 2002) is adopted for the model topography. The ESROM is initialized using hydrographic data from World Ocean Atlas (WOA), and forced by monthly mean surface and open boundary conditions supplied from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast data, WOA and so on. The EnKF system is composed of 16 ensembles and thousands of observation data are assimilated at every assimilation step into its parallel version, which significantly reduces the required memory and computational time more than 3-fold compared with its serial version. To prevent the collapse of ensembles due to rank deficiency, we employ various schemes such as localization and inflation of the background error covariance and disturbance of observations. Sea surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and in-situ temperature profiles from various sources including Argo floats have been assimilated into the EnKF system. For cyclonic circulation in the northern East Sea and paths of the East Korean Warm Current and the Nearshore Branch, the EnKF system reproduces the mean surface circulation more realistically than that in the case without data assimilation. Simulated area-averaged vertical temperature profiles also agrees well with the Generalized Digital Environmental Model data, which indicates that the EnKF system corrects the warming of subsurface temperature and the erosion of the permanent thermocline that are usually observed in numerical models without data assimilation. We also

  12. [Plague in China. Threat of transmission to regions of Siberia and Far East].

    PubMed

    Maramovich, A S; Kosilko, S A; Innokent'eva, T I; Voronova, G A; Bazanova, L P; Nikitin, A Ia; Okunev, L P

    2008-01-01

    In China plague has been officially registered from 1754 (638 epidemics with total number of cases 2.5 millions and case-fatality rate 87.5%). Endemic areas started to form on the south of the country and then the disease gradually spread on seaside provinces, where to the end of the 19th century, due to reach of island territories and large international seaports, was characterized by pandemic spread. Epidemic manifestations of plague in China were observed during more than 200 years in 23 out of 36 administrative areas affecting continental and North-Eastern regions of the country, which are immediately adjacent to border of Russia. Pneumonic plague in Manchuria clearly demonstrated the role of transport communications in transmission of this deadly infection and possibility of its spread on border regions of Siberia and Far East. Lengthy country's border, intensive migration flows, large-scale international integration, developing of near-border trade, simplification of policy for transboundary traveling are the reasons for differentiated number of sanitary protective measures on administrative borders of Siberia and Far East.

  13. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  14. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Best practices in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Zolty, B C; Sinha, P K; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is an increasing threat to public health with the tobacco burden particularly high in WHO's South-East Asia Region (SEAR). The Region has many obstacles to tobacco control, but despite these challenges, significant progress has been made in many countries. Although much work still needs to be done, SEAR countries have nevertheless implemented strong and often innovative tobacco control measures that can be classified as "best practices," with some setting global precedents. The best practice measures implemented in SEAR include bans on gutka, reducing tobacco imagery in movies, and warning about the dangers of tobacco. In a time of scarce resources, countries in SEAR and elsewhere must ensure that the most effective and cost-efficient measures are implemented. It is hoped that countries can learn from these examples and as appropriate, adapt these measures to their own specific cultural, social and political realities.

  16. Metro East Coast Regional Assessment of Climate Variability and Change: Policy Lessons and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2002-05-01

    The recent Metro East Coast (MEC) Regional Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change provides a laboratory for raising questions regarding policy-relevant versus policy-driven research. A regional component of the U.S. National Assessment sponsored by the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the MEC Assessment engaged area researchers and stakeholders from a spectrum of agencies at differing levels of jurisdiction in seven sector teams. The stakeholders participated actively in the assessment process, i.e., they were involved in shaping research questions, providing data and models, and drawing major conclusions. Stakeholders participating in the assessment had specific science-based information needs, as well as policy-based considerations. Conflicts arose, at times, as policy considerations mutated over time within the agencies. Continuity of funding emerged as a major issue regarding effectiveness of researcher-stakeholder engagement.

  17. [National socialism health policy and the Aachen region reflected in the "West German Observer"].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Jürgen; Lohmeier, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the question of medicine in the time of the Nazi regime in Germany. It focuses on the question how the media in the "Third Reich" took up the subject "medicine" in general and which aspects were notably mentioned. The footing of this research is the "Westdeutscher Beobachter" and its local edition for the region and the city of Aachen. It was a newspaper published by the regional division of the NSDAP, hence a direct repetition of the Nazi ideology can be expected. During the research it became clear that medicine was not an important subject of propaganda in this newspaper. Only a few articles were about classic Nazi medical topics like "Erbgesundheit" (racial hygiene) and even less about naturopathy. The frequency of articles containing medical issues was very inconsistent, but only in 1934 there was a mentionable number of articles mostly concerning "Erbgesundheit". In this year the racial hygiene poured in law. The main consequence was the forced sterilization of over 300,000 people. Furthermore the topic "medicine" in general seems to be a marginal factor. More popular topics like economic or foreign policy dominated the report of the "Westdeutscher Beobachter". It seems to be that the emphasis was deliberately not laid on the matter "medicine" especially eugenics--which was one of the main components of the Nazi ideology--because the regime didn't want it to become a public interest.

  18. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities - a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-06-01

    In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  19. Much ado about SEA/SA monitoring: The performance of English Regional Spatial Strategies, and some German comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Hanusch, Marie Glasson, John

    2008-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) seeks to better integrate environmental considerations into the preparation and decision-making process of plans and programmes with a view to promoting sustainable development. Further to application of the European Directive 2001/42/EC (SEA Directive) in 2004, the body of practical SEA experience, and parallel research, has increased steadily. Yet there is a crucial element of SEA which cannot build on much experience but whose importance will grow over time - namely that of SEA monitoring. The paper explores the application of SEA monitoring for English Regional Spatial Strategies (RSSs). It briefly introduces the role of SEA monitoring and its legal requirements, the English approach of integrating SEA into Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and the nature of the current English Regional Planning context. The main part presents the research findings and discusses how practitioners cope with the challenges of SEA/SA monitoring - with guiding questions: why, what, who, how, when, and with what outcomes? Reflecting that monitoring is just about to start, the paper draws on measures envisaged for monitoring in the SA reports prepared for RSS, and on expert interviews. It identifies monitoring trends and highlights workable approaches as well as shortcomings. For a critical reflection the findings are mirrored briefly with SEA monitoring approaches of German Regional Plans. Although it is still early days for such monitoring, the findings indicate that there is a danger that some of the specific requirements and objectives of SEA/SA monitoring are not fully met, mainly due to insufficient databases, inappropriate institutional conditions and limited personnel and financial resources. Some recommendations are offered in conclusion.

  20. Projected effect of increased active travel in German urban regions on the risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Kuss, Oliver; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Future transportation policy is likely to reduce emissions in the cities and urban regions by strengthening active travel. Increased walking and cycling are known to have positive effects on health outcomes. This work estimates effects of increased active travel on type 2 diabetes in Germany, where 64% of the population live in urban regions. Based on the effect size of an increased active travel scenario reported from a recent meta-analysis, we project the change in the life time risk, the proportion of prevented cases and the change in diabetes free life time in a German birth cohort (born 1985) compared to business as usual. The absolute risk reduction of developing type 2 diabetes before the age of 80 is 6.4% [95% confidence interval: 3.7-9.7%] for men and 4.7% [2.2-7.7%] for women, respectively. Compared to business as usual, the increased active travel scenario prevents 14.0% [8.1-21.2%] of the future cases of diabetes in men and 15.8% [9.3-23.1%] in women. Diabetes free survival increases by 1.7 [1.0-2.7] years in men and 1.4 [0.6-2.3] in women. Our projection predicts a substantial impact of increased active travel on the future burden of type 2 diabetes. The most striking effect may be seen in the number of prevented cases. In all urban regions with an increased active travel transport policy, about one out of seven male and one out of six female cases can be prevented.

  1. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  2. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  3. Regional Geothermal Characterisation of East Anatolia from Aeromagnetic, Heat Flow and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektaş, Özcan; Ravat, Dhananjay; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bilim, Funda; Ateş, Abdullah

    2007-05-01

    East Anatolia is a region of high topography made up of a 2-km high plateau and Neogene and Quaternary volcanics overlying the subduction-accretion complex formed by the process of collision. The aeromagnetic and gravity data surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey have been used to interpret qualitatively the characteristics of the near-surface geology of the region. The residual aeromagnetic data were low-pass filtered and analyzed to produce the estimates of magnetic bottom using the centroid method and by forward modelling of spectra to evaluate the uncertainties in such estimates. The magnetic bottom estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks and, thus, also are called Curie point depths (CPDs). The Curie point depths over the region of Eastern Anatolia vary from 12.9 to 22.6 km. Depths computed from forward modelling of spectra with 200 600 km window sizes suggest that the bottom depths from East Anatolia from the magnetic data may have errors exceeding 5 km; however, most of the obtained depths appear to lie in the above range and indicate that the lower crust is either demagnetized or non-magnetic. In the interpretation of the magnetic map, we also used reduction-to-pole (RTP) and amplitude of total gradient of high-pass filtered anomalies, which reduced dipolar orientation effects of induced aeromagnetic anomalies. However, the features of the RTP and the total gradient of the high-pass filtered aeromagnetic anomalies are not highly correlated to the hot spring water locations. On the other hand, many high-amplitude features seen on the total gradient map can be correlated with the ophiolitic rocks observed on the surface. This interpretation is supported by Bouguer gravity data. In this paper, we recommend that the sources of the widespread thermal activity seen in East Anatolia must

  4. Regional differences in pathogen prevalence and defensive reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak among East Asians and Westerners.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Park, Justin H

    2010-09-24

    Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas); rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  5. Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Regional Climate Impact over Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalth, H. K.; Stenchikov, G.; Zampieri, M.; Bantges, R.; Brindley, H.

    2012-04-01

    Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a unique region due in part to the abundance of atmospheric aerosols and their significant contribution to the energy balance of the region. Mineral dust plays a leading role in this process. In this study we evaluate the radiative forcing of dust aerosols in the MENA region and their impact on the regional circulation and temperature distribution using a global high-resolution atmospheric model HIRAM developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. We found that dust aerosols reduce downward radiative fluxes at surface up to 30 W/m2 and warm by about this amount the lower five-km-deep atmospheric layer. To better quantify radiative impact of aerosols we have employed the available aerosol satellite observations that primarily provide column integral aerosol optical depth (AOD), as a measure of aerosol burden. Climatology of AOD from different satellites (MODIS, MISR, SEVIRI and CALIPSO) over MENA and their inter comparison is made to have a comprehension of the discrepancies and agreement between them. Though the observed AODs vary among the different instruments spatially and temporally, the difference falls within a factor of less than two. We implement these observed aerosols in HIRAM. The radiative forcing corresponding to the satellite aerosol observation and the sensitivity of regional climate to this forcing are analyzed. The analysis shows that the differential heating in the vertical and the corresponding response of the vertical temperature profile have a profound impact on the tropospheric dynamics and the structure of the boundary layer.

  6. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  7. Analysis of broadband seismic noise at the German Regional Seismic Network and search for improved alternative station sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, P.; Wylegalla, K.; Klinge, K.

    The German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) comprizes now 16 digital broadband stations equipped with Wieland-Streckeisen STS-2 seismometers, 24-bit dataloggers and a seismological data center at Erlangen. It covers the whole territory of Germany with station-spacings between 80 km to 240 km. The stations are sited in very different environments ranging from near shore at the Baltic Sea coast up to distances of about 700 km from the coast, both within cities and up to about 10 km away from any major settlement, industry or traffic roads. The underground varies from outcropping hard rocks in Hercynian mountain areas, sedimentary rocks in areas of Mesozoic platform cover to up to 1.5 km unconsolidated Quarternary and Tertiary subsoil. Accordingly, seismic background noise varies in a wide range between the upper and lower bounds of the new global noise model. The noise conditions at the GRSN have been investigated systematically by means of displacement power spectral analysis within the frequency range 10-2 5 for RUE and > 10 for BSEG have been confirmed for frequencies between about 0.6 Hz 3 Hz. Strong lateral velocity and impedance contrasts between the outcropping Triassic/Permian sedimentary rocks and the surrounding unconsolidated Quarternary/Tertiary sediments are shown to be the main cause for the strong noise reduction and signal-to-noise ratio improvement at RUE and can account for about 50% of the noise reduction at BSEG.

  8. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-10-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agropastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socioeconomic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's (FEWS NET) science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S-8° N, 36-46° E) for the March-April-May (MAM) growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food-insecure, climatically variable, and socioeconomically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world; this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To produce an "agricultural outlook", our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios describing the upcoming season. First, we forced the VIC model with high-quality atmospheric observations to produce baseline soil moisture (SM) estimates (here after referred as SM a posteriori estimates). These compared favorably (correlation = 0.75) with the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI), an index that the FEWS NET uses to estimate crop yields. Next, we evaluated the SM forecasts generated by this system on 5 March and 5 April of each year between 1993 and 2012 by comparing them with the corresponding SM a posteriori estimates. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (SOS) (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month and, in some cases, 3-month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with midseason (i.e., 5

  9. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  10. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  11. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2017-01-03

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  12. Identifying Vulnerability Regions of Dust Outbreaks in East Asian Desert Areas: using SMOS, MODIS, and GLDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Cho, E.

    2015-12-01

    It is now well understood that water, carbon, and energy fluxes at the surface/atmosphere interface are highly dependent on soil moisture (SM). In addition, SM is required to be used as realistic initial states for the SM variables, for climate predictions and weather forecasting. As satellite remote-sensing have developed greatly, global surface SM datasets have been produced based on several satellites. Three satellites-based SM datasets were inter-compared under different land-cover over East Asia to select most reliable satellite for retrieving SM datasets in dust source regions. We estimated satellite sensors with 1) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), 2) Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and 3) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) was used as reference datasets. In case of arid areas (desert and semi-desert), SMOS-retrieved SM products showed best accuracy (radiometers have generally exhibited a better performance than scatterometers in dry areas). For this reason, SMOS SM products were utilized to retrieve SM over desert areas. The regions that are susceptible to dust outbreaks were investigated using the dust outbreak probability functions (DOPF). Based on DOPF, about 58% of the total number of dust events occurred in regions with a high level of vulnerability where dust outbreaks were predicted with a probability higher than 60%. The SMOS-based DOPF was calculated to be about 62.4% of the dust outbreak vulnerability (DOV) level of the desert areas. Interestingly, East Asian deserts showed an increasing tendency for a high level of DOV during the study period. Those areas were judged to be sources from which dust could be transported to neighboring countries (e.g., Korea and Japan) which can lead to Asian dust storms. These results may allow us to predict trends of dust outbreaks in order to prepare the corresponding disaster response systems.

  13. Guidelines for acute management of hyperammonemia in the Middle East region

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Mutairi, Fuad Al; Makhseed, Nawal; Jasmi, Fatma Al; Al-Thihli, Khalid; Al-Jishi, Emtithal; AlSayed, Moeenaldeen; Al-Hassnan, Zuhair N; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Häberle, Johannes; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia is a life-threatening event that can occur at any age. If treated, the early symptoms in all age groups could be reversible. If untreated, hyperammonemia could be toxic and cause irreversible brain damage to the developing brain. Objective There are major challenges that worsen the outcome of hyperammonemic individuals in the Middle East. These include: lack of awareness among emergency department physicians about proper management of hyperammonemia, strained communication between physicians at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals, and shortage of the medications used in the acute management of hyperammonemia. Therefore, the urge to develop regional guidelines is extremely obvious. Method We searched PubMed and Embase databases to include published materials from 2011 to 2014 that were not covered by the European guidelines, which was published in 2012. We followed the process of a Delphi conference and involved one preliminary meeting and two follow-up meetings with email exchanges between the Middle East Hyperammonemia and Urea Cycle Disorders Scientific Group regarding each draft of the manuscript. Results and discussion We have developed consensus guidelines based on the highest available level of evidence. The aim of these guidelines is to homogenize and harmonize the treatment protocols used for patients with acute hyperammonemia, and to provide a resource to not only metabolic physicians, but also physicians who may come in contact with individuals with acute hyperammonemia. Conclusion These suggested guidelines aim to ease the challenges faced by physicians dealing with acute hyperammonemia in the region. In addition, guidelines have demonstrated useful collaboration between experts in the region, and provides information that will hopefully improve the outcomes of patients with acute hyperammonemia. PMID:27099506

  14. Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Regional Obstetrical Care in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Junichi; Hoshiai, Tetsuro; Sato, Kazuyo; Tokunaga, Hideki; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Arai, Takanari; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The authors report the results of surveys on the emergency transport or evacuation status of obstetric patients conducted in Miyagi prefecture, one of the major disaster areas of the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami. The surveys examined the damages to maternity institutions, evacuation status and transport of pregnant women, and prehospital childbirths and were conducted in 50 maternity institutions and 12 fire departments in Miyagi. Two coastal institutions were destroyed completely, and four institutions were destroyed partially by the tsunami, forcing them to stop medical services. In the two-month period after the disaster, 217 pregnant women received hospital transport or gave birth after evacuation. Satisfactory perinatal outcomes were maintained. Emergency obstetric transport increased to approximately 1.4 fold the number before the disaster. Twenty-three women had prehospital childbirths, indicating a marked increase to approximately three times the number of the previous year. In the acute phase of the tsunami disaster, maternity institutions were damaged severely and perinatal transport was not possible; as a result, pregnant women inevitably gave birth in unplanned institutions, and the number of prehospital births was increased extremely. To obtain satisfactory obstetric outcomes, it is necessary to construct a future disaster management system and to re-recognize pregnant women as people with special needs in disaster situations. Sugawara J , Hoshiai T , Sato K , Tokunaga H , Nishigori H , Arai T , Okamura K , Yaegashi N . Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on regional obstetrical care in Miyagi Prefecture. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):255- 258.

  15. Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on Phenytoin Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Outcomes in the Middle East and North Africa Region.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Renée; Wilby, Kyle John; Elewa, Hazem; Ensom, Mary H H

    2017-07-26

    Genetic polymorphisms are known to influence outcomes with phenytoin yet effects in the Middle East and North Africa region are poorly understood. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms on phenytoin pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes in populations originating from the Middle East and North Africa region, and to characterize genotypic and allelic frequencies within the region for genetic polymorphisms assessed. MEDLINE (1946-3 May, 2017), EMBASE (1974-3 May, 2017), Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base, and Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base online databases were searched. Studies were included if genotyping and analyses of phenytoin pharmacokinetics were performed in patients of the Middle East and North Africa region. Study quality was assessed using a National Institutes of Health assessment tool. A secondary search identified studies reporting genotypic and allelic frequencies of assessed genetic polymorphisms within the Middle East and North Africa region. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and multidrug resistance protein 1 C3435T variants were evaluated. While CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants significantly reduced phenytoin metabolism, the impacts of CYP2C19*2 and *3 variants were unclear. The multidrug resistance protein 1 CC genotype was associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, but reported impacts on phenytoin pharmacokinetics were conflicting. Appreciable variability in minor allele frequencies existed both between and within countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. CYP2C9 decrease-of-function alleles altered phenytoin pharmacokinetics in patients originating from the Middle East and North Africa region. The impacts of CYP2C19 and multidrug resistance protein 1 C3435T variants on phenytoin pharmacokinetic and clinical outcomes are unclear and require further investigation. Future research should focus on the clinical outcomes associated with phenytoin therapy. PROSPERO

  16. Preliminary maps of crustal thickness and regional seismic phases for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1995-09-06

    As part of the development of regional seismic discrimination methods for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) the author is building a database of information related to seismic propagation and crustal structure as well as associated geologic-tectonic and geophysical data. He hopes to use these data to construct and test models of regional seismic propagation and evaluate various detection/discrimination scenarios. To date, the database has been developed by building on a list of references for MENA provided by the Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) at Cornell University. To this list the author has added an equal number of references resulting from his own literature search which has emphasized papers dealing with seismicity and regional and teleseismic phase data. This paper represents an initial attempt to consolidate some of the information from the database into a form useful to researchers modeling regional seismic waveforms. The information compiled in this report is supplemental to the INSTOC database and has not been compiled anywhere else. What follows is a series of maps which illustrate the spatial variation of seismic phase velocities and crustal thickness. The text identifies the sources of information used in the map preparation. Data for the compilation of these maps has come from an initial search of the database as it presently exists and is not intended to be exhaustive. The author hopes that this initial exercise will help to identify areas and types of data that are deficient and help to focus future data gathering activities.

  17. Preliminary definition of geophysical regions for the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J; Walter, B

    1998-12-01

    The ability to calibrate seismic stations to improve the monitoring of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is partially limited by the availability of seismic events with known locations and source properties. To confidently extrapolate from these events to aseismic regions, and to properly account for discontinuities in seismic properties requires accurate geophysical models. This paper lays out a preliminary, first-order, regionalization of the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. The model specifies boundaries and velocity structures based on the geology and tectonics of the region, previously published studies, and empirical data observations by the LLNL group. This model is a starting point and is expected to be improved and refined by comparisons with ongoing tomography efforts and the collection of new data. We anticipate that this model and its successors will prove useful as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps based on intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging. We also hope the model, as it improves and demonstrates some predictive power, will provide a reference model for broader CTBT research efforts in detection, location and discrimination as well as other aspects of earth science.

  18. Regional Climate Response to Volcanic Radiative Forcing in Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenchikov, G.; Dogar, M.

    2012-04-01

    We have tested the regional climate sensitivity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) to radiation perturbations caused by the large explosive equatorial volcanic eruptions of the second part of 20th century, El Chichon and Pinatubo occurred, respectively, in 1982 and 1991. The observations and reanalysis data show that the surface volcanic cooling in the MENA region is two-three times larger than the global mean response to volcanic forcing. The Red Sea surface temperature appears to be also very sensitive to the external radiative impact. E.g., the sea surface cooling, associated with the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, caused deep water mixing and coral bleaching for a few years. To better quantify these effects we use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HIRAM) to conduct simulations of both the El Chichon and Pinatubo impacts with the effectively 25-km grid spacing. We find that the circulation changes associated with the positive phase of the arctic oscillation amplified the winter temperature anomalies in 1982-1984 and 1991-1993. The dynamic response to volcanic cooling also is characterized by the southward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in summer and associated impact on the precipitation patterns. Thus, these results suggest that the climate regime in the MENA region is highly sensitive to external forcing. This is important for better understanding of the climate variability and change in this region.

  19. Spectral descriptions of submesoscale surface circulation in a coastal region off the East Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong; Yoo, Jang Gon; Kim, Hyeon Seong

    2017-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of hourly and 1-km resolution coastal surface currents obtained from an array of high-frequency radars of a coastal region off the East Coast of Korea are described in the frequency and wavenumber domains. The primary variance of the observed surface currents for a period of one year appears in the low-frequency (longer than 2 days), diurnal, and near-inertial frequency bands. The low-frequency surface currents exhibit more consistent variability with the regional geostrophic currents in summer than those in winter because of the relatively weaker wind conditions and a shallower mixed layer during summer. The diurnal surface circulation contains components that are coherent with diurnal land-sea breezes because of the development of the diurnal marine boundary layer. Clockwise near-inertial surface currents present decreasing amplitudes and spatially consistent on-shore phase propagations represented as a coastal inhibition, which is caused by coastal boundary effects on the near-inertial currents. The kinetic energy spectra of the surface currents in the wavenumber domain have decay slopes between k-2 and k-3, and their seasonal decay slopes are slightly steeper in winter than in summer. These findings can be interpreted that the submesoscale processes in this region can be related to both surface frontogenesis caused by regional mesoscale eddies with weak seasonality and baroclinic instability associated with the seasonal mixed layer and vertical fluctuations modulated by its harmonic frequencies.

  20. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in South East Asia and Eastern Mediterranean regions

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Rachel; Campbell, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal studies of children have taken place in the developing world, despite child mortality being concentrated there. This review summarises the methodologies and main outcomes of longitudinal studies of pre-school children (0 to 59 months) in the World Health Organization’s South East Asia (SEA) and Eastern Mediterranean (EM) Regions. Methods A systematic search of literature using pre-defined criteria revealed 7863 papers. After application of quality criteria, 120 studies were selected for analysis. Results The search revealed 83 studies in the SEA region and 37 in the EM region, of which 92 were community-based and 8 facility-based. Objectives were diverse but topics included growth (n = 49 studies), mortality (n = 28), nutrition (n = 24), and infectious diseases (n = 33). Only 12 studies focused on non-communicable diseases. Duration ranged from 7 to 384 months. Measurements included anthropometric (n = 56 studies), socioeconomic (n = 50) and biological sampling (n = 25), but only one study was DNA-based. Conclusion Biobanks have emerged as the most successful approach to generating knowledge about disease causes and mechanisms. Little of this is possible to undertake in the in SEA or EM regions, however. Further longitudinal studies of young children with DNA sampling should be set up to better understand determinants of diseases in low-income countries. PMID:23198103

  1. Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of offshore wind farm development areas off the east coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara Murray, Rory; Gallego, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

  2. Simulating Dust Regional Impact on the Middle East Climate and the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Sergey; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2017-04-01

    Dust is one of the most abundant aerosols, however, currently only a few regional climate downscalings account for dust. This study focuses on the Middle East and the Red Sea regional climate response to the dust aerosol radiative forcing. The Red Sea is located between North Africa and Arabian Peninsula, which are first and third largest source regions of dust, respectively. MODIS and SEVIRI satellite observations show extremely high dust optical depths in the region, especially over the southern Red Sea during the summer season. The significant north-to-south gradient of the dust optical depth over the Red Sea persists throughout the entire year. Modeled atmospheric radiative forcing at the surface, top of the atmosphere and absorption in the atmospheric column indicate that dust significantly perturbs radiative balance. Top of the atmosphere modeled forcing is validated against independently derived GERB satellite product. Due to strong radiative forcing at the sea surface (daily mean forcing during summer reaches -32 Wm-2 and 10 Wm-2 in SW and LW, respectively), using uncoupled ocean model with prescribed atmospheric boundary conditions would result in an unrealistic ocean response. Therefore, here we employ the Regional Ocean Modeling system (ROMS) fully coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to study the impact of dust on the Red Sea thermal regime and circulation. The WRF was modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of dust. Daily spectral optical properties of dust are computed using Mie, T-matrix, and geometric optics approaches, and are based on the SEVIRI climatological optical depth. The WRF model parent and nested domains are configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and over the Red Sea with 30 and 10 km resolution, respectively. The ROMS model over the Red Sea has 2 km grid spacing. The simulations show that, in the equilibrium response, dust causes 0.3-0.5 K cooling of the Red Sea surface

  3. Verification of ECMWF, GFS and WRF forecast in coastal desert region of Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaj, Pavol; Bartoková, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Forecast skill of different models over Middle East region is presented. ECMWF has 12.5 km resolution, while WRF with 16 km and nested 5 km grid is initialized by GFS. The comparison encompasses first half of year 2012 and 48-72 hours forecasts, which are evaluated by standard scores Bias, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In Dubai Emirate, the temperature RMSE of ECMWF is higher by 1.5 deg. C on average. As far as the desert terrain is flat and the station is 100km form the coast, the reason is not straightforward result of better resolution. More precise capturing of the diurnal variation especially the sea breeze phenomenon seems of higher importance. 9 other stations were examined.

  4. Upper mantle anisotropy from teleseismic SKS splitting beneath Lützow-Holm Bay Region, East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.; Kubo, A.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Negishi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of SKS wave splitting of teleseismic events from digital seismographs recorded at eight stations around the Lützow-Holm Bay Region have lead to understanding the evolution of the Antarctic Plate. The observed delay times of SKS splitting are up to 1.3 s, which are generally equal to the global average. A two-layer model reveals that the lower layer anisotropy is caused by the recent asthenospheric flow, as compared with the Absolute Plate Motion by the HS3-NUVEL1 model. The upper layer anisotropy corresponds well to polarization of NE–SW convergence direction between East and West Gondwana in Pan-African age. We suggest that the upper layer anisotropy was formed during Pan-African orogeny and was possibly influenced by the preexisting structure during Gondwana break-up. The origin of anisotropy is the Lattice Preferred Orientation of olivine which was caused by both paleo-tectonic events and the recent asthenospheric flow.

  5. South Primorye, Far East Russia—A key region for global Permian correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, Galina V.; Belyansky, Gennady C.; Burago, Valentina I.; Nikitina, Antonina P.; Zakharov, Yuri D.; Zhuravlev, Andrey V.

    2006-03-01

    Significant differences between faunal and floral associations existing in different paleogeographic realms in the Kungurian-Late Permian interval make it difficult to correlate the Permian deposits of the world. Resolving this problem is one of the main tasks of Permian stratigraphy. The global significance of Permian strata of the Primorye region of Far East Russia is enhanced by the specific Middle Permian mixed Tethyan, Boreal and Gondwanan-type brachiopod fauna, mixed Angara-Euromerican-Cathaysian flora, and their close spatial and stratigraphical association with fusulinids, bryozoans, ammonoids, conodonts. These facts permit tracing of global correlational levels of some Permian sequences within the different paleobiogeographical realms: for example, the Monodiexodina sutschanica- Metadoliolina dutkevichi fusulinid zone of the Wordian age and Parafusulina stricta fusulinid zone of the Capitanian age. The Late Permian fauna of the Primorye is mainly Tethyan in origin and provides correlation with similar aged sequences from South China.

  6. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    PubMed Central

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Nemer, Georges M.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships. PMID:22536488

  7. Parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera) on aphids (Hemiptera) infesting citrus in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Satar, Serdar; Satar, Gül; Karacaoğlu, Mehmet; Uygun, Nedim; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Starý, Petr; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2014-01-01

    The aphids, aphid parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids found in citrus orchards, the parasitoids' and hyperparasitoids' seasonal abundance, and the plant-aphid-parasitoid relationships in Hatay, Osmaniye, Adana, and Mersin provinces of the east Mediterranean region of Turkey are presented in the present 2-yr study. Aphidius colemani Viereck, Binodoxys angelicae (Haliday), and Lysiphlebus confusus Tremblay and Eady (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were encountered as the most common parasitoids among 10 identified aphidiine and aphelinid taxa on different citrus species. Hyperparasitoids belonging to the genera Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis, Asaphes, Pachyneuron, Syrphophagus, and Dendrocerus are reported for the first time emerging from aphids feeding on citrus in Turkey. Among them, Asaphes spp., Pachyneuron spp., and Syrphophagus spp. were recorded as the most common ones. Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus limon (L.) Burm. fil. were recorded as main hosts for the aphid parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Recent destructive earthquakes and international collaboration for seismic hazard assessment in the East Asia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, K.; Fujiwara, H.

    2013-12-01

    Recent destructive earthquakes in East-Asia claimed one third of million of people's lives. People learned from the lessons but forgotten after generations even one sculpted on stones. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (SHA) is considered as a scientific way to define earthquake zones and to guide urban plan and construction. NIED promoted SHA as a national mission of Japan over 10 years and as an international cooperation to neighbor countries since the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We initiated China-Japan-Korea SHA strategic cooperative program for the next generation map supported by MOST-JST-NRF in 2010. We also initiated cooperative program with Taiwan Earthquake Model from 2012, as well many other parties in the world. Consequently NIED proudly joined Global Earthquake Model (GEM) since its SHA's methodologies and technologies were highly valuated. As a representative of Japan, NIED will continue to work closely with all members of GEM not only for the GEM global components, also for its regional programs. Seismic hazard assessment has to be carrying out under existed information with epistemic uncertainty. We routinely improve the existed models to carefully treat active faults, earthquake records, and magnitudes under the newest authorized information provided by Earthquake Research Committee, Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we have been re-considering the national SHA maps in even long-term and low probabilities. We have setup a platform of http://www.j-shis.bosai.go.jp/en to exchange the SHA information and share our experiences, lessons and knowledge internationally. Some probabilistic SHA concepts, seismic risk mitigation issues need constantly to be promoted internationally through outreach and media. Major earthquakes in East Asian region which claimed one third of million of people's lives (slab depth with contour (Hayes et al., 2011)).

  9. Transport and Chemical Production of Ozone in the East Asian Pacific Rim Region: -Modeling Study Based on Observation-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, H.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.; Yamaji, K.; Pochanart, P.; Ohara, T.; Uno, I.; Gao, C.; Wang, X.; Tanimoto, H.; Kurokawa, J.

