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Sample records for east kalimantan indonesia

  1. Geological implications of new biostratigraphic data from East and West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, S. J.; Finch, E. M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents palaeontological ages based on new nannofossil and foraminiferal studies from a range of sedimentary rocks from the provinces of West and East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The age of sedimentary rocks in Kalimantan, away from the main hydrocarbon exploration areas of the coastal regions, represents a major gap in our basic knowledge of the island of Borneo. The implications of these new results and existing and new correlations are reviewed and suggested. In particular, the base of the Tertiary section in the Kutai Basin is shown to be upper Middle Eocene in age, rather than Late Eocene as originally thought. The limestones of the Batu Belah member of the Ujoh Bilang Formation are dated as NP24-25, Late Oligocene, rather than Early Oligocene as earlier work had suggested. In the western part of the Mangkalihat Peninsula area the base of the Tertiary section is determined to be Late Oligocene. Various basement units from both East and West Kalimantan contained Late Jurassic to Late Cretaceous microfossils.

  2. Perylene dominates the organic contaminant profile in the Berau delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Arifin, Zainal; Purbonegoro, Triyoni

    2012-05-01

    The geographical distributions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (4,4'-DDE) were studied in the Berau delta (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), using sediment sampling and passive water sampling with semipermeable membrane devices. High concentrations of perylene were observed in sediments (54-580 ng g(-1) dry weight), and water (1-680 pg L(-1)). Perylene accounted for about 60% of the total concentrations of PAHs in the sediment. The relative abundance of the other PAHs was indicative of petrogenic sources. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, and 4,4'-DDE in sediments were below or close to the detection limit (∼ 0.02 ng g(-1)). The analysis of a sediment core revealed no appreciable changes in the concentration of target compounds over the past three decades. We show that sediment sampling and passive water sampling are complementary techniques, and propose to bring the results of both methods to the same concentration scale, using locally derived sediment-water partition coefficients.

  3. Understanding the murky history of the Coral Triangle: Miocene corals and reef habitats in East Kalimantan (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Renema, Willem; Johnson, Kenneth G.

    2016-09-01

    Studies on ancient coral communities living in marginal conditions, including low light, high turbidity, extreme temperatures, or high nutrients, are important to understand the current structure of reefs and how they could potentially respond to global changes. The main goal of this study was to document the rich and well-preserved fossil coral fauna preserved in Miocene exposures of the Kutai Basin in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Our collections include almost forty thousand specimens collected from 47 outcrops. Seventy-nine genera and 234 species have been identified. Three different coral assemblages were found corresponding to small patch reefs that developed under the influence of high siliciclastic inputs from the Mahakam Delta. Coral assemblages vary in richness, structure, and composition. Platy coral assemblages were common until the Serravallian (Middle Miocene), while branching coral assemblages became dominant in the Tortonian (Late Miocene). By the late Tortonian massive coral assemblages dominated, similar to modern-style coral framework. Our results suggest that challenging habitats, such as the Miocene turbid habitats of East Kalimantan, might have played an important role during the early diversification of the Coral Triangle by hosting a pool of resilient species more likely to survive the environmental changes that have affected this region since the Cenozoic. Further research that integrates fossil and recent turbid habitats may provide a glimpse into the dynamics and future of coral reefs as "typical" clear-water reefs continue to decline in most regions.

  4. Intestinal parasites of endangered orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Labes, E M; Hegglin, D; Grimm, F; Nurcahyo, W; Harrison, M E; Bastian, M L; Deplazes, P

    2010-01-01

    Faecal samples from 163 captive and semi-captive individuals, 61 samples from wild individuals and 38 samples from captive groups of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Kalimantan, Indonesia, were collected during one rainy season (November 2005-May 2006) and screened for intestinal parasites using sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-concentration (SAFC), sedimentation, flotation, McMaster- and Baermann techniques. We aimed to identify factors influencing infection risk for specific intestinal parasites in wild orangutans and individuals living in captivity. Various genera of Protozoa (including Entamoeba, Endolimax, Iodamoeba, Balantidium, Giardia and Blastocystis), nematodes (such as Strongyloides, Trichuris, Ascaris, Enterobius, Trichostrongylus and hookworms) and one trematode (a dicrocoeliid) were identified. For the first time, the cestode Hymenolepis was detected in orangutans. Highest prevalences were found for Strongyloides (individuals 37%; groups 58%), hookworms (41%; 58%), Balantidium (40%; 61%), Entamoeba coli (29%; 53%) and a trichostrongylid (13%; 32%). In re-introduction centres, infants were at higher risk of infection with Strongyloides than adults. Infection risk for hookworms was significantly higher in wild males compared with females. In groups, the centres themselves had a significant influence on the infection risk for Balantidium. Ranging patterns of wild orangutans, overcrowding in captivity and a shift of age composition in favour of immatures seemed to be the most likely factors leading to these results.

  5. Biodiversity inventory and conservation opportunity of Suwi wetlands, Muara Ancalong, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, Deni; Kusneti, Monica; Suimah

    2017-02-01

    Suwi wetlands lays in location permit of palm oil plantation, which has been cleared partially, but then abandoned because is not suitable for palm oil. Considering the biological richness and the usage, the wetlands is important to be conserved, the most possible is managed as an Essential Ecosystem. The main objective of this study was to conduct an inventory of species diversity of Suwi wetlands. Habitat condition and utilization was recorded as important supporting information. The fieldworks have been done from 2013 to 2016. Camera traps and mistnetts were used and randomly done several times in a place where animal were suspected presence. Direct observations were done in the morning and afternoon especially for bird and mammal inventory while dark night observations were done for the presence of crocodile. The result of fieldworks found 12 species of mammals, 63 species of birds, 9 species of reptiles and 38 species of fish, which 30 of the total 122 species are protected, based on Indonesian law as well as international rule. Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is an endemic and one of conservation priority species of Indonesia. Meanwhile, Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is one of the most world's endangered crocodilians.

  6. Sharp bends associated with deep scours in a tropical river: The river Mahakam (East Kalimantan, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Berkum, S. W.; Hidayat, H.

    2014-07-01

    Autogenic scouring in sharp river bends has received ample attention in laboratory and modeling studies. These studies have significantly advanced our understanding of how flow processes are influenced by strong curvature and how they affect the bathymetry. Here we present a 300 km reach of the Mahakam River in Indonesia, which features several sharp bends (W/R > 0.5), providing a unique field data set to validate existing knowledge on sharp bends. Scour depths were found to strongly exceed what can be expected based on existing understanding of sharp bends and are highly correlated with curvature. A comprehensive stream reconnaissance was carried out to compare the occurrence of sharp bends and deep scours with lateral bank migration. Histograms of the occurrence of erosive, stable, advancing, and bar-type banks as a function of curvature quantify the switch from a mildly curved bend regime to a sharp bend regime. In mild bends, outer banks erode and inner banks advance. In sharp bends the erosion pattern inverts. Outer banks stabilize or advance, while inner banks erode. In sharply curved river bends, bars occur near the outer banks that become less erosive for higher curvatures. Inner banks become more erosive for higher curvatures but nevertheless accommodate the larger portion of exposed bars. No relation was found between the land cover adjacent to the river and the occurrence of sharp bends. Soil processes may play a crucial role in the formation of sharp bends, which is inferred from iron and manganese concretions observed in the riverbanks, indicating ferric horizons and early stages of the formation of plinthic horizons. Historical topographic maps show the planform activity of the river is low, which may relate to the scour holes slowing down planimetric development.