    2007-12-01

    Form satellite observational data, east-central China covering the North China Plain (NCP) and Yanzi Delta (YZD) has been identified as the most widely spread source area of air pollutants in the East Asian Pacific region. In order to quantify transport and chemical production of ozone in this region, both of observational and modeling studies in both of source and outflow region are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the budgets of ozone over East Asia by using regional chemical transport models (NAQPMS and CMAQ) based on observations at newly founded three mountain sites (Mt. Tai, Hua and Huang) in east-central China, and several sites from EANET and regional WMO/GAW. The observations show that a striking pattern of two sharp high ozone peaks in May-June and September-October at the three mountain sites. The budget analysis by the model confirms that maximum of net photochemical ozone production reaches 31.8, 15.1 and 11.4 ppb/day at Mt. Tai, Hua and Huang, respectively. The net chemical production dominates the formation of ozone maximum at Mt. Tai and Hua in June, and the importing transport also plays a comparable importance at Mt. Huang. In the outflow region at Oki, Japan, transport of ozone produced by East Asian emissions accounts up to 21 ppb in summer but less than 3 ppb in winter agreeing with the model analysis. The contribution of ozone due to East Asian emission is the largest (53.6%) in July-August, and somewhat smaller in May-June (34.0%) and September-October (30.7%) on the transect between Japan and the Asian continent.

  10. Vaccination coverage in the South-East Anatolian Project (SEAP) region and factors influencing low coverage.

    PubMed

    Ozcirpici, B; Sahinoz, S; Ozgur, S; Bozkurt, A I; Sahinoz, T; Ceylan, A; Ilcin, E; Saka, G; Acemoglu, H; Palanci, Y; Ak, M; Akkafa, F

    2006-02-01

    To determine the vaccination coverage of children living in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region; whether the vaccination coverage was similar to formal reports, other studies and other countries; and which factors influence vaccination, in order to indicate how vaccination coverage can be improved. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in nine provinces of the SEAP region in order to determine public health problems and their causes. A population-based sample of 1150 houses was selected from rural and urban areas of the SEAP region and visited by the researchers. Questionnaires were applied in 2001 and 2002. In the SEAP region, only 30% of children had received a complete set of vaccines. The vaccination coverage was 76.7% for Bacille Calmette-Guérin; 62.0% for the third doses of diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, pertussis and polio vaccine; 62.7% for measles; 44% for the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine in children aged 12-23 months; and 13.3% for the second dose of tetanus toxoid in women who gave birth in the last 5 years. In logistic regression analysis, residence type, number of siblings, birth interval, follow-up visits of midwives, and maternal level of education were found to influence whether children were completely vaccinated. The findings of this study indicate that vaccination coverage is not acceptable in the SEAP region. Efforts must focus on family planning services, education of women, follow-up visits and strengthening health facilities, especially in rural regions, to improve vaccination.

  11. Linkage analysis in German breast cancer families with early onset of the disease, using highly polymorphic markers from the chromosome 17q11-q24 region

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, W.; Bender, E.; Rohde, K.; Reis, A.; Krause, H.; Prokoph, H.; Werner, S.; Scherneck, S. ); Wiseman, R.; Futreal, A. )

    1993-04-01

    Linkage analysis in German breast cancer families with early onset of the disease by using six markers on chromosome 17q11-q24 has been carried out. In the region between markers D17S250 and GH, three markers showed positive LOD scores at an estimated distance of zero. Evidence for linkage is greatest for D17S250, with a LOD score of 2.42. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Calibration of Regional Seismic Stations in the Middle East with Shots in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M N; Kuleli, S; Gurbuz, C; Kalafat, D; Nekler, T; Zor, K; Yilmazer, M; Ogutcu, Z; Schultz, C A; Harris, D B

    2003-07-21

    The objective of this project is to calibrate regional travel-times and propagation characteristics of seismic waves in Turkey and surrounding areas in the Middle East in order to enhance detection and location capabilities in the region. Important data for the project will be obtained by large calibration shots in central and eastern Turkey. The first, a two-ton shot, was fired in boreholes near Keskin in central Anatolia on 23 November 2002. The explosives were placed in 14 holes, each 80 m deep, arranged in concentric circular arrays. Ninety temporary seismic stations were deployed within a 300 km radius around the shot. The permanent stations of the Turkish National Seismic Network provided a good azimuthal coverage as well as three radial traverses. Most stations within a radius of 200 km recorded the shot. Travel-time data have been analyzed to obtain a detailed crustal model under the shot and along the profiles. The model gives a 35 km thick crust, characterized by two layers with velocities of 5.0 and 6.4 km/s. The P{sub n} velocity was found to be 7.8 km/s. The crustal thickness decreases to the north where the profile crosses the North Anatolian fault. There is a slight increase in crustal velocities, but no change in crustal thickness to the west. Data analysis effort is continuing to refine the regional velocity models and to obtain station corrections.

  13. Heavy metal deposition in moss samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Mahmut; Cayir, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Kilic, Onder

    2011-03-01

    A survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the east and south Marmara region, Turkey was carried out in September 2004. For this purpose, moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected in a systematic network of 125 sites. Concentrations of the elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Mg, Ti, and Zn) in the moss were used as an indication of the level of air pollution in the region. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, were recorded in the moss samples collected around industrialized and heavily populated cities (Istanbul, Bursa, Bandırma, Kocaeli, Biga-Çan) and in an abandoned lead-mining area (Balıkesir-Balya). A map of the spatial distribution of each element in the region was plotted, and enrichment factors were calculated. VARIMAX principal component analysis was applied to the data obtained, and five different components were obtained. The results showed that Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn derived from anthropogenic and industrial sources while other elements came mostly from natural sources.

  14. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  15. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  16. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  17. Summer regional climate over East Asia affected by soil moisture modification at the Sichuan basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, S.; Takahashi, H. G.; Sekiyama, H.

    2016-12-01

    An artificial land-use change is a factor to modify the regional-scale climate. For example, double cropping over the eastern coastal area of China controls the East Asian monsoon circulation, not only the local-scale temperature over the cropland area (Jeong et al. 2014). The Sichuan Basin is also major cropland in China (Liu et al. 2005) and a key region to form convective systems with a zone of active cloud convection (Ueno et al. 2011; Sugimoto and Ueno 2012). Therefore, we investigated an effect of the soil moisture over the Sichuan Basin on the regional-scale climate modification over the surrounding regions. Two kinds of numerical simulation were conducted using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008) model between April 1 and September 30 for 8 years (during 2003-2010). One is an experiment that soil moisture is calculated in the land surface scheme (Control run; it assumes natural soil moisture variation affecting rainfall), and other is an experiment including a phase with soil moisture increase (between May 6 and June 10 for each year) which is estimated by AMSR-E dataset but cannot calculate in the Control run (Sensitivity run). At the Sichuan Basin in the Control run, monthly mean of atmospheric surface temperature at 2m is higher than the observation during the whole analysis period. A frequency distribution in daily mean temperature also shifts to warm. Meanwhile, the Sensitivity run simulates a decrease of daily atmospheric surface temperature at the Sichuan basin relative to that in the Control run especially during May, June, and July, and its frequency distribution was consistent with the observation. The increase of soil moisture over the Sichuan Basin (i.e., in the Sensitivity run) tended to enhance a cloud convective activity over the eastern-central China, which decreased a downward shortwave radiation and daily maximum of surface temperature. Meanwhile, the active cloud convection induced a northward moisture flow which

  18. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  19. Fire history of the San Francisco East Bay region and implications for landscape patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Francisco East Bay landscape is a rich mosaic of grasslands, shrublands and woodlands that is experiencing losses of grassland due to colonization by shrubs and succession towards woodland associations. The instability of these grasslands is apparently due to their disturbance-dependent nature coupled with 20th century changes in fire and grazing activity. This study uses fire history records to determine the potential for fire in this region and for evidence of changes in the second half of the 20th century that would account for shrubland expansion. This region has a largely anthropogenic fire regime with no lightning-ignited fires in most years. Fire suppression policy has not excluded fire from this region; however, it has been effective at maintaining roughly similar burning levels in the face of increasing anthropogenic fires, and effective at decreasing the size of fires. Fire frequency parallels increasing population growth until the latter part of the 20th century, when it reached a plateau. Fire does not appear to have been a major factor in the shrub colonization of grasslands, and cessation of grazing is a more likely immediate cause. Because grasslands are not under strong edaphic control, rather their distribution appears to be disturbance-dependent, and natural lightning ignitions are rare in the region, I hypothesize that, before the entrance of people into the region, grasslands were of limited extent. Native Americans played a major role in creation of grasslands through repeated burning and these disturbance-dependent grasslands were maintained by early European settlers through overstocking of these range lands with cattle and sheep. Twentieth century reduction in grazing, coupled with a lack of natural fires and effective suppression of anthropogenic fires, have acted in concert to favor shrubland expansion.

  20. On the atmospheric dynamical responses to land-use change in East Asian monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huqiang; Gao, Xuejie

    2009-08-01

    This study aims at (1) exploring dominant atmospheric dynamical processes which are responsible for climate model-simulated land-use impacts on Asian monsoon; and (2) assessing uncertainty in such model simulations due to their skills in simulating detailed monsoon circulations in the region. Firstly, results from a series of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) global model simulations of land-use vegetation changes (LUC) in China are analysed. The model showed consistent signals of changes in atmospheric low-level vertical profile and regional circulations responding to LUC. In northern winter, the model-simulated rainfall reduction and surface cooling are associated with an enhanced southward penetration of dry and cold air mass, which impedes warm and humid air reaching the region for generating cold-front rainfall. In its summer, an enhanced cyclonic circulation responding to LUC further blocks the northeast penetration of southwestly summer monsoon flow into the region and results in rainfall decreases and a surface warming. Secondly, we have explored uncertainties in the proposed mechanism operating in the global model. By comparing its results with a set of high-resolution regional model simulations using the same vegetation datasets, it reveals similar changes in winter rainfall but opposite features in summer rainfall responses. In the global model, there is a cyclonic low-level circulation pattern over the South China Sea and adjacent region, an unsatisfactory feature commonly seen in other global climate models. With the reduction in surface roughness following LUC, such a deficiency becomes more prominent which further results in a weakened south/southwestly summer monsoon flow and rainfall reduction. In contrast, in the regional model, its southwestly summer monsoon flow is further enhanced due to the same process as reduced surface roughness. The enhanced monsoon flow further pushes the East Asian monsoon rainfall belt more

  1. Seismic Hazard Assessment of Middle East Region: Based on the Example to Georgia (Preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Akkar, S.; Askan, A.; Varazanashvili, O.; Adamia, S.; Chkhitunidze, M.

    2012-12-01

    The country of Georgia is located between Russia and Turkey. The main morphological units of Georgia are the mountain ranges of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus separated by the Black Sea-Rioni and Kura (Mtkvari)-South Caspian intermountain troughs. Recent geodynamics of Georgia and adjacent territories of the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region, as a whole, are determined by its position between the still-converging Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. That caused moderate seismicity in the region. However, the risk resulting from these earthquakes is considerably high, as recent events during the last two decades have shown. Seismic hazard and risk assessment is a major research topic in various recent international and national projects. Despite the current efforts, estimation of regional seismic hazard assessment remains as a major problem. Georgia is one of the partners of ongoing regional project EMME (Earthquake Model for Middle East region). The main objective of EMME is calculation of Earthquake hazard uniformly with heights standards. One approach used in the project is the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment PSHA. In this study, we present the preliminary results of PSHA for Georgia in this project attempting to improve gaps especially in such steps as: determination of seismic sources; selection or derivation of ground motion prediction equations models; estimation of maximum magnitude Mmax. Seismic sources (SS) were obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. Finely new SS have been developed for Georgia and adjacent region. Each zone was defined with the following parameters: the magnitude-frequency parameters, maximum magnitude, and depth distribution as well as modern dynamical characteristics widely used for complex processes. As the ground motion dataset is absolutely insufficient by itself to derive a ground motion prediction model for Georgia, two approaches were taken in defining ground motions. First

  2. Volcanoes and ENSO in millennium simulations: global impacts and regional reconstructions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Blender, Richard; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The impacts and cooperative effects of volcanic eruptions and ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) are analyzed in a millennium simulation for 800-2005 AD using the earth system model (ESM) ECHAM5/MPIOM/JSBACH subject to anthropogenic and natural forcings. The simulation comprises two ensembles, a first with weak (E1, five members) and a second with strong (E2, three members) variability total solar irradiance. In the analysis, the 21 most intense eruptions are selected in each ensemble member. Volcanoes with neutral ENSO states during two preceding winters cause a global cooling in the year after eruptions up to -2.5°C. The nonsignificant positive values in the tropical Pacific Ocean indicate an El Niño-like warming. In the winter after an eruption, warming is mainly found in the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea in E2 warming extends to Siberia and central Asia. The recovery times for the volcano-induced cooling (average for 31 eruptions) vary globally between 1 and 12 years. There is no significant increase of El Niño events after volcanic eruptions in both ensembles. The simulated temperature and the drought indices are compared with corresponding reconstructions in East Asia. Volcanoes cause a dramatic cooling in west China (-2°C) and a drought in East China during the year after the eruption. The reconstructions show similar cooling patterns with smaller magnitudes and confirm the dryness in East China. Without volcanoes, El Niño events reduce summer precipitation in the North, while South China becomes wetter; La Niña events cause opposite effects. El Niño events in the winters after eruptions compensate the cooling caused by volcanoes in most regions of China (consistent with reconstructions), while La Niña events intensify the cooling (up to -2.5°C). The simulated and reconstructed drought indices show tripole patterns which are altered by El Niño events. The simulated impact of the Tambora eruption in 1815, which caused the "year without summer

  3. Seasonal and annual variations and regional characteristics of wet and dry deposition amounts in East Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Tsuyoshi, O.; Endo, T.; Yagoh, H.; Matsuda, K.

    2011-12-01

    Emission of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Asian region has been remarkably increased with recent rapid economical growth (Ohara et al., 2007). To appropriately assess the influence of air pollutants on the ecosystem, it is important to quantitatively determine the atmospheric deposition of air pollutants. Here, Seasonal and annual variations and regional characteristics of estimated wet and dry deposition amounts at 27 monitoring sites of Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) from 2003 to 2009 are discussed. Wet deposition sample was collected every 24 hours or 1 week by a wet only sampler. Wet deposition amounts were calculated by the product of the volume-weighted concentrations of ionic species (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) in the precipitation and precipitation amount measured by a standard rain gauge at each site. Dry deposition amount was estimated by the inferential method which was originated the model developed by Wesely and Hicks (1977) and modified by Matsuda (2008). The components examined for dry deposition were sulfur compounds (gaseous SO2 and particulate SO42-) and nitrogen compounds (gaseous HNO3 and NH3, particulate NO3- and NH4+). Dry deposition was calculated by the product of the deposition velocity estimated by the inferential method for forest and grass surfaces and the monitored air concentration of each compound. The mean annual dry deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Japanese sites were in the range of 5-37 and 7-50 mmol m-2 year-1, respectively. The regional characteristics of dry deposition amounts in Japan were similar between sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which showed higher deposition in the Sea of Japan side and the western Japan. The mean annual total (wet + dry) deposition amounts for sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Japanese sites were in the range of 28-77 and 22-130 mmol m-2 year-1, respectively. The contributions of dry deposition to the total deposition amounts were 10-55% and 13-56% for

  4. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  5. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION OF THE SGR A EAST H II REGIONS NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-12-20

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km s{sup -1} molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of {approx}6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 {mu}m) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa{alpha}, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 {+-} 3 M{sub sun} star with a luminosity of 8 {+-} 3 x 10{sup 4} L{sub sun}. The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3 x 10{sup 4} years giving a mass flux {approx}3 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  6. Air quality in the German-Czech border region: A focus on harmful fractions of PM and ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schladitz, Alexander; Leníček, Jan; Beneš, Ivan; Kováč, Martin; Skorkovský, Jiří; Soukup, Aleš; Jandlová, Jana; Poulain, Laurent; Plachá, Helena; Löschau, Gunter; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive air quality study has been carried out at two urban background sites in Annaberg-Buchholz (Germany) and Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic) in the German-Czech border region between January 2012 and June 2014. Special attention was paid to quantify harmful fractions of particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particle number concentration (UFP) from solid fuel combustion and vehicular traffic. Source type contributions of UFP were quantified by using the daily concentration courses of UFP and nitrogen oxide. Two different source apportionment techniques were used to quantify relative and absolute mass contributions: positive matrix factorization for total PM2.5 and elemental carbon in PM2.5 and chemical mass balance for total PM1 and organic carbon in PM1. Contributions from solid fuel combustion strongly differed between the non-heating period (April-September) and the heating period (October-March). Major sources of solid fuel combustion in this study were wood and domestic coal combustion, while the proportion of industrial coal combustion was low (<3%). In Ústí nad Labem combustion of domestic brown coal was the most important source of organic carbon ranging from 34% to 43%. Wood combustion was an important source of organic carbon in Annaberg-Buchholz throughout the year. Heavy metals and less volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the accumulation mode were related to solid fuel combustion with enhanced concentrations during the heating period. In contrast, vehicular PAH emissions were allocated to the Aitken mode. Only in Ústí nad Labem a significant contribution of photochemical new particle formation (e.g. from sulfur dioxide) to UFP of almost 50% was observed during noontime. UFPs from traffic emissions (nucleation particles) and primary emitted soot particles dominated at both sites during the rest of the day. The methodology of a combined source apportionment of UFP and PM can be adapted to other regions of the world with

  7. Climate Change and a Global City: An Assessment of the Metropolitan East Coast Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the research is to derive an assessment of the potential climate change impacts on a global city - in this case the 31 county region that comprises the New York City metropolitan area. This study comprises one of the regional components that contribute to the ongoing U.S. National Assessment: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and is an application of state-of-the-art climate change science to a set of linked sectoral assessment analyses for the Metro East Coast (MEC) region. We illustrate how three interacting elements of global cities react and respond to climate variability and change with a broad conceptual model. These elements include: people (e.g., socio- demographic conditions), place (e.g., physical systems), and pulse (e.g., decision-making and economic activities). The model assumes that a comprehensive assessment of potential climate change can be derived from examining the impacts within each of these elements and at their intersections. Thus, the assessment attempts to determine the within-element and the inter-element effects. Five interacting sector studies representing the three intersecting elements are evaluated. They include the Coastal Zone, Infrastructure, Water Supply, Public Health, and Institutional Decision-making. Each study assesses potential climate change impacts on the sector and on the intersecting elements, through the analysis of the following parts: 1. Current conditions of sector in the region; 2. Lessons and evidence derived from past climate variability; 3. Scenario predictions affecting sector; potential impacts of scenario predictions; 4. Knowledge/information gaps and critical issues including identification of additional research questions, effectiveness of modeling efforts, equity of impacts, potential non-local interactions, and policy recommendations; and 5. Identification of coping strategies - i.e., resilience building, mitigation strategies, new technologies, education that

  8. Parameter uncertainty and nonstationarity in regional extreme rainfall frequency analysis in Qu River Basin, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Xu, Y. P.; Gu, H.

    2014-12-01

    Traditionally, regional frequency analysis methods were developed for stationary environmental conditions. Nevertheless, recent studies have identified significant changes in hydrological records, leading to the 'death' of stationarity. Besides, uncertainty in hydrological frequency analysis is persistent. This study aims to investigate the impact of one of the most important uncertainty sources, parameter uncertainty, together with nonstationarity, on design rainfall depth in Qu River Basin, East China. A spatial bootstrap is first proposed to analyze the uncertainty of design rainfall depth estimated by regional frequency analysis based on L-moments and estimated on at-site scale. Meanwhile, a method combining the generalized additive models with 30-year moving window is employed to analyze non-stationarity existed in the extreme rainfall regime. The results show that the uncertainties of design rainfall depth with 100-year return period under stationary conditions estimated by regional spatial bootstrap can reach 15.07% and 12.22% with GEV and PE3 respectively. On at-site scale, the uncertainties can reach 17.18% and 15.44% with GEV and PE3 respectively. In non-stationary conditions, the uncertainties of maximum rainfall depth (corresponding to design rainfall depth) with 0.01 annual exceedance probability (corresponding to 100-year return period) are 23.09% and 13.83% with GEV and PE3 respectively. Comparing the 90% confidence interval, the uncertainty of design rainfall depth resulted from parameter uncertainty is less than that from non-stationarity frequency analysis with GEV, however, slightly larger with PE3. This study indicates that the spatial bootstrap can be successfully applied to analyze the uncertainty of design rainfall depth on both regional and at-site scales. And the non-stationary analysis shows that the differences between non-stationary quantiles and their stationary equivalents are important for decision makes of water resources management

  9. Climate Change and a Global City: An Assessment of the Metropolitan East Coast Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the research is to derive an assessment of the potential climate change impacts on a global city - in this case the 31 county region that comprises the New York City metropolitan area. This study comprises one of the regional components that contribute to the ongoing U.S. National Assessment: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and is an application of state-of-the-art climate change science to a set of linked sectoral assessment analyses for the Metro East Coast (MEC) region. We illustrate how three interacting elements of global cities react and respond to climate variability and change with a broad conceptual model. These elements include: people (e.g., socio- demographic conditions), place (e.g., physical systems), and pulse (e.g., decision-making and economic activities). The model assumes that a comprehensive assessment of potential climate change can be derived from examining the impacts within each of these elements and at their intersections. Thus, the assessment attempts to determine the within-element and the inter-element effects. Five interacting sector studies representing the three intersecting elements are evaluated. They include the Coastal Zone, Infrastructure, Water Supply, Public Health, and Institutional Decision-making. Each study assesses potential climate change impacts on the sector and on the intersecting elements, through the analysis of the following parts: 1. Current conditions of sector in the region; 2. Lessons and evidence derived from past climate variability; 3. Scenario predictions affecting sector; potential impacts of scenario predictions; 4. Knowledge/information gaps and critical issues including identification of additional research questions, effectiveness of modeling efforts, equity of impacts, potential non-local interactions, and policy recommendations; and 5. Identification of coping strategies - i.e., resilience building, mitigation strategies, new technologies, education that

  10. Contribution of the german democratic republic (east germany) to the intercosmos program of study of materials in space aboard the orbiting station salyut 6

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, V.; Kuhl, R.

    1986-03-01

    This article reviews the experiments between the USSR, the German Democratic Republic, and Vietnam in a program of international cooperation aboard the Salyut 6 orbiter. The study of materials in space was undertaken to research the effects of orbital and gravitational conditions on crystal growth, melting, sublimation, structure, smelting and transport phenomena in glass and semiconductor materials. Bismuth, antimony, lead, tellurium, germanium, and their various alloys were studied.

  11. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    PubMed

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Determinants of Oral Diseases in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Chidzonga, M M; Carneiro, L C; Kalyanyama, B M; Kwamin, F; Oginni, F O

    2015-07-01

    Oral health policies must be developed that emphasize the role of social determinants in health and oral diseases. The aim of this report is to review literature on determinants of oral diseases and apply the concepts to promoting oral health in the African countries in the African and Middle East region (AMER). Structural and proximal determinants of oral diseases are common to those affected by other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Oral diseases are also heavily affected by issues of politics, poor health behaviors, underdeveloped health systems, and low oral health literacy. Wide-scale poverty exists in populations in the AMER. Oral health promotion and preventive oral health programs should therefore be integrated with those for general health and use the common risk factor approach (CRFA). Attempts should be made to improve the daily living conditions and reduce the incline of the social gradient. Oral health practitioners should use the CRFA when dealing with determinants of oral diseases and in the design of preventive oral health programs. The detrimental effects of the social determinants of health may be ameliorated by involving both the individual and community. Interventions in health promotion programs in the AMER need more research on the epidemiology of oral diseases and the role played by the social determinants of oral diseases, especially with regard to poverty. The high levels of poverty and low gross domestic product in most countries in the African region make it difficult to fund high-quality, affordable, accessible oral health services. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. Structure of Bubbles in the South-East region of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddone, M. A.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; LeCoarer, E.; Goldes, G. V.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we report the kinematical results of the structure located in the South-East region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Supershell LMC 9. The observations have been carried out in the frame of a Hα survey of the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way, carried out at ESO with a 36cm diameter telescope, equipped with a focal reducer, a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and a photon counting camera. The Supershell LMC 9 is composed of four giant shells DEM L 164 and DEM L 165, DEM L 208, DEM L 221, and several HII regions being the most notorious DEM L 202, DEM L206 and DEM L 207. By means of energy balance we determine the characteristics parameters of these structures (superficial brightness, electronic density, emission measure, mass, luminosity, ambient density, age), that would allow us to distinguish which is the origin (stellar wind, supernova explosion or other mechanism) of the different bubbles that compose the Supershell LMC 9. In this way we try to discern if the studied objects have kinematically some identity as an ensemble, or if they are relatively isolated objects over the diffuse general background to which they belong.

  14. Development of a management plan for coast live oak forests affected by sudden oak death in East Bay Regional Parks

    Treesearch

    Brice A. McPherson; Joshua O’Neill; Gregory Biging; Maggi Kelly; David L. Wood

    2015-01-01

    The East Bay Regional Park District maintains the largest urban park system in the United States, comprising over 45 000 ha, and more than 1900 km of trails, with extensive forests bordering residential areas. Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the introduced oomycete Phytophthora ramorum, was first detected in a district park in 2001. Both...

  15. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  16. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  17. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  18. The Soviet Union and German Reunification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-17

    supporters , but it also undermined the viability of the East German regime and destroyed whatever legitimacy it might have had. 2 1 Thus, just as...continued Soviet military presence in Germany and the creation of a viable Communist East German state. Accordingly, Zhdanov and his supporters were against...socialist state, to recommend to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany to abandon the slogan of the struggle to build socialism . The Central Committee

  19. Drivers of diel and regional variations of halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepach, H.; Quack, B.; Ziska, F.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Peeken, I.; Krüger, K.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2013-07-01

    Methyl iodide (CH3I}, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which are produced naturally in the oceans, take part in ozone chemistry both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The significance of oceanic upwelling regions for emissions of these trace gases in the global context is still uncertain although they have been identified as important source regions. To better quantify the role of upwelling areas in current and future climate, this paper analyzes major factors that influenced halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic including the Mauritanian upwelling during the DRIVE expedition. Diel and regional variability of oceanic and atmospheric CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 was determined along with biological and meteorological parameters at six 24 h-stations. Low oceanic concentrations of CH3I from 0.1-5.4 pmol L-1 were equally distributed throughout the investigation area. CHBr3 of 1.0-42.4 pmol L-1 and CH2Br2 of 1.0-9.4 pmol L-1 were measured with maximum concentrations close to the Mauritanian coast. Atmospheric mixing rations of CH3I of up to 3.3, CHBr3 to 8.9 and CH2Br2 to 3.1 ppt above the upwelling and 1.8, 12.8, respectively 2.2 ppt at a Cape Verdean coast were detected during the campaign. While diel variability in CH3I emissions could be mainly ascribed to oceanic non-biological production, no main driver was identified for its emissions in the entire study region. In contrast, oceanic bromocarbons resulted from biogenic sources which were identified as regional drivers of their sea-to-air fluxes. The diel impact of wind speed on bromocarbon emissions increased with decreasing distance to the coast. The height of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) was determined as an additional factor influencing halocarbon emissions. Oceanic and atmospheric halocarbons correlated well in the study region and in combination with high oceanic CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 concentrations, local hot spots of atmospheric halocarbons could solely

  20. Rainfall and temperature changes and variability in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issahaku, Abdul-Rahaman; Campion, Benjamin Betey; Edziyie, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the current trend and variation in rainfall and temperature in the Upper East Region, Ghana, using time series moving average analysis and decomposition methods. Meteorological data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency in Accra, Ghana, from 1954 to 2014 were used in the models. The additive decomposition model was used to analyze the rainfall because the seasonal variation was relatively constant over time, while the multiplicative model was used for both the daytime and nighttime temperatures because their seasonal variations increase over time. The monthly maximum and the minimum values for the entire period were as follows: rainfall 455.50 and 0.00 mm, nighttime temperature 29.10°C and 13.25°C and daytime temperature 41.10°C and 26.10°C, respectively. Also, while rainfall was decreasing, nighttime and daytime temperatures were increasing in decadal times. Since both the daytime and nighttime temperatures were increasing and rainfall was decreasing, climate extreme events such as droughts could result and affect agriculture in the region, which is predominantly rain fed. Also, rivers, dams, and dugouts are likely to dry up in the region. It was also observed that there was much variation in rainfall making prediction difficult. Day temperatures were generally high with the months of March and April have been the highest. The months of December recorded the lowest night temperature. Inhabitants are therefore advised to sleep in well-ventilated rooms during the warmest months and wear protective clothing during the cold months to avoid contracting climate-related diseases.

  1. Regional Differences in Seasonal Timing of Rainfall Discriminate between Genetically Distinct East African Giraffe Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Freedman, Adam H.; Brown, David M.; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  2. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  3. [Composition of 359 kidney stones from the East region of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Bouslama, S; Boutefnouchet, A; Hannache, B; Djemil, T; Kadi, A; Dahdouh, A; Saka, S; Daudon, M

    2016-01-01

    Determine stones composition of the upper urinary tract in the eastern region of Algeria. Our study focuses on a set of 359 stones of the upper urinary tract collected between January 2007 and December 2012 at hospitals in the eastern region of Algeria and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The male/female ratio was only 1.32. Calcium oxalate prevailed in 68.5% of stones and 49.3% of nuclei, mainly as whewellite (51.8% of stones and 37.9% of nuclei vs 16.7% and 11.4% respectively for weddellite). Carbapatite prevailed in 15% of stones and 29.8% of nuclei. The struvite, identified in 11.1% of calculi, prevailed in 3.9% of stones and 3.1% of nuclei. Among purines, uric acid prevailed with frequencies quite close to 8.9% and 7% respectively in the stone and in the nucleus while the ammonium urate prevailed in only 0.3% of stones and 3.3% of nuclei. The cystine frequency was 3.6% in both stone and nucleus. The frequency of stone with umbilication was 26.2%. Whewellite was the main component of umbilicated stones with Randall's plaque. Our results suggest that stones of the urinary tract in the Algerian east region resemble those observed in industrialized countries. Some features such as stones location, the whewellite prevalence, the frequencies of main components in both the stone and the nucleus as well as the formation of stones on renal papilla confirm this trend. 4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of spectral nudging on regional climate simulation over CORDEX East Asia using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianping; Wang, Shuyu; Niu, Xiaorui; Hui, Pinhong; Zong, Peishu; Wang, Xueyuan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the impact of the spectral nudging method on regional climate simulation over the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment East Asia (CORDEX-EA) region is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). Driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, five continuous simulations covering 1989-2007 are conducted by the WRF model, in which four runs adopt the interior spectral nudging with different wavenumbers, nudging variables and nudging coefficients. Model validation shows that WRF has the ability to simulate spatial distributions and temporal variations of the surface climate (air temperature and precipitation) over CORDEX-EA domain. Comparably the spectral nudging technique is effective in improving the model's skill in the following aspects: (1), the simulated biases and root mean square errors of annual mean temperature and precipitation are obviously reduced. The SN3-UVT (spectral nudging with wavenumber 3 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U, V and T) and SN6 (spectral nudging with wavenumber 6 in both zonal and meridional directions applied to U and V) experiments give the best simulations for temperature and precipitation respectively. The inter-annual and seasonal variances produced by the SN experiments are also closer to the ERA-Interim observation. (2), the application of spectral nudging in WRF is helpful for simulating the extreme temperature and precipitation, and the SN3-UVT simulation shows a clear advantage over the other simulations in depicting both the spatial distributions and inter-annual variances of temperature and precipitation extremes. With the spectral nudging, WRF is able to preserve the variability in the large scale climate information, and therefore adjust the temperature and precipitation variabilities toward the observation.

  5. Exploring Subglacial Lake Connectivity via Groundwater Aquifers in the Dome C Region, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooch, B. T.; Carter, S. P.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Subglacial lakes lying under the Antarctic Ice Sheet form part of a dynamic, interconnected hydraulic system. Most research exploring the nature of this system has focused on flow along the ice-bed interface, neglecting the effects of groundwater transport, as such systems are thought to lack the transmissivity necessary to accommodate the inferred meltwater volume. In the Dome C region of East Antarctica, however, inferred melt water volumes are relatively low due to proximity to the ice divide and hydraulic gradients are relatively high due to steep subglacial bedrock topography, such that groundwater flow might be viable as a dominant means of water transport. This region contains many small subglacial lakes residing in bedrock depressions of steep basal topography. Preliminary analysis of radar sounding data does not always reveal an obvious hydraulic connection between these lakes despite readily apparent sources of melt feeding these bodies. Here we test several simple models for groundwater flow, including both fractured rock and porous media systems using ice-surface and bedrock geometry inferred from radio-echo sounding data and a published map of melt rates, with the purpose of defining a region in which a groundwater system can account for the majority of the water budget. We then compare these results against maps of basal reflectivity and subglacial lake distribution, as determined from radar sounding data. Areas in which groundwater flow is the dominant process will lack basal lubrication and demonstrate low basal reflectivities, but could still contain small subglacial lakes. While not spatially extensive with respect to the ice sheet, these groundwater-dominated areas could occupy the headwaters of most glacial catchments representing a unique and relatively stable subglacial environment.