  7. Hydraulic Geometry of a tidally influenced delta channel network: the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, M.; Hoitink, A.; de Brye, B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic Geometry (HG) refers to relations between the characteristics of channels in a network, including mean depth, width, and bed slope, and the discharge conveyed by the channel during bank-full conditions. HG relations are of fundamental importance to water management in channel networks, and they bear an interesting relation with geomorphology. River delta channel networks typically scale according to HG relations such as log(A) ~ p*log(Q), where A is channel cross sectional area, Q water discharge, and the exponent p is in between 0.8 and 1.2. In tidal networks, the tidal prism or tidal discharge can be used, instead of a discharge with a constant frequency of occurrence. In the tidal case, the exponent often shows the same range of variation. Tidal rivers are intrinsically complex, as tidal propagation is influenced by river discharge and vice-versa. Consequently, channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas may show a mixed scaling behavior of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharges may both be of river and tidal origin. In tidal regions, the tidal dynamics may lead to a cyclic variation in water discharge distribution at bifurcations, readily affecting HG relations. We present results from the Mahakam delta channel network in Indonesia, a tide-river dominated delta which has been prograding for 60 km over the last 5000 years. Bathymetric surveys were conducted over the distributary network and connected tidal channels. Based on a geomorphic analysis of the present distributary network, we show that channel geometry of the fluvial distributary network scales with bifurcation order. The bifurcation order does not feature a clear relation with bifurcate branch length or bifurcate width ratio, as in the case of river deltas. HG relations of the area of selected cross-sections are well represented by the tidal prism or by the river discharge, when scaled with the bifurcation order. Numerical simulations show that river

  8. Use of limestone karst forests by Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the Sangkulirang peninsula, east Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew J; Salas, Leonardo A; Stephens, Suzette; Engström, Linda; Meijaard, Erik; Stanley, Scott A

    2007-02-01

    The Indonesian province of East Kalimantan is home to some of the largest remaining contiguous tracts of lowland Dipterocarp forest on the island of Borneo. Nest surveys recently conducted in these forests indicated the presence of a substantial population of Eastern Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the Berau and East Kutai regencies in the northern half of the province. The Sangkulirang Peninsula contains extensive limestone karst forests in close proximity to the lowland Dipterocarp forests inhabited by orangutans in these regencies. Orangutans have been sighted in these limestone karst forests, but the importance of this forest type for orangutans has been unclear. Therefore, we conducted 49 km of nest surveys in limestone karst forest to obtain the first quantitative estimates of orangutan densities in this habitat, and walked 28 km of surveys in nearby lowland Dipterocarp forests for comparison. We also gathered basic ecological data along our transects in an attempt to identify correlates of orangutan abundance across these habitat types. Undisturbed limestone karst forests showed the lowest orangutan densities (147 nests/km(2), 0.82 indiv/km(2)), disturbed limestone forests had intermediate densities (301 nests/km(2), 1.40 indiv/km(2)), and undisturbed lowland Dipterocarp forests contained the highest density (987 nests/km(2), 5.25 indiv/km(2)), significantly more than the undisturbed limestone karst forests. This difference was not correlated with variation in liana abundance, fig stem density, or stump density (an index of forest disturbance). Therefore, other factors, such as the relatively low tree species diversity of limestone karst forests, may explain why orangutans appear to avoid these areas. We conclude that limestone karst forests are of low relevance for safeguarding the future of orangutans in East Kalimantan.

  9. Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of long, up-to-date series observations on burnt area, rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss, and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss, and weak, non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt and fire-affected area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and burnt and fire-affected area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.

  10. Major Land Clearing Fires, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These many and intense land clearing fires in the Kalimantan region of the island of Borneo, Indonesia (3.5S, 113.5E) are indicative of the many deforestation activities on a worldwide scale. In order to feed and house ever increasing populations, more cleared land is required for agriculture to feed ever increasing populations. More pasture lands are needed for livestock. And, more cleared lands are needed for housing.

  11. Regional stress alignments in the Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: a contribution from a borehole breakout study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifuddin, N.; Busono, I.

    1999-04-01

    Borehole breakout data from 134 wells located within the Kutai Basin region, East Kalimantan were analyzed to determine the present day regional horizontal stress alignments. The data were extracted from various types of dipmeter logs. The study reveals that the majority of the data give a coherent picture of breakout orientation. The mean azimuths for the entire-unweighted, ellipticity-weighted and magnitude-weighted data sets are preferentially aligned in the regional-mean direction of 48.9° N or 128.9° N. Most of the data have a low dispersion value ( So) and the ranking of reliability in Zoback's classification is 'A'. There is no significant azimuth variation with depth. These relatively consistent alignments of breakout azimuths indicate that the maximum regional stress direction in the study area is NW-SE. This regional-mean of breakout azimuths deviates from the axis of the anticlinorium trends and from the strike of the thrust-fault patterns in the region. It is believed that these structural patterns are influenced by reactivation of weak zones related to sediment loading (structural inversion).

  12. Temporal Patterns of Fire in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. J.

    2004-12-01

    Fire is an essential landscape management tool extensively employed in West Kalimantan Indonesia to clear land and prepare agricultural areas. Under typically wet climatic conditions fires are easily controlled and seldom spread into adjacent land cover. However, during droughts induced by strong El Nino events, land management fires threaten vast areas of the landscape threatening endangered species habitat and releasing large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere. This study investigates temporal and spatial variations of fires detected by Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Along Track Scanning Radiometer between 2000 and 2004 against the MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields and cultural features manually digitized from Landsat ETM+ scenes. Patterns of fire during phases of the El Niño-La Niña cycle are described and the impacts of fires on orangutan habitat are investigated.

  13. Women's recall of obstetric complications in south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, C; Achadi, E; Cohen, S; Zazri, A

    1997-09-01

    The search for indicators for monitoring progress toward safe motherhood has prompted research into population-based measures of obstetric morbidity. One possible such measure is based on women's reports of their past childbirth experiences. In this prospective study in three hospitals in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, the accuracy of women's reporting of severe birth-related complications was examined. The findings of this study suggest that poor agreement exists between the way women report their experience of childbirth and the way doctors diagnose obstetric problems, although the degree of agreement varies with the type of complication. Questionnaires relying on women's experience of childbirth will tend to overestimate the prevalence of medically diagnosed obstetric problems such as those associated with excessive vaginal bleeding or dysfunctional labor. Questions suggestive of eclampsia may be more promising, although the small number of eclamptic women in this study precludes firm conclusions.

  14. Genetic characterization of Strongyloides spp. from captive, semi-captive and wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Labes, E M; Nurcahyo, W; Wijayanti, N; Deplazes, P; Mathis, A

    2011-09-01

    Orangutans (Pongo spp.), Asia's only great apes, are threatened in their survival due to habitat loss, hunting and infections. Nematodes of the genus Strongyloides may represent a severe cause of death in wild and captive individuals. In order to better understand which Strongyloides species/subspecies infect orangutans under different conditions, larvae were isolated from fecal material collected in Indonesia from 9 captive, 2 semi-captive and 9 wild individuals, 18 captive groups of Bornean orangutans and from 1 human working with wild orangutans. Genotyping was done at the genomic rDNA locus (part of the 18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS1) by sequencing amplicons. Thirty isolates, including the one from the human, could be identified as S. fuelleborni fuelleborni with 18S rRNA gene identities of 98·5-100%, with a corresponding published sequence. The ITS1 sequences could be determined for 17 of these isolates revealing a huge variability and 2 main clusters without obvious pattern with regard to attributes of the hosts. The ITS1 amplicons of 2 isolates were cloned and sequenced, revealing considerable variability indicative of mixed infections. One isolate from a captive individual was identified as S. stercoralis (18S rRNA) and showed 99% identity (ITS1) with S. stercoralis sequences from geographically distinct locations and host species. The findings are significant with regard to the zoonotic nature of these parasites and might contribute to the conservation of remaining orangutan populations.

  15. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  16. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  17. Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Makino, Yukio

    During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke haze from forest fires over Kalimantan contained very high CO mixing ratios of 3 to 9 ppm. These enhanced CO mixing ratios correlated well with increased concentrations of H2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and aerosols. Emission ratios from biomass burning in Kalimantan ranged 0.06 0.1 for H2/CO (ppb/ppb), 0.0002 to 0.0005 for NOx/CO (ppb/ppb), and 0.43 to 1.0 for number of aerosols/CO (cm-3/ppb). These values were much lower than emission ratios in northern Australia. This difference suggests that the biomass burning in Indonesia was intense and that, due to a strong El Niño event, an unique composition of trace gases was formed in the smoke haze.

  18. An economic analysis of midwifery training programmes in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Damian; McDermott, Jeanne M.; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Tanjung, Marwan; Nadjib, Mardiati; Widiatmoko, Dono; Achadi, Endang

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the knowledge and skills of midwives at health facilities and those based in villages in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, three in-service training programmes were carried out during 1995-98. A scheme used for both facility and village midwives included training at training centres, peer review and continuing education. One restricted to village midwives involved an internship programme in district hospitals. The incremental cost-effectiveness of these programmes was assessed from the standpoint of the health care provider. It was estimated that the first scheme could be expanded to increase the number of competent midwives based in facilities and villages in South Kalimantan by 1% at incremental costs of US$ 764.6 and US$ 1175.7 respectively, and that replication beyond South Kalimantan could increase the number of competent midwives based in facilities and villages by 1% at incremental costs of US$ 1225.5 and US$ 1786.4 per midwife respectively. It was also estimated that the number of competent village midwives could be increased by 1% at an incremental cost of US$ 898.1 per intern if replicated elsewhere, and at a cost of US$ 146.2 per intern for expanding the scheme in South Kalimantan. It was not clear whether the training programmes were more or less cost-effective than other safe motherhood interventions because the nature of the outcome measures hindered comparison. PMID:11884973

  19. The 1997 fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia: Gaseous and particulate emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    Extensive and widespread vegetation and peat fires swept throughout Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, from August 1997 through March 1998. The fires resulted from routine burning for land clearing and land-use change. However, the severe drought conditions resulting from El Nino caused small land-clearing fires to become large uncontrolled wildfires. Analysis of SPOT images indicate that a total of 45,600 km² burned between August and December 1997. In this paper, the gaseous and particulate emissions resulting from the 1997 fires are estimated. On a daily basis, the calculated emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, and particulates from the Kalimantan and Sumatra fires of 1997 significantly exceeded the emissions from the Kuwait oil fires of 1991.

  20. The identity of the Sarawak freshwater crab Parathelphusa oxygona Nobili, 1901, with description of a new species, Parathelphusa nobilii, from Western Kalimantan, Indonesia, Borneo (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2014-03-04

    The identity of the common lowland freshwater crab in western Sarawak, Borneo, East Malaysia, Parathelphusa oxygona Nobili, 1901 (family Gecarcinucidae), is clarified. The species is redescribed and figured, and its taxonomy discussed. Specimens from western Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, which have been referred to P. oxygona are here referred to a new species, Parathelphusa nobilii. The new species can be differentiated from congeners by its relatively more swollen branchial regions of the carapace, wider and lower external orbital tooth, relatively more slender male abdomen and a straight male first gonopod. 

  1. Quantifying Killing of Orangutans and Human-Orangutan Conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Meijaard, Erik; Buchori, Damayanti; Hadiprakarsa, Yokyok; Utami-Atmoko, Sri Suci; Nurcahyo, Anton; Tjiu, Albertus; Prasetyo, Didik; Nardiyono; Christie, Lenny; Ancrenaz, Marc; Abadi, Firman; Antoni, I Nyoman Gede; Armayadi, Dedy; Dinato, Adi; Ella; Gumelar, Pajar; Indrawan, Tito P.; Kussaritano; Munajat, Cecep; Priyono, C. Wawan Puji; Purwanto, Yadi; Puspitasari, Dewi; Putra, M. Syukur Wahyu; Rahmat, Abdi; Ramadani, Harri; Sammy, Jim; Siswanto, Dedi; Syamsuri, Muhammad; Andayani, Noviar; Wu, Huanhuan; Wells, Jessie Anne; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management. PMID:22096582

  2. Quantifying killing of orangutans and human-orangutan conflict in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Meijaard, Erik; Buchori, Damayanti; Hadiprakarsa, Yokyok; Utami-Atmoko, Sri Suci; Nurcahyo, Anton; Tjiu, Albertus; Prasetyo, Didik; Nardiyono; Christie, Lenny; Ancrenaz, Marc; Abadi, Firman; Antoni, I Nyoman Gede; Armayadi, Dedy; Dinato, Adi; Ella; Gumelar, Pajar; Indrawan, Tito P; Kussaritano; Munajat, Cecep; Priyono, C Wawan Puji; Purwanto, Yadi; Puspitasari, Dewi; Putra, M Syukur Wahyu; Rahmat, Abdi; Ramadani, Harri; Sammy, Jim; Siswanto, Dedi; Syamsuri, Muhammad; Andayani, Noviar; Wu, Huanhuan; Wells, Jessie Anne; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Human-orangutan conflict and hunting are thought to pose a serious threat to orangutan existence in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. No data existed prior to the present study to substantiate these threats. We investigated the rates, spatial distribution and causes of conflict and hunting through an interview-based survey in the orangutan's range in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between April 2008 and September 2009, we interviewed 6983 respondents in 687 villages to obtain socio-economic information, assess knowledge of local wildlife in general and orangutan encounters specifically, and to query respondents about their knowledge on orangutan conflicts and killing, and relevant laws. This survey revealed estimated killing rates of between 750 and 1800 animals killed in the last year, and between 1950 and 3100 animals killed per year on average within the lifetime of the survey respondents. These killing rates are higher than previously thought and are high enough to pose a serious threat to the continued existence of orangutans in Kalimantan. Importantly, the study contributes to our understanding of the spatial variation in threats, and the underlying causes of those threats, which can be used to facilitate the development of targeted conservation management.