  6. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Bohley, Stefanie; Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-04

    Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). 2 populations in East Germany. CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45-83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20-79 years at baseline (2193 women). Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD. The associations were stronger for women than for men. An explanation for these

  7. Changes of individual perception in psychosocial stressors related to German reunification in 1989/1990 and cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in a population-based study in East Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kluttig, Alexander; Werdan, Karl; Nuding, Sebastian; Greiser, Karin Halina; Kuss, Oliver; Markus, Marcello Ricardo Paulista; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Krabbe, Christine; Haerting, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aim was to examine the relationship between individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors associated with German reunification and cardiovascular effects. We hypothesised that higher levels of psychosocial stress related to German reunification were associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Design Cross-sectional data from 2 cohort studies in East Germany were used: Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study (CARLA), and Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Setting 2 populations in East Germany. Participants CARLA study: 1779 participants, aged 45–83 years at baseline (812 women), SHIP study: 4308 participants, aged 20–79 years at baseline (2193 women). Primary and secondary outcome measures Psychosocial stressors related to reunification were operationalised by the Reunification Stress Index (RSI; scale from 0 to 10). This index was composed of questions that were related to individually perceived changes in psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) after reunification. To examine the associations between the RSI and each stressor separately with cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, regression models were used. Results RSI was associated with CVD in women (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33). Cardiovascular risk factors were associated with RSI for both men and women, with strongest associations between RSI and diabetes in women (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) and depressive disorders in men (RR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.77). The change in occupational situation related to reunification was the major contributing psychosocial stressor. We observed a strong association with CVD in women who experienced occupational deterioration after reunification (RR=4.04, 95% CI 1.21 to 13.43). Conclusions Individually perceived deterioration of psychosocial stressors (occupational, financial and personal) related to German reunification was associated with cardiovascular

  8. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker - supporter of the concept of the East German movement in favor of self-organization during the political turning point 1989/90].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's holistic thinking in the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) is reviewed. Broad-minded academics sought, in accordance with the modern paradigm of self-organization, beyond the ideological template for ways out of the dead end of incrustations of society and innovation blockages under the constraints of a dictatorship. Right after the fall of the wall, Weizsäcker willingly backed a "community of free researchers for self-organization" (Freie Forschungsgemeinschaft Selbstorganisation, FFGSO). This group, conceived as a nonpartisan "think tank" of civil activism, is also discussed. At a number of its meetings Weizsäcker debated the dangers of ideologically influenced science. The effectiveness of the dual leadership at his own Starnberg Institute, for instance, was stymied by the tensions arisen out of such conflicting aims. Against the voluntaristic anticipations of the mainstream in sociology, precisely that system proved to be more viable that was meant to be overcome: faulty and purportedly futureless capitalism. Weizsäcker repudiated social prognoses made in the absence of rules for their falsification resp. verification. Weizsäcker acted as a leading figure at the FFGSO's Potsdam conference, opened on 30 Mar. 1990, on the "DDR--and afterwards?". Its intention was in order to trigger a nationwide discussion of scientific scenarios in designing German unification in the face of gross practical disparities between East and West Germany. The Trust Agency inspired by the FFGSO at the Round Table between opposition and old government was supposed to transfer the national public property "Volkseigentum" of the DDR into private property of the East German citizens, to enable them to realize a role as subject through self-organization. At the group's request, Weizsäcker mediated the readiness by the Lutheran World Federation to assume the role of ombudsman in anticipation of conflicts of interest within the

  9. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia through coupling regional and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective: using global chemical transport models and focusing on synoptic-scale export events. These global models have fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, and thus have a limited ability to represent boundary layer processes and urban photochemistry. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; http://www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) coupled with a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the importance of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent. We find that the vertical lifting and outflow of Asian pollution is enhanced in the regional models throughout the study period (March 2001) as contrast to the global model. Episodic outflow of CO, PAN, and O3 to the upper troposphere during cold frontal passages is twice as great in the WRF-Chem model as compared with the MOZART model. The TRACE-P aircraft measurements indicate that the pollution plumes in MOZART are too weak and too low in the altitude, which we attribute to the global model's inability to capture rapid deep convection that develops along the leading edge of the convergence band during frontal events. In contrast to pollution export from Asia, we find little difference in the regional vs. global model transport of European (EU) pollution into surface air over East Asia (EA). Instead, the local surface characteristics - sensitivity - strongly influence surface O3 responses. For instance, the O3 response to 20% decreases in EU emissions imported into our regional model domain is strongest (0.4-0.6 ppbv

  10. Unification of Theoretical Models of Academic Self-Concept/Achievement Relations: Reunification of East and West German School Systems after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Koller, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal data (five waves) from large cohorts of 7th grade students in East Germany ("n"=2,119) and West Germany ("n"=1,928) were collected from the start of the reunification of the school systems following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Here we integrate the two major theoretical models of relations between academic…

  11. Revolutionising engineering education in the Middle East region to promote earthquake-disaster mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.

    2014-09-01

    Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  12. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  13. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-03-01

    Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health.

  14. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moody, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999 and the Aqua satellite in May 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and surface properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on (i) the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, (ii) cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals, (iii) aerosol optical thickness and size characteristics both over land and ocean, and (iv) ecosystem classification and surface spectral reflectance. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 min (Level-3 products).

  15. East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination in Koreans: haplogroup-level coding region SNP analysis and subhaplogroup-level control region sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Yoo, Ji-Eun; Park, Myung Jin; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Chong-Youl; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2006-11-01

    The present study analyzed 21 coding region SNP markers and one deletion motif for the determination of East Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups by designing three multiplex systems which apply single base extension methods. Using two multiplex systems, all 593 Korean mtDNAs were allocated into 15 haplogroups: M, D, D4, D5, G, M7, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, R9, B, A, and N9. As the D4 haplotypes occurred most frequently in Koreans, the third multiplex system was used to further define D4 subhaplogroups: D4a, D4b, D4e, D4g, D4h, and D4j. This method allowed the complementation of coding region information with control region mutation motifs and the resultant findings also suggest reliable control region mutation motifs for the assignment of East Asian mtDNA haplogroups. These three multiplex systems produce good results in degraded samples as they contain small PCR products (101-154 bp) for single base extension reactions. SNP scoring was performed in 101 old skeletal remains using these three systems to prove their utility in degraded samples. The sequence analysis of mtDNA control region with high incidence of haplogroup-specific mutations and the selective scoring of highly informative coding region SNPs using the three multiplex systems are useful tools for most applications involving East Asian mtDNA haplogroup determination and haplogroup-directed stringent quality control.

  16. Continental crust in deep-water basins of East Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Belyaev, Igor; Chekhovich, Peter; Poselov, Victor

    2013-04-01

    The nature of the crust in deep-water basins (1.5-4 km) in East Arctic is a matter of debates. The occurrence of continental crust has been demonstrated by deep-sea drilling only for the central part of the Lomonosov Ridge. Many authors suggest that the Mendeleev High and the Makarov and Podvodnikov basins in the Amerasian Basin are underlain by oceanic crust. In these regions the mean P-wave velocities in the consolidated crust are higher than in most continental areas. However, the thickness of this layer is several times larger (15-30 km) than that of the oceanic crust (7 km) and it includes a thin granitic layer (2-5 km). To explain this anomalous structure and thickness of the crust it is commonly supposed that in the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous the oceanic crust was formed in the above regions by sea-floor spreading accompanies by melting out of large masses of crustal material on a hot spot like on the present Iceland hot spot. Other investigators consider the crust in the above regions as a continental one. An important argument is the evolution of the subsidence in time which is quite different from a square root of time that typical of oceanic crust. Thus, according to the dredging data, the Mendeleev High remained near to sea level for 170 Myr since the Late Silurian and until the Early Permian. This would be absolutely impossible for a cooling hot spot on the oceanic crust. Furthermore, the structure of consolidated crust in these areas is similar to that in some ultradeep basins within the continents and on their passive margins, e.g., in the East Barents, North Caspian and North Chukchi basins which were originally formed on continental crust. To produce the water loaded subsidence by 1.5-4 km by lithospheric stretching, the lithosphere should be stretched by 1.5-4 times. However, in most of the seismic reflection profiles, no large tensile deformations can be observed. Under such circumstances the transformation of gabbro in the lower crust into

  17. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  18. Bias-corrected regional climate projections of extreme rainfall in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, D.; Olson, R.; Di Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents future changes in extreme precipitation as projected within the New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project's regional climate ensemble for south-east Australia. Model performance, independence and projected future changes were considered when designing the ensemble. We applied a quantile mapping bias correction to the climate model outputs based on theoretical distribution functions, and the implications of this for the projected precipitation extremes is investigated. Precipitation extremes are quantified using several indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices set of indices. The bias correction was successful in removing most of the magnitude bias in extreme precipitation but does not correct biases in the length of maximum wet and dry spells. The bias correction also had a relatively small effect on the projected future changes. Across a range of metrics, robust increases in the magnitude of precipitation extreme indices are found. While these increases are often in-line with a continuation of the trends present over the last century, they are not found to be statistically significant within the ensemble as a whole. The length of the maximum consecutive wet spell is projected to remain at present-day levels, while the length of the maximum dry spell is projected to increase into the future. The combination of longer dry spells and increases in extreme precipitation magnitude indicate an important change in the character of the precipitation time series. This could have considerable hydrological implications since changes in the sequencing of events can be just as important as changes in event magnitude for hydrological impacts.

  19. Assessment of Ebola virus disease preparedness in the WHO South-East Asia Region

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Reuben; Gould, Philip; El Sakka, Hammam; Rana, Bardan J; Pinyowiwat, Vason; Bezbaruah, Supriya; Ofrin, Roderico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct assessments of Ebola virus disease preparedness in countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Methods Nine of 11 countries in the region agreed to be assessed. During February to November 2015 a joint team from WHO and ministries of health conducted 4–5 day missions to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. We collected information through guided discussions with senior technical leaders and visits to hospitals, laboratories and airports. We assessed each country’s Ebola virus disease preparedness on 41 tasks under nine key components adapted from the WHO Ebola preparedness checklist of January 2015. Findings Political commitment to Ebola preparedness was high in all countries. Planning was most advanced for components that had been previously planned or tested for influenza pandemics: multilevel and multisectoral coordination; multidisciplinary rapid response teams; public communication and social mobilization; drills in international airports; and training on personal protective equipment. Major vulnerabilities included inadequate risk assessment and risk communication; gaps in data management and analysis for event surveillance; and limited capacity in molecular diagnostic techniques. Many countries had limited planning for a surge of Ebola cases. Other tasks needing improvement included: advice to inbound travellers; adequate isolation rooms; appropriate infection control practices; triage systems in hospitals; laboratory diagnostic capacity; contact tracing; and danger pay to staff to ensure continuity of care. Conclusion Joint assessment and feedback about the functionality of Ebola virus preparedness systems help countries strengthen their core capacities to meet the International Health Regulations. PMID:27994284

  20. Tectonics of the junction region between the East European craton and West Arctic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, A. S.; Morozov, Y. A.; Terekhov, E. N.; Bayanova, T. B.; Tyupanov, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    The region of the junction and interaction between the East European Craton (EEC) and the West Arctic Craton (WAC) is regarded as a complexly built zone or assembly of both the volumetric and dividing linear tectonic elements: the Trollfjord-Rybachi-Kanin (TRK) Lineament, the pericratonic subsidence zone of the EEC, the Karpinskii Lineament, the Murmansk Block of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield, and the Kolmozero-Voronya Zone, which are briefly characterized in this paper. Evidences of thrusting have been established not only in the TRK Suture Zone and on the Rybachi Peninsula, which represent a fragment of the Timanides fold-thrust belt, but also to the southwest, in the Upper Riphean and Vendian terrigenous sequences making up the Sredni Peninsula and related to the pericratonic trough of the VEC. Two phases of fold-thrust deformations with elements of left-lateral strike-slip offset pertaining to the activity and evolution of the lineament suture dividing the Sredni and Rybachi peninsulas have been recorded. The variously oriented fault-fold systems within this fault zone are evidence for multistage deformation and can be explained by an at least twostage change in the kinematics that control displacement along the fault. The disintegrated granitic massifs of the Archean crystalline basement tectonically squeezed out in the upper crust as protrusions are localized within TRK Fault Zone. Plagiogranitic bodies, which underwent superposed fault-fold deformations of both kinematic stages, are an evidence of the vigorous tectonic event that predated folding and two-stage strike-slip displacement along the TRK Fault—by thrusting of Riphean sequences from north to south toward the Archean craton. The nappe-thrust regional structure was formed at this stage; elements of it have been recognized in the Sredni, Rybachi, and Kanin peninsulas. The main stages of tectonic evolution in the junction zone between the EEC and the WAP have been revealed and substantiated.

  1. Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Eun-Soon; Choi, Yeon-Woo; Ahn, Joong-Bae

    2017-08-01

    This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2-Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) scenarios. Annual mean precipitation, hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and wet and dry extreme indices are analyzed to identify the robust behavior of hydroclimatic change in response to enhanced emission scenarios using high-resolution (12.5 km) and long-term (1981-2100) daily precipitation. Ensemble projections exhibit increased hydroclimatic intensity across the entire domain and under both the RCP scenarios. However, a geographical pattern with predominantly intensified HY-INT does not fully emerge in the mean precipitation change because HY-INT is tied to the changes in the precipitation characteristics rather than to those in the precipitation amount. All projections show an enhancement of high intensity precipitation and a reduction of weak intensity precipitation, which lead to a possible shift in hydroclimatic regime prone to an increase of both wet and dry extremes. In general, projections forced by the RCP8.5 scenario tend to produce a much stronger response than do those by the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the temperature increase under the RCP4.5 scenario is sufficiently large to induce significant changes in hydroclimatic intensity, despite the relatively uncertain change in mean precipitation. Likewise, the forced responses of HY-INT and the two extreme indices are more robust than that of mean precipitation, in terms of the statistical significance and model agreement.

  2. Capacity Building and Financing Oral Health in the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G; Joury, E; Fatusi, O; Ober-Oluoch, J; Onigbanjo, R J; Honkala, S

    2015-07-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries do not yet have policies to implement effective oral health programs. A reason is lack of human and financial resources. Gaps between resource needs and available health funding are widening. By building capacity, countries aim to improve oral health through actions by oral health care personnel and oral health care organizations and their communities. Capacity building involves achieving measurable and sustainable results in training, research, and provision of care. Actions include advancement of knowledge, attitudes and skills, expansion of support, and development of cohesiveness and partnerships. The aim of this critical review is to review existing knowledge and identify gaps and variations between and within different income levels in relation to the capacity building and financing oral health in the African and Middle East region (AMER). A second aim is to formulate research priorities and outline a research agenda for capacity building and financing to improve oral health and reduce oral health inequalities in the AMER. The article focuses on capacity building for oral health and oral health financing in the AMER of the IADR. In many communities in the AMER, there are clear and widening gaps between the dental needs and the existing capacity to meet these needs in terms of financial and human resources. Concerted efforts are required to improve access to oral health care through appropriate financing mechanisms, innovative health insurance schemes, and donor support and move toward universal oral health care coverage to reduce social inequality in the region. It is necessary to build capacity and incentivize the workforce to render evidence-based services as well as accessing funds to conduct research on equity and social determinants of oral health while promoting community engagement and a multidisciplinary approach. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  3. Seismicity Patterns and Magmatic Processes in the Rwenzori Region, East-African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenfeld, M.; Rumpker, G.; Schmeling, H.; Wallner, H.

    2010-12-01

    The 5000m high Rwenzori Mountains are situated within the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS), at the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent a basement block located within the rift valley whose origin and relation to the evolution of the EARS are highly puzzling. During a recent seismological campaign we located more than 800 earthquakes per month with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 5.1. Vertical sections across the northern parts of the Rwenzoris show, that west of the mountains (towards the rift valley) the focal depths range from 10 to 20 km, whereas the hypocentres go as deep as 30 km on the eastern side. This is in good agreement with Moho-depths derived from receiver functions and implies that all of these events are located within the crust. However, about 30 km east of the northern mountain ridge we located a cluster of 7 events that exhibit an anomalous depth of about 60 km. We can confidently locate these earthquakes within the mantle lithosphere beneath the rift. The existence of earthquakes at this depth is enigmatic, especially within a rifting regime were one expects hot and weak material relatively close to the surface. We think that these events are possibly related to the evolution of the Rwenzori Mountains. A recent hypothesis to explain the extreme uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains is rift induced delamination (RID) of mantle lithosphere. Here we show that the RID-process is indeed capable of explaining the seismic energy release in the mantle. However, in view of the specific hypocentral location of the event cluster, magmatic impregnation processes associated with dyke propagation into the mantle lithosphere may be a more realistic cause for seismic radiation at the observed depth. Crustal earthquakes northeast of the Rwenzori area are relocated with a double-difference algorithm to improve the spatial resolution of seismicity pattern. Several event clusters in the vicinity of the Fort

  4. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of Miocene phosphatic rocks in the East San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, James M.

    1979-01-01

    A stratigraphic study of the Monterey Group in the East San Francisco Bay Region, California, indicates that a depositional basin began to subside in early to middle Miocene time. The Miocene sea transgressed from the west or southwest, and the area subsided to a possible water depth of 500 to 2,500 m. The Monterey Group within the study area is a time-transgressive sequence of six sandstone and shale formations. Stratigraphic cycles of interbedded sandstone and shale formations are related to the amount of terrigenous sediment input into the basin as well as the depositional environment. During periods of low terrigenous sedimentation, biogenetic sedimentation in the form of diatomite layers were interbedded with hemipelagic muds and thin turbidite sands. These diatom-rich sediments were probably deposited within the upper bathyal zone (180 to 500 m) and, during lithification, diagenetically altered to form siliceous shales and cherts. As terrigenous sedimentation increased, probably due to periodic uplift east of the study area, biogenetic sedimentation was masked until finer grained sediment at a lower rate of deposition reoccurred. As the basin filled and a higher energy environment prevailed; coarse-grained sediment was again deposited until a lower energy environment resumed. Three types of inorganic phosphate are present within the study area: nodular, Pelletal, and pebbles of sandy phosphatic mudstone. The nodular phosphate is associated with the siliceous shale formations and formed within diatomite layers before compaction and lithification. The other two types of phosphate are found within the sandstone formations and probably originated in a shallower, higher energy environment than the siliceous shales. Faulting was active during middle to late Miocene time. The change in stratigraphic thickness across the Mission fault is 350 m which may approximate the vertical (?) displacement along this fault. This displacement took place in middle to upper Miocene

  5. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    PubMed

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional climate projection based on RCP scenarios in the CORDEX East Asia Domain Using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, M. S.; Oh, S. G.; Cha, D. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate projection data is essential to the adaptation and risk management for the expected climate change. In this stduy, we reproduced regional climate over CORDEX East Asia for 72 years from 1979 to 2050 with 50-km resolution using the latest regional climate model version 4, RegCM4, driven by HadGEM2-AO with about 135-km resolution under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5/4.5. Simulation skills of RegCM4 for the present climate (1980-2005, spin up time: 1979) over CORDEX East Asia are evaluated with CRU-TS (Climate Research Unit Time-Series) 3.0 and GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project). And KMA ground observation data are also used for the detailed assessment of RegCM4 over South Korea. The evaluation results showed that RegCM4 reasonalbly simulated the spatial distribution, and inter-annual and seasonal variations of surface air temperature. However, it showed a non-negligible systemartic biases in the precipitation. In particular, the rainband accompanied by the seasonal march of East Asian summer monsoon was simulated too southward, below 30° N comparing to the GPCP. As a reulst, summer precipitation over South Korea and Japan island was significantly underestimated. Under RCP8.5 (RCP4.5) scenario, annual mean temperature over the CORDEX East Asia is expected to increase by + 1.6 oC(+1.4oC) above the present level (1980-2005) by the end of the future simulation period. Most of the regions (South-Korea, South-China, North-China, India, Japan, Mongolia) show the increaseing trend of surface air temperature. On the other hand, the future changes of precipitation are not systemaic at the most of regions and seasons. More detailed results including projected regional climate change will be discussed in the presentation.

  7. THE EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL: ITS HISTORY AND CONTRIBUTION TO REGIONAL MALARIA RESEARCH DURING THE LAST 75 YEARS

    PubMed Central

    OMBONGI, K S; DOBSON, M; MALOWANY, M; SNOW, R W

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Since its inception seventy five years ago, the East African Medical Journal has provided an uninterrupted forum through which medical practitioners and scientists could publish their research. Although the EAMJ was initially prepared for an audience of colonial medical officers, by the 1930s the journal expanded to include subscription and submissions from Northern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and West Africa. Our review begins with a history of the journal’s production, exploring the shifts in editorial composition. We then focus more directly on a discussion of papers and editorials on malaria, a disease that continues to challenge the region of East Africa. Our review highlights the importance of the journal’s commitment to publications on this major health problem within the East African environment. Of particular interest, our review shows that many of today’s concerns, debates and recommendations for control or treatment of malaria in East Africa were discussed and debated in earlier issues of the EAMJ. Medical policy for the region with regard to malaria will benefit from revisiting previous volumes of the EAMJ. These contributions will ensure the journal a significant place in the world of research publications for the coming seventy five years. PMID:24137043

  8. Inverse Modeling to Improve Emission Inventory for PM10 Forecasting in East Asia Region Focusing on Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y. S.; Choi, D.; Kwon, H. Y.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    The aerosol transports from China and Mongolia along the Northwestern wind have large influence on the air quality in Korea and the assessment of the emission in the East Asia region is an important factor in air quality forecasting in Korea. In order to obtain working PM10 emission inventory for the PM10 forecast modeling over East Asia, the Bayesian approach with CAMx (Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension) forward model was applied. The surface observations of PM10 from EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia), API (Air Pollution Index) sites over China and AAQMS (Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations) in Korea were used for the inverse modelling. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori emissions were generally under-predicted. The result also indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were under-estimated in particular. Optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions over East Asia from inverse modelling analysis ware proposed. A posteriori PM10 emissions were much lower than the a priori emission where the soil dust emissions were prevailing. This implied that the dust emission module still had large uncertainty and it was necessary to further research on the improvement of in-line emission modelling for the soil dust. In contrast, a posteriori anthropogenic emissions from industrialized areas such as Beijing and Shenyang sites were slightly higher than a priori emission at regions. Especially, a posteriori PM10 emissions increased in Korea and in Northeast region of China. The predictions of PM10 with proposed a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modelling minimized the discrepancies in the model estimation by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia. Further details of inverse modeling

  9. Circulation and water mass transports on the East Antarctic shelf in the Mertz Glacier region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Antoine; Houssais, Marie-Noëlle; Le Goff, Hervé; Marec, Claudie; Dausse, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The East Antarctic shelf off Adélie-George V Land is known to be an important region for Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation as a result of intense sea ice production in the Mertz Glacier Polynya during the winter season. It is also a region where the warm modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) penetrates onto the shelf during the summer. Using hydrographic observations from a summer survey in 2008 we implement a box inverse model to propose a comprehensive view of the steady state circulation on this shelf in summer. Additional information from mooring observations collected on the depression slope is used to provide context to the retrieved circulation scheme. Over the depression slope, the summer baroclinic structure of the currents is found to contrast with the almost barotropic structure in winter. The summer circulation is strongly constrained by the DSW distribution and forms a clockwise circulation primarily transporting the fresh surface waters and the warm mCDW around the dome of DSW. Over the upper flank of the Mertz Bank, the inflow branch transports the mCDW towards the Mertz Glacier, while, over the lower part of the slope, the outflow branch returns to the sill a diluted mode of the same water mass. A total of 0.19 Sv of mCDW inflows at the sill and two-third reach the Mertz Glacier and recirculate in front of it, allowing the mCDW to penetrate into the deeper part of the depression. Possible scenarios of interaction between the mCDW and the DSW with the glacier are examined. It is shown that, despite the water mass pathways and transports suggest possible ice-ocean interaction, both lateral and basal melting were likely small in summer 2008. Finally, our results suggest that, in addition to bathymetric features, the distribution of the residual DSW which is left from the preceding winter sets up regional pressure gradients which provide a seasonal control on the shelf circulation. In particular, the spring collapse of the convective patch would

  10. Involvement of health professionals in tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, S; Sinha, D N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use is widely entrenched in the South-East Asia (SEA) Region leading to high morbidity and mortality in this region. Several studies revealed that tobacco use is widespread among youth and school children. Exposure to second-hand smoke was reported as around 50% or more in three countries - Myanmar (59.5%), Bangladesh (51.3%), and Indonesia (49.6%). Health profession students encompassing medical, dental, nursing and pharmacy disciplines, and even qualified health professionals are no exception from tobacco use. While they are regarded as role models in tobacco cessation programs, their tobacco addiction will carry a negative impact in this endeavour. A mere inquiry about the smoking status of patients and a brief advice by doctors or dentists increases quit rates and prompts those who have not thought about quitting to consider doing so. Evidence from some randomized trials suggests that advice from motivated physicians to their smoking patients could be effective in facilitating cessation of smoking. However, the low detection rate of smokers by many physicians and the small proportion of smokers who routinely receive advice from their physicians to quit have been identified as a matter of concern. This paper describes the role and issues of involvement of health professionals in tobacco control. Data from a variety of sources is used to assess the status. Although there are some differences, tobacco use is widespread among the students and health professional students. Exposure to second hand smoke is also a matter of concern. Tobacco-related problems and tobacco control cut across a vast range of health disciplines. Building alliances among the health professional associations in a vertical way will help synergize efforts, and obtain better outcomes from use of existing resources. Health professional associations in some countries in the SEA region have already taken the initiative to form coalitions at the national level to advance the tobacco control

  11. Middle East emissions of VOCs estimated using OMI HCHO observations and the MAGRITTE regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Jean-Francois; Stavrakou, Trisevgeni; Bauwens, Maite; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Air quality in the Middle East has considerably deteriorated in the last decades. In particular tropospheric ozone reaches very high levels during summer due to the combination of high solar irradiances with often very high and rapidly evolving anthropogenic emissions of NOx and VOCs associated to oil/gas exploitation and fast urbanisation. In addition, high biogenic VOC emissions are expected in non-desert areas, in particular during summer due to scorching temperatures and high solar irradiances. Both anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions are poorly known, however, due to near-absence of experimental constraints on emission factors for local vegetation and industrial and extraction processes. Furthermore, the dependence of emissions on environmental conditions (e.g. soil moisture in the case of biogenic isoprene emissions) is only very crudely parameterized in emission models. Here we use spaceborne (OMI) observations of formaldehyde, a known product of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC oxidation, as constraint in an inversion framework built on a regional model, MAGRITTE (Model of Atmospheric composition at Global and Regional scales using Inversion Techniques for Trace Gas Emissions). MAGRITTE is run at 0.5x0.5 degree resolution, with lateral boundary conditions provided by the global CTM IMAGESv2 (Bauwens et al., 2016). The global and regional models share essentially the same chemistry and physical parameterizations. Emission inversion with MAGRITTE is performed using an adjoint-based iterative procedure, similar to previous inversions using IMAGES. Biogenic VOC emissions are calculated using MEGAN (Muller et al., 2008; Stavrakou et al., 2015), whereas the HTAPv2 emission dataset is used for anthropogenic emissions, with several adjustments for oil/gas exploitation and traffic emissions. The OMI data are regridded onto the model resolution and averaged seasonally in order to reduce noise. Preliminary results indicate that biogenic isoprene emissions are a

  12. Complex Epidemiology of a Zoonotic Disease in a Culturally Diverse Region: Phylogeography of Rabies Virus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Freuling, Conrad M.; Marston, Denise A.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Goharrriz, Hooman; Wise, Emma; Breed, Andrew C.; Saturday, Greg; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Zilahi, Erika; Al-Kobaisi, Muhannad F.; Nowotny, Norbert; Mueller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East is a culturally and politically diverse region at the gateway between Europe, Africa and Asia. Spatial dynamics of the fatal zoonotic disease rabies among countries of the Middle East and surrounding regions is poorly understood. An improved understanding of virus distribution is necessary to direct control methods. Previous studies have suggested regular trans-boundary movement, but have been unable to infer direction. Here we address these issues, by investigating the evolution of 183 rabies virus isolates collected from over 20 countries between 1972 and 2014. We have undertaken a discrete phylogeographic analysis on a subset of 139 samples to infer where and when movements of rabies have occurred. We provide evidence for four genetically distinct clades with separate origins currently circulating in the Middle East and surrounding countries. Introductions of these viruses have been followed by regular and multidirectional trans-boundary movements in some parts of the region, but relative isolation in others. There is evidence for minimal regular incursion of rabies from Central and Eastern Asia. These data support current initiatives for regional collaboration that are essential for rabies elimination. PMID:25811659

  13. Geoacoustic models of the Donghae-to-Gangneung region in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kim, Seong Pil; Hahn, Jooyoung

    2016-04-01

    Geoacoustic model is to provide a model of the real seafloor with measured, extrapolated, and predicted values of geoacoustic environmental parameters. It controls acoustic propagation in underwater acoustics. In the Korean continental margin of the East Sea, this study reconstructed geoacoustic models using geoacoustic and marine geologic data of the Donghae-to-Gangneung region (37.4° to 37.8° in latitude). The models were based on the data of the high-resolution subbottom and air-gun seismic profiles with sediment cores. The Donghae region comprised measured P-wave velocities and attenuations of the cores, whereas the Gangneung region comprised regression values using measured values of the adjacent areas. Geoacoustic data of the cores were extrapolated down to a depth of the geoacoustic models. For actual modeling, the P-wave speed of the models was compensated to in situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. These geoacoustic models of this region probably contribute for geoacoustic and underwater acoustic modelling reflecting vertical and lateral variability of acoustic properties in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. Keywords: geoacoustic model, environmental parameter, East Sea, continental margin Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the research grants from the Agency of Defense Development (UD140003DD and UE140033DD).

  14. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Afshin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Hazratian, Teimour; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Hooshyar, Hossein; Arbabi, Mohsen; Salim-Abadi, Yaser; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Reza; Gorouhi, Mohammad Amin; Paksa, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR) and synergism ratio (SR) were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo. Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respectively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11-fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance. Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance. PMID:27308298

  15. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (<20 kg N km-2 yr-1), nitrogen release to the watershed must be derived from the mining of soil N stocks. The fraction of riverine N export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  16. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Chu, D. Allen; Moody, Eric G.

    2001-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this presentation we review the comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms that have been developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS data, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of (i) developing a cloud mask for distinguishing clear sky from clouds, (ii) retrieving global cloud radiative and microphysical properties, including cloud top pressure and temperature, effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, thermodynamic phase, and effective radius, (iii) monitoring tropospheric aerosol optical thickness over the land and ocean and aerosol size distribution over the ocean, (iv) determining atmospheric profiles of moisture and temperature, and (v) estimating column water amount. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region in Spring 2001. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 degree (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented.

  17. [Oral cavity and pharynx cancer in the region of Siberia and Far East].

    PubMed

    Choinzonov, E L; Pisareva, L F; Odintsova, I N; Zhuikova, L D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the prevalence of malignant oral cavity and pharynx neoplasms among the population of the region of Siberia and Far East. These neoplasms are the ninth most frequent conditions in the structure of malignant tumours among the male population and rank the eighteenth among the women. On the whole, the morbidity rate of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer (3.8‱ and 2.0‱ respectively) was consistent with the mean morbidity levels in Russia. The risk of the development of these conditions among the men is significantly higher than among the women. The highest morbidity is recorded among the subjects at the age of 65-69 years. It increases in the subjects of either sex at a rate that is 3.4 times higher in the women than in the men. The study revealed the territories characterized ether by the enhanced or by the reduced risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer development. The prevalence of this pathology was estimated at 28.4 per 100,000 population, with the overall active detectability being 11.8%, that of stage 1 an 2 disease 7.8% and 19.3% respectively. One-year lethality was 35.6%. The radical treatment was completed in 41.1% of the patients; 45.8% of them were followed up during 5 years. It is concluded that the increasing oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer morbidity and the insufficient volume of preventive measures taken together suggest the necessity of closer cooperation of general practitioners and dental surgeons with oncologists.