  3. The domestic cat as a host for Brugian filariasis in South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, J R; Masbar, S; Purnomo; Marwoto, H A; Tirtokusumo, S; Darwis, F

    1985-09-01

    Three hundred and twenty-five domestic cats (Felis catus) from six villages of the Hulu Sungai Tengah and Banjar Regency of South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, were examined for filarial nematodes. Parasites were found in 66 cats, of which 61 (92.4%) had Brugia pahangi, four (6.1%) has B. malayi and one (1.5%) had Dirofilaria repens. Infection rates ranged from 11% to 22% in cats from secondary forest/rice-field habitats, from 15% to 30% in open village/rice-field habitats, to 50% in an open coastal village. In all cases the infection rate of B. malayi in man was greater than in cats from the same collecting area. The number of B. pahangi microfilariae per 20 microliter cat blood ranged from 34 at 1000 hours to 571 at 2200 hours. The results of this study suggest that in this region of Indonesia the domestic cat is not an important host for maintaining B. malayi.

  4. Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Putra, Erianto Indra; Yulianti, Nina; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The past decade marked record high air pollution episodes in Indonesia. In this study, we specifically focus on vegetation fires in Palangkaraya located near a Mega Rice Project area in Indonesia. We analyzed various gaseous air pollution data such as particulate matter (PM10), SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 study region. We also conducted elemental analysis at two different sites. Results from 2001 to 2010 suggested the longest hazardous air pollution episode during 2002 lasting about 80 days from mid-August to late-October. Maximum peak concentrations of PM10, SO2, CO, and O3 were also observed during 2002 and their values reached 1905, 85.8, 38.3, and 1003×10(-6) gm(-3) respectively. Elemental analysis showed significant increase in concentrations during 2011 and 2010. Satellite retrieved fires and weather data could explain most of the temporal variations. Our results highlight peat fires as a major contributor of photochemical smog and air pollution in the region.

  5. Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Freund, Cathryn; Rahman, Edi; Knott, Cheryl

    2016-12-13

    Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action.

  6. Benefits and costs of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, under different policy scenarios.

    PubMed

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    Deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan province are among the highest in Indonesia. This study examines the physical and monetary impacts of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan up to 2025 under three policy scenarios. Our modelling approach combines a spatial logistic regression model with a set of rules governing land use change as a function of the policy scenario. Our physical and monetary analyses include palm oil expansion and five other ecosystem services: timber, rattan, paddy rice, carbon sequestration, and orangutan habitat (the last service is analysed in physical units only). In monetary terms, our analysis comprises the contribution of land and ecosystems to economic production, as measured according to the valuation approach of the System of National Accounts. We focus our analysis on government-owned land which covers around 97 % of the province, where the main policy issues are. We show that, in the business-as-usual scenario, the societal costs of carbon emissions and the loss of other ecosystem services far exceed the benefits from increased oil palm production. This is, in particular, related to the conversion of peatlands. We also show that, for Central Kalimantan, the moratorium scenario, which is modelled based on the moratorium currently in place in Indonesia, generates important economic benefits compared to the business-as-usual scenario. In the moratorium scenario, however, there is still conversion of forest to plantation and associated loss of ecosystem services. We developed an alternative, sustainable production scenario based on an ecosystem services approach and show that this policy scenario leads to higher net social benefits including some more space for oil palm expansion.

  7. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Tewalt, S.J.; Hower, J.C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1??wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential.

  8. Using LiDAR, RADAR, and Optical data to improve a NFMS in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.; Saatchi, S. S.; Braswell, B. H., Jr.; Palace, M. W.; Salas, W.; Walker, S.; Hoekman, D.; Ipsan, C.; Brown, S.; Sullivan, F.

    2014-12-01

    Around the world, governments are establishing national forest monitoring systems (NFMS) that use a combination of remote sensing and ground-based forest carbon inventory approaches to estimate anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions and removals. The NFMS forms the link between historical assessments and current/future assessments of forests, enabling consistency in the data and information to support the implementation of REDD+ activities. The creation of a reliable, transparent, and comprehensive NFMS is currently limited by a dearth of relevant data that are accurate, low-cost, and spatially resolved at subnational scales. With funding from a 3-year NASA Carbon Monitoring System project beginning in September 2013, we are developing, evaluating, and validating several critical components of an NFMS in Kalimantan, Indonesia, focusing on the use of LiDAR and radar imagery for improved carbon stock and forest degradation information. Here, we present results from an initial analysis of a spatially extensive set of LiDAR data collected across the Indonesian provinces on the island of Borneo together with RADAR and optical data. Our objectives are to evaluate sensor and platform tradeoffs systematically against in situ investments, as well as provide detailed tracking and characterization of uncertainty in a cost-benefit framework. Kalimantan is an ideal area to evaluate the use of remote sensing methods because measuring forest carbon stocks and their human caused changes with a high degree of certainty on the ground can be difficult. While our work focuses at the subnational scale for Kalimantan, we are targeting these methods for applicability across broader geographies and for implementation at various scales.

  9. Use of hospital data for Safe Motherhood programmes in south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, C; Achadi, E; Sutratikto, G; Zazri, A; McDermott, J

    1999-07-01

    The evaluation of Safe Motherhood programmes has been hampered by difficulties in measuring the preferred outcomes of maternal mortality and morbidity. The need for adequate indicators has led researchers and programme managers alike to resort to indicators of utilization and quality of health services. In this study we assess the magnitude of four indicators of use of essential obstetric care (EOC) and one indicator of quality of care in health facilities in three districts in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The general picture which emerges for South Kalimantan is that the use of obstetric services is low. Even in the more urban district of Banjar where facility-based coverage is highest, fewer than 14% of all deliveries take place in an EOC facility, 2% of expected births are admitted to such a facility with a major obstetric intervention (MOI), and 1% of expected births have an MOI for an absolute maternal indication. The use of facility-based EOC is consistently lower in Barito Kuala compared to the other districts, and the differences persist regardless of the indicators used. In this setting with low utilization rates, general rates of utilization of EOC facilities seem to be as satisfactory an indicator of relative access to EOC as more elaborate indicators specifying the reasons for admission. The inequalities in access to care revealed by the various indicators of use of EOC services may prove to be a more powerful stimulus for change than the widely reported and highly inaccurate accounts of the high levels of maternal mortality.

  10. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Austin, Kemen G; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Urban, Dean L; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world's most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia's economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4-211.4 MtCO2 yr(-1) under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55-60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia's national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double.

  11. Use of a control chart to monitor diarrhoea admissions: a quality improvement exercise in West Kalimantan Provincial Hospital, Pontianak, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Purba, M

    1999-09-01

    Data on the number of admissions for diarrhoea each week to the West Kalimantan Provincial Hospital, Pontianak, Indonesia over a 5 year period, 1992-1996, were collected. After cleaning and exclusion of extreme values, transformation was then performed to ensure that the data were free of special cause variation and normally distributed. A control chart was then constructed to provide an 'early warning' system for hospital authorities in order to facilitate the management of the epidemic and to improve patient care.

  12. Deforestation projections for carbon-rich peat swamp forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas O; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  13. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax in transmigration settlements of West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fryauff, D J; Tuti, S; Mardi, A; Masbar, S; Patipelohi, R; Leksana, B; Kain, K C; Bangs, M J; Richie, T L; Baird, J K

    1998-10-01

    Malariometric surveys were conducted during July 1996 in native Dayak villages and predominantly Javanese transmigration settlements in Ketapang district of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Malaria prevalence ranged from 0.9% to 2.7% in Dayak villages and from 1% to 20% in the transmigration settlements. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 67% of the cases among Dayaks but P. vivax was dominant among transmigrants, accounting for more than 72% of the infections. Chloroquine sensitivity/resistance was assessed by 28-day in vivo testing of uncomplicated malaria infections and measurement of chloroquine blood levels in cases where parasitemias reappeared within the 28-day test period. Resistance was based on the appearance of asexual parasites against chloroquine plus desethylchloroquine levels exceeding the minimally effective whole blood concentrations proposed for sensitive parasite strains (P. vivax, 100 ng/ml; P. falciparum, 200 ng/ml). All parasitemias cleared initially within four days of beginning supervised chloroquine therapy (25 mg base/kg over a 48-hr period), but asexual parasites reappeared within 28 days in 27 of 52 P. vivax and three of 12 P. falciparum cases. Chloroquine blood levels at the time of recurrent parasitemias revealed resistance in 12 of the 27 P. vivax cases and in one of the three P. falciparum cases. Genotypes of nine of the 12 recurrent P. vivax isolates matched with their primary isolates and ruled out reinfection. These findings establish the presence of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax on the island of Borneo. The pattern of malaria and the high frequency of chloroquine resistance by P. vivax at the West Kalimantan location may relate to demographic, ecologic, agricultural, and socioeconomic changes associated with transmigration.

  14. Deforestation Projections for Carbon-Rich Peat Swamp Forests of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Douglas O.; Hardiono, Martin; Meijaard, Erik

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated three spatially explicit land use and cover change (LUCC) models to project deforestation from 2005-2020 in the carbon-rich peat swamp forests (PSF) of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Such models are increasingly used to evaluate the impact of deforestation on carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. We considered both business-as-usual (BAU) and a forest protection scenario to evaluate each model's accuracy, sensitivity, and total projected deforestation and landscape-level fragmentation patterns. The three models, Dinamica EGO (DE), GEOMOD and the Land Change Modeler (LCM), projected similar total deforestation amounts by 2020 with a mean of 1.01 million ha (Mha) and standard deviation of 0.17 Mha. The inclusion of a 0.54 Mha strict protected area in the LCM simulations reduced projected loss to 0.77 Mha over 15 years. Calibrated parameterizations of the models using nearly identical input drivers produced very different landscape properties, as measured by the number of forest patches, mean patch area, contagion, and Euclidean nearest neighbor determined using Fragstats software. The average BAU outputs of the models suggests that Central Kalimantan may lose slightly less than half (45.1%) of its 2005 PSF by 2020 if measures are not taken to reduce deforestation there. The relatively small reduction of 0.24 Mha in deforestation found in the 0.54 Mha protection scenario suggests that these models can identify potential leakage effects in which deforestation is forced to occur elsewhere in response to a policy intervention.

  15. Operational multi-sensor design for forest carbon monitoring to support REDD+ in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B. H.; Hagen, S. C.; Harris, N.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have been requested to establish robust and transparent national forest monitoring systems (NFMS) that use a combination of remote sensing and ground-based forest carbon inventory approaches to estimate anthropogenic forest-related greenhouse gas emissions and removals, reducing uncertainties as far as possible. A country's NFMS should also be used for data collection to inform the assessment of national or subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels (RELs/RLs). In this way, the NFMS forms the link between historical assessments and current/future assessments, enabling consistency in the data and information to support the implementation of REDD+ activities in countries. The creation of a reliable, transparent, and comprehensive NFMS is currently limited by a dearth of relevant data that are accurate, low-cost, and spatially resolved at subnational scales. We are developing, evaluating, and validating several critical components of an NFMS in Kalimantan, Indonesia, focusing on the use of LiDAR and radar imagery for improved carbon stock and forest degradation information. Our goal is to evaluate sensor and platform tradeoffs systematically against in situ investments, as well as provide detailed tracking and characterization of uncertainty in a cost-benefit framework. Kalimantan is an ideal area to evaluate the use of remote sensing methods because measuring forest carbon stocks and their human caused changes with a high degree of certainty in areas of dense tropical forests has proven to be difficult. While the proposed NFMS components are being developed at the subnational scale for Kalimantan, we are targeting these methods for applicability across broader geographies and for implementation at various scales. Our intention is for this research to advance the state of the art of Measuring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) system methodologies in ways

  16. Modelling ranging behaviour of female orang-utans: a case study in Tuanan, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wartmann, Flurina M; Purves, Ross S; van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-04-01

    Quantification of the spatial needs of individuals and populations is vitally important for management and conservation. Geographic information systems (GIS) have recently become important analytical tools in wildlife biology, improving our ability to understand animal movement patterns, especially when very large data sets are collected. This study aims at combining the field of GIS with primatology to model and analyse space-use patterns of wild orang-utans. Home ranges of female orang-utans in the Tuanan Mawas forest reserve in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were modelled with kernel density estimation methods. Kernel results were compared with minimum convex polygon estimates, and were found to perform better, because they were less sensitive to sample size and produced more reliable estimates. Furthermore, daily travel paths were calculated from 970 complete follow days. Annual ranges for the resident females were approximately 200 ha and remained stable over several years; total home range size was estimated to be 275 ha. On average, each female shared a third of her home range with each neighbouring female. Orang-utan females in Tuanan built their night nest on average 414 m away from the morning nest, whereas average daily travel path length was 777 m. A significant effect of fruit availability on day path length was found. Sexually active females covered longer distances per day and may also temporarily expand their ranges.

  17. Post-dispersal seed removal by ground-feeding rodents in tropical peatlands, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Blackham, Grace V; Corlett, Richard T

    2015-09-15

    Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are being rapidly converted to agriculture or degraded into non-forest vegetation. Although large areas have been abandoned, there is little evidence for subsequent forest recovery. As part of a study of forest degradation and recovery, we used seed removal experiments and rodent surveys to investigate the potential role of post-dispersal seed predation in limiting the regeneration of woody plants. Two 14-day seed removal trials were done in deforested and forested peatland habitat in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seeds of Nephelium lappaceum, Syzygium muelleri, Artocarpus heterophyllus (all animal-dispersed) and Combretocarpus rotundatus (wind-dispersed) were tested. Significantly more seeds (82.8%) were removed in forest than non-forest (38.1%) and Combretocarpus had the lowest removal in both habitats. Most handled seeds were eaten in situ and little caching was observed. Six species of rodents were captured in forest and five in non-forest. The most trapped taxa were three Maxomys spp. in forest (85.5% of individuals) and Rattus tiomanicus in non-forest (74.8%). Camera traps confirmed that rodents were responsible for seed removal. Seed predation in deforested areas, which have a much lower seed rain than forest, may contribute to the low density and diversity of regenerating forest.

  18. Who Benefits from Ecosystem Services? A Case Study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing experience with the valuation of ecosystem services. However, to date, less attention has been devoted to who is actually benefiting from ecosystem services. This nevertheless is a key issue, in particular, if ecosystem services analysis and valuation is used to support environmental management. This study assesses and analyzes how the monetary benefits of seven ecosystem services are generated in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, are distributed to different types of beneficiaries. We analyze the following ecosystem services: (1) timber production; (2) rattan collection; (3) jelutong resin collection; (4) rubber production (based on permanent agroforestry systems); (5) oil palm production on three management scales (company, plasma farmer, and independent smallholder); (6) paddy production; and (7) carbon sequestration. Our study shows that the benefits generated from these services differ markedly between the stakeholders, which we grouped into private, public, and household entities. The distribution of these benefits is strongly influenced by government policies and in particular benefit sharing mechanisms. Hence, land-use change and policies influencing land-use change can be expected to have different impacts on different stakeholders. Our study also shows that the benefits generated by oil palm conversion, a main driver for land-use change in the province, are almost exclusively accrued by companies and at this point in time are shared unequally with local stakeholders.