  18. Coupled Ice Sheet and Basal Hydrology Regional Model for Dome A, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, M.; Bell, R. E.; Buck, W. R.; Creyts, T. T.; Abdi, A.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between an ice sheet and water at its base play an important role in ice sheet dynamics. In addition to causing slip, water accretes to the base of ice sheets, changing rheology and thus flow rate. Recent work (Bell et al, 2011) has shown that frozen-on basal ice can comprise as much as 50% of the ice sheet thickness. The addition of this volume of frozen-on ice affects the thermal budget by releasing latent heat, and requiring that an equal mass of ice melted upstream of the accretion site. Melt and accretion represent source and sink terms in the mass and energy conservation equations of the ice sheet coupled through a subglacial water layer. To investigate these interactions we have developed a coupled, time-dependent numerical model of ice sheet and basal hydrologic dynamics for the Dome A region of East Antarctica. The model uses the Shallow Ice Approximation (SIA) for ice flow with the temperature dependence of rheology and incorporates a full three-dimensional treatment of temperature advection and diffusion. Beneath the ice we incorporate three-dimensional temperature diffusion within the bedrock. The ice model is coupled to a dynamic basal hydrology model that includes both melt and freeze-on. Because water velocities can be much higher than ice velocities, the model uses asynchronous timestepping between the basal hydrology system and the ice system. We investigate whether basal accretion is a steady state or an episodic process and to constrain the rates of accretion. Preliminary results indicate that most of the major accretion sites can be reproduced in a steady state model, and that accretion rates are on the order of millimeters per year. In addition, we use the model to learn about mass and energy fluxes in ice sheet-bed interactions more generally. Future goals include using this model to invert for the accumulation rate and geothermal flux boundary conditions of the ice sheet.

  19. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy).

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Buja, Alessandra; Baldovin, Tatjana; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Saia, Mario

    2013-10-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of -1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC -6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC -4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue.

  20. Impact of climate change on Vea Catchment and irrigation scheme in Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limantol, A. M.; Afouda, A.; Lenartz, B.; Agyare, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The study assessed the future impact of climate change (CC) on water resources availability in the Vea catchment of the Upper East of Ghana for irrigated agriculture. A questionnaire survey targeting farmers with at least 30 years of farming experience in the area was conducted in 6 of the 11 agricultural extension areas (EAs) in the catchment (305 km2). Data on perception about CC, adaptation measures and barriers were captured by the questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also conducted in each of the 6 selected EAs. Additionally, 8 stakeholder institutions were interviewed. Climatic data over a period of 1972 to 2012 from four stations were evaluated. Future climate simulations from 16 Regional Climate Models were used to predict future streamflow with IHACRES runoff model. The WEAP model was used to assess future water availability in two future time slices, 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. About 89.5% of 466 questioned farmers believe that temperature increased over the past 30 years, while over 94% of farmers believe that amount of rainfall; duration, intensity and rainy days decreased. Over 96% of farmers believe that their farms are extremely vulnerable to decreased rainfall, droughts and changed timing of rainfall. While analysis of climatic data shows rising trend in temperature, no long-term trend and no variability changes in both annual and monthly rainfall amounts were evident. High evapotranspiration due to rising temperature may have triggered the farmers' perception about rainfall trend and droughts in the area. Several measures such as cropping of new varieties, changing farm locations and use of more fertilizer have been employed by farmers to adjust to CC. It was found that CC could cause severe shortfall in water availability for irrigation and domestic supply in the coming decades. Government needs to assist farmers with alternative irrigation schemes and drought resistant crops in order to sustain livelihoods of farmers on the long run.

  1. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Chu, D. Allen; Moody, Eric G.

    2001-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this presentation we review the comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms that have been developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS data, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of (i) developing a cloud mask for distinguishing clear sky from clouds, (ii) retrieving global cloud radiative and microphysical properties, including cloud top pressure and temperature, effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, thermodynamic phase, and effective radius, (iii) monitoring tropospheric aerosol optical thickness over the land and ocean and aerosol size distribution over the ocean, (iv) determining atmospheric profiles of moisture and temperature, and (v) estimating column water amount. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region in Spring 2001. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 degree (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented.

  2. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  3. Classification of typical summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region and their association with the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Zhao, Junhu; Feng, Guolin

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region during 1951-2015 were objectively classified into four typical categories: the northern China rainfall pattern (NCP), the intermediate rainfall pattern (IRP), the Yangtze River rainfall pattern (YRP), and the South China rainfall pattern (SCP). The periods of the four patterns show significant decadal characteristics. The NCP occurred mainly between the late 1950s and the early 1980s, and the IRP in the late 1950s to the early 1970s and the 2000s. The YRP occurred mainly between the 1980s and the 1990s, and the SCP between the mid-1990s and the early 21st century. The relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASM I WF) and the four rainfall patterns was comparatively analyzed. The results confirmed that the four rainfall patterns have obvious differences in the EASM. In the NCP, IRP, or SCP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a positive phase and a strong summer monsoon; in the YRP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a negative phase and a weak summer monsoon.

  4. Classification of typical summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region and their association with the East Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Zhao, Junhu; Feng, Guolin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the summer rainfall patterns in the East China monsoon region during 1951-2015 were objectively classified into four typical categories: the northern China rainfall pattern (NCP), the intermediate rainfall pattern (IRP), the Yangtze River rainfall pattern (YRP), and the South China rainfall pattern (SCP). The periods of the four patterns show significant decadal characteristics. The NCP occurred mainly between the late 1950s and the early 1980s, and the IRP in the late 1950s to the early 1970s and the 2000s. The YRP occurred mainly between the 1980s and the 1990s, and the SCP between the mid-1990s and the early 21st century. The relationship between the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASM I WF) and the four rainfall patterns was comparatively analyzed. The results confirmed that the four rainfall patterns have obvious differences in the EASM. In the NCP, IRP, or SCP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a positive phase and a strong summer monsoon; in the YRP years, the EASM I WF primarily showed a negative phase and a weak summer monsoon.

  5. Planning report for the southwest alluvial basins (east) regional aquifer-system analysis, parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Scott, W.B.; Kaehler, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the Southwest alluvial basins (east) will involve an analysis of the regional aquifer system in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. This area has been divided into 22 basins. The study of the alluvial aquifer-system will be made in the following stages: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches, (3) compiling existing data, (4) data collection, (5) basin modeling, (6) regional aquifer modeling, and (7) reports. The regional aquifer study will be accomplished through studying each of the 22 basins. Data compilation and limited data collection will be part of each basin study. Digital computer models will be made for those basins where data are sufficient. A regional aquifer model will be developed from the basin models. In addition to this report, there will be basin hydrology reports and the final regional report. Included in the final report will be a description of the regional hydrology and geology. (USGS)

  6. One Year after the Revolution: Politics and Policies of Education in the Eastern German States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    Complaints about changes in East German education following the break-down of the communist system are widespread. Critics are dissatisfied with: (1) the rapid pace of change; (2) the lack of genuine East German solutions; (3) the loss of the German Democratic Republic's (GDR's) identity; (4) dominance by Western Germany; and (5) the lack of West…

  7. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  8. Quantifying pollution inflow and outflow over East Asia in spring with regional and global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Carmichael, G. R.; Fiore, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the exchange processes between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere is crucial for estimating hemispheric transport of air pollution. Most studies of hemispheric air pollution transport have taken a large-scale perspective using global chemical transport models with fairly coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. In support of United Nations Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP; www.htap.org), this study employs two high-resolution atmospheric chemistry models (WRF-Chem and CMAQ; 36×36 km) driven with chemical boundary conditions from a global model (MOZART; 1.9×1.9°) to examine the role of fine-scale transport and chemistry processes in controlling pollution export and import over the Asian continent in spring (March 2001). Our analysis indicates the importance of rapid venting through deep convection that develops along the leading edge of frontal system convergence bands, which are not adequately resolved in either of two global models compared with TRACE-P aircraft observations during a frontal event. Both regional model simulations and observations show that frontal outflows of CO, O3 and PAN can extend to the upper troposphere (6-9 km). Pollution plumes in the global MOZART model are typically diluted and insufficiently lofted to higher altitudes where they can undergo more efficient transport in stronger winds. We use sensitivity simulations that perturb chemical boundary conditions in the CMAQ regional model to estimate that the O3 production over East Asia (EA) driven by PAN decomposition contributes 20% of the spatial averaged total O3 response to European (EU) emission perturbations in March, and occasionally contributes approximately 50% of the total O3 response in subsiding plumes at mountain observatories (at approximately 2 km altitude). The response to decomposing PAN of EU origin is strongly affected by the O3 formation chemical regimes, which

  9. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  10. Investigation into the regional wrench tectonics of inner East Anatolia (Turkey) using potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyüksaraç, Aydın

    2007-01-01

    The residual aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies of inner East Anatolia, surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey, display complexities. Some faults, which are known and new lineaments, are drawn from maxspot map derived from the location of the horizontal gradient of gravity anomalies. Tectonic lineaments of inner East Anatolia exhibit similarities to the direction of East Anatolian Fault Zone. Anticlockwise rotation, approximately -30°, defined from disorientations of aeromagnetic anomalies. The lineaments obtained from maxspots map produced from the gravity anomalies and disoriented aeromagnetic anomalies are in-line with the mobilistic system revealed by the palaeomagnetic data. These Alpine age continental rotations caused westward wrenching of the global lithosphere and led to significant tectonic reactivation and deformations. GPS measurements, current tectonic knowledge and the results of the evaluation of potential field data were combined in a base map to demonstrate similarities.

  11. East Asia: A Region of Superlatives in Changing Global Atmospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; van Donkelaar, A.; Geddes, J.; Snider, G.; Weagle, C.; Xu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing offers a powerful data source to inform East Asian air quality, and to place that information in a global context. Chemical transport models play a critical role in relating those observations of the atmospheric column to ground-level concentrations. Satellite-based estimates of ground-level fine-particulate matter (PM2.5) and NO2 indicate dramatic variation and trends, with implications for public health. The GOCI geostationary satellite instrument provides unprecedented temporal resolution over East Asia. An emerging ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances and future opportunities in combining satellite remote sensing, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of East Asian air quality, and to place that information in a global context.

  12. Remedial Design Optimization Review Report: East 67th Street Ground Water Plume NPL Site, Odessa, Ector County, Texas, EPA Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The East 67th Street Ground Water Plume Superfund Site (East 67th Street Site) is located in Odessa, Ector County, Texas in EPA Region 6. The site was added to the National Priorities List (NPL) on March 7, 2007, and is managed as a fund-lead site.

  13. Impacts of anthropogenic forcing on regional climate simulation for CORDEX-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Song Yee; Kang, Hyun Suk; Hyun, Yu Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of greenhouse gas and aerosol on climate change are crucial, so that it is trivial for CMIP models to consider anthropogenic forcing for current climate simulations and future projection as well. Meanwhile, for regional climate models, it is still ambiguous if those forcings are duplicated or not, since the large-scale information is provided from the GCM models through the lateral boundary condition. To answer this question, four experiments using the HadGEM3-RA were conducted within the CORDEX framework for the East Asia domain, which are defined as FIXF (Fixed forcing experiment), GHGS (Greenhouse gases forcing only on the FIXF), AERO (Aerosol forcing only on the FIXF), and ALL (Both forcings on the FIXF) experiments. All experiments were driven by the same GCM forcing, i.e., HadGEM2-AO. Simulation results for the current (27 years for 1979-2005) and future (30 years for 2071-2100) climate were analyzed. FIXF experiment simulated significant cold biases near the northwestern China and Mongolia. Compared to results from the FIXF, those from the ALL and AERO were better, particularly for the temperature in northwestern China and for the precipitation in southern China, Indonesia and northwestern Pacific. Reduced cold bias in northwestern China is highly associated with the aerosol forcing, and marginally associated with the greenhouse gases forcing. As a result, temperature simulated by ALL experiment shows less bias than any other experiments. In the future, surface air temperature was projected stronger in ALL than FIXF experiment in late 21st century. Especially, based on the future projection from the ALL experiment, increase in domain-averaged surface air temperature is about 3.0oC (4.2oC) under the RCP 4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. In future change of precipitation, regardless of forcing experiments, annual mean precipitation over maritime continent and northwestern Pacific are expected to increase. And percent change in annual mean precipitation of ALL

  14. Antiviral activities of Indonesian medicinal plants in the East Java region against hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The overall prevalence of HCV infection is 2%, representing 120 million people worldwide. Current standard treatment using pegylated interferon and ribavirin is effective in only 50% of the patients infected with HCV genotype 1, and is associated with significant side effects. Therefore, it is still of importance to develop new drugs for treatment of HCV. Antiviral substances obtained from natural products, including medicinal plants, are potentially good targets to study. In this study, we evaluated Indonesian medicinal plants for their anti-HCV activities. Methods Ethanol extracts of 21 samples derived from 17 species of medicinal plants explored in the East Java region were tested. Anti-HCV activities were determined by a cell culture method using Huh7.5 cells and HCV strains of 9 different genotypes (1a to 7a, 1b and 2b). Results Four of the 21 samples tested showed antiviral activities against HCV: Toona sureni leaves (TSL) with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.9 and 2.0 μg/ml against the HCV J6/JFH1-P47 and -P1 strains, respectively, Melicope latifolia leaves (MLL) with IC50 of 3.5 and 2.1 μg/ml, respectively, Melanolepis multiglandulosa stem (MMS) with IC50 of 17.1 and 6.2 μg/ml, respectively, and Ficus fistulosa leaves (FFL) with IC50 of 15.0 and 5.7 μg/ml, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that TSL and MLL inhibited both at the entry and post-entry steps while MMS and FFL principally at the entry step. TSL and MLL inhibited all of 11 HCV strains of all the genotypes tested to the same extent. On the other hand, FFL showed significantly weaker inhibitory activities against the HCV genotype 1a strain, and MMS against the HCV strains of genotypes 2b and 7a to a lesser extent, compared to the other HCV genotypes. Conclusions Ethanol extracts of TSL, MLL, MMS and FFL showed antiviral

  15. Prospects and challenges in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines in the extended Middle East and North Africa region.

    PubMed

    Jumaan, Aisha O; Ghanem, Soha; Taher, Jalaa; Braikat, Mhammed; Al Awaidy, Salah; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2013-12-30

    The development of effective and safe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provides a great opportunity to prevent a devastating disease, cervical cancer, and a host of other related diseases. However, the introduction of these vaccines has been slow in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. Only one country has introduced the vaccine and few countries plan HPV vaccine introduction in the coming 5 years. Several factors influence the slow uptake in the region, including financial constraints, weak infrastructure for adolescent vaccine delivery, competition with high priority vaccines, and lack of reliable data on the burden of HPV disease. Other barriers include cultural and religious sensitivities, as the vaccines are offered to prevent a sexually transmitted disease in young girls. Recommendations to enhance HPV vaccine introduction in EMENA countries include establishing a regional joint vaccine procurement program, enhancing the adolescent vaccination platform, documenting the burden of cervical cancer, strengthening local National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups and designing Information, Education and Communication material that address cultural concerns. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.

  16. Coastal Marine Terraces Define Late Quaternary Fault Activity and Deformation Within Northern East Bay Hills, San Francisco Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, K. I.

    2004-12-01

    features suggestive of late Quaternary dextral strike slip and appear to truncate or displace NW-striking reverse faults (e.g., Franklin fault) that do not displace the late Quaternary marine platform sequence. These data support an interpretation that the CCSZ accommodates regional dextral shear, and possibly represents the northern extension of the Calaveras fault. Overall, the marine terraces provide excellent strain gauges from which to evaluate the pattern and rate of late Quaternary deformation throughout the northern East Bay Hills.

  17. After the Wall: Parental Attitudes to Child Rearing in East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlendorff, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In the years following German reunification, East and West German parents (282 mothers and 207 fathers) were interviewed about attitudes to the rearing of their 7- to 13-year-old children and about their social networks. Path analyses show that East German parents engage in more protective and less permissive parenting, and that East German…

  18. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  19. Heterodynes dominate precipitation isotopes in the East Asian monsoon region, reflecting interaction of multiple climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Clemens, Steven C.; Sun, Youbin; Prell, Warren L.; Huang, Yongsong; Gao, Li; Loomis, Shannon; Chen, Guangshan; Liu, Zhengyu

    2016-12-01

    For the past decade, East Asian monsoon history has been interpreted in the context of an exceptionally well-dated, high-resolution composite record of speleothem oxygen isotopes (δ18Ocave) from the Yangtze River Valley. This record is characterized by a unique spectral response, with variance concentrated predominantly within the precession band and an enigmatic lack of variance at the eccentricity and obliquity bands. Here we examine the spectral characteristics of all existing >250-kyr-long terrestrial water isotope records in Asia, including a new water isotope record using leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios from the Chinese Loess Plateau. There exist profound differences in spectral characteristics among all orbital-scale Asian water isotope records. We demonstrate that these differences result from latitudinal gradients in the influence of the winter and summer monsoons, both of which impact climate and water isotopes throughout East Asia. Water isotope records therefore do not reflect precipitation during a single season or from a single circulation system. Rather, water isotope records in East Asia reflect the complex interplay of oceanic and continental moisture sources, operating at multiple Earth-orbital periods. These non-linear interactions are reflected in water isotope spectra by the presence of heterodynes. Although complex, we submit that water isotope records, when paired with rapidly developing isotope-enabled model simulations, will have the potential to elucidate mechanisms causing seasonal precipitation variability and moisture source variability in East Asia.

  20. Input in Tsunami Hazard for Far-East Coast of Russia from Regional and Far-Field Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusiakov, V. K.; Beisel, S. A.; Chubarov, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) methodology, having many features similar to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology, differs from the latter in one important relation - far-field sources, ignored in PSHA, in some cases can be of great importance in PTHA. Tsunami hazard assessment for the Far East coast of Russia gives a typical example of this situation. While regional tsunamigenic earthquakes located along the Kuril-Kamchatka subduction zone and in the eastern part of the Sea of Japan represent the major hazard, most part of this coast is open to tsunami impact from other tsunamigenic regions of the Pacific, and, first of all, from the sources near South America. Analysis of real historical data shows that during the last 50 years only three far-field tsunamis (1960 Chilean, 1964 Alaska and 2011Tohoku) produced dangerous impact along the Far East coast of Russia. However, during this period 19 regional tsunami warnings were issued in relation to far-field tsunamigenic sources, 16 of them turned out to be false. This statistic shows that the problem of far-field sources is worth of a special consideration in relation to Far-East coast of Russia. The results of numerical modeling show that the real threat can come only from M9 class mega-events in the far-field. Tsunami run-up height expected from such events along the Kurile-Kamchatka coast can reach 4-5 m, however, its actual value strongly depends on the position and orientation of a far-field source relatively the region. In general, the expected maximum heights from far-field sources (up to 6 m) are not so large as possible maximum heights from the regional earthquakes with magnitudes M7.5-8.5 (15-20 m), however, the waves from trans-Pacific tsunamis affect all parts of the Far-East coastline. Another feature of far-field tsunamis is that the duration of dangerous sea level oscillations can be considerably longer (up to 48 hours) and the maximum height can be observed

  1. Assessment and management of the first German case of a contamination with perfluorinated compounds (PFC) in the Region Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Kraft, Martin; Rauchfuss, Knut; Hölzer, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    In May 2006 the first serious German perfluorinated compounds (PFC) case of contamination became evident. Industrial waste with high concentrations of PFC was manufactured into a soil improver by a recycling company and spread by farmers on agricultural land of the rural area Sauerland, and led to substantial environmental pollution. In parts of the affected area, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in drinking water were > 0.5 microg/L. The German Drinking Water Commission assessed PFC in drinking water and set a health-based guidance value for safe lifelong exposure of all population groups at 0.3 microg/L (sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS] and PFOA). The Ministry of Environment together with regional institutions initiated monitoring measurements and actions to minimize further contamination. A human biomonitoring study with mother-child pairs and men revealed that increased PFOA exposure via drinking water led to about four- to eightfold higher PFOA levels in plasma compared to nonexposed groups. Analysis of PFC in breast milk showed comparatively low levels, which seemed not to pose a risk for lactating infants. Due to high levels of PFOS in fish from contaminated lakes and rivers, recommendations for anglers to reduce fish consumption were initiated. Remediation of the affected area is ongoing and PFC levels in various matrices are still above background levels.

  2. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  3. Evaluating the performance of CMIP3 and CMIP5 global climate models over the north-east Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Menendez, Melisa; Mendez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of uncertainty in estimating climate projections affected by global warming is the choice of the global climate model (GCM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the skill of GCMs from CMIP3 and CMIP5 databases in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region. It is well known that the seasonal and interannual variability of surface inland variables (e.g. precipitation and snow) and ocean variables (e.g. wave height and storm surge) are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns. Thus, an automatic synoptic classification, based on weather types, has been used to assess whether GCMs are able to reproduce spatial patterns and climate variability. Three important factors have been analyzed: the skill of GCMs to reproduce the synoptic situations, the skill of GCMs to reproduce the historical inter-annual variability and the consistency of GCMs experiments during twenty-first century projections. The results of this analysis indicate that the most skilled GCMs in the study region are UKMO-HadGEM2, ECHAM5/MPI-OM and MIROC3.2(hires) for CMIP3 scenarios and ACCESS1.0, EC-EARTH, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES and CMCC-CM for CMIP5 scenarios. These models are therefore recommended for the estimation of future regional multi-model projections of surface variables driven by the atmospheric circulation in the north-east Atlantic Ocean region.

  4. Towards Improved MODIS Aerosol Retrieval over the US East Coast Region: Re-examining the Aerosol Model and Surface Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2002-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and recently the Aqua platform, produces a set of aerosol products over both ocean and land regions. Previous validation efforts have shown that from a global perspective, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is successfully retrieved from MODIS. Even over coastal regions, the over- land and over-ocean retrievals are consistent with each other, and well matched with ground-based sunphotometer measurements (such as AERONET). However, the East Coast of the United States is one region where there is consistently a discrepancy between land and ocean retrievals. Over the ocean, MODIS AODs are consistent with coastal sunphotometer measurements, but over land, AODs are consistently over- estimated. In this study we use field data from the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites experiment (CLAMS), (held during summer 2001) to determine the aerosol properties at a number of sites. Using the 6-S radiative transfer package, we compute simulated satellite radiances and compare them with observed MODIS radiances. We believe that the AOD over-estimation is not likely due to an incorrect choice of the urban/industrial aerosol models. Using 6-S to do an atmospheric correction for a very low AOD case, we show rather, that the discrepancies are likely a result of incorrect assumptions about the surface reflectance properties. Understanding and improving MODIS retrievals over the East Coast will not only improve the global quality of MODIS, but also would enable the use of MODIS as a tool for monitoring regional aerosol events.

  5. Mechanisms controlling surface ozone over East Asia: a multiscale study coupling regional and global chemical transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Holloway, T.; Oki, T.; Streets, D. G.; Richter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Mechanisms controlling surface ozone (O3) over East Asia are examined using the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at two horizontal scales: 81 km and 27 km. Through sensitivity studies and comparison with recently available satellite data and surface measurements in China and Japan, we find that the O3 budget over East Asia shows complex interactions among photochemical production, regional transport, meteorological conditions, burning of agricultural residues, and global inflows. For example, wintertime surface O3 over northern domain is sensitive to boundary conditions derived from the MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related Tracers) global model, whereas summertime O3 budget is controlled by the competitive processes between photochemical production and monsoonal intrusion of low-O3 marine air masses from tropical Pacific. We find that simulated surface O3 for 2001 does not exhibit the same sharp drop in July and August concentrations that is observed at two mountaintop sites (Tai and Hua) for 2004 and Beijing for 1995-2005. CMAQ sensitivity tests with two widely used photochemical schemes demonstrate that over the industrial areas in East Asia north of 30° N, SAPRC99 produces higher values of mean summertime O3 than CBIV, amounting to a difference of 10 ppb. In addition, analysis of NCEP winds and geopotential heights suggests that southwesterly monsoonal intrusion in central east China is weakened in August 2001 as compared with the climatologically mean for 1980-2005. Further examination of the O3 diurnal cycle at nine Japanese sites shows that boundary layer evolution has an important effect on the vertical mixing of ground-level O3, and error in near surface meteorology might contribute to overprediction of nighttime O3 in urban and rural areas. In conclusion, the uncertainties in simulating cloud activities and convection mixing, Asian monsoon circulation, photochemical production, and nighttime cooling explain why CMAQ with 81 km

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): East Helena, MT. (First remedial action), November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    The 80-acre East Helena site, in East Helena, Lewis and Clark County, Montana, is a primary lead smelting facility that has been in operation since 1888. Prickly Pear Creek flows near the site and has been found to contain elevated levels of arsenic and lead. A 1984 remedial investigation identified elevated levels of metal contamination in soil, livestock, plants, and ground and surface waters with the sources of onsite contamination being primary and fugitive emissions and seepage from process ponds and process fluid circuitry. The primary contaminants of concern in the process ponds are metals including arsenic and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes excavating and smelting 55,150 cubic yards of soil and/or sediment from all four process ponds and multi-media monitoring after individual remedial activities are implemented at three of the process pond areas.

  7. Assessment of the biospheric contribution to surface atmospheric CO2 concentrations over East Asia with a regional chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Xingxia; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Yinghong

    2015-03-01

    A regional chemical transport model, RAMS-CMAQ, was employed to assess the impacts of biosphere-atmosphere C2 exchange on seasonal variations in atmospheric C2 concentrations over East Asia. Simulated C2 concentrations were compared with observations at 12 surface stations and the comparison showed they were generally in good agreement. Both observations and simulations suggested that surface C2 over East Asia features a summertime trough due to biospheric absorption, while in some urban areas surface C2 has a distinct summer peak, which could be attributed to the strong impact from anthropogenic emissions. Analysis of the model results indicated that biospheric fluxes and fossil-fuel emissions are comparably important in shaping spatial distributions of C2 near the surface over East Asia. Biospheric flux plays an important role in the prevailing spatial pattern of C2 enhancement and reduction on the synoptic scale due to the strong seasonality of biospheric C2 flux. The elevation of C2 levels by the biosphere during winter was found to be larger than 5 ppm in North China and Southeast China, and during summertime a significant depletion (⩾ 7 ppm) occurred in most areas, except for the Indo-China Peninsula where positive bioflux values were found.

  8. Characterization of Ionospheric Dynamics Over The East African Dip Equatorial Region Using GPS-Derived Total Electron Content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, J. O.

    2016-12-01

    Through a linear combination of GPS satellite range and phase measurement observed on two carrier frequencies by terrestrial based GPS receivers, the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) along oblique GPS signal path can be quantified. Using Adjusted Spherical Harmonic (ASHA) expansion, regional TEC maps over the East Africa sector has been achieved. The observed TEC has been used to evaluate the performance of IRI2007 and NeQuick 2 models over the region. Ionospheric irregularities have been measured and the plasma drift velocity and the East-West extent of the irregularities have also been analyzed by using a Very High Frequency (VHF) receiver system that is closely spaced. The hourly TEC images developed have shown that the Southern Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest over the East African sector lies within the Kenyan region, and the occurrence of scintillation is dependent on how well the anomaly crest forms. Scintillation occurrences are intense at and around the edges of EIA crest due to the presence of high ambient electron densities and sharp TEC depletions. Simultaneous recording of amplitude scintillations at VHF and L-band frequencies reveal two distinct types of scintillation namely; the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI) and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS). The PBI scintillations are characterized by high intensity during the post-sunset hours of the equinoctial months and appear at both VHF and L-band frequencies. The BSS type are associated with VHF scintillation and are characterized by long duration patches and often exhibit Fresnel oscillation on the roll portion of the power spectrum, which suggest a weak scattering from thin screen irregularities. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  9. A regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model developed for CORDEX East Asia: assessment of Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a developed regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model FROALS was applied to the CORDEX East Asia domain. The performance of FROALS in the simulation of Asian summer monsoon during 1989-2010 was assessed using the metrics developed by the CLIVAR Asian-Australian Monsoon Panel Diagnostics Task Team. The results indicated that FROALS exhibited good performance in simulating Asian summer monsoon climatology. The simulated JJA mean SST biases were weaker than those of the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM). The skill of FROALS approached that of CMIP5 MMEM in terms of the annual cycle of Asian summer monsoon. The simulated monsoon duration matched the observed counterpart well (with a spatial pattern correlation coefficient of 0.59). Some biases of CMIP5 MMEM were also found in FROALS, highlighting the importance of local forcing and model physics within the Asian monsoon domain. Corresponding to a strong East Asian summer monsoon, an anomalous anticyclone was found over western North Pacific in both observation and simulation. However, the simulated strength was weaker than the observed due to the responses to incorrect sea surface anomalies over the key regions. The model also accurately captured the spatial pattern of the intraseasonal variability variance and the extreme climate indices of Asian summer monsoons, although with larger amplitude. The results suggest that FROALS could be used as a dynamical downscaling tool nested within the global climate model with coarse resolution to develop high-resolution regional climate change projections over the CORDEX East Asia domain.

  10. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  11. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Heinsohn, Jörg G; Flessa, Steffen

    2013-10-10

    Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an offensive and competitive stance are quite

  12. [German demography: a taboo subject?].

    PubMed

    Soullie, J

    1995-06-14

    The author first notes that, though the population of Germany has increased significantly in size since the Second World War, fertility has been below replacement levels for some time. Furthermore, this strong rate of growth has been accompanied by major variations from one generation to the next, although these trends have received very little attention from German scholars. It is noted that, since the rate of natural increase has been negative since 1972, this growth must have been caused exclusively by immigration. The seriousness of the demographic situation in the former East German states is noted. Current projections indicate a decline in total population size of about 13 million over the next 50 years. Policy options faced by the German authorities are discussed. This article was previously published in the April 15, 1995 issue of Chroniques Economiques.

  13. Behind the data: Establishing the Network for Surveillance for Pneumococcal Diseases in the East African Region, netSPEAR

    PubMed Central

    Amos, Ben; Kisakye, Annet; Makewa, Douglas; Mudhune, Sandra; Mwamtemi, Hadija; Nansera, Dennis; Ngwiri, Thomas; Wamae, Maranga; English, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In a region with high rates of mortality among children aged <5 years, the underfunded health care systems of sub-Saharan Africa have few resources available to perform surveillance activities that can help determine the causes of morbidity and mortality in the region. At present, there are few examples of attempts to promote public health care surveillance that might inform current debates about how to expand and improve surveillance, particularly for bacterial diseases. Driven by this gap in knowledge, we attempted to explore the successes and failures of the Network for Surveillance of Pneumococcal Disease in the East African Region and to share the experiences of what are essentially non research public-sector hospitals in East Africa, with the hopes that surveillance systems for other diseases, especially those that require complex diagnostic support, may be informed by these experiences. The state of services essential for surveillance and the measures taken to overcome any shortcomings are described, as is the progress made in improving clinical diagnosis, laboratory processing, and data management. For surveillance to play a role in public health care, ministries of health and associated institutions must own and push forward the surveillance agenda, with support from global partners, and take advantage of the developments that have been achieved within the institutions. PMID:19191612

  14. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W; Insoll, Timothy; Maclean, Rachel

    2010-12-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana.

  15. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

  16. Overview of childhood cancers at a regional cancer centre in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, Munlima; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Bhuyan, Cidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Nandy, Pintu; Hazarika, Monalisha; Roy, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancers are relatively uncommon in comparison to adult cancers. There is no literature available to shed light on clinic-pathological types and patterns of care for childhood cancers in our population in North-East India. In this analysis we therefore tried to determine the common childhood cancers diagnosed in our institute, clinical profile of the patients, types of treatment and compliance, and median survival estimates. Leukemia was most common, followed by retinoblastoma, central nervous system tumours and lymphomas. Ascertaining the clinic-pathological profile of childhood cancers in our population is essential for allocation and management of resources for this small but important group of patients.

  17. Evaluating the patterns of spatiotemporal trends of root zone soil moisture in major climate regions in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha

    2017-08-01

    Root zone soil moisture (RZSM) is a crucial variable in land-atmosphere interactions. Evaluating the spatiotemporal trends and variability patterns of RZSM are essential for discerning the anthropogenic and climate change effects on the regional and global hydrological cycles. In this study, the trends of RZSM, computed by the exponential filter from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative soil moisture, were evaluated in major climate regions of East Asia from 1982 to 2014. Moreover, the trends of RZSM were compared to the trends of precipitation (P), skin temperature (Tskin), and actual evapotranspiration (AET) to investigate how they influence the RZSM trends in each climate region. Drying trends were predominant in arid and continental regions, whereas wetting trends were found in the tropical and temperate regions. The increasing trends of Tskin and AET cause drying in arid and continental regions, whereas in tropical regions, these cause wetting trends, which might be due to convective P. In temperate regions, despite decreasing P and increasing Tskin, the RZSM trend was increasing, attributed to the intensive irrigation activities in these regions. This is probably the first time to analyze the long-term trends of RZSM in different climate regions. Hence, the results of this study will improve our understanding of the regional and global hydrological cycles. Despite certain limitations, the results of this study may be useful for improving and developing climate models and predicting long-term vast scale natural disasters such as drought, dust outbreaks, floods, and heat waves.