  19. Post-dispersal seed removal by ground-feeding rodents in tropical peatlands, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Blackham, Grace V.; Corlett, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are being rapidly converted to agriculture or degraded into non-forest vegetation. Although large areas have been abandoned, there is little evidence for subsequent forest recovery. As part of a study of forest degradation and recovery, we used seed removal experiments and rodent surveys to investigate the potential role of post-dispersal seed predation in limiting the regeneration of woody plants. Two 14-day seed removal trials were done in deforested and forested peatland habitat in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seeds of Nephelium lappaceum, Syzygium muelleri, Artocarpus heterophyllus (all animal-dispersed) and Combretocarpus rotundatus (wind-dispersed) were tested. Significantly more seeds (82.8%) were removed in forest than non-forest (38.1%) and Combretocarpus had the lowest removal in both habitats. Most handled seeds were eaten in situ and little caching was observed. Six species of rodents were captured in forest and five in non-forest. The most trapped taxa were three Maxomys spp. in forest (85.5% of individuals) and Rattus tiomanicus in non-forest (74.8%). Camera traps confirmed that rodents were responsible for seed removal. Seed predation in deforested areas, which have a much lower seed rain than forest, may contribute to the low density and diversity of regenerating forest. PMID:26369444

  20. Who Benefits from Ecosystem Services? A Case Study for Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suwarno, Aritta; Hein, Lars; Sumarga, Elham

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing experience with the valuation of ecosystem services. However, to date, less attention has been devoted to who is actually benefiting from ecosystem services. This nevertheless is a key issue, in particular, if ecosystem services analysis and valuation is used to support environmental management. This study assesses and analyzes how the monetary benefits of seven ecosystem services are generated in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, are distributed to different types of beneficiaries. We analyze the following ecosystem services: (1) timber production; (2) rattan collection; (3) jelutong resin collection; (4) rubber production (based on permanent agroforestry systems); (5) oil palm production on three management scales (company, plasma farmer, and independent smallholder); (6) paddy production; and (7) carbon sequestration. Our study shows that the benefits generated from these services differ markedly between the stakeholders, which we grouped into private, public, and household entities. The distribution of these benefits is strongly influenced by government policies and in particular benefit sharing mechanisms. Hence, land-use change and policies influencing land-use change can be expected to have different impacts on different stakeholders. Our study also shows that the benefits generated by oil palm conversion, a main driver for land-use change in the province, are almost exclusively accrued by companies and at this point in time are shared unequally with local stakeholders.

  1. Density and population estimate of gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) in the Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cheyne, Susan M; Thompson, Claire J H; Phillips, Abigail C; Hill, Robyn M C; Limin, Suwido H

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that although auditory sampling is a useful tool, this method alone will not provide a truly accurate indication of population size, density and distribution of gibbons in an area. If auditory sampling alone is employed, we show that data collection must take place over a sufficient period to account for variation in calling patterns across seasons. The population of Hylobates albibarbis in the Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, was surveyed from July to December 2005 using methods established previously. In addition, auditory sampling was complemented by detailed behavioural data on six habituated groups within the study area. Here we compare results from this study to those of a 1-month study conducted in 2004. The total population of the Sabangau catchment is estimated to be about in the tens of thousands, though numbers, distribution and density for the different forest subtypes vary considerably. We propose that future density surveys of gibbons must include data from all forest subtypes where gibbons are found and that extrapolating from one forest subtype is likely to yield inaccurate density and population estimates. We also propose that auditory census be carried out by using at least three listening posts (LP) in order to increase the area sampled and the chances of hearing groups. Our results suggest that the Sabangau catchment contains one of the largest remaining contiguous populations of Bornean agile gibbon.

  2. Reconciling Oil Palm Expansion and Climate Change Mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Urban, Dean L.; Stolle, Fred; Vincent, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Our society faces the pressing challenge of increasing agricultural production while minimizing negative consequences on ecosystems and the global climate. Indonesia, which has pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation while doubling production of several major agricultural commodities, exemplifies this challenge. Here we focus on palm oil, the world’s most abundant vegetable oil and a commodity that has contributed significantly to Indonesia’s economy. Most oil palm expansion in the country has occurred at the expense of forests, resulting in significant GHG emissions. We examine the extent to which land management policies can resolve the apparently conflicting goals of oil palm expansion and GHG mitigation in Kalimantan, a major oil palm growing region of Indonesia. Using a logistic regression model to predict the locations of new oil palm between 2010 and 2020 we evaluate the impacts of six alternative policy scenarios on future emissions. We estimate net emissions of 128.4–211.4 MtCO2 yr-1 under business as usual expansion of oil palm plantations. The impact of diverting new plantations to low carbon stock land depends on the design of the policy. We estimate that emissions can be reduced by 9-10% by extending the current moratorium on new concessions in primary forests and peat lands, 35% by limiting expansion on all peat and forestlands, 46% by limiting expansion to areas with moderate carbon stocks, and 55–60% by limiting expansion to areas with low carbon stocks. Our results suggest that these policies would reduce oil palm profits only moderately but would vary greatly in terms of cost-effectiveness of emissions reductions. We conclude that a carefully designed and implemented oil palm expansion plan can contribute significantly towards Indonesia’s national emissions mitigation goal, while allowing oil palm area to double. PMID:26011182

  3. Analysis of factors determining enterprise value of company merger and acquisition: A case study of coal in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candra, Ade; Pasasa, Linus A.; Simatupang, Parhimpunan

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is looking at the relationship between the factors of technical, financial and legal with enterprise value in mergers and acquisitions of coal companies in Kalimantan, Indonesia over the last 10 years. Data obtained from secondary data sources in the company works and from published data on the internet. The data thus obtained are as many as 46 secondary data with parameters resources, reserves, stripping ratio, calorific value, distance from pit to port, and distance from ports to vessels, production per annum, the cost from pit to port, from port to vessel costs, royalties, coal price and permit status. The data was analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine the factors that most significant influence enterprise value of coal company in Kalimantan. The result shows that a technical matter is the factor that most affects the value of enterprise in coal merger and acquisition company. Financial aspect is the second factor that affects the enterprise value.

  4. Time-series analysis of multi-resolution optical imagery for quantifying forest cover loss in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew C.; Potapov, Peter; Adusei, Bernard; Lindquist, Erik; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2011-04-01

    Monitoring loss of humid tropical forests via remotely sensed imagery is critical for a number of environmental monitoring objectives, including carbon accounting, biodiversity, and climate modeling science applications. Landsat imagery, provided free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS/EROS), enables consistent and timely forest cover loss updates from regional to biome scales. The Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan are a center of significant forest cover change within the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity maintenance and local livelihoods. Sumatra and Kalimantan feature poor observational coverage compared to other centers of humid tropical forest change, such as Mato Grosso, Brazil, due to the lack of ongoing acquisitions from nearby ground stations and the persistence of cloud cover obscuring the land surface. At the same time, forest change in Indonesia is transient and does not always result in deforestation, as cleared forests are rapidly replaced by timber plantations and oil palm estates. Epochal composites, where single best observations are selected over a given time interval and used to quantify change, are one option for monitoring forest change in cloudy regions. However, the frequency of forest cover change in Indonesia confounds the ability of image composite pairs to quantify all change. Transient change occurring between composite periods is often missed and the length of time required for creating a cloud-free composite often obscures change occurring within the composite period itself. In this paper, we analyzed all Landsat 7 imagery with <50% cloud cover and data and products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify forest cover loss for Sumatra and Kalimantan from 2000 to 2005. We demonstrated that time-series approaches examining all good land observations are more accurate in mapping forest cover change in

  5. Forest fires detection in Indonesia using satellite Himawari-8 (case study: Sumatera and Kalimantan on august-october 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhuroyan; Wati, Trinah; Panjaitan, Andersen

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires in Indonesia are serious problem affecting widely in material losses, health and environment. Himawari-8 as one of meteorological satellites with high resolution 0,5 km x 0,5 km can be used for forest fire monitoring and detection. Combination between 3, 4 and 6 channels using Sataid (Satellite Animation and Interactive Diagnosis) software will visualize forest fire in the study site. Monitoring which used Himawari-8 data on August, September and October 2015 can detect the distribution of smoke and the extents of forest fire in Sumatera and Kalimantan. The result showed the extent of forest fire can be identified for anticipation in the next step.

  6. Evaluation of a rapid assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in outpatient clinics in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, S; Cohen, S; Brady, W E; O'reilly, K; Susanto; Wibowo, A; Cahyono; Graham, R R; Porter, K R

    1999-12-01

    A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted comparing a commercially available chlamydial optical immunoassay (OIA) to the chlamydial ligase chain reaction (LCR). Endocervical samples from 415 outpatients visiting clinics from three hospitals in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, were evaluated. Relative to the LCR, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the OIA were 31.6 and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the OIA varied among the three hospital laboratories, ranging from 20 to 50%. The OIA performance was slightly lower on samples from patients attending dermatovenereology clinics than on samples from nondermatovenereology clinic patients. The results indicate that the OIA did not perform well compared to LCR.

  7. Evaluation of a Rapid Assay for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Outpatient Clinics in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Widjaja, Susana; Cohen, Surekha; Brady, William E.; O'reilly, Kevin; Susanto; Wibowo, Ajar; Cahyono; Graham, Robert R.; Porter, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted comparing a commercially available chlamydial optical immunoassay (OIA) to the chlamydial ligase chain reaction (LCR). Endocervical samples from 415 outpatients visiting clinics from three hospitals in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, were evaluated. Relative to the LCR, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the OIA were 31.6 and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the OIA varied among the three hospital laboratories, ranging from 20 to 50%. The OIA performance was slightly lower on samples from patients attending dermatovenereology clinics than on samples from nondermatovenereology clinic patients. The results indicate that the OIA did not perform well compared to LCR. PMID:10565960

  8. Carbon emissions performance of commercial logging in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Griscom, Bronson; Ellis, Peter; Putz, Francis E

    2014-03-01

    Adoption of reduced-impact logging (RIL) methods could reduce CO2 emissions by 30-50% across at least 20% of remaining tropical forests. We developed two cost effective and robust indices for comparing the climate benefits (reduced CO2 emissions) due to RIL. The indices correct for variability in the volume of commercial timber among concessions. We determined that a correction for variability in terrain slope was not needed. We found that concessions certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, N = 3), when compared with noncertified concessions (N = 6), did not have lower overall CO2 emissions from logging activity (felling, skidding, and hauling). On the other hand, FSC certified concessions did have lower emissions from one type of logging impact (skidding), and we found evidence of a range of improved practices using other field metrics. One explanation of these results may be that FSC criteria and indicators, and associated RIL practices, were not designed to achieve overall emissions reductions. Also, commonly used field metrics are not reliable proxies for overall logging emissions performance. Furthermore, the simple distinction between certified and noncertified concessions does not fully represent the complex history of investments in improved logging practices. To clarify the relationship between RIL and emissions reductions, we propose the more explicit term 'RIL-C' to refer to the subset of RIL practices that can be defined by quantified thresholds and that result in measurable emissions reductions. If tropical forest certification is to be linked with CO2 emissions reductions, certification standards need to explicitly require RIL-C practices.

  9. Environmental change and peatland forest dynamics in the Lake Sentarum area, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshari, Gusti; Kershaw, A. Peter; van der Kaars, Sander; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2004-10-01

    Four short pollen and charcoal records from sites within and around Lake Pemerak on the margins of the Danau (Lake) Sentarum National Park in inland West Kalimantan, supported by modern surface samples from the Reserve, provide a partial picture of lowland equatorial vegetation and environments over at least the last 40 000 years. They demonstrate general stability in the distribution of wetland and ombrotrophic (or raised) peatlands through the recorded period with dominance throughout of peatland and swamp forest. However, there was marked variation in sediment accumulation rates and in the floristic composition of the vegetation. The period prior to the last glacial maximum appears to have been the time of most active peatland growth and contrasts with the perception, from previous studies on largely coastal and subcoastal peatlands in Indonesia, that the Holocene was the time of major tropical peat accumulation. A general increase in charcoal, just prior to about 30 000 years ago, suggests that burning became more frequent, and is attributed to initial human impact rather than climate change. The subsequent latest Pleistocene period, embracing the Last Glacial Maximum, is marked by a peak in montane-submontane rainforest taxa, strongly indicating a substantial lowering of temperature. It appears that much of the Holocene is not recorded but recommencement of peat accumulation is evident within the last few thousand years. At the time of fieldwork access to the central part of the Lake Sentarum system was inhibited by strong El Niño drought conditions, but this area has the potential to provide a longer and more continuous history of environmental change for the region. Copyright

  10. Estimating of Gonystiluss Bancanus Growing Stock in Indonesia (Case study: Riau and Central Kalimantan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsuri; Jaya, I. N. S.; Partomihardjo, T.

    2017-03-01

    Gonystylus bancanus is protected species because it is included in list of critically endangered plant species that is heading to be extinct. Export banned Gonystylus bancanus log trigger illegal logging caused ramin’s demand is high. This study aimed to estimate Gonystylus bancanus growing stock in Indonesia. Time series of satellite image was used to identify land use change. Spatial analysis by overlaying of land cover and peatland map found the potential habitat of Gonystylus bancanus. Cluster sampling method was applied to predict growing stock recently year. The study found that growing stock in peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan (Sebangau National Park area) tend to be elevated. It is also occurred in production forest of peat swamp that is harvested, especially in concession area of Diamond Raya Timber Ltd that also tend to elevate. The most increasing of growing stock is caused by ingrowth). Growing of Gonystylus bancanus seedling is hardly occurred. It is caused by youngest seedling characteristics that are need a covering.. Gonystylus bancanus (growing stock is not be spread evenly overall growing stages. This study also found that Gonystylus bancanus growing stock ranging between 4.2 m3/ha to 15.2 m3/ha. The growing stock of Gonystylus bancanus is between 3.3% to 5.4% of all species in peat swamp forest. Average of Gonystylus bancanus increment about 0.63 m3/ha/year. Average growing stock of all species is 3.1 ∼ 20.5 m3/ha/year).