  18. Difference of sea level rising rate from steric and altimeter sea level in the regional Yellow and East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. K.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Foreman, M. G. G.; Kim, E.

    2016-12-01

    Regional sea level rise is examined in the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS) for the Topex/Poseidon and Jason altimetry period. Coastal tidal data, altimetry and steric sea level data are examined and compared from 1993 to 2015. As usual, temperature and salinity data sampled at regular intervals are available for only a limited number of stations around the Korean Peninsula. The regional sea level rising rate from altimetry compares well with the sea level rising rate from coastal sea level data around Korean Peninsula and Japanese islands around the YECS where data are available. However, differences between the sea level rising rate from altimetry and the steric sea level rising rate are rather large, as expected, since mass effects can not be reflected in the steric sea level rising rate. This is significantly different from the results of the sea level rising trend in the deep East/Japan Sea where thermosteric sea level compares well with the altimetry sea level trend during 9 year period from 1992 to 2001 (Kang et al., 2005). This may suggest that the cause of variability in sea level rising may change with the global trend change in sea level rise with increasing melting effect.The difference of steric sea level and altimetry data for the last 23 years (1993-2015) is expected to be mainly due to mass effects or the addition of mass and dynamic effects. The limited number of data from CTD stations may cause inaccuracies in estimating regional steric sea level in the YECS. The steric sea level rising rate computed from Argo data in the northwestern Pacific (D. Roemmich, 2013), upstream of East China Sea, seems to indicate a negative steric sea level rising pattern during 2006-2013. This suggests that water characteristics affecting the East China Seas through the Kuroshio may contribute to a negative sea level rising trend. More discussion will be given during the meeting.This work is partially supported from research funds from KIOST project (PE99392).

  19. The Chew Bahir Project, southern Ethiopia: Reconstructing East African palaeoenvironments in the source region of modern man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, V. E.; Chew Bahir Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Chew Bahir is a tectonically bounded basin in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and in close proximity to the Omo valley, which contains some of the oldest known early modern human sites. As East African palaeoenvironments are highly variable and marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, this in turn bears far reaching implications for the life, evolution and most notably for the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond the limits of the African continent. This study is a prerequisite for the ICDP- Hominin Sites And Paleolakes Drilling Project and part of the CRC-806 "Our way to Europe". The Chew Bahir Project will provide fundamental data to reconstruct late Quaternary East African environments including the timing, amplitude, synchronicity and abruptness of dry-wet-dry cycles and focuses on the interaction between those rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere. This poster presents results from six cores (9-18m depth) from a NW-SE transect across the Chew Bahir basin that have recorded the climatic history of the past 45 ka and therewith can potentially elucidate those highly variable East African palaeoenvironments with emphasis on the last of the wet periods, the African Humid Period (AHP). Based on a series of multi-proxy analyses, comprising geochemical, physical and biological indicators as well as AMS 14C dates, it becomes obvious that the Chew Bahir responds decidedly sensitive towards even minor climatic fluctuations on millennial to even centennial timescales. Therefore, the Chew Bahir represents a unique site to reveal the impact of timing and mechanisms of local, regional and global climate events on the key region for humankind.

  20. Building a risk-targeted regional seismic hazard model for South-East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Nyst, M.; Seyhan, E.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade has tragically shown the social and economic vulnerability of countries in South-East Asia to earthquake hazard and risk. While many disaster mitigation programs and initiatives to improve societal earthquake resilience are under way with the focus on saving lives and livelihoods, the risk management sector is challenged to develop appropriate models to cope with the economic consequences and impact on the insurance business. We present the source model and ground motions model components suitable for a South-East Asia earthquake risk model covering Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indochine countries. The source model builds upon refined modelling approaches to characterize 1) seismic activity from geologic and geodetic data on crustal faults and 2) along the interface of subduction zones and within the slabs and 3) earthquakes not occurring on mapped fault structures. We elaborate on building a self-consistent rate model for the hazardous crustal fault systems (e.g. Sumatra fault zone, Philippine fault zone) as well as the subduction zones, showcase some characteristics and sensitivities due to existing uncertainties in the rate and hazard space using a well selected suite of ground motion prediction equations. Finally, we analyze the source model by quantifying the contribution by source type (e.g., subduction zone, crustal fault) to typical risk metrics (e.g.,return period losses, average annual loss) and reviewing their relative impact on various lines of businesses.

  1. [Epidemiologic surveillance and prevention of brucellosis in ruminants: the example of the north African region and the Near East].

    PubMed

    Benkirane, A

    2001-12-01

    The author reviews the general principles and different strategies recommended for the epidemiological surveillance and control of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants, with particular reference to the region of North Africa and the Near East. Three strategic options are proposed, the choice of which depends on the real prevalence of the disease, the socio-economic context, the state of advancement of the animal health surveillance system and the policy set by the competent authorities. In heavily infected countries, gradual changeover is recommended from strategy A (systematic vaccination) to strategy B (selective vaccination), and eventually to strategy C (control measures), concurrent with the establishment of an adequate veterinary infrastructure, in particular for epidemiological surveillance and the control of animal movements. The author stresses the relevance for the majority of countries in the region in question of implementing the guidelines drawn up by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and the Office International des Epizooties to control brucellosis in the Middle East.

  2. Regional stress alignments in the Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: a contribution from a borehole breakout study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifuddin, N.; Busono, I.

    1999-04-01

    Borehole breakout data from 134 wells located within the Kutai Basin region, East Kalimantan were analyzed to determine the present day regional horizontal stress alignments. The data were extracted from various types of dipmeter logs. The study reveals that the majority of the data give a coherent picture of breakout orientation. The mean azimuths for the entire-unweighted, ellipticity-weighted and magnitude-weighted data sets are preferentially aligned in the regional-mean direction of 48.9° N or 128.9° N. Most of the data have a low dispersion value ( So) and the ranking of reliability in Zoback's classification is 'A'. There is no significant azimuth variation with depth. These relatively consistent alignments of breakout azimuths indicate that the maximum regional stress direction in the study area is NW-SE. This regional-mean of breakout azimuths deviates from the axis of the anticlinorium trends and from the strike of the thrust-fault patterns in the region. It is believed that these structural patterns are influenced by reactivation of weak zones related to sediment loading (structural inversion).

  3. A GCM investigation of dust aerosol impact on the regional climate of North Africa and South/East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; De Sales, F.; Liou, K. N.

    2016-04-01

    The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa and South/East Asia have been investigated using an atmospheric general circulation model, NCEP/GCM/SSiB (Simplified Simple Biosphere Model) and the three-dimensional aerosol data simulated by the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GCM simulations show that due to the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by dust particles, surface temperature decreases over both regions, accompanied by a reduced sensible heat flux. However, precipitation responses are different in these two regions. Due to differences in dust location and the associated heating with respect to the rainfall band and circulation, the effect of dust could either enhance or suppress precipitation. Over the North Africa region where dust particles are mainly located to the north of rainfall band, heating of the air column by dust particles forces a stronger ascent motion over dust layers, which induces an anomalous subsidence (or a weakened upward motion) and suppressed cyclonic circulation to its south where precipitation reduces. Furthermore, both humidity and cloud decrease due to the heating in the middle troposphere (semi-direct effect). In South/East Asia, dust particles are located in the upper troposphere over the major rainfall band during the monsoon season, especially Southwest India and the coastal area of Bay of Bengal. Heating of the air column increases upward motion and strengthens cyclonic circulation. Humidity also increases due to the draw-in of the low level moist air. Therefore, cloud and precipitation increase over South/East Asia associated with dust effect. During the pre-monsoon season, when dust particles are located to the north of the monsoon rainfall band, the heating effect results in shifting precipitation northward. The heating of air column due to dust particles, not surface cooling, plays the major role in precipitation changes. The anomalous upward motion over dust regions will

  4. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  5. Premarital screening test results for β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia trait in east Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Guler, Ekrem; Garipardic, Mesut; Dalkiran, Tahir; Davutoglu, Mehmet

    2010-11-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are common diseases in Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this study, the results of a 3-year premarital screening program are reported in Kahramanmaras province, which is located in East Mediterranean region. A total of 48,126 persons were screened in this program. Hematological analyses and electrophoresis were done to identify carriers. The prevalence of β-thalassemia trait and of sickle cell anemia trait, which were 2.1% and 0.5% in Turkey, were found to be 2.8% and 0.4%, respectively, in our study. Of the carriers of the β-thalassemia trait, 82% had high hemoglobin A₂, 34% had high hemoglobin F, and 18% had both high hemoglobin F and hemoglobin A₂. β-Thalassemia trait in Kahramanmaras is slightly higher than the average rate in Turkey. However, sickle cell anemia trait is similar to Turkey's averages.

  6. Detection of a phylogenetically distinct IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase, IMP-35, in a CC235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Dutch-German border region (Euregio).

    PubMed

    Pournaras, Spyros; Köck, Robin; Mossialos, Dimitris; Mellmann, Alexander; Sakellaris, Viktoras; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Friedrich, Alexander W; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-06-01

    To characterize a highly divergent IMP-type metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) variant detected in a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. P. aeruginosa isolate 1876 was recovered from an anal swab of an inpatient at a German hospital in the Dutch-German border region (Euregio), where cross-border patient healthcare occurs. MICs were determined by agar dilution and phenotypic screening for MBL production by Etest MBL. Typing was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing were employed for identification of bla gene types. The class 1 integron carrying the blaIMP-type gene was characterized by PCR mapping and sequencing using a set of specific primers. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the new blaIMP variant. Isolate 1876 was phenotypically positive for MBL production, exhibited resistance to carbapenems and harboured a new blaIMP-type gene, blaIMP-35. MLST showed that the allelic profile corresponded to ST622, which belongs to the prevalent international clonal complex CC235. The blaIMP-35 gene was located in a class 1 integron as the first gene cassette, followed by blaOXA-35, aacA6, qacEΔ1 and sul1, suggesting its recent integration. IMP-35 was highly divergent, possessing 33/246 (13.4%) different amino acid residues from its closest IMP variants (IMP-8 and IMP-12) and was phylogenetically distinct, representing a separate group in the phylogenetic tree of IMP proteins. The identification of this phylogenetically distinct IMP-type variant in a CC235 P. aeruginosa suggests the ongoing spread of new IMP-type carbapenemases as well as the potential of the blaIMP-35 gene to evolve in the hospital environment.

  7. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009.

    PubMed

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The "learning organizations," "leadership from inside-out," and "transformational leadership" frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on "nutrition leadership development" has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase the

  8. Impact of boundary layer processes on seasonal simulation of the East Asian summer monsoon using a Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.-H.; Lee, D.-K.; Hong, S.-Y.

    2008-08-01

    In this study, an improved planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme (YSU scheme) is implemented in a regional climate model (SNURCM) to rectify the systematic bias of the model with the MRF PBL scheme, and the impact of new PBL processes on the simulation of precipitation in the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated through regional climate simulations with the MRF and the YSU schemes for the summer of 1998 when extreme floods occurred over East Asia. Compared to the experiment with the MRF scheme that shows excessive monsoon precipitation, particularly over the ocean, the experiment with the YSU scheme improves the seasonal mean precipitation as well as associated large-scale circulations. The temporal progression of the monsoon precipitation and 500 hPa geopotential height, and vertical structure are also improved by the revised scheme. The MRF scheme simulates more convective precipitation over the ocean than the YSU scheme, since excessive PBL mixing results in the positive feedback between convective precipitation and latent heat flux at the sea surface. The MRF scheme also simulates more non-convective precipitation over the ocean due to distorted large-scale circulations and excessive PBL mixing. In the experiment with the YSU scheme, the simulated precipitation over the ocean is in good agreement with the observation, since the positive feedback is relatively reduced and large-scale features are reasonably reproduced due to decreased PBL mixing. Excessive PBL mixing in the MRF scheme can also amplify the biases of precipitation over the ocean due to uncoupled air sea interaction that can result in the imbalance of the energy budget at the sea surface. This implies that new YSU PBL processes can have crucial influences on the regional climate simulation without an ocean model. The results of additional experiments without the spectral nudging technique also reaffirm the impact of the YSU scheme, and further indicate that the development of a coupled

  9. Towards improved MODIS aerosol retrieval over the US East Coast region: Re-examining the aerosol model and surface assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Remer, L. A.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Holben, B. N.

    2002-12-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra and recently the Aqua platform, produces a set of aerosol products over both ocean and land regions. Previous validation efforts have shown that from a global perspective, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is successfully retrieved from MODIS. Even over coastal regions, the over-land and over-ocean retrievals are consistent with each other, and well matched with ground-based sunphotometer measurements (such as AERONET). However, the East Coast of the United States is one region where there is consistently a discrepancy between land and ocean retrievals. Over the ocean, MODIS AODs are consistent with coastal sunphotometer measurements, but over land, AODs are consistently over-estimated. In this study we use field data from the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites experiment (CLAMS), (held during summer 2001) to determine the aerosol properties at a number of sites. Using the 6-S radiative transfer package, we compute simulated satellite radiances and compare them with observed MODIS radiances. We believe that the AOD over-estimation is not likely due to an incorrect choice of the urban/industrial aerosol models. Using 6-S to do an atmospheric correction for a very low AOD case, we show rather, that the discrepancies are likely a result of incorrect assumptions about the surface reflectance properties. Understanding and improving MODIS retrievals over the East Coast will not only improve the global quality of MODIS, but also would enable the use of MODIS as a tool for monitoring regional aerosol events.

  10. The consequences of maltreatment on children's lives: a systematic review of data from the East Asia and Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Fry, Deborah; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the consequences of child maltreatment in East Asia and the Pacific region based on the results of a systematic review of 16 English and non-English databases for journal articles and "gray" literature published between January 2001 and November 2010. This review shows that children in the region experiencing maltreatment are at increased risk of experiencing mental health consequences, physical health sequelae, high-risk sexual behaviors, and increased exposure to future violence including intimate partner violence (IPV) as an adult. Children who suffer from child sexual abuse have a median twofold increased risk of experiencing mental health disorders than those who have never experienced child maltreatment.  Similar findings were found for those who experience physical abuse.  Children who have been maltreated in the region are also at an increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts than those that have experienced child sexual or physical abuse being at a median fourfold increased risk. Children who have experienced physical abuse or those who have witnessed parental domestic abuse as a child are at median twofold increased risk of experiencing IPV as an adult, while children who have been sexually abused have a median threefold increase in risk of IPV later in life. There are still gaps in our understanding of the consequences of child maltreatment, but we do know that the consequences are profound and far-reaching. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for governments, civil society organizations, development agencies, and academia to advocate for, invest in, and collaborate across sectors for the strengthening of child protection systems in the East Asia and Pacific Region, with a focus on evidence-based child maltreatment prevention policies and programs.

  11. Nutrition Leadership Development: Capacity-Building Initiatives in Iran and the Middle-East Region Since 2009

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The “learning organizations,” “leadership from inside-out,” and “transformational leadership” frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on “nutrition leadership development” has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to

  12. Mapping of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Regions of Centre, East and West Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Methodology Parasitological surveys were conducted in April–May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Principal Findings The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86–7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93–12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56–18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35–1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36–24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41–48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10–26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57–11.51%) regions. Conclusions/Significance In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an

  13. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of centre, East and West Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kamwa Ngassam, Romuald Isaka; Sumo, Laurentine; Ngassam, Pierre; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Nzu, Deguy D'or Luogbou; Dankoni, Esther; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Akame, Julie; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi; Angwafo, Fru Fobuzski

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in Cameroon. Although mass drug administration (MDA) of mebendazole is implemented nationwide, treatment with praziquantel was so far limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon, based on previous mapping conducted 25 years ago. To update the disease distribution map and determine where treatment with praziquantel should be extended, mapping surveys were conducted in three of the seven southern regions of Cameroon, i.e. Centre, East and West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in April-May 2010 in selected schools in all 63 health districts of the three targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 5.53%, followed by S. haematobium (1.72%) and S. guineensis (0.14%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the three regions was 7.31% (95% CI: 6.86-7.77%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 11.48 (95% CI: 10.93-12.04%), Trichuris trichiura 18.22% (95% CI: 17.56-18.90%) and hookworms 1.55% (95% CI: 1.35-1.78%), with an overall STH prevalence of 24.10% (95% CI: 23.36-24.85%) across the three regions. STH was more prevalent in the East region (46.57%; 95% CI: 44.41-48.75%) in comparison to the Centre (25.12; 95% CI: 24.10-26.17%) and West (10.49%; 95% CI: 9.57-11.51%) regions. In comparison to previous data, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of praziquantel in identified moderate and high risk communities for

  14. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Morris, M. R.

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  15. Direct Radiative Forcing and Regional Climatic Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols Over East Asia: A Regional Coupled Climate-Chemistry/Aerosol Model Study

    SciTech Connect

    Giorgi, Filippo; Bi, Xunqiang; Qian, Yun )

    2002-09-01

    We present a series of regional climate model simulations aimed at assessing the radiative forcing and surface climatic effects of anthropogenic sulfate and fossil fuel soot over east Asia. The simulations are carried out with a coupled regional climate-chemistry/aerosol model for the 5-year period of 1993-1997 using published estimates of sulfur emissions for the period. Anthropogenic sulfate induces a negative radiative forcing spatially varying from -1 to -8 W/m2 in the winter to -1 to -15 W/m2 in the summer, with maxima over the Sichan Basin of southwest China and over some areas of east and northeast China. This forcing induces a surface cooling in the range of -0.1 to -0.7 K. Fossil fuel soot exerts a positive atmospheric radiative forcing of 0.5 to 2 W/m2 and enhances the surface cooling by a few tenths of K due to increased surface shielding from solar radiation. Doubling of sulfur emissions induces a substantial increase in radiative forcing (up to -7 to -8 W/m2) and associated surface cooling. With doubled sulfur emissions, the surface cooling exceeds -1 K and is statistically significant at the 90% confidence level over various areas of China. The aerosol forcing and surface cooling tend to inhibit precipitation over the region, although this effect is relatively small in the simulations. Some features of the simulated aerosol-induced cooling are consistent with temperature trends observed in recent decades over different regions of China.

  16. Ethanol production in southern tier east region of New York: technical and economic feasibiity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalter, R.J.; Boisvert, R.N.; Gabler, E.C.; Walker, L.P.; Pellerin, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    This is the third of five region-specific feasibility studies on regional production of ethanol. It was found that deproteinized whey resources in this region of New York could support ethanol production in amounts ranging from about 1.5 million to 5 million gallons a year while also producing a high-protein, high-mineral animal feed. Ethanol is an octane booster which can be used as a gasoline extender to produce gasohol.

  17. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma--final report from the prospective trials of the East German Study Group Haematology/Oncology (OSHO).

    PubMed

    Krüger, William H; Hirt, Carsten; Basara, Nadezda; Sayer, Herbert G; Behre, Gerhard; Fischer, Thomas; Grobe, Norbert; Maschmeyer, Georg; Niederwieser, Dietger; Dölken, Gottfried

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) as consolidation for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Patients with MCL were included into two prospective trials OSHO #060 (refractory/relapsed) and #074 (de novo). Induction was rituximab and chemotherapy. Responding patients proceeded to alloSCT. Minimal residual disease was monitored by quantitative RT-PCR detecting either t(11;14) or clonospecific CDR-III regions. In case of circulating lymphoma cells, immunomodulation (cyclosporine A withdrawal, rituximab, donor lymphocyte infusion) was initiated. Thirty-three of 39 patients underwent alloSCT after myeloablative (n = 7) or toxicity-reduced (n = 26) conditioning. Leukocytes engrafted at day +16 (median, range 0-101) and platelets at day +14 (0-142). Acute graft-versus-host disease stages I-II occurred in 42 % and stages III-IV in 15 %. Five patients have relapsed after SCT. The overall mortality after SCT was 24 % (n = 8). Median follow-up after SCT was 2.8 years (range 0.0-10.9). Five-year progression-free survival was 67 %, and overall survival 73 % after SCT. The results were comparable for primary MCL and refractory/relapsed disease as well as for related vs. unrelated SCT. Younger patients had a significantly better outcome than the elderly. AlloSCT is a feasible and promising consolidation therapy for relapsed and refractory disease and an attractive option for young patients with de novo MCL of high risk.

  18. Intraspecific variation and population structure of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, revealed with RFLP analysis of the non-transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Mukha, D V; Kagramanova, A S; Lazebnaya, I V; Lazebnyi, O E; Vargo, E L; Schal, C

    2007-06-01

    Little information is available on genetic variation within and between populations of pest cockroaches. In this study, intraspecific HindIII polymorphism was investigated in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera, Blattaria: Blattellidae), using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Individual male insects were collected from infestations at three different pig farms. Each population was characterized by HindIII restriction fragment frequencies and haplotype (a particular X-chromosome pattern) frequencies. The inheritance of the X-chromosome HindIII rDNA patterns over 12 generations (3 years) follows Mendelian patterns, and the stability of this polymorphic marker indicates infrequent genetic recombination of variable sites. Although pairwise genetic distance measures were uncorrelated with geographical distance, the pattern of genetic differentiation of the three cockroach populations suggests that human-mediated transport of cockroaches is an important force in shaping the population genetic structure of cockroach infestations, at least at the regional scale of 10-100 km. Sequence variation in the ribosomal NTS is a useful marker, and RFLP of rDNA is a simple, robust and reproducible technique for differentiating recently diverged cockroach populations.

  19. [Trauma network of the German Association of Trauma Surgery (DGU). Establishment, organization, and quality assurance of a regional trauma network of the DGU].

    PubMed

    Ruchholtz, S; Kühne, C A; Siebert, H

    2007-04-01

    The quality of care in Germany for seriously injured patients varies greatly in individual hospitals due to geographic variations among States and differences in resource allocation and treatment concepts. To assure and enhance treatment quality it seems sensible to establish a structured, quality assured network of clinics, which participate in the management of seriously injured patients according to different specified assignments. The conditions necessary for this type of network on a regional scale and for the clinics charged with the care of the seriously injured were summarized in the White Paper entitled "Management of the Seriously Injured-Recommendations for the Structure and Organization of Facilities in Germany for the Treatment of Seriously Injured Persons." The goal of this action is to ensure that every seriously injured person in Germany receives the best possible round-the-clock care in adherence to standardized quality criteria. This requires specialized expertise and the willingness of all involved parties-care providers, cost bearers, and hospital owners-to cooperate in further improving existing treatment concepts. As a logical consequence of long years of experience and scientific knowledge, the German Association of Trauma Surgery has developed a concept for establishing a regional trauma network of clinics, adapted to local conditions, for management of seriously injured patients. The participating facilities assume different responsibilities in the network depending on their equipment and structure. This article describes the individual steps toward establishing and organizing a network.

  20. Health spending, macroeconomics and fiscal space in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of

  1. Strengthening Statehood Capabilities for Successful Transitions in the Middle East/North Africa Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    during each transition have reflected individual political, security, and social realities. However, one common lesson learned from their...Defence Academy reports, including reference papers on national and regional security issues in the GCC and the Medi - terranean region, and a...and limitations. Policy reforms during their transitions have reflected indi- vidual political, security, and social realities. While there was

  2. Economic stress or random variation? Revisiting German reunification as a natural experiment to investigate the effect of economic contraction on sex ratios at birth.

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Sebastian; Klüsener, Sebastian

    2014-12-22

    The economic stress hypothesis (ESH) predicts decreases in the sex ratio at birth (SRB) following economic decline. However, as many factors influence the SRB, this hypothesis is difficult to test empirically. Thus, researchers make use of quasi-experiments such as German reunification: The economy in East, but not in West Germany, underwent a rapid decline in 1991. A co-occurrence of a decline in the East German SRB in 1991 has been interpreted by some as support for the ESH. However, another explanation might be that the low SRB in 1991 stems from increased random variation in the East German SRB due to a drastically reduced number of births during the crisis. We look into this alternative random variation hypothesis (RVH) by re-examining the German case with more detailed data. Our analysis has two parts. First, using aggregate-level birth register data for all births in the period between 1946 and 2011, we plot the quantum and variance of the SRB and the number of births and unemployment rates, separately for East and West Germany, and conduct a time series analysis on the East German SRB over time. Second, we model the odds for a male birth at the individual level in a multiple logistic regression (1991-2010, ~13.9 million births). Explanatory variables are related to the level of the individual birth, the mother of the child born, and the regional economic context. The aggregate-level analysis reveals a higher degree of variation of the SRB in East Germany. Deviations from the time trend occur in several years, seemingly unrelated to economic development, and the deviation in 1991 is not statistically significant. The individual-level analysis confirms that the 1991-drop in the East German SRB cannot directly be attributed to economic development and that there is no statistically significant effect of economic development on sex determination in East or West Germany. Outcomes support the RVH but not the ESH. Furthermore, our results speak against a

  3. The influence of microclimates and fog on stable isotope signatures used in interpretation of regional hydrology: East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.; Gingerich, S.B.; Tribble, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotopes of precipitation, ground water and surface water measured on the windward side of East Maui from 0 to 3055 m altitude were used to determine recharge sources for stream flow and ground water. Correct interpretation of the hydrology using rainfall ??18O gradients with altitude required consideration of the influence of fog, as fog samples had isotopic signatures enriched by as much as 3??? in ??18O and 21??? in ??D compared to volume-weighted average precipitation at the same altitude. The isotopic analyses suggested that fog drip was a major component of stream flow and shallow ground water at higher altitudes in the watershed. 18O/altitude gradients in rainfall were comparable for similar microclimates on Maui (this study) and Hawaii Island (1990-1995 study), however, East Maui ??18O values for rain in trade-wind and high-altitude microclimates were enriched compared to those from Hawaii Island. Isotopes were used to interpret regional hydrology in this volcanic island aquifer system. In part of the study area, stable isotopes indicate discharge of ground water recharged at least 1000 m above the sample site. This deep-flowpath ground water was found in springs from sea level up to 240 m altitude, indicating saturation to altitudes much higher than a typical freshwater lens. These findings help in predicting the effects of ground water development on stream flow in the area. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Reconnaissance sedimentology of selected tertiary exposures in the upland region bordering the Yukon Flats basin, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, David L.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes reconnaissance sedimentologic and stratigraphic observations made during six days of helicopter-supported fieldwork in 2002 on Tertiary sedimentary rocks exposed in the upland region around the flanks of the Yukon Flats basin in east-central Alaska (fig. 1). This project was a cooperative effort between the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to investigate the geology of the basin in preparation for an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable hydrocarbon resources (Stanley and others, 2004). Field observations and interpretations summarized in this report are reconnaissance level. At most, no more than a few hours were spent on the ground at any location. Measured sections included in this report are sketch sec- tions and thicknesses shown are approximate. Relatively detailed observations were made by the authors at only three locations, including The Mudbank (Hodzana River), Rampart (east bank of the Yukon River), and Bryant Creek (along the Tintina fault near the Canada border). These three locations are described first in relative detail, then followed by general descriptions of other locations.

  5. Permafrost Thaw and Redistribution of Carbon from Lands and Oceans to the Atmosphere: the East Siberian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I.; Dudarev, O.; Charkin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other oceans, the Arctic Ocean is completely surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under warming conditions most pronounced in East Siberian region and Alaska. The thaw and release of organic carbon (OC) from Arctic permafrost is postulated to be one of the most powerful mechanisms causing the net redistribution of carbon from lands and oceans to the atmosphere. The East Siberian Arctic shelf (ESAS) is the world's largest continental shelf, containing more than 80 % of the world oceans' subsea permafrost and the largest hydrocarbon reservoir on the planet, while the stability of this sequestered carbon, which exists primarily as CH4, is highly uncertain. This area is heavily influenced by subsea permafrost thaw, and CH4 seeps from subsea permafrost reservoirs under warming conditions. Various other phenomena influence the area, including coastal erosion, mostly caused by onshore permafrost/coastal ice complex thaw; the input of dissolved and particulate OC through the Lena, Indigirka, and Kolyma rivers. The ESAS is also of particular interest for its carbon-climate couplings because thawing of onshore and offshore permafrost leads to the CH4 and CO2 emission to the atmosphere. The overall goal of the current research is to provide a quantitative, observation-based assessment of the dynamics of different ESAS carbon cycle components with emphasize on the emission of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere under changing climatic and environmental conditions.

  6. Geological and geodynamic reconstruction of the East Barents megabasin from analysis of the 4-AR regional seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startseva, K. F.; Nikishin, A. M.; Malyshev, N. A.; Nikishin, V. A.; Valyushcheva, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    The article considers problems related to the geological structure and geodynamic history of sedimentary basins of the Barents Sea. We analyze new seismic survey data obtained in 2005-2016 to refine the geological structure model for the study area and to render it in more detail. Based on the data of geological surveys in adjacent land (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, and Kolguev Island), drilling, and seismic survey, we identified the following geodynamic stages of formation of the East Barents megabasin: Late Devonian rifting, the onset of postrift sinking and formation of the deep basin in Carboniferous-Permian, unique (in terms of extent) and very rapid sedimentation in the Early Triassic, continued thermal sinking with episodes of inversion vertical movements in the Middle Triassic-Early Cretaceous, folded pressure deformations that formed gently sloping anticlines in the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic, and glacial erosion in the Quaternary. We performed paleoreconstructions for key episodes in evolution of the East Barents megabasin based on the 4-AR regional profile. From the geometric modeling results, we estimated the value of total crustal extension caused by Late Devonian rifting for the existing crustal model.

  7. Far East

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum activity throughout the Far East region was on the upswing during 1980. In spite of increased interest in many parts of the Far East, no major new discoveries were reported. From India to Indonesia, old fields are being rehabilitated and previously uneconomic areas are being looked at again. Indonesia set a new record in 1980 for the number of exploratory wells drilled. Peninsular Malaysia set a record for oil production. Overall, however, 1980 was a banner year for petroleum exploration in the Far East. Sri Lanka saw its first foreign contractor interest in several years. India made major moves toward increasing exploration by offering offshore and onshore blocks to foreign contractors . Bangladesh and even Burma signed exploitation contracts with Japanese investors in order to increase production. Malaysia offered new acreage blocks for the first time in several years. Indonesia and the Philippines also actively encouraged exploration by offering new contract areas. One country in the Far East that did not participate in the 1980 oil boom was China. Taiwan also carried on, as in previous years with the Chinese Petroleum Corporation as the only operator. Japanese and South Korean activities were at approximately the same level as in previous years, although drilling did start in the joint development zone. Total production of the Far East reporting region declined slightly. One significant aspect of 1980 petroleum activities throughout the Far East region is the growing acceptance by various Far East countries of Asian investment for developing and exploring for hydrocarbons. Japan is the major investor, but South Korean interests and the Chinese Petroleum Corporation also began to invest in petroleum rights in other Asian countries. The main area for investment continued to be Indonesia. 39 figures, 9 tables.

  8. Brain region distribution and patterns of bioaccumulative perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates in east greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the comparative accumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in eight brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus, n = 19) collected in 2006 from Scoresby Sound, East Greenland. The PFAAs studied were perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs, C(6) -C(15) chain lengths) and sulfonates (C(4) , C(6) , C(8) , and C(10) chain lengths) as well as selected precursors including perfluorooctane sulfonamide. On a wet-weight basis, blood-brain barrier transport of PFAAs occurred for all brain regions, although inner regions of the brain closer to incoming blood flow (pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus) contained consistently higher PFAA concentrations compared to outer brain regions (cerebellum, striatum, and frontal, occipital, and temporal cortices). For pons/medulla, thalamus, and hypothalamus, the most concentrated PFAAs were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), ranging from 47 to 58 ng/g wet weight, and perfluorotridecanoic acid, ranging from 43 to 49 ng/g wet weight. However, PFOS and the longer-chain PFCAs (C(10) -C(15) ) were significantly (p < 0.002) positively correlated with lipid content for all brain regions. Lipid-normalized PFOS and PFCA (C(10) -C(15) ) concentrations were not significantly (p > 0.05) different among brain regions. The burden of the sum of PFCAs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide in the brain (average mass, 392 g) was estimated to be 46 µg. The present study demonstrates that both PFCAs and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cross the blood-brain barrier in polar bears and that wet-weight concentrations are brain region-specific. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. GROUND TRUTH, MAGNITUDE CALIBRATION AND REGIONAL PHASE PROPAGATION AND DETECTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND HORN OF AFRICA

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A

    2006-07-10

    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  10. Regional modeling of the Shirase drainage basin, East Antarctica: full Stokes vs. shallow ice dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddik, Hakime; Greve, Ralf; Zwinger, Thomas; Sugiyama, Shin

    2017-09-01

    A hierarchy of approximations of the force balance for the flow of grounded ice exists, ranging from the most sophisticated full Stokes (FS) formulation to the most simplified shallow ice approximation (SIA). Both are implemented in the ice flow model Elmer/Ice, and we compare them by applying the model to the East Antarctic Shirase drainage basin. First, we apply the control inverse method to infer the distribution of basal friction with FS. We then compare FS and SIA by simulating the flow of the drainage basin under present-day conditions and for three scenarios 100 years into the future defined by the SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) project. FS reproduces the observed flow pattern of the drainage basin well, in particular the zone of fast flow near the grounding line, while SIA generally overpredicts the surface velocities. As for the transient scenarios, the ice volume change (relative to the constant-climate control run) of the surface climate experiment is nearly the same for FS and SIA, while for the basal sliding experiment (halved basal friction), the ice volume change is ˜ 30 % larger for SIA than for FS. This confirms findings of earlier studies that, in order to model ice sheet areas containing ice streams and outlet glaciers with high resolution and precision, careful consideration must be given to the choice of a suitable force balance.

  11. Prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Jambart, S; Ammache, Z; Haddad, F; Younes, A; Hassoun, A; Abdalla, K; Selwan, C Abou; Sunna, N; Wajsbrot, D; Youseif, E

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was evaluated in type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 4097) attending outpatient clinics across the Middle East. Overall, 53.7% of 3989 patients with DN4 data met the criteria for painful DPN (Douleur Neuropathique-4 [DN4] scores ≥ 4). Significant predictors of painful DPN included long history (≥ 10 years) of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.43), age ≥ 65 years (OR 2.13), age 50 - 64 years (OR 1.75), presence of type 1 versus type 2 diabetes (OR 1.59), body mass index > 30 kg/m(2) (OR 1.35) and female gender (OR 1.27). Living in one of the Gulf States was associated with the lowest odds of having painful DPN (OR 0.44). The odds of painful DPN were highest among patients with peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.98), diabetic retinopathy (OR 3.90) and diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.23). Because of the high prevalence and associated suffering, disability and economic burden of painful DPN, it is important that diabetic patients are periodically screened, using a simple instrument such as the DN4, and receive appropriate treatment if symptoms develop.

  12. Growing Together, Coming Apart: German Society since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the impact of German unification on German society, politics, and culture. Contends that four decades of separation created political and cultural differences that are difficult to overcome. Expresses concern about the growth of intolerant attitudes and nationalism among citizens of the former East Germany. (CFR)

  13. Growing Together, Coming Apart: German Society since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, John

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the impact of German unification on German society, politics, and culture. Contends that four decades of separation created political and cultural differences that are difficult to overcome. Expresses concern about the growth of intolerant attitudes and nationalism among citizens of the former East Germany. (CFR)

  14. U.S. Navy Regional Climatic Study of the Central East Asian Coast and Associated Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    results directly from differential heating and the predominance of the Siberian High (northeast monsoon - dry season) and the southwest Asian Low...Mekong Delta is mostly jungle but in the wide delta region, there is a fertile rice producing area. Figure 3 presents a generalized topographic view of...during autumn, the Siberian High begins to re-establish itself as the predominant pressure feature causing northerly winds to prevail over the region

  15. The Middle East in 2015: The Impact of Regional Trends in U.S. Strategic Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    region as well as the Maghreb. Identity and political legitimacy are complicated in this region by the newness of the states, uncertainties of borders ...religious extremism and terrorism with Arab Muslims within their borders and across their bor- ders in the Occupied Territories and Lebanon. They tend to view...since the Israeli economy has improved over the past decade. Yet when Israel faces serious security threats on its borders , few Israelis would risk

  16. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  17. Shear-wave splitting and implications for mantle flow beneath the MELT region of the east pacific rise

    PubMed

    Wolfe; Solomon

    1998-05-22

    Shear-wave splitting across the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise has been measured from records of SKS and SKKS phases on the ocean-bottom seismometers of the Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography (MELT) Experiment. The direction of fast shear-wave polarization is aligned parallel to the spreading direction. Delay times between fast and slow shear waves are asymmetric across the rise, and off-axis values on the Pacific Plate are twice those on the Nazca Plate. Splitting on the Pacific Plate may reflect anisotropy associated with spreading-induced flow above a depth of about 100 km, as well as a deeper contribution from warm asthenospheric return flow from the Pacific Superswell region.

  18. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  19. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure of the east Anatolian-Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skobeltsyn, Gleb Anatolyevich

    The Eastern Anatolian-Caucasus region is a relatively young part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt and has been formed as the result of the ongoing continental collision of Arabia and Eurasia. In spite of a number of geological studies that have been conducted in this area, there is still no consensus within the geoscience community about the regional tectonic settings and a model for the late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Anatolian Plateau. Knowledge of the upper mantle velocity structure in this region can provide the geological community with important constraints that are crucial for developing an understanding of the regional geology and the processes associated with early stages of mountain building. In the present dissertation, I describe two studies of the regional upper mantle S wave velocity structure. In order to derive the absolute velocity structure of the upper mantle, I have applied surface wave tomography to model Rayleigh wave phase velocities as a function of period. Then I inverted the Rayleigh phase velocities to obtain S wave velocities as a function of depth. The resulted high-resolution 3-D S wave velocity model of the regional upper mantle is characterized by a better depth resolution than any preexisting tomographic models. I also conducted an S wave splitting analysis using traditional methods and developed a two-layer grid search algorithm in order to infer the upper mantle anisotropic structure. The results of the S wave splitting analysis for the stations located in Azerbaijan are the first in the region. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. Increasing Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in the Coastal Region of Northern Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Miyako; Terui, Yuki; Kiryu, Kouji; Shikano, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Japan. Within an hour of the earthquake, devastating tsunamis swept over the coastal region of the Miyagi Prefecture, facing Pacific Ocean. Accordingly, more than 400,000 residents were forced to stay at evacuation shelters. We investigated the changes in tuberculosis prevalence after the disaster. Annual data for all tuberculosis patients between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2013 were extracted from the database of the Miyagi Prefectural Government. In the coastal region of Northern Miyagi, the number of tuberculosis patients increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001, 9.6 vs.19.1 per 100,000 people), compared to the pre-disaster period. In contrast, its prevalence did not change in the inland region of Northern Miyagi and the coastal and inland regions of Southern Miyagi. Importantly, in the inland and coastal regions of Northern Miyagi, the number of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the coastal shelters, 11 evacuees with the history of contacting tuberculosis patients were diagnosed with LTBI, whereas no cases of LTBI patients were observed in the inland shelters. Thus, staying in the coastal shelters was a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis (OR: 19.31, 95% CI: 1.11-334.80); indeed, twice as many evacuees visited each coastal shelter on April 1, 2011, compared to the inland region. We should prepare the shelters to avoid overcrowding, and long-term observation is required to detect the prevalence of tuberculosis infection.

  1. Pattern and Epidemiology of Poisoning in the East African Region: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chingombe, Patience; Maredza, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and strengthening of poisons centres was identified as a regional priority at the first African regional meeting on the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) in June 2006. At this meeting, the possibility of a subregional poisons centre, that is, a centre in one country serving multiple countries, was suggested. The WHO Headquarters following consultation with counterparts at the WHO Regional Office for Africa (AFRO) and the SAICM Africa Regional Focal Point successfully submitted a proposal to the SAICM Quick Start Programme (QSP) Trust Fund Committee for a feasibility study into a subregional poisons centre in the Eastern Africa subregion. However, before such a study could be conducted it was deemed necessary to carry out a literature review on the patterns and epidemiology of poisoning in this region so as to inform the feasibility study. The current paper presents the results of this literature review. The literature search was done in the months of June and July 2012 by two independent reviewers with no language or publication date restrictions using defined search terms on PUBMED. After screening, the eventual selection of articles for review and inclusion in this study was done by a third reviewer. PMID:27882048

  2. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  3. Longitudinal difference in total electron content over the East Asian region: Feature and explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shimei; Xiao, Zuo; Zhao, Biqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Hao, Yongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism of the longitudinal difference of ionospheric electron density is in general attributed to the thermospheric wind effect modulated by the local geomagnetic declination. Although this mechanism is tested in many case studies, there are other possible factors such as solar activity and so on which still need further investigations. In this paper, TEC data from two Chinese GPS stations located at almost same geographic latitudes but with a wide longitude span (~38°) are used to study the morphological features of longitudinal differences under various geophysical conditions. A parameter Rew is defined as a normalized measure of the TEC difference between the two stations. All the observed temporal variations of Rew are analyzed statistically, with the results showing that negative east-west differences (Western TEC>Eastern TEC) in the noontime are pronounced during Day of Year (DoY) 90-270, while nighttime positive differences (Western TEC

  4. The multiple mini-interview for selecting medical residents: first experience in the Middle East region.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ashraf; Qayed, Khalil Ibrahim; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Tavares, Walter; Rosenfeld, Jack

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that multiple mini-interviews (MMI) provides a standard, fair, and more reliable method for assessing applicants. This article presents the first MMI experience for selection of medical residents in the Middle East culture and an Arab country. In 2012, we started using the MMI in interviewing applicants to the residency program of Dubai Health Authority. This interview process consisted of eight, eight-minute structured interview scenarios. Applicants rotated through the stations, each with its own interviewer and scenario. They read the scenario and were requested to discuss the issues with the interviewers. Sociodemographic and station assessment data provided for each applicant were analyzed to determine whether the MMI was a reliable assessment of the non-clinical attributes in the present setting of an Arab country. One hundred and eighty-seven candidates from 27 different countries were interviewed for Dubai Residency Training Program using MMI. They were graduates of 5 medical universities within United Arab Emirates (UAE) and 60 different universities outside UAE. With this applicant's pool, a MMI with eight stations, produced absolute and relative reliability of 0.8 and 0.81, respectively. The person × station interaction contributed 63% of the variance components, the person contributed 34% of the variance components, and the station contributed 2% of the variance components. The MMI has been used in numerous universities in English speaking countries. The MMI evaluates non-clinical attributes and this study provides further evidence for its reliability but in a different country and culture. The MMI offers a fair and more reliable assessment of applicants to medical residency programs. The present data show that this assessment technique applied in a non-western country and Arab culture still produced reliable results.

  5. Water flow paths in a forested catchment of the East Asian monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payeur-Poirier, Jean-Lionel; Hopp, Luisa; Peiffer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The climate of South Korea is strongly influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon. It is hypothesized that the high precipitation regime of the summer monsoon causes significant changes in the hydrological behaviour of forested catchments, namely in water quantity, quality and flow paths. We conducted high frequency hydrometric, isotopic, hydrochemical and meteorological measurements in a forested catchment before, during and after the 2013 summer monsoon season. The catchment is located within the Lake Soyang watershed, where recent trends of increasing eutrophication, sediment load and organic carbon load have been observed. We studied the temporal variability of catchment runoff and the spatial and temporal variability of water flow paths in relation with the hydrological conditions of the hillslope, toeslope and riparian elements of the catchment. For the summer monsoon season, the runoff coefficient approximated 68%. During this period, for the 16 monitored individual storm events ranging between 13 mm and 126 mm in precipitation, the runoff coefficient greatly varied and a threshold relationship with soil moisture was observed. Analyses of hysteresis loops of catchment runoff also revealed threshold relationships with precipitation and soil moisture, as water flow paths were activated or not in different parts of the catchment. The variation of the electrical conductivity of catchment runoff through the summer monsoon also revealed the occurrence of threshold relationships. A principal component analysis (PCA) and an end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were performed in order to quantify the contribution of the different landscape elements to catchment runoff. The combination of the hydrometric, isotopic and hydrochemical approaches allowed us to test our hypothesis and to shed light on the threshold relationships observed at the catchment. The findings of this study could be useful for the estimation of the water balance of the Lake Soyang watershed as well

  6. From East to West: patterns of genetic diversity of populations living in four Eurasian regions.

    PubMed

    Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Karunas, A; Yunusbayev, B; Fedorova, S; Lebedev, Y; Hunsmann, G; Khusnutdinova, E

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution and patterns of the genetic diversity of eight Alu loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148, and NBC182) in 1,049 individuals representing 16 populations of the Volga-Ural region (Bashkirs, Tatars, Komis, Maris, Mordvins, and Udmurts), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs), the North Caucasus (Karachays, Kumyks, Kuban Nogays, and Karanogays), and Central South Siberia (Yakuts, Kalmyks and Evenks). Geographic divide between Europe and Asia, e.g. the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, can also be considered as a genetic boundary. The data indicates that the populations of the two boundary regions between Europe and Asia, the Volga-Ural region of Russia, and populations of the North Caucasus are more similar to European than to Asian populations. Finally, Siberian and Central Asian populations are genetically closely related to each other.

  7. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  8. East German Education: A System in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durr, Karlheinz

    1992-01-01

    Reunited Germany is facing an intricate network of social, economic, and political problems. It will take at least a generation of students to adapt to the new Western system espousing freedom of choice, self-motivation, equal opportunity, and critical awareness. Standards of the former West Germany are endangered by changing social attitudes,…

  9. East Asian Regional Architecture: New Economic and Security Arrangements and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-18

    economic giant, is that countries in the region could “subordinate their interests to China’s and no longer reflexively look to the United States for...security arrangements. The vision of the United States begins with a preeminent position for the country both as the keeper of the peace, a wellspring for

  10. A coupled regional climate model for the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Xie, Lian; Ogallo, Laban J.

    2004-01-01

    A nested coupled model has been developed to investigate the two-way interactions between the regional climate of eastern Africa and Lake Victoria. The atmospheric component of the model is the North Carolina State University (NCSU) version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (NCSU-RegCM2). The lake component of the model is based on the Princeton ocean model (POM).Three simulations, each 4 months long, have been performed for the short rains of eastern Africa of September through to December. The control experiment is based on the standard NCSU-RegCM2 model coupled to a one-dimensional model of Lake Victoria. The second experiment was based on the stand-alone three-dimensional primitive equation POM-Lake Victoria model forced by output from the atmospheric component of the control run. The third experiment is based on the integration of the coupled system of the NCSU-RegCM2 model where the one-dimensional lake model in the control run has been replaced by the three-dimensional POM hydrodynamical model for Lake Victoria.The results confirm that adopting the traditional modelling approach, in which the lake hydrodynamics are neglected and the formulation is based entirely on thermodynamics alone, is not entirely satisfactory for the Lake Victoria basin. Such a strategy precludes the transport of heat realistically within the lake, from the heat surplus regions to the cooler regions, and thereby results in a degraded simulation of the climate downstream over the rest of the lake and the surrounding land regions. The numerical simulations show that the southwestern region of the lake is an important source of warm water because it is relatively shallower and the water column is heated up much more quickly during the day than the rest of the lake. The result is that the surface temperature anomaly field from the all-lake area average consists of a gradient pattern with warmer water over the shallow region of the lake over the

  11. Natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis: Middle East and North Africa regional recommendations for patient selection and monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Natalizumab, a highly specific α4-integrin antagonist, , has recently been registered across the Middle East and North Africa region. It improves clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes and reduces the rate of relapse and disability progression in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Natalizumab is recommended for patients who fail first-line disease-modifying therapy or who have very active disease. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare, serious adverse event associated with natalizumab. We aim to develop regional recommendations for the selection and monitoring of MS patients to be treated with natalizumab in order to guide local neurological societies. Methods After a review of available literature, a group of neurologists with expertise in the management of MS met to discuss the evidence and develop regional recommendations to guide appropriate use of natalizumab in the region. Results Disease breakthrough is defined as either clinical (relapse or disability progression) or radiological activity (new T2 lesion or gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI), or a combination of both. Natalizumab is recommended as an escalation therapy in patients with breakthrough disease based on its established efficacy in Phase III studies. Several factors including prior immunosuppressant therapy, anti-John Cunningham virus (JCV) antibody status and patient choice will affect the selection of natalizumab. In highly active MS, natalizumab is considered as a first-line therapy for naive patients with disabling relapses in association with MRI activity. The anti-JCV antibody test is used to assess anti-JCV antibody status and identify the risk of PML. While seronegative patients should continue treatment with natalizumab, anti-JCV antibody testing every 6 months and annual MRI scans are recommended as part of patient monitoring. In seropositive patients, the expected benefits of natalizumab treatment have to be weighed against the

  12. Study on the air-sea interaction over East Asia by using the Regional Atmosphere-ocean coupled model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. J.; Chang, E. C.

    2016-12-01

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is remotely influenced by the sea surface temperature (SST) over the Western North Pacific (WNP) by changing the meridional circulation from the tropics to the mid-latitude region. SSTs over local oceans surrounding the Korean peninsula can affect atmospheric instability which leads convective precipitation. However, atmosphere is not only dependent on the SST, but also plays important role to the SST as a forcing. In this study, impact of SST distribution and air-sea interaction on the EASM is analyzed by using the regional atmosphere-ocean coupled model in 2003, which has above normal precipitation from 2000 to 2010. The coupled model system consists of the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs) Regional Model Program (RMP) as the atmospheric component model and the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) as oceanic component model. The coupled system exchanges surface wind stress, energy fluxes and precipitation from the atmosphere to the ocean model and SST from ocean to atmospheric model. The atmosphere only run and the atmosphere-ocean coupled run are performed for June-July-August. The generated SSTs in the coupled model are cooler over the WNP and warmer over local oceans surrounding the Korean peninsula than the Optimum Interpolation SST, which is used for SST boundary forcing in the atmosphere mode run. The cooler SSTs over the WNP decrease air temperature because of reduced heat fluxes from ocean to atmosphere and strengthen divergence which induces downward motion in the lower troposphere, whereas the warmer SSTs surrounding the Korea peninsula increase air temperature by increased heat fluxes from ocean to atmosphere and strengthen convergence which lead to upward motion in the lower level. As results, the coupled model produces less precipitation over the WNP and increases rainfall over the Korea peninsula than the uncoupled model. The results from the coupled run partially reduces overestimated rainfall

  13. Regional Dispersal of Fukushima-derived Fission Nuclides by East Asia Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Hsu, Shih-Chieh

    2013-04-01

    Since the Fukushima nuclear accident happened on 12 March 2011, there have been a plethora of publications about the dispersion of radioactive material from the damaged reactors. Most of these works dealt with global transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the northern hemisphere and local transport in the vicinity of Fukushima and around Japan. In contrast, few works investigated into dispersal of radiation plumes from Japan to other areas on regional scales. This is because regional dispersal out of Japan in the springtime is most likely dominated by the northeastern monsoon, whereas there are few monitoring stations downwind in the southeastern Asia region. In this respect, we are only aware of the data in Vietnam published by Long et al (2012) in addition to our own data obtained in and around Taiwan (Huh et al., 2012; Hsu et al., 2012). By integrating the data published in the literature plus those that can be searched from relevant websites, we try to further elucidate the dispersal of Fukushima-derived radiation toward the southeastern Asia region. The WRF/Chem tracer model is employed to simulate the dispersal of radiation plumes from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From a vis-à-vis comparison between the model simulation and the time-series of Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around the southeastern Asia, we can distinguish between global transport by the Westerlies in the free troposphere and regional transport by the northeast monsoon in the planetary boundary layer. In general, regional (mainly meridional) transport carried more weight than global (mainly zonal) transport in contributing Fukushima-derived radioactivity to the area covered in this review, particularly at the ground-level sites. References 1. Hsu, S.C., Huh, C.A., Chan, C.Y., Lin, S.H., Lin, F.J. and Liu, S.C. (2012). Hemispheric dispersion of radioactive plume laced with fission nuclides from the Fukushima nuclear event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L00

  14. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  15. Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Regional-Command-East (Operation Enduring Freedom-VIII)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-23

    that is able to provide its own wheat , flour , meat, pomegranates, and natural resources to its own population and others both regional and worldwide...advisors aided in the identification of the right types of fertilizer needed to re-prime some of the “ wheat basket’ of Afghanistan in Ghazni province...capacity to grow and process wheat . This process continues today. Expertise in water management was brought to the PRTs to aid in this critical area

  16. Regionalizing East Mediterranean Gas: Energy Security, Stability, and the U.S. Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    companies willing to invest there. This is of particular significance in the context of liquefied natural gas ( LNG ) technology, which will have to...ter- rorist attacks. Not least for this reason, both Israel and Lebanon face serious concerns over the desirability of potential future LNG ...through diversity of export markets. 21 Scenario 1: Cooperation through regional LNG . Global trade in LNG has been growing rapidly since the 1990s and

  17. p16 hypermethylation: a biomarker for increased esophageal cancer susceptibility in high incidence region of North East India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mandakini; Saikia, Bhaskar Jyoti; Sharma, Santanu Kumar; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh; Mahanta, Jagadish; Phukan, Rup Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in North East India. The molecular mechanisms of esophageal cancer susceptibility in North East India have not been fully understood. There is a need for identification of biomarkers to identify people at risk of esophageal cancer. p16 is an essential G1 cell cycle regulatory gene whose loss of function is associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the prevalence of p16 gene methylation in patients with esophageal cancer to assess the feasibility of using gene methylation as a biomarker. A total of 100 newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases along with equal number of age, sex, and ethnicity-matched controls were included in this study. Methylation-specific PCR was used to determine the p16 methylation status. Aberrant promoter methylation of the p16 gene was detected in 81 of 100 (81%) esophageal cancer cases. Hypermethylation of p16 gene was found to be influenced by lifestyle factors. Betel quid and tobacco chewing habit synergistically with p16 methylation elevated the risk for esophageal cancer development (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 6.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-28.81, p = 0.003 for betel quid chewing and adjusted OR = 7.02, 95% CI = 1.87-26.38, p = 0.001 for tobacco chewing). Further, intake of green leafy vegetables and fruits lowered the risk of esophageal cancer (adjusted OR = 0.16, 95 % CI = 0.04-0.58, p = 0.05 for green leafy vegetables and adjusted OR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.04-0.64, p = 0.01 for fruits). Thus, p16 hypermethylation may aid as a biomarker in identifying habitués at greater risk for esophageal cancer susceptibility in high incidence region of North East India.

  18. Multinational tagging efforts illustrate regional scale of distribution and threats for east pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii).

    PubMed

    Hart, Catherine E; Blanco, Gabriela S; Coyne, Michael S; Delgado-Trejo, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J; Jones, T Todd; Resendiz, Antonio; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Witt, Matthew J; Nichols, Wallace J

    2015-01-01

    To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006). Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km). In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km). A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum) from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific) clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key areas may have

  19. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  20. Multinational Tagging Efforts Illustrate Regional Scale of Distribution and Threats for East Pacific Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii)

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Catherine E.; Blanco, Gabriela S.; Coyne, Michael S.; Delgado-Trejo, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J.; Jones, T. Todd; Resendiz, Antonio; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Witt, Matthew J.; Nichols, Wallace J.

    2015-01-01

    To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006). Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km). In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km). A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum) from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific) clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key areas may have

  1. The East African Rift System and the impact of orographic changes on regional climate and the resulting aridification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerfeld, Anja; Prömmel, Kerstin; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Several proxy data indicate an aridification of the East African climate during the Neogene, which might be influenced by the orographic changes of the East African Rift System (EARS) induced by tectonic forcing during the last 20 million years. To investigate the impact of the orography and especially of the rifts, the regional climate model CCLM is used, covering the EARS with Lake Victoria in the centre of the model domain. CCLM is driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis and applied with a double-nesting method resulting in a very high spatial resolution of 7 km. The resolution clearly shows the shoulders and rifts of the western and eastern branch of the EARS and the Rwenzoris within the western branch. To analyse the orographic influence on climate, a new technique of modifying the orography is used in this sensitivity study. The shoulders of the branches are lowered and the rifts are elevated, resulting in a smoothed orography structure with less altitude difference between the shoulders and rifts. The changes in 2 m-temperature are very local and associated with the changes in the orography. The vertically integrated moisture transport is characterised by less vortices, and its zonal component is increased over the branches. The resulting amount of precipitation is mainly decreased west of the western branch and increased in the rift of the western branch. In the eastern branch, however, the changes in the amount of precipitation are not significant. The changes in the precipitation and temperature patterns lead to a shift of biomes towards a vegetation coverage characterised by more humid conditions in the northern part of the model domain and more arid conditions in the South. Thus, the aridification found in the proxy data can be attributed to the orographic changes of the rifts only in the northern model domain.

  2. Emissions of air pollutants from road transport in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waked, Antoine; Afif, Charbel

    2012-12-01

    Road transport is a major contributor to pollutant emissions in the Middle East region (MEA). Emissions originating from this sector have a significant impact on the atmosphere, health and the climate change. Identification and quantification of these emissions in this region is of great importance in order to develop emissions reductions strategies. For this purpose and because a detailed emission inventory for road transport is nonexistent for Lebanon (a small developing country in the MEA region) and for its capital city Beirut, a spatially-resolved and temporally-allocated emission inventory for road transport was developed for Lebanon and for the city of Beirut using a bottom-up approach where possible. In order to compare emissions between developed and non-developed cities on the Mediterranean basin, road transport emissions originating in normal (February-June and September-November) and touristic periods (July-August and December-January) were compared between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens, respectively. The comparison obtained between Beirut, Barcelona and Athens showed that emissions per capita for CO and SO2 are highest in Beirut while emissions of particulate matter were highest in Barcelona. The different patterns between these cities showed that emissions increases in winter in Beirut and Barcelona (11 and 9% respectively) and decreases in the city of Athens by 9%. In summer, an increase of 15% in traffic intensities is observed in Athens while in Beirut and Barcelona, traffic intensities decrease by 10 and 40% respectively. At a national level, emissions were calculated for 14 countries in the MEA in order to inter compare them with those of Lebanon. The results show that in the MEA, the highest contributors to total carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions (78 and 79% respectively), are countries having a population that exceeds 20 million inhabitants such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. For Lebanon, emissions per

  3. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Ali I; Şahinöz, Saime; Özçırpıcı, Birgül; Özgür, Servet; Şahinöz, Turgut; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Saka, Günay; Ceylan, Ali; Palanci, Yılmaz; İlçin, Ersen; Akkafa, Feridun

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) Region in Turkey. Methods A cross sectional design was employed. The sample waschosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square andlogistic regressionanalysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5 %) than in rural (22.8 %) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Conclusion Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking. PMID:16436202

  4. Measuring Efficiency of Health Systems of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Samer; Akinci, Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of twenty health systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to inform evidence-based health policy decisions. In addition, the effects of alternative stochastic frontier model specification on the empirical results are examined. We conducted a stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the country-level technical efficiencies using secondary panel data for 20 MENA countries for the period of 1995-2012 from the World Bank database. We also tested the effect of alternative frontier model specification using three random-effects approaches: a time-invariant model where efficiency effects are assumed to be static with regard to time, and a time-varying efficiency model where efficiency effects have temporal variation, and one model to account for heterogeneity. The average estimated technical inefficiency of health systems in the MENA region was 6.9 % with a range of 5.7-7.9 % across the three models. Among the top performers, Lebanon, Qatar, and Morocco are ranked consistently high according to the three different inefficiency model specifications. On the opposite side, Sudan, Yemen and Djibouti ranked among the worst performers. On average, the two most technically efficient countries were Qatar and Lebanon. We found that the estimated technical efficiency scores vary substantially across alternative parametric models. Based on the findings reported in this study, most MENA countries appear to be operating, on average, with a reasonably high degree of technical efficiency compared with other countries in the region. However, there is evidence to suggest that there are considerable efficiency gains yet to be made by some MENA countries. Additional empirical research is needed to inform future health policies aimed at improving both the efficiency and sustainability of the health systems in the MENA region.

  5. Patterns of active and passive smoking, and associated factors, in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ali I; Sahinöz, Saime; Ozçirpici, Birgül; Ozgür, Servet; Sahinöz, Turgut; Acemoglu, Hamit; Saka, Günay; Ceylan, Ali; Palanci, Yilmaz; Ilçin, Ersen; Akkafa, Feridun

    2006-01-25

    Smoking is an important health threat in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and main factors associated with smoking in persons of 15 years and over, and the frequency of passive smoking in homes in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) Region in Turkey. A cross sectional design was employed. The sample was chosen by the State Institute of Statistics using a stratified cluster probability sampling method. 1126 houses representing the SEAP Region were visited. Questionnaires about tobacco smoking and related factors were applied to 2166 women and 1906 men (of 15 years old and above) in their homes. Face-to-face interview methods were employed. Participants were classified as current, ex, and non-smokers. The presence of a regular daily smoker in a house was used as an indication of passive smoking. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis methods were used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence of smoking, in those of 15 years and over, was 11.8% in women and 49.7% in men. The prevalence of current smokers was higher in urban (34.5%) than in rural (22.8%) regions. The mean of total cigarette consumption was 6.5 packs/year in women and 17.9 packs/year in men. There was at least one current smoker in 70.1% of the houses. Smoking is a serious problem in the South-eastern Anatolian Region. Male gender, middle age, a high level of education and urban residency were most strongly associated with smoking.

  6. Water, sanitation and hygiene: The unfinished agenda in the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Indira; Bhattacharya, Animesh; Das, Saurabh K

    2017-09-01

    Access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is essential for the health, well-being and dignity of all people. The World Health Organization South-East Asia Region has made considerable progress in WASH provision during the past two decades. However, compared with increases in coverage of improved drinking water, in some parts of the region, access to adequate sanitation remains low, with continued prevalence of open defecation. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have set ambitious targets for WASH services to be achieved by 2030. Examples of major health outcomes that would benefit from meeting these targets are diarrhoea and nutrition status. Although the total number of deaths attributable to diarrhoea declined substantially between 1990 and 2012, inadequate WASH still accounts for more than 1000 child deaths each day worldwide. And, despite the reductions in mortality, diarrhoea morbidity attributable to diarrhoea remains unchanged at around 1.7 billion cases per year. It has been known for decades that repeated episodes of diarrhoea increase a child's risk of long-term undernutrition, reduced growth and impaired cognitive development. Nutritional effects of inadequate WASH also include environmental enteropathy, leading to chronic intestinal inflammation, malnutrition and developmental deficits in young children. Inadequate WASH also contributes to iron deficiency anaemia resulting from infestation with soil-transmitted helminths. The cross-sectoral emphasis of the SDGs should act as a stimulus for intersectoral collaboration on research and interventions to reduce all inequities that result from inadequate WASH.

  7. Nutrition leadership training in North-East Asia: an IUNS initiative in conjunction with nutrition societies in the region.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo; Sun, Jiang-Qin; Ge, Keyou; Paik, Hee-Young; Cho, Sung Hee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Huang, Ching-Jang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2008-01-01

    Food for humans is one of the most important of all global issues. It is a critical determinant of planetary and individual health, of economic development, of how sustainable energy and water supplies are, and its security a powerful determinant of peace or conflict. Those who assume leadership for the integrity of food and health systems have great responsibility. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences), regional and national nutrition science and food technology organizations have concern about the leadership capacity available and required in what are rapidly changing and increasingly demanding circumstances. These include persistent poverty and hunger, climate change which threatens the sustainability of food production and fragile financial systems which are making food less affordable for many. North East Asia (NEA) is a major region for its population size, its economic wealth and disparities, its food production, its life expectancies among the best and its global reach. In 2008, for those of Chinese ancestry and of wider Asian origin, Nutrition Leadership training has been conducted in Hangzhou, Shanghai, Seoul and Taiwan (Hsinchu and Zhunan). Ninety prospective young leaders participated in all. Several successful early career Asian nutrition scientists and professionals served as role models. Senior colleagues acted as mentors for groups of 2 or 3. With mentors, the concept of leadership has been examined, careers and roles explored, knowledge and skills honed for a different future, and plans made to network in mutual support. Early feedback indicates that new opportunities have been created and seized.

  8. Ultraslow spreading, ridge relocation and compressional events in the East Arctic region: A link to the Eurekan orogeny?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Nikishin, Anatoly M.; Petrov, Evgheni I.

    2016-04-01

    New and available geophysical data from the Eastern Arctic (around the Siberian tip of the Lomonosov Ridge) indicate a change in the tectonic regime at the Eocene time. Oceanic crust identified on the new seismic reflection data in the Amundsen Basin displays an asymmetric fabric also visible in the gravity and magnetic gridded data. Tentative dating of the weak magnetic anomalies suggests asymmetric spreading or ridge relocation from ca. 49 to 33 Ma. Three seismic reflection transects through the Laptev Sea, Lomonosov Ridge and adjacent basins image several compressional features, most likely initiated in the Eocene. According to a regional plate tectonic model, the Greenland plate has pushed the Lomonosov Ridge by ca. 30 mm/year from 54 to 49 Ma and by ca. 13.5 mm/year afterwards, until Early Miocene. We suggest that intraplate stresses triggered by the Eocene to Oligocene northern movement of the Greenland plate and subsequent collision with the North American plate that created the Eurekan deformation, have propagated through the Arctic region and affected part of the East Siberian Shelf, Podvodnikov Basin, Laptev Sea and modified the spreading direction in the eastern Eurasia Basin. We estimate that these changes started at the same time as the peak compressional phase in North Greenland dated 49-47 Ma and lasted until Oligocene time when the large-scale tectonic regime changed by incorporating Greenland into the North American plate.

  9. Comparison of glacial isostasy contribution to the sea level changes during the Holocene in West and East Antarctic regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poleshchuk, Ksenia; Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica as geographically completed and tectonically compound continent is an interesting object for study of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and sea level changes in the Holocene. The analysis of relative sea level curves is one of the most indicative approaches for glacio-isostasy estimation. The present study focuses on two different regions of Antarctic margin which sea-level changes are well researched. We compare our relative sea-level curves for Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica) and King George Island (West Antarctica) that were obtained from new geomorphological, paleogeographical and micropaleontological data. The results showed notable difference: the maximum relative water altitude had occurred between 8 000 - 6 000 yr BP and had reached 12 m a. s. l. in the Bunger Oasis and 18-20 m a. s. l. in King George Island. Furthermore, the research of other Antarctic regions revealed significant differences in sea-level altitudes. Following analysis of constructed curves and computative GIA models allow us to estimate the possible extent of glacial isostatic adjustment. Besides, this observation has indicated the importance of deglaciation rates and local tectonic features. The reported study was funded by RFBR according to the research project No. 16-35-00346 mol_a.

  10. Tackling the malaria problem in the South-East Asia Region: Need for a change in policy?

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Kaushik; Ganguly, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is largely neglected in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), although it has the highest number of people susceptible to the disease. Malaria in the SEAR exhibits special epidemiological characteristics such as “forest malaria” and malaria due to migration across international borders. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has been a focal-point for the emergence of drug resistant malaria. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, coupled with the limited availability of insecticides, malaria control efforts in the SEAR face a steep challenge. Indirect man-made factors such as climate change, as well as direct man-made factors such as the circulation of counterfeit drugs have added to the problem. Increased monitoring, surveillance, pharmacovigilance as well as cross-border collaboration are required to address these problems. Regional networking and data-sharing will keep all stakeholders updated about the status of various malaria control programmes in the SEAR. Cutting-edge technologies such as GIS/GPS (geographical information system/global positioning system) systems and mobile phones can provide information in “real-time”. A holistic and sustained approach to malaria control by integrated vector management (IVM) is suggested, in which all the stakeholder countries work collaboratively as a consortium. This approach will address the malaria problem in a collective manner so that malaria control can be sustained over time. PMID:23481050

  11. Capture-recapture analysis of East Coast fever in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of and case fatality rate due to East Coast fever (ECF) were estimated in 1402 dairy cattle in 87 small herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania, from January 2003 to January 2005 using a capture-recapture method. Information on clinical cases and deaths due to ECF were obtained from farm records and from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 as part of longitudinal studies of bovine mastitis in these herds. The number of clinical cases identified was 567 (from farm records) and 496 (from the questionnaire), and the number of deaths recorded were 305 (from farm records) and 251 (from the questionnaire). In all, 450 clinical cases and 191 deaths due to ECF were identified from the two sources, giving an observed prevalence of 32% (CI(95%) 30-35%) and observed case fatality rate of 42% (CI(95%) 38-47%). Following application of the capture-recapture method, the estimated number of clinical cases and deaths was 625 (CI(95%) 617-633) and 401 (CI(95%) 384-418), respectively. The respective prevalence and case fatality rates were 45% (CI(95%) 41-48%) and 64% (CI(95%) 60-68%). The estimates obtained using the capture-recapture method are higher than those identified by traditional cross-sectional studies conducted in the same study area, and probably provide a more accurate epidemiological picture of ECF in this region of Tanzania.

  12. Drying out the Nile? Regional Climate Change and Water Resources in East Africa with a focus on Lake Victoria and Lake Tana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Ruth; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Thejll, Peter; Stendel, Martin; Drews, Martin; Davies, Sarah; Lamb, Henry

    2014-05-01

    The East African lakes Victoria and Tana are important local water resources for agriculture, fisheries and hydropower; they are also the main sources of the Nile. In this study we focus on the evaporative and evapotranspirative regimes of the hydrological basins for Lakes Tana and Victoria to determine how regional climate change under the A1B scenario is likely to affect the local and regional hydrology. We show results from a very high resolution (10km) simulation, where the state-of-the-art regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM5 was driven by the global circulation model (GCM) ECHAM5 under the A1B scenario. Three time-slices have been investigated for present day (1980-1999), mid-century (2046-2065) and end of the 21st century (2080-2099) periods. Our analysis includes a comparison with a coarser 0.44o (~50 km) resolution run which demonstrates the importance of using high resolution (10km or higher) in RCM studies of this type to correctly simulate the seasonal and geographical characteristics of the present day east African monsoon system. The projections also indicate that climate change under the intermediate SRES A1B scenario is expected to cause more frequent failures of the East African rains with important consequences for the region and for the hydrology of the East African Lakes. This work introduces the proposed DACEA (Drivers of Aridity Change in East Africa) project which aims to investigate regional and global teleconnections that affect aridity in East Africa. Future work will combine climate palaeoproxies from Lake Tana and Lake Victoria with model experiments carried out with the EC-Earth coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model and downscaled to very high resolution with the RCM HIRHAM5 to determine regional and global scale influences on the African monsoon system. The HIRHAM5 simulations will be dynamically coupled to a regional hydrological model based on MIKE SHE, to evaluate the consequences and the feedback from the regional

  13. Regional-scale brine migration along vertical pathways due to CO2 injection - Part 2: A simulated case study in the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissinger, Alexander; Noack, Vera; Knopf, Stefan; Konrad, Wilfried; Scheer, Dirk; Class, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Saltwater intrusion into potential drinking water aquifers due to the injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the hazards associated with the geological storage of CO2. Thus, in a site-specific risk assessment, models for predicting the fate of the displaced brine are required. Practical simulation of brine displacement involves decisions regarding the complexity of the model. The choice of an appropriate level of model complexity depends on multiple criteria: the target variable of interest, the relevant physical processes, the computational demand, the availability of data, and the data uncertainty. In this study, we set up a regional-scale geological model for a realistic (but not real) onshore site in the North German Basin with characteristic geological features for that region. A major aim of this work is to identify the relevant parameters controlling saltwater intrusion in a complex structural setting and to test the applicability of different model simplifications. The model that is used to identify relevant parameters fully couples flow in shallow freshwater aquifers and deep saline aquifers. This model also includes variable-density transport of salt and realistically incorporates surface boundary conditions with groundwater recharge. The complexity of this model is then reduced in several steps, by neglecting physical processes (two-phase flow near the injection well, variable-density flow) and by simplifying the complex geometry of the geological model. The results indicate that the initial salt distribution prior to the injection of CO2 is one of the key parameters controlling shallow aquifer salinization. However, determining the initial salt distribution involves large uncertainties in the regional-scale hydrogeological parameterization and requires complex and computationally demanding models (regional-scale variable-density salt transport). In order to evaluate strategies for minimizing leakage into shallow aquifers, other target

  14. Future summer precipitation changes over CORDEX-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model: A comparison to the stand-alone RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2016-03-01

    Climate changes under the RCP8.5 scenario over the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX)-East Asia domain downscaled by a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model Flexible Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Land System (FROALS) are compared to those downscaled by the corresponding atmosphere-only regional climate model driven by a global climate system model. Changes in the mean and interannual variability of summer rainfall were discussed for the period of 2051-2070 with respect to the present-day period of 1986-2005. Followed by an enhanced western North Pacific subtropical high and an intensified East Asian summer monsoon, an increase in total rainfall over north China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan but a decrease in total rainfall over southern China are observed in the FROALS projection. Homogeneous increases of extreme rainfall amounts were found over the CORDEX-East Asia domain. A predominant increase in the interannual variability was evident for both total rainfall and the extreme rainfall amount. The spatial patterns of the projected rainfall changes by FROALS were generally consistent with those from the driving global model at a broad scale due to similar projected circulation changes. In both models, the enhanced southerlies over east China increased the moisture divergences over southern China and enhanced the moisture advection over north China. However, the atmosphere-only regional climate model (RCM) exhibited responses to the underlying sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies that were too strong, which induced an anomalous cyclone over the north South China Sea, followed by increases (decreases) of total and extreme rainfall over southern China (central China). The differences of the projected changes in both rainfall and circulation between FROALS and the atmosphere-only RCM were partly affected by the differences in the projected SST changes. The results recommend the employment of a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model in the

  15. Experience of vaccination against invasive bacterial diseases in Veneto region (north east Italy).

    PubMed

    Russo, F; Pozza, F; Napoletano, G; Zanella, F; Baldovin, T; Lazzari, R; Cocchio, S; Baldo, V

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe and comment the experience of the Veneto Region in the bacterial invasive disease. Vaccination coverage was 93% against pneumococcus and 95% against haemophilus influenzae type B. Regard to meningococcus C the coverage rate was 90.1% In children, 81% at 6 years of age and 78.2% at 15 years. The preliminary data of an active surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases show that the Streptoccoccus pneumoniae was the main agent involved and that its consequences were particularly serious in elderly subjects. With regard to Neisseria meningitidis, we observed a substantial reduction in the number of cases due to serogroup C and a concomitant rise in the percentage of cases due to serogroup B. The suspension of mandatory vaccination should be maintained, the monitoring of vaccination coverage and the active surveillance proved to be a very good assessment tools.

  16. Reservoir potential of carbonate rocks in the Kutai Basin region, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, H.; Paterson, D. W.; Syarifuddin, N.; Busono, I.; Corbin, S. G.

    1999-04-01

    Fifteen percent of the exploration wells drilled in the Kutai Basin region were targeted for stratigraphic play-types. Carbonate reservoirs comprise almost 70% of the objectives in these stratigraphic plays. There was need for a better understanding of the carbonate reservoir potential in the region. Accordingly, this study was carried out. The distribution, depositional environment as well as factors controlling the quality of carbonate reservoirs are reviewed and analyzed. Carbonate reservoirs in the study area can be found sparsely throughout the Kutai Basin. Carbonates range in age from Oligocene (Bebulu limestone) to Late Miocene (Dian limestone). The main constituents of these carbonate build-ups are platy-corals, encrusting red algae and larger benthonic foraminifera. Most of the carbonates were deposited in a shallow marine environment (inner to middle shelf) during rises in relative sea level. Highstand system tracts are characterized by well-developed carbonate facies-belts. The carbonate build-ups generally occur as isolated bedded mounds, from a few feet up to 1000 ft in thickness. The preservation of primary porosity is generally poor due to diagenetic processes during burial history, particularly the infilling of pores by non-ferroan calcite cement. The development of secondary porosity is limited, due to the retardation of subsurface fluid flow by non-permeable layers, and the absence of solution effects due to sub-aerial exposure and karstification. Preserved porosities are mainly present as vugs, best developed in coarse-grained shelf-margin facies, which may not have subsequently been completely filled by calcite cement. Early hydrocarbon migration may retard the diagenetic processes and preserve the primary carbonate porosity.

  17. Clinical trials in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region: grandstanding or grandeur?

    PubMed

    Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Ibrahim, Halah; Celentano, David D

    2013-11-01

    Nearly 31% of the world's clinical trials are conducted outside the US and 25% of the new drug applications include data from international sites. The high population growth, demand for medication, increased prevalence of life-style related and rare genetic diseases in the MENA countries should be associated with a consequent scale-up of clinical trials in these countries. However, the region sponsors under 1% of global clinical trials. Determinants including the regulatory environment, patient protection, physician-preparedness, types of diseases, costs of trials and pace of subject recruitment, were analyzed to identify critical factors that influence barriers to the conduct clinical trials in MENA. Strategic planning by the CRO can help overcome challenges related to regulatory and oversight requirements. Barriers related to trial quality and subject protection can be mitigated by risk-based monitoring. Growing healthcare infrastructure and communication technologies provide clear advantages for subject recruitment. Low operating costs combined with the increase in pharmaceutical sales provide incentives for the future conduct of clinical trials. Although the opportunities and challenges cited are common to the MENA region, further studies are needed to assess other potential contributing variables for the conduct of clinical trials specific to each MENA country. Challenges in drug importation and site oversight can be overcome with systematic interventions. Social media network and community awareness programs can assist reductions in barriers in obtaining effective informed consents. Increasing pharmaceutical sales, population growth, high prevalence of genetic and life-style related diseases and reduced clinical trial development costs offer expanding opportunities for future clinical trials in MENA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plate Kinematic model of the NW Indian Ocean and derived regional stress history of the East African Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuck-Martin, Amy; Adam, Jürgen; Eagles, Graeme

    2015-04-01

    Starting with the break up of Gondwana, the northwest Indian Ocean and its continental margins in Madagascar, East Africa and western India formed by divergence of the African and Indian plates and were shaped by a complicated sequence of plate boundary relocations, ridge propagation events, and the independent movement of the Seychelles microplate. As a result, attempts to reconcile the different plate-tectonic components and processes into a coherent kinematic model have so far been unsatisfactory. A new high-resolution plate kinematic model has been produced in an attempt to solve these problems, using seafloor spreading data and rotation parameters generated by a mixture of visual fitting of magnetic isochron data and iterative joint inversion of magnetic isochron and fracture zone data. Using plate motion vectors and plate boundary geometries derived from this model, the first-order regional stress pattern was modelled for distinct phases of margin formation. The stress pattern is correlated with the tectono-stratigraphic history of related sedimentary basins. The plate kinematic model identifies three phases of spreading, from the Jurassic to the Paleogene, which resulted in the formation of three main oceanic basins. Prior to these phases, intracontinental 'Karoo' rifting episodes in the late Carboniferous to late Triassic had failed to break up Gondwana, but initiated the formation of sedimentary basins along the East African and West Madagascan margins. At the start of the first phase of spreading (183 to 133 Ma) predominantly NW - SE extension caused continental rifting that separated Madagascar/India/Antarctica from Africa. Maximum horizontal stresses trended perpendicular to the local plate-kinematic vector, and parallel to the rift axes. During and after continental break-up and subsequent spreading, the regional stress regime changed drastically. The extensional stress regime became restricted to the active spreading ridges that in turn adopted trends

  19. Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX East Asia domain: A comparison of regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model to stand-alone RCM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun; Peng, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    The FROALS (flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system) model, a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model, has been applied to the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain. Driven by historical simulations from a global climate system model, dynamical downscaling for the period from 1980 to 2005 has been conducted at a uniform horizontal resolution of 50 km. The impacts of regional air-sea couplings on the simulations of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall have been investigated, and comparisons have been made to corresponding simulations performed using a stand-alone regional climate model (RCM). The added value of the FROALS model with respect to the driving global climate model was evident in terms of both climatology and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over East China by the contributions of both the high horizontal resolution and the reasonably simulated convergence of the moisture fluxes. Compared with the stand-alone RCM simulations, the spatial pattern of the simulated low-level monsoon flow over East Asia and the western North Pacific was improved in the FROALS model due to its inclusion of regional air-sea coupling. The results indicated that the simulated sea surface temperature (SSTs) resulting from the regional air-sea coupling were lower than those derived directly from the driving global model over the western North Pacific north of 15°N. These colder SSTs had both positive and negative effects. On the one hand, they strengthened the western Pacific subtropical high, which improved the simulation of the summer monsoon circulation over East Asia. On the other hand, the colder SSTs suppressed surface evaporation and favored weaker local interannual variability in the SST, which led to less summer rainfall and weaker interannual rainfall variability over the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Overall, the reference simulation performed using the FROALS model is reasonable in terms of rainfall over the land area of

  20. Developing Regionalized Models of Lithospheric Thickness and Velocity Structure Across Eurasia and the Middle East from Jointly Inverting P-Wave and S-Wave Receiver Functions with Rayleigh Wave Group and Phase Velocities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    DEVELOPING REGIONALIZED MODELS OF LITHOSPHERIC THICKNESS AND VELOCITY STRUCTURE ACROSS EURASIA AND THE MIDDLE EAST FROM JOINTLY INVERTING P-WAVE... lithospheric velocity structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East. We expect the regionalized models will improve...important differences in lithospheric structure between the cratonic regions of Eastern Europe and the tectonic regions of Western Europe and the

  1. Year-round methane emissions from permafrost in a North-east Siberian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Morales, Karel; Kaiser, Sonja; Kleinen, Thomas; Kwon, Min Jung; Kittler, Fanny; Zaehle, Sönke; Beer, Christian; Göckede, Mathias

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, permafrost regions in northern latitudes are thawing as a response of climate warming. Soils in permafrost areas contain vast amounts of organic material that is released into the environment after thaw, providing new labile material for bacterial decomposition. As a result, higher production of methane in the anoxic soil layers and within anaerobic wetlands is anticipated, and this will be further released to the atmosphere. In order to assess the current large-scale methane emissions from a wetland permafrost-thaw affected area, we present results of year-round simulated methane emissions at regional scale for a section at the Russian far Northeast in Siberia, located in the low Arctic tundra and characterized by continuous permafrost. For this we use a newly developed process-based methane model built in the framework of the land surface model JSBACH. The model contains explicit permafrost processes and an improved representation of the horizontal extent of wetlands with a hydrological model (TOPMODEL). Model simulated distribution and horizontal extent of wetlands is evaluated against high-resolution remote sensing data. Total and individual regional methane emissions by ebullition, molecular diffusion, plant-mediated and emissions through snow are presented for 2014 and 2015. The model shows a reasonable seasonal transition between the individual methane emission paths. Most of the methane emissions to the atmosphere occur in summer (July, August, September), with the peak of the emissions during August. In this month, plant-mediated transport is the dominant emission path with about 15 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2014, followed by ebullition (7 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) accounting for about half of the emissions thorough plants. Molecular diffusion is a minor contributor with only 0.006 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 at the peak of the summer emissions. Methane emissions through snow occur only during spring, fall and winter months, with higher emissions in spring and autumn

  2. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management.

    PubMed

    Matowe, Lloyd; Waako, Paul; Adome, Richard Odoi; Kibwage, Isaac; Minzi, Omary; Bienvenu, Emile

    2008-12-23

    International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC) has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the effectiveness of a novel skills-building approach for

  3. Spatio-temporal patterns of recent and future climate extremes in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulou, E.; Giannakopoulos, C.; Hatzaki, M.; Karali, A.; Hadjinicolaou, P.; Lelieveld, J.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-06-01

    Recent and future changes in temperature and precipitation climate extremes are estimated using the Hadley Centre PRECIS ("Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies") climate model for the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region. The area of interest is considered vulnerable to extreme climate events as there is evidence for a temperature rise while precipitation tends to decline, suggesting likely effects on vital socioeconomic sectors in the region. Observations have been obtained for the recent period (1961-1990) and used to evaluate the model output. The spatial distribution of recent temporal trends in temperature indicates strong increasing in minimum temperature over the eastern Balkan Peninsula, Turkey and the Arabian Peninsula. The rate of warming reaches 0.4-0.5 °C decade-1 in a large part of the domain, while warming is expected to be strongest in summer (0.6-0.7 °C decade-1) in the eastern Balkans and western Turkey. The trends in annual and summer maximum temperature are estimated at approximately 0.5 and 0.6 °C decade-1 respectively. Recent estimates do not indicate statistically significant trends in precipitation except for individual sub-regions. Results indicate a future warming trend for the study area over the last 30 years of the 21st century. Trends are estimated to be positive and statistically significant in nearly the entire region. The annual trend patterns for both minimum and maximum temperature show warming rates of approximately 0.4-0.6 °C decade-1, with pronounced warming over the Middle Eastern countries. Summer temperatures reveal a gradual warming (0.5-0.9 °C decade-1) over much of the region. The model projects drying trends by 5-30% in annual precipitation towards the end of the 21st century, with the number of wet days decreasing at the rate of 10-30 days year-1, while heavy precipitation is likely to decrease in the high-elevation areas by 15 days year-1.

  4. Comparison of Source Time Functions Retrieved from Various Regional Waves and Coda Using Moderate Earthquakes in East and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Torpey, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Source time functions may vary with various P and S wave types. Regional Lg waves have been used to estimate radiated energy and apparent stress. In nuclear explosion seismology, the practice of discriminating Earthquake and explosions using regional wave spectra and spectral ratios relies on a fundamental assumption that Earthquakes and explosions excite various regional waves in a systematically-different manner. We have been carrying out a systematic study to retrieve source time functions (STFs) from seismic sources using the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach. In phase 1 of the study, we focus on retrieving STFs from moderate earthquakes in east and central Asia using regional Lg, Pg, Lg coda, and Sn and Pn waves to see whether or not the shape of the STFs varies with the wave type. We explored various methods to reduce the noise in the deconvolved STFs which tend to be higher for the relatively weaker Pg, Sn, Pn and coda waves. For example, an array-stacking method is used to enhance source pulses and reduce the level of side-lobes. Preliminary results suggest that Lg and Lg coda STFs may be similar, as generally believed. Pg STF is less similar to Lg STF. For example, when a stacked Lg STF is clearly asymmetric with a sharp-rise time, the stack Pg STF seems to be fairly symmetric. In general, our confidence on this kind of dissimilarity is still limited by the non-diminishing deconvolution noise in the retrieved Pg STFs, and by the small number of events studied. We are trying to further reduce the deconvolution noise for each regional wave, and find and analyze more moderate events. We will present newly-retrieved STFs from each of the various regional waves and coda, and compare the pulse widths and shapes of the STFs from different waves. We will also present estimates of source-radiated energy and apparent stresses using the estimated Lg STFs without using various simplified source models and Q corrections.

  5. Penguin population dynamics over the past 1500 years in response to climate change in the Ross Sea region, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Nie, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Several ornithogenic sediment profiles were collected from lakes and catchments near penguin colonies in the ice-free areas of the Ross Sea region. According to the analysis on elemental and isotopic geochemistry, As, Cd, Cu, P, S, Se and Zn were identified as bio-elements for the input of penguin droppings into the sediments. The 210Pb-137Cs and AMS14C dating results showed the chronology of these determined sediment profiles covered the different time spans from 1500 to 200 cal yr BP. Factor analysis on these bio-elements can be used to reconstruct historical change of penguin population, and the result showed that the penguin population, which was reconstructed from the shorter profiles (younger than 500 years) at Cape Crozier and Beaufort Island of Ross Sea region, displayed clear peaks in the recent decades of years. This finding is in accordance with global warming and modern observation data. The penguin population reconstructed from the longer sediment profiles excavated from Cape Bird showed more fluctuations. Two sediment profiles, collected from the lower terrain of mid Cape Bird, recorded higher penguin density between 1000 and 600 cal. yr BP and then decreased sharply. However, one sediment profile on higher terrain in mid Cape Bird recorded a sudden increase in penguin population from around 600 yr BP. We believed the population peaks recorded in the different sediments profiles was indicative of a migration within the penguin colonies of Cape Bird, from lower terrain to higher terrain. This migration was likely driven by the severe climate fluctuation during the Little Ice Age in the study region. Our results clearly showed the change of penguin ecology can sensitively indicate climate change in the East Antarctica.

  6. Characteristics of the low latitude ionospheric storm in the East-Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Wan, W.; Liu, L.

    2009-04-01

    First, an classification of ionospheric storm effects in the sub-equatorial ionization anomaly(SEIA) region at 120°E has been performed through the analysis of ionogram data at two ionosonde stations, Wuhan (114.4°, 30.5°) and Chung-Li (121.2°, 25°), and total electron content (TEC) derived from GPS network distributed around 120°E during the year 1999-2004. Three types of negative phase are identified. One is shown to be varied in phase of F-layer height variation and the other two out of phase. Two types of positive phase are also found. The mechanisms to cause these types of ionospheric effects has been considered to be related with storm meridional thermospheric wind including traveling atmosphere disturbance(TAD), electric fields and composition changes. Then based on the 50 years of ionosonde and 8 years of global ionospheric maps (GIMs) data, features of low latitude ionospheric storm were obtained. Results shows that positive phases during 18:00-2400 LT with its center near the 21:00 LT and 24:00-08:00 LT with its center near the sunrise time have predomination in controlling the storm behavior at low latitudes. It is shown that the distortion of EIA under the effects of the above factors have significant influence on the behavior of SEIA ionogram parameters.

  7. Regional stratigraphic cross sections of Cretaceous rocks from east-central Arizona to the Oklahoma Panhandle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molenaar, C.M.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Pillmore, C.L.; Wolfe, D.G.; Holbrook, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age along Transect DD'' in eastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, southern Colorado, and western Oklahoma consist mainly of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and bentonite. They accumulated as sediments in continental, nearshore marine, and offshore marine environments on the west side of a north-trending epicontinental sea. The rocks record intermittent deposition and erosion as well as regional and local subsidence and uplift possibly beginning in Aptian time (about 121-112 Ma) and occurring in Albian through Maastrichtian time (about 112-65.4 Ma). Most of the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian through Aptian, 142-112 Ma) in this transect is represented by a basal unconformity. The Cretaceous rocks and unconformities along the transect are depicted on the attached lithostratigraphic cross sections (sheets 1 and 2); one extending from the Mogollon Rim in eastern Arizona to Pagosa Springs in southwestern Colorado and the other from Pagosa Springs, Colorado, to Kenton in western Oklahoma. The same rocks and unconformities are also represented on the attached chronostratigraphic profile (sheet 3), which was prepared mainly from surface and subsurface data shown on the lithostratigraphic cross sections.

  8. Plate Boundary Observatory East Region Update and Status: Supporting New Science Through Enhanced Telemetry, Monument Evaluation, and Continued Operations and Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) - East Region consists of 280 continuously operating GPS sites in a region that extends from the western border of California to the East Coast of the U.S. We present a number of highlights from the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the network in FY2012. One goal for 2012 was to replace poorly performing stations and another was to fill in some of the gaps in the eastern region of PBO. Accordingly, new GPS sites were installed at several locations across the mid-west, including in Wisconsin and South Dakota. CAYU, a GPS station at Cayuga College, New York also was incorporated into the PBO data flow to replace the poorly performing PBO station, LOZ1. UNAVCO now manages over 20 PBO GPS stations east of the Rocky Mountains, including 2 GPS stations installed in November 2011 as part of an NSF-funded RAPID project to the study of the post-rupture crustal relaxation resulting from the M5.8 Mineral, VA earthquake. PBO engineers also are constructing two additional monuments at five existing PBO sites to compare the performance of different monument types in different geological and tectonic settings. In addition, PBO engineers are upgrading GPS stations in Colorado and New Mexico, which comprise the semi-permanent Rio Grande Rift GPS network, and which have been downloaded manually for over 6 years, to cellular data communications. Lastly, engineers from the PBO-East region continued to support special projects from EarthScope-funded PIs, including Dr. Kristine Larson, who is advancing the use of GPS multipath observations to estimate snow depth (PBO H20) and vegetation growth. In summary, the PBO East Region sub-network state of health remained consistently above 97% throughout 2012, a testament to network hardening completed during the last three years of PBO O&M.

  9. Human Cutaneous Anthrax, the East Anatolian Region of Turkey 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Emine; Parlak, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. While anthrax is rare in developed countries, it is endemic in Turkey. The names of the different forms of the disease refer to the manner of entry of the spores into the body-cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation, and injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological history, treatment, and outcomes of patients with anthrax. Eighty-two cases of anthrax hospitalized at Atatürk University Faculty of Medicine Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in 2008-2014 were examined retrospectively. Gender, age, occupation, year, history, clinical characteristics, character of lesions, length of hospitalization, and outcomes were recorded. Thirty (36.6%) patients were female and 52 (63.4%) patients were male; ages were 18-69 and mean age was 43.77 ± 13.05. The mean incubation period was 4.79 ± 3.76 days. Cases were largely identified in August (41.5%) and September (25.6%). Sixty-nine (84.1%) of the 82 patients had been given antibiotics before presentation. Lesions were most common on the fingers and arms. The most common occupational groups were housewives (36.6%) and people working in animal husbandry (31.7%). All patients had histories of contact with diseased animals and animal products. Penicillin-group antibiotics (78%) were most commonly used in treatment. One patient (1.2%) died from anthrax meningitis. The mean length of hospitalization was 8.30 ± 5.36 days. Anthrax is an endemic disease of economic and social significance for the region. Effective public health control measures, risk group education, vaccination of animals, and decontamination procedures will reduce the number of cases.

  10. Water resources of the Fort Union coal region, east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The shallow ground-water system in the Fort Union coal region overlies the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale. It includes the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying Hell Creek Formation, Paleocene Fort Union Formation, and Pleistocene and Holocene glacial deposits, terrace deposits, and alluvium. Two general flow patterns are present in aquifers above the Hell Creek Formation and a third may occur in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. Recharge to the shallow ground-water system from direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall is about 50 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Discharge from the system is to perennial streams (about 5,000 acre-ft/yr to the Redwater River), withdrawal by wells (about 2,000 acre-ft/yr for livestock use and 2,500 acre-ft/yr for domestic use), and 34 to 45 in./yr to evapotranspiration. Primary constituents in water above the Hell Creek Formation are sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, and dissolved-solids concentrations are about 1,800 mg/L; water below a depth of about 200 feet contains more sodium and bicarbonate. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer has an average dissolved-solids concentration of 1,180 mg/L. Flows in most streams have large seasonal variations, with the largest flows occurring in the spring as a result of snowmelt and rainfall. Dissolved-solids concentrations of streams generally are largest during low flow and smallest during high flow. Concentrations ranged from 160 to 6,960 mg/L in small streams and from 400 to 600 mg/L in the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. (USGS)

  11. Organizational choices for international cooperation: East-West European cooperation on regional environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Barbara Mary

    This dissertation applies theoretical insights from transaction cost economics to explain and predict the organizational form of cooperative agreements between Eastern and Western Europe in areas of regional environmental and political concern. It examines five contracting problems related to nuclear power safety and acid rain, and describes the history of international negotiations to manage these problems. It argues that the level of interdependence in a given issue area, or costly effects experienced in one state due to activities and decisions of other states, along with the level of transactional vulnerability, or sunk costs invested in support of a particular contractual relationship among these states, are key determinants of the governance structures states choose to facilitate cooperation in that issue area. Empirically, the dissertation traces the evolution of three sets of institutional arrangements related to nuclear safety: governance for western nuclear safety assistance to Eastern Europe, negotiations of a global convention on safety standards for nuclear power plants, and contracts among utilities and multilateral banks to build new nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe. Next it studies European acid rain, chronicling the history of international acid rain controls within the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) and the European Union, and finally examining institutional arrangements for burden-sharing to promote European bargains on emissions reduction, including bilateral aid transfers and proposals for multilateral burden sharing. Political actors have a wide range of choice among institutional arrangements to facilitate international cooperation, from simple market-type exchanges, to arbitration-type regimes that provide information and enhance reputation effects, to self-enforcing agreements such as issue-linkage, to supranational governance. The governance structures states devise to manage their cooperative

  12. Effects of typhoon events on chlorophyll and carbon fixation in different regions of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongxing; He, Lei; Liu, Fenfen; Yin, Kedong

    2017-07-01

    Typhoons play an important role in the regulation of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation in the ocean. Data from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) on 35 typhoon events during 2002-2011 are analyzed to examine the effects of typhoon events on variations in sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and depth-integrated primary productivity (IPP) in the East China Sea (ECS). For all 35 typhoon cases, the average SST drops by 0.1 °C in the typhoon influenced regions, and the maximal decrease is 2.2 °C. During the same period, average Chl-a increases by 0.1 mg m-3, with the maximal increase reaching up to 1 mg m-3, and average IPP increases by 32.9 mg C m-2·d-1, with the largest increase being 221 mg C m-2·d-1. The IPP are significantly correlated with SST and Chl-a data, and the correlations become stronger after typhoon passage. On average, nearly one-third of the ECS is affected by typhoons during the 10 year period, and the resident time of the typhoons in the area reach to 38.2 h. Effects of the typhoon events on SST, Chl-a, and IPP manifest differently in the three key sea areas, namely, the coastal water (depths <50 m), continental shelf (depths 50-200 m), and open sea (depths >200 m) regions in the ECS. Specifically, stronger responses are observed in shallow water than in deeper depths. The comparisons between the pre- and post-typhoon periods show that IPP in the post-typhoon period increases by 19.7% and 12.2% in the coastal and continental shelf regions, respectively, but it decreases by 9.4% in the open sea region. Overall, our results reveal that there is a close coupling between Chl-a, SST, and IPP in shallow areas and that typhoon events can have strong effects on carbon fixation in coastal regions.

  13. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    between the BCP CC and the central committee of their [the East German] party became strained. Todor Pavlov , who was at the time chief editor of...Socialist Unity Party of Germany] CC. DIE WELT came into the picture then. An article titled "Stalinist Pavlov Criticizes Young Bulgarian Philosophers...Marendic, Federal Secretary for Agriculture Stevo Mirkovic, Deputy and Assistant Fed- eral Secretaries for Internal Affairs Ivan Erak and Petar

  14. Comparison of Thunderstorm Simulations from WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW Models over East Indian Region

    PubMed Central

    Litta, A. J.; Mary Ididcula, Sumam; Mohanty, U. C.; Kiran Prasad, S.

    2012-01-01

    The thunderstorms are typical mesoscale systems dominated by intense convection. Mesoscale models are essential for the accurate prediction of such high-impact weather events. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare the simulated results of three thunderstorm events using NMM and ARW model core of WRF system and validated the model results with observations. Both models performed well in capturing stability indices which are indicators of severe convective activity. Comparison of model-simulated radar reflectivity imageries with observations revealed that NMM model has simulated well the propagation of the squall line, while the squall line movement was slow in ARW. From the model-simulated spatial plots of cloud top temperature, we can see that NMM model has better captured the genesis, intensification, and propagation of thunder squall than ARW model. The statistical analysis of rainfall indicates the better performance of NMM than ARW. Comparison of model-simulated thunderstorm affected parameters with that of the observed showed that NMM has performed better than ARW in capturing the sharp rise in humidity and drop in temperature. This suggests that NMM model has the potential to provide unique and valuable information for severe thunderstorm forecasters over east Indian region. PMID:22645480

  15. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species. PMID:27891142

  16. Genetic Structure and Evolutionary History of Three Alpine Sclerophyllous Oaks in East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Zheng, Qi-Jian; Qian, Zeng-Qiang; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography. Our results indicate there were mixed genetic structure and asymmetric contemporary gene flow within them. The ENMs revealed a similar demographic history for the three species expanded their ranges from the last interglacial (LIG) to the last glacial maximum (LGM), which was consistent with effective population sizes changes. Effects of genetic drift and fragmentation of habitats were responsible for the high differentiation and the lack of phylogeographic structure. Our results support that geological and climatic factors since Miocene triggered the differentiation, evolutionary origin and range shifts of the three oak species in the studied area and also emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach combining molecular markers, ENMs and population genetics can yield deep insights into diversification and evolutionary dynamics of species.

  17. Regional variations in the diversity and predicted metabolic potential of benthic prokaryotes in coastal northern Zhejiang, East China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Ye, Xiansen; Zhang, Huajun; Chen, Heping; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the drivers of benthic prokaryotic diversity and metabolic potential in interconnected coastal sediments at regional scales is limited. We collected surface sediments across six zones covering ~200 km in coastal northern Zhejiang, East China Sea and combined 16 S rRNA gene sequencing, community-level metabolic prediction, and sediment physicochemical measurements to investigate variations in prokaryotic diversity and metabolic gene composition with geographic distance and under local environmental conditions. Geographic distance was the most influential factor in prokaryotic β-diversity compared with major environmental drivers, including temperature, sediment texture, acid-volatile sulfide, and water depth, but a large unexplained variation in community composition suggested the potential effects of unmeasured abiotic/biotic factors and stochastic processes. Moreover, prokaryotic assemblages showed a biogeographic provincialism across the zones. The predicted metabolic gene composition similarly shifted as taxonomic composition did. Acid-volatile sulfide was strongly correlated with variation in metabolic gene composition. The enrichments in the relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and genes relevant with dissimilatory sulfate reduction were observed and predicted, respectively, in the Yushan area. These results provide insights into the relative importance of geographic distance and environmental condition in driving benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas and predict specific biogeochemically-relevant genes for future studies. PMID:27917954

  18. Regional variations in the diversity and predicted metabolic potential of benthic prokaryotes in coastal northern Zhejiang, East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Ye, Xiansen; Zhang, Huajun; Chen, Heping; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian

    2016-12-05

    Knowledge about the drivers of benthic prokaryotic diversity and metabolic potential in interconnected coastal sediments at regional scales is limited. We collected surface sediments across six zones covering ~200 km in coastal northern Zhejiang, East China Sea and combined 16 S rRNA gene sequencing, community-level metabolic prediction, and sediment physicochemical measurements to investigate variations in prokaryotic diversity and metabolic gene composition with geographic distance and under local environmental conditions. Geographic distance was the most influential factor in prokaryotic β-diversity compared with major environmental drivers, including temperature, sediment texture, acid-volatile sulfide, and water depth, but a large unexplained variation in community composition suggested the potential effects of unmeasured abiotic/biotic factors and stochastic processes. Moreover, prokaryotic assemblages showed a biogeographic provincialism across the zones. The predicted metabolic gene composition similarly shifted as taxonomic composition did. Acid-volatile sulfide was strongly correlated with variation in metabolic gene composition. The enrichments in the relative abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and genes relevant with dissimilatory sulfate reduction were observed and predicted, respectively, in the Yushan area. These results provide insights into the relative importance of geographic distance and environmental condition in driving benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas and predict specific biogeochemically-relevant genes for future studies.

  19. Climatological assessment of desert targets over East Asia — Australian region for the solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Sohn, B. J.

    2014-02-01

    Desert targets for solar channel calibration of geostationary satellites in the East Asia — Australian region were selected and their qualities were assessed with aid of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data (i.e., white-sky surface albedo, aerosol optical thickness, and cloud fraction) from 2002 to 2008. The magnitude, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability of the white-sky surface albedo are examined in order to select bright and stable targets. Subsequently those selected targets over China, India, and Australia are further checked for their qualities in terms of data yielding ratio, aerosol optical thickness, cloud fraction, satellite viewing angle, and solar zenith angle. Results indicate that Chinese targets are found to be not adequate as calibration targets in spite of excellent surface conditions because of high percentage of cloud, possibly heavy aerosol loading, and lower solar elevation angle in particular during winter time. Indian site should be take care about relatively high temporal variation of surface condition and heavy aerosol loading. On the other hand, Australian desert targets are considered to be best when surface brightness, spatial and temporal stability, data yielding ratio, aerosol, and cloud are counted.

  20. Comparison of thunderstorm simulations from WRF-NMM and WRF-ARW models over East Indian Region.

    PubMed

    Litta, A J; Mary Ididcula, Sumam; Mohanty, U C; Kiran Prasad, S

    2012-01-01

    The thunderstorms are typical mesoscale systems dominated by intense convection. Mesoscale models are essential for the accurate prediction of such high-impact weather events. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare the simulated results of three thunderstorm events using NMM and ARW model core of WRF system and validated the model results with observations. Both models performed well in capturing stability indices which are indicators of severe convective activity. Comparison of model-simulated radar reflectivity imageries with observations revealed that NMM model has simulated well the propagation of the squall line, while the squall line movement was slow in ARW. From the model-simulated spatial plots of cloud top temperature, we can see that NMM model has better captured the genesis, intensification, and propagation of thunder squall than ARW model. The statistical analysis of rainfall indicates the better performance of NMM than ARW. Comparison of model-simulated thunderstorm affected parameters with that of the observed showed that NMM has performed better than ARW in capturing the sharp rise in humidity and drop in temperature. This suggests that NMM model has the potential to provide unique and valuable information for severe thunderstorm forecasters over east Indian region.

  1. East Mediterranean region sickle cell disease mortality trial: retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of 735 patients.

    PubMed

    Karacaoglu, Pelin Kardaş; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Aslı; Solmaz, Soner; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal Turgut; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozbalcı, Demircan; Unal, Selma; Kaya, Hasan; Gurkan, Emel; Yeral, Mahmut; Sariturk, Çagla; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, is characterized by hemolytic anemia and tissue damage from the rigid red blood cells. Although hydroxyurea and transfusion therapy are administered to treat the accompanying tissue injury, whether either one prolongs the lifespan of patients with SCD is unknown. SCD-related mortality data are available, but there are few studies on mortality-related factors based on evaluations of surviving patients. In addition, ethnic variability in patient registries has complicated detailed analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and mortality-related factors among an ethnically homogeneous population of patients with SCD. The 735 patients (102 children and 633 adults) included in this retrospective cohort study were of Eti-Turk origin and selected from 1367 patients seen at 5 regional hospitals. A central population management system was used to control for records of patient mortality. Data reliability was checked by a data supervision group. Mortality-related factors and predictors were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The study group included patients with homozygous hemoglobin S (Hgb S) disease (67 %), Hb S-β(0) thalassemia (17 %), Hgb S-β(+) thalassemia (15 %), and Hb S-α thalassemia (1 %). They were followed for a median of 66 ± 44 (3-148) months. Overall mortality at 5 years was 6.1 %. Of the 45 patients who died, 44 (6 %) were adults and 1 (0.1 %) was a child. The mean age at death was 34.1 ± 10 (18-54) years for males, 40.1 ± 15 (17-64) years for females, and 36.6 ± 13 (17-64) years overall. Hydroxyurea was found to have a notable positive effect on mortality (p = 0.009). Mortality was also significantly related to hypertension and renal damage in a univariate analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.000, respectively). Acute chest syndrome

  2. Is gray water the key to unlocking water for resource-poor areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and other arid regions of the world?

    PubMed

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-10-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight the need for cost reduction strategies and epidemiological evidence on the use of household-level gray water and treated gray water. Such actions are likely to increase the application of treated gray water in water-deprived areas of the Middle East and North Africa.

  3. Phylogenetic structure of Leishmania tropica in the new endemic focus Birjand in East Iran in comparison to other Iranian endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Karamian, Mehdi; Kuhls, Katrin; Hemmati, Mina; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-06-01

    Iran has been identified being among the countries with the highest number of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. South Khorasan province in East Iran is an emerging focus of CL. Species identification of sixty clinical samples by ITS1 PCR-RFLP presented evidence for the dominance of Leishmania tropica (90%) in this region. Analysis of the ITS1 sequence of 19 L. tropica isolates revealed seven closely related sequence types. In addition, ITS1 sequences available in GenBank from other Iranian regions were compiled for comparison with the studied isolates. Iranian L. tropica was distributed in two main clusters. All East Iranian sequence types were grouped with strains from foci from Southeast and Central regions in cluster A, showing highly similar sequences. The highest similarity was observed between most L. tropica from East and all isolates from Southeast regions and from Savojbolagh county in Central Iran. Southwest L. tropica was shown to be paraphyletic as the isolates were distributed in both clusters A and B. All Northeastern L. tropica were part of cluster B, however they showed significant heterogeneity and were distributed in different subclusters. Distribution of L. tropica populations was to some extent congruent with genetic lineages of Phlebotomus sergenti in Iran and may be an evidence for parasite-vector co-evolution. Southeast-East L. tropica was also similar to strains from Herat province in Afghanistan at the East border of Iran. This is the first comprehensive study on population structure of L. tropica in Iran that provides a guideline for appropriate sampling for further molecular based epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    exceed thousands of square kilometers in only a single case (Mendefera), but were quite restricted in most cases. Their most likely endorheic and local character, together with a regional ill-defined fluvial network, was the effect of a water-course rerouting caused by the progressive rising of the eastern African and Arabian plateaux. Chronological constraints for the intertrappean beds can be inferred from the age of the hosting Trap succession and by the stratigraphical position that they occupy. Intervolcanic sedimentary episodes are typically found in the basaltic and subordinately rhyolitic successions that followed the 31-29 Ma old basaltic widespread paroxysm. With due caveats deriving from the discontinuous availability of datings specifically dedicated to this issue, we regard the age of the intertrappean beds as mostly encompassed in the interval from 29 to 27 Ma at the transition between the Early and Late Oligocene in the Ethiopia/Yemen Trap core. In marginal areas, such as SW Arabia, Eritrea and Kenya, the volcanic activity above the intertrappean beds resumed later, and its quiescence allowed a more prolonged period of sedimentation. The intertrappean beds fall in the second cooling event of the Oligocene climatic deterioration. During the contemporaneous apparent drop in the global sea-level and closure of the Tethyan Ocean between Arabia and southwestern Asia, connections were established between the African and the Eurasian continents. At that time, southwestern Asia was experiencing severe aridity with faunal exchanges toward the luxuriously vegetated eastern Africa.

  5. Mineral Dust Analysis and Application in Refining Source Region Information for the Sahara and East Asia Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, E. A.; Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D.; Cliff, S.; Dunlap, M.

    2002-12-01

    The study of transported mineral dust aerosols relies heavily on simplified dust source region parameters. Source regions are broadly defined by soil class and expected erodibility, factors which continuously changes with land use and climate conditions. Mineral dust particles may undergo numerous cycles of deposition and re-entrainment prior to collection and analysis. Using the Sahara Desert and the East Asia deserts as test cases, we investigate the possibility of retrieving source information from receptor sites through single particle and bulk analyses of collected aerosol particles. In June and July of 2000, Saharan mineral dust aerosols transported across the Atlantic Ocean to Puerto Rico were collected for bulk and single particle chemical and morphological analyses. The Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, (PRIDE), involved sampling aerosols upwind of the islands at various altitudes in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and Saharan Air Layer (SAL) via a Navajo research aircraft. A surface site included a Davis Rotating Drum (DRUM) cascade impactor to size segregate the aerosols into eight stages, from 12 to 0.1 micrometers, with four-hour time resolution. In April of 2001, size segregated Asian mineral dust aerosols were collected by three hour resolution DRUM samplers at surface sites in Cheju, Taiwan, for bulk chemical analysis. The aircraft samples and selected DRUM samples were subjected to single particle analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for particle morphology, and by Energy Dispersive Analysis with X-rays (EDAX) to derive elemental ratios of key soil elements. The DRUM samples were subjected to X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to derive bulk elemental composition for elements Al though Zn. Cluster and principal component analysis of the data derived statistically significant particle groupings. By including particle morphology data, and using ternary analyses, derivation of additional source information was possible. Particle compositions

  6. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  7. Lessons learned from scaling up a community-based health program in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Sory, Elias Kavinah; Nyonator, Frank K; Phillips, James F; Wang, Chen; Schmitt, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ghana's Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) initiative is envisioned to be a national program to relocate primary health care services from subdistrict health centers to convenient community locations. The initiative was launched in 4 phases. First, it was piloted in 3 villages to develop appropriate strategies. Second, the approach was tested in a factorial trial, which showed that community-based care could reduce childhood mortality by half in only 3 years. Then, a replication experiment was launched to clarify appropriate activities for implementing the fourth and final phase—national scale up. This paper discusses CHPS progress in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana, where the pace of scale up has been much more rapid than in the other 9 regions of the country despite exceedingly challenging economic, ecological, and social circumstances. The UER employed 5 strategies that facilitated scale up: (1) nurse recruitment from their home districts to improve worker morale and cultural grounding, balanced with some social distance from the village community to ensure client confidentiality, particularly regarding family planning use; (2) prioritization of CHPS planning and continuous review in management meetings to make necessary modifications to the initiative's approach; (3) community engagement and advocacy to local politicians to mobilize resources for financing start-up costs; (4) a shared and consistent vision about CHPS among health administration leaders to ensure appropriate resources and commitment to the initiative; and (5) knowledge exchange visits between new and advanced CHPS implementers to facilitate learning and scale up within and between districts. PMID:25276522

  8. Estimated hospitalization rate for diseases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Veneto region of north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Russo, Francesca; Saia, Mario; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in all age groups. Serious diseases often caused by pneumococci include pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. The aim of this work was to estimate the hospitalization rate for SP in the Veneto region by investigating pneumococcal-related discharges. This was a retrospective study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2008 to 2012 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with SP were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportions of hospital admissions for pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia attributable to the infection were calculated. Comorbidities were also graded according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Data were analyzed using the chi square test and Student's t-test for unpaired data, as appropriate. Significant trends over the years considered were examined in terms of average annual percent changes (AAPC). A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. We identified 62,946 hospital discharge records concerning diseases potentially associated with SP. Among them, the proportion of SP-related hospital admissions (SP-HA) was estimated to be 23,089 (37.2%). The estimated incidence of SP-HA was 94.0/100,000 population (102.8/100,000 in males and 85.6/100,000 in females; p < 0.01): 89.0 for pneumonia, 0.9 for meningitis, and 4.1 for septicemia. The incidence of SP-HA was higher in children and the elderly, and the overall fatality rate was 11.0%. The overall economic burden of SP-HA during the period considered was around €14.8 million a year, with an average cost of €3120 per hospitalization. This study shows that hospitalization for SP-related disease has a considerable impact on the health services, especially as far as children and the elderly are concerned.

  9. History and distribution of steepland gullies in response to land use change, East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marden, Michael; Arnold, Gregory; Seymour, Anne; Hambling, Randolph

    2012-06-01

    Following the clearance of indigenous forest (~ 1880s to 1920s) for pastoral use, actively eroding gullies had by the late 1950s become a pervasive form of erosion occupying 0.7% of the 7468 km2 of pastoral hill country within the East Coast Region, North Island, New Zealand. Commencing in the early 1960s the primary strategy used to stabilise gully and other associated forms of erosion on degraded pastoral hill country was to establish exotic forest. We compare the status of gully erosion before reforestation commenced with that at the end of a ~ 40 year reforestation period (1957-1997) during which ~ 1350 km2 of exotic forest was planted. Trends in gully area and distribution by land cover (vegetation), but particularly in response to exotic reforestation, are examined for two contrasting geologic terrains. Over this ~ 40 year period, the incidence and extent of gully erosion in areas of hill country that have remained in pastoral use has declined. This was primarily due to the retirement and conversion of extensive areas of gully-prone farmland to exotic forest. Where implemented, the reforestation of this degraded pastoral hill country has proven to be efficient and successful in stabilising existing gullies. However, with the initiation of new gullies and growth of gullies that have remained untreated, the extent of land affected by gully erosion has increased by ~ 27% to ~ 0.9% of the regions' hill country area. To reverse this trend, further areas of severely eroding pastoral land will need to be retired with the aim of escalating the rate at which remaining gullies are treated and to prevent new ones developing, primarily through reforestation with exotic tree species or indigenous reversion.

  10. Levels of flame retardants HBCD, TBBPA and TBC in surface soils from an industrialized region of East China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianfeng; Feng, Jiayong; Li, Xinhu; Li, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are of increasing concern because of their potential environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl)isocyanurate (TBC) is another brominated flame retardant (BFR) which has recently been found in the environment and begun to attract attention. The objective of this study is to determine the concentration of these three BFRs in surface soil samples collected from a heavily industrialized and urbanized region in East China. Levels of ∑HBCDs ranged from below detection limits (0.020 ng g(-1)) to 102.6 ng g(-1) on a dry weight basis (dw) with a median level of 15.8 ng g(-1) dw. For TBBPA, the concentration ranged from below detection limits (0.025 ng g(-1)) to 78.6 ng g(-1) dw with a median level of 9.17 ng g(-1) dw. TBC was found at relatively lower concentrations ranging from below detection limits (0.024 ng g(-1)) to 16.4 ng g(-1) dw with a median level of 0.95 ng g(-1) dw. The concentrations of these three BFRs are significantly positively correlated, indicating a common source. Variable BFRs levels were found in different types of soils, with significantly higher concentrations observed at waste dumping sites and industrial areas. The diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDs in most of the soil samples differed from those of the commercial products. The mass inventories of HBCDs, TBBPA and TBC in this region gave preliminarily estimates of 6.68, 2.67 and 0.85 kg, respectively. Therefore, the ubiquitous contamination of soils by these BFRs may well reflect their widespread usage in the study area.

  11. Modern contraceptive utilization and associated factors among married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belda, Semere Sileshi; Haile, Mekonnen Tegegne; Melku, Abulie Takele; Tololu, Abdurehaman Kalu

    2017-03-14

    Women who live in remote rural areas encounter different challenges against contraception and often deny the use of modern contraceptive methods. The predictors of modern contraceptive utilization by pastoralist women in the Bale eco-region could be specific and are not well known. Therefore, this study aims to assess modern contraceptive utilization and its determinants among married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region, Oromia regional state, South East Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 20th November 2015 to 30th February 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to interview 549 married pastoralist women who were selected by multistage sampling technique. The data were analyzed by SPSS - 21 software, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of modern contraceptive use at (P-value <0.05), and odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to assess the strength of associations between variables. The current modern contraceptive method use by married pastoralist women was (20.8%). Among the total users, (78.1%) use the injectable method. The common reasons for non-use of modern contraceptive methods includes: religious-opposition (55.9%), desire for more children (28.3%), fear of side effects (25.5%), and husband's opposition (17.5%). Couple discussion (AOR = 4.63, 95%CI: 2.15, 9.98), perceived husband's approval (AOR = 8.00, 95% CI: 3.52, 18.19), discussion with health extension worker (AOR = 5.99, 95% CI: 1.81, 19.85), and perceived cultural acceptability (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.03) were the independent predictors of modern contraceptive use by married pastoralist women in Bale eco-region. The study identified lower modern contraceptive method utilization by pastoralist women, and the majority of the contraceptive users rely on short- acting contraceptive methods. The uncomplimentary perceptions towards religious and cultural acceptability of modern contraceptive method

  12. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  13. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  14. The use of local natural stone in construction of St. Petersburg region and south-east Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luodes, Hannu; Härmä, Paavo; Panova, Elena; Pirinen, Heikki; Selonen, Olavi

    2013-04-01

    A three-year project, started in 2012, "Efficient use of natural stone in the Leningrad region and South-East Finland", studies the use and durability of natural stone in the city environments in the Nordic climate and especially along the Eastern Baltic Sea coastline between Helsinki and St. Petersburg. The project is lead by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and the partners in the project are Saimaa University of Applied Sciences from Finland and Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Petersburg Complex Geological Expedition" Russian together with Saint-Petersburg State University from the Russian Federation. As associates in this project are also natural stone companies from Finland, Ylämaa Group Oy and Palin Granit Oy. The project is co-funded by the European Union, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Finland through the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). A great potential of natural stone that can be used in construction is located in the border zone between South-East Finland and the Leningrad region. Rapakivi granite from that area has been utilized for several important buildings worldwide since 18th century and the area holds still potential for future economic growth. The use of the stone particularly from this area is based on its visual expression and good properties with high durability and long life cycle that can be used as arguments in the future development. Strengthening of the knowledge of the material reserves in the area gives a long term basement for economic development. Special aim of the project is to promote the use of natural stone in the city construction, especially the use of left-over stone generated in the production. In the project the use of natural stone in larger cities from the 18th century until today including the towns St. Petersburg, Vyborg, Helsinki, Kuopio and Kotka will be reported. Also an analysis of the near future needs of natural stone (qualities and quantities) in reconstruction and

  15. Regionalized equations for bankfull-discharge and channel characteristics of streams in New York State—Hydrologic Region 3 east of the Hudson River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulvihill, Christiane I.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2007-01-01

    Equations that relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and channel characteristics (such as width, depth, and cross-sectional area) at gaged sites are needed to define bankfull discharge and channel characteristics at ungaged sites and can be used for stream-restoration and protection projects, stream-channel classification, and channel assessments. These equations are intended to serve as a guide for streams in areas of similar hydrologic, climatic, and physiographic conditions. New York State contains eight hydrologic regions that were previously delineated on the basis of high-flow (flood) characteristics. This report presents predictive equations for bankfull characteristics (discharge and channel characteristics) for streams east of the Hudson River, referred to as Hydrologic Region 3.Stream-survey data and discharge records from 12 streamflow-gaging stations were used in regression analyses to relate drainage area to bankfull discharge and bankfull channel width, depth, and cross-sectional area. The four predictive equations are:(1) bankfull discharge, in cubic feet per second = 83.8*(drainage area, in square miles)0.679;(2) bankfull channel width, in feet = 24.0*(drainage area, in square miles)0.292;(3) bankfull channel depth, in feet = 1.66*(drainage area, in square miles)0.210; and(4) bankfull channel cross-sectional area, in square feet = 39.8*(drainage area, in square miles)0.503.The coefficients of determination (R2) for these four equations are 0.93, 0.85, 0.77, and 0.92, respectively. The high coefficients of determination for bankfull discharge and cross-sectional area indicate that much of the range in the variables is explained by the size of the drainage area; the smaller correlation coefficients for bankfull channel width and depth indicate that other factors also affect these relations. Recurrence intervals for the estimated bankfull discharge of each stream ranged from 1.16 to 3.35 years; the mean recurrence interval was 2.08 years. The 12

  16. History of German pediatric cardiology.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Due to the isolation of German medicine in World War II accompanied by the destruction of many hospitals, German pediatricians did not show any serious interest in the treatment of children with congenital heart diseases, nor did they take notice of the progress achieved by Helen Taussig, Alfred Blalock and other cardiologists and surgeons in the western world. This problem was even worse in East Germany. Only a few German internists and forward-looking surgeons were able and ready to take care of this group of principally operable children in places like Bonn/Düsseldorf, Marburg/Munich, Berlin, and Hamburg. However, in the early 1950s some directors of pediatrics at university hospitals--largely motivated by the cardiac surgeons--allowed or even encouraged younger colleagues to concentrate on pediatric cardiology and to begin application of heart catheterization and angiocardiography. In 1960 a group of colleagues interested in pediatric cardiology met for the first time in Frankfurt and became the nucleus of the future "working group" (1969) and finally the "German Society of Pediatric Cardiology" (1974). By 1972 pediatric cardiology had been approved as an independent (sub)specialty. Colleagues and friends from surrounding countries (Austria, Great Britain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the Netherlands) and also from the US and some eastern countries were either members or regular guests during or between the meetings. Pediatric cardiology is now represented in Germany by specialized practitioners, trainees and assistants who work in both community and university hospitals, and in specialized departments. Due to the foresightedness of the Chief of Pediatrics, Prof. G. Joppich, the first Chair of Pediatric Cardiology was founded in Göttingen in 1960 under the direction of A. Beuren. Another model of interdisciplinary cooperation between pediatric cardiologists, bioengineers, mathematicians and computer scientists was established in Kiel in 1966. In other places

  17. Rubella (German Measles)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  18. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific and South East Asian Regions, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lahra, Monica M

    2012-03-31

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (GASP) has conducted continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region (WPR) to optimise antibiotic treatment and control of gonococcal disease since 1992. From 2007, this has been enhanced by the inclusion of data from the WHO South East Asian Region (SEAR). Over time, there has been recruitment of additional centres in both regions. This report provides an analysis of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae in the WHO WPR and SEAR derived from results of the 2010 GASP surveillance. In 2010 there were 9,744 N. gonorrhoeae isolates examined for their susceptibility to one or more of the antibiotics used for the treatment of gonorrhoea, incorporating External Quality Assurance controlled methods, from reporting centres in 19 countries and/or jurisdictions. A high proportion of penicillin and quinolone resistance was again detected amongst isolates tested in the 'Asian' countries of WHO WPR and SEAR. In contrast, lower levels of penicillin and quinolone resistance were reported from the Pacific Islands of Fiji and New Caledonia. The proportion of gonococci reported as having 'decreased susceptibility' to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone varied widely, ranging from 1.3% to 55.8%. There is a continued need for revision and clarification of some of the in vitro criteria that are currently used to categorise the clinical importance of gonococci with different ceftriaxone and oral cephalosporin MIC levels, and to relate these to treatment outcome. Azithromycin resistance was very low in most countries reporting, except in Mongolia where it was 34%. The number of instances of spectinomycin resistance remained low. A high proportion of strains tested continued to exhibit high-level plasmid mediated resistance to tetracyclines. The continuing emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant gonococci in and

  19. The lower Triassic microbiolites in Chaohu region, East China and their contribution to the early Triassic recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhihai; Zhang, Liwei; Hong, Tianqiu

    2010-05-01

    The lower Triassic is well preserved in Chaohu Region, Anhui Province, East China. It can be divided into Yinkeng Formation (80 meters thick, was formed during the Indian and early Smitian), Helongshan Formation (21 meters thick, was formed during the end Smithian) and Nanlinghu Formation (more than 157 meters thick, was formed during the Spathian) from bottom to top. It is mainly composed of carbonatites such as micrite limestones and nodular limestones, as well as shales and calcareous marls. The lower Triassic in this area has been well researched for more than a decade, and many fossils such as ammonites, bivalves, fishes, ichthyosaurus, conodonts, and ichnofossils have been found, but the microbiolites have been neglected. Microbiolites were mainly outcropped in the Helongshan Formaiton and the lower Nanlinghu Formation. In the lower Helongshan Formaiton, tens microbial mat layers and thin bedded calcareous marl layers formed cyclothems which have been named as nodular limstones. The thin-section observation of the microbial mats indicate that many films and thin-shell bivalve fragments deposited almost horizontally. In the upper Helongshan Formaiton, six microstromatolite bioherm layers were outcropped in the thin bedded calcareous marl layers. The diameter of the stromatolite column is about 2 millimeters, the bioherms are lenticular and no more than 3 centimeters thick in the central, their diameters change from 5 centimeters to 30 centimeters, calcareous marls were deposited around the bioherms, and many ammonoids, bivalves and burrows were found in such layers. The microfacies differentiation of the stromatolites such as the basement, reef core and the capping beds can be recognised clearly in thin sections. Several microstromatolite layers were outcropped in the micritic limestones with a stable thickness of 15 millimeters in the lower Nanlinghu Formation and the stromatolite column look like the ones in the Helongshan Formation. Few microbiolites have

  20. Comparative reproductive biology of three dominant myctophids of the genus Diaphus on the slope region of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshige; Ohshimo, Seiji

    2016-09-01

    We examined the reproductive biology of three dominant pseudoceanic myctophids, Diaphus garmani, D. chrysorhynchus, and D. watasei, on the slope region of the East China Sea. Overall, females were more abundant in D. garmani and D. chrysorhynchus, while males were more abundant in D. watasei. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) at 50% sexual maturity of females of D. garmani, D. chrysorhynchus, and D. watasei was 3.65, 3.92, and 6.27, respectively. Based on these criteria, females of each species can mature at sizes larger than 42, 71, and 120 mm standard length (SL), respectively. In all three species, GSI of females showed high values during summer, i.e. the primary spawning season, and occurrence of females with hydrated ovaries was restricted to the daytime (0600-1530 h) in the mesopelagic layer of 270-450 m depth. Oocytes at various sizes were found in mature ovaries, indicating that they are multiple spawners. Spawning frequencies were estimated to be approximately 3-9 days. Mean egg size at hydration and batch fecundity was respectively smallest and lowest in D. garmani (0.60 mm and 612-2200 eggs) and largest and highest in D. watasei (0.65 mm and 10,356-44,879 eggs). Batch fecundity increased linearly with SL in all species, with a steeper slope in D. watasei. Diaphus garmani is characterized by early maturation at a smaller size, while D. watasei channels a larger part of the energy budget into somatic growth during the juvenile and later immature stages (<120 mm SL) than the other two species and subsequently reproduces at a larger size as mature adults.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of the Church Rock 1 and 1 East uranium deposits, Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    In the Church Rock 1 and 1 East mines, Grants uranium region (GUR), New Mexico, uranium orebodies occur within three sandstone units in the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the late Jurassic Morrison Formation. Geochemical analyses reveal that organic carbon contents in ore samples from all three sand units are uniformly low (most are less than 0.01 percent). Vanadium (ranging from 0.0002 to 0.19 percent) and sulfur (ranging from <0.01 to 0.74 percent) typically show positive correlations with uranium; however, vanadium contents rarely exceed those of uranium in ore samples. Although no systematic relationship of either selenium or molybdenum to uranium is evident, some ore samples contain anomalously high concentrations of either of these elements. Geochemically, the ore deposits of the Church Rock area contrast greatly with primary (tabular) uranium orebodies in the GUR which contain abundant organic carbon and greater amounts of vanadium and sulfur. These differences and radiometric age determinations strongly suggest that the Church Rock ores formed as a result of the redistribution of uranium from preexisting uranium deposits within the last 1 m.y. However, the Church Rock deposits differ geochemically from redistributed orebodies in the Westwater Canyon Member elsewhere in the GUR. Specifically, redistributed orebodies in the Ambrosia Lake district, which are comparable in contents of uranium and organic carbon with the Church Rock deposits, are characterized by vanadium contents typically higher than those of uranium. Similarly, sulfur contents in the redistributed deposits of the Ambrosia Lake district are greater than those found in the Church Rock ores. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of molybdenum have rarely been found in other redistributed orebodies of the GUR.

  2. Serological and virological surveillance of avian influenza virus in domestic ducks of the north-