  11. Sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Feilen, Katie L; Marshall, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Primates spend at least half their lives sleeping; hence, sleeping site selection can have important effects on behavior and fitness. As proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) often sleep along rivers and form bands (aggregations of one male groups) at their sleeping sites, understanding sleeping site selection may shed light on two unusual aspects of this species' socioecology: their close association with rivers and their multilevel social organization. We studied sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys for twelve months at Sungai Tolak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia to test two main hypotheses regarding the drivers of sleeping site selection: reduction of molestation by mosquitoes and anti-predator behavior. We identified to genus and collected data on the physical structure (diameter at breast height, relative height, branch structure, and leaf coverage) of sleeping trees and available trees in three forest types. We used resource selection function models to test specific predictions derived from our two hypotheses. The monkeys preferred to sleep in large trees with few canopy connections located along rivers. The selection of large emergent trees was consistent with both of our main hypotheses: decreased molestation by mosquitoes and reduced potential entry routes for terrestrial predators. Although we are only beginning to understand how sleeping sites might influence behavior, grouping, and potential survival of this species, our study has shown that proboscis monkeys (at Sungai Tolak) have a very strong preference for large trees located near the river. As these trees are often the first to be logged by local villagers, this may exacerbate the problems of forest loss for these endangered monkeys.

  12. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Stolle, Fred; Potapov, Peter; Arunarwati Margono, Belinda; Adusei, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  13. A Holocene pollen record of vegetation and coastal environmental changes in the coastal swamp forest at Batulicin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulianto, Eko; Rahardjo, A. T.; Noeradi, Dardji; Siregar, D. A.; Hirakawa, K.

    2005-04-01

    Pollen analysis of a coastal peat swamp core representing 9100 BP from Batulicin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, shows that mangrove forest, with Rhizophora as its main element has been established since the early Holocene. Vegetation development in general, and particularly mangrove forest, was influenced by Holocene environmental changes. The highest value of Rhizophora at ca. 8200 BP indicates an early Holocene sea level drop and implies sea level at ca. -9 m. Subsequently mangrove forest was severely disrupted by rapid sea level rise at ca. 6400 BP prior to the Holocene Maximum. However, it quickly recovered following a lower rate of sea level rise or subsequent sea level drop at ca. 6000 BP and flourished until ca. 1000 BP. From ca. 6000 BP, the environmental setting around the site seems to have gradually become more terrestrial and changed from mangrove forest to peat swamp forest due to higher precipitation and intensive progradation. Human influence is recognized from ca. 1600 BP.

  14. Validation of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl leaves, a skin care herb from East Kalimantan, using a melanin biosynthesis assay.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2012-04-01

    In searching for a new material made from natural resources that could be used as a whitening agent, we focused on the plants used for skin treatment by the native people of East Kalimantan. The methanol extract of the leaves of Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl showed antimelanogenesis activity in a melanin biosynthesis assay. By activity-guided fractionation, 7-methoxycoumarin (1) was isolated as an active compound. The IC50 of 1 on mushroom tyrosinase was 2360 μM (L-tyrosine was used as the substrate) and above 2840 μM (L-DOPA was used as the substrate), respectively. Regarding melanin formation inhibition in B16 melanoma cells, the IC50 of 1 was 1780 μM with 83% cell viability at IC50. Based on these results, we validated that the leaf extract is in line with the traditional use of the Dayak tribe in East Kalimantan.

  15. Full genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus in gibbons and a caretaker in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Wahyuni, Rury Mega; Lusida, Maria Inge; Yano, Yoshihiko; Priambada, Nur Purba; Amin, Mochamad; Purwono, Priyo Budi; Istimagfiroh, Anittaqwa; Soetjipto; Brulé, Aurélien; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) from gibbons was characterized, and the possibility of horizontal transmission between gibbons and humans was examined in a gibbon rehabilitation center in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Ten gibbons that were positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) on arrival and 13 caretakers for those gibbons were included in this study. The duration of stay at the rehabilitation center ranged from 1 to 10 years. Serological and molecular analyses were performed. Six gibbons were positive for HBsAg, whereas HBV DNA was detected in all ten of the gibbons sampled. On the other hand, HBsAg was detected in only 1 of the 13 caretakers. HBV samples from seven gibbons and from the one infected human were chosen for complete genome sequencing. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cluster of gibbon strains in this study was distinct from strains previously reported from other countries. In the pre-S1 region, we found a unique amino acid residue substitution (P89K), three insertions between T87 and L88 in the genomes of three gibbons, and a 33-nucleotide deletion at the start of pre-S1 that is common in non-human primates. The caretaker sample was identified as HBV subgenotype B3, the most common type in Indonesia. For the complete HBV sequences, the similarity between gibbons in this study and other non-human primate and human HBV isolates was 90-91.9 % and 85.5-89.6 %, respectively. In conclusion, the gibbon HBV genotype was influenced by geographic location and species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report characterizing the HBV genes and genomes of indigenous gibbons in Indonesia.

  16. Exotism of Batu Putih area in Samarinda, East Kalimantan as conservation area for ecotourism destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutan, Syamsidar; Cahyani, Rina Wahyu; Alam, Fajar; Syuhada, Endy Mukhlis

    2017-02-01

    Batu Putih is a limestone hill complex in Air Putih area, Samarinda, East Kalimantan. The unique value of this region is a towering limestone ridge which easily recognizable at a distance, water catchment area in the city, great place to learn earth science as understanding the ancient marine deposition and hydrocarbon potential development, and the heritage of the region. The objective of this research is toreview the potential of Batu Putih area and surrounding as a green conservation area for ecotourism destination. Batu Putih area, geologically part of Kutai Basin, is controlled by tectonic event, resulted on Northeast-Southwest undulated trend known as Samarinda anticlinorium. Data collected cover several aspects: (1) geological aspects: various types of rocks, groundwater condition and other related data; (2) vegetation aspects; (3) cultural aspect: heritage and historical place. By results from evaluation of existing data, development plan will be commenced. Research found 2 spots for landscape viewing, 3 water resources, various marine fossils in some locations and mud volcano. Vegetations are dominated by "kersen" (Muntingia calabura L.), "aren" (Arenga pinnata) and "pletekan" (Ruellia tuberosa). Based on the findings of the existing kinds of uniqueness, conservation of the area are mandatories. Protection and preservation of the region in integrated manner and area development for ecotourism and education are things should be done in Batu Putih, as increasingly damaged and depleted by limestone mining activities using heavy equipment.

  17. Rainfall interception loss in unlogged and logged forest areas of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asdak, C.; Jarvis, P. G.; van Gardingen, P.; Fraser, A.

    1998-05-01

    Rainfall interception losses were monitored for 12 months, and related to vegetation and rainfall characteristics at the BPK-ECTF research site (Wanariset Sangai) on the upper reaches of the Mentaya river, Central Kalimantan. The rainfall interception losses were quantified, based on the records of 55 selected rainfall events within the range of 8.5-135.5 mm in the unlogged forest, and 95 rainfall events in the logged-over area. Over a 6-month-period in 1 hectare of pristine, unlogged, natural, tropical rainforest, the total amount of rainfall interception loss was 251 mm or about 11% of total gross rainfall. In the logged forest, the total rainfall interception loss over 12 months was 219 mm, or 6% of gross rainfall.

  18. Modelling rainfall interception in unlogged and logged forest areas of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asdak, C.; Jarvis, P. G.; Gardingen, P. V.

    Rainfall interception losses were monitored for twelve months and related to vegetation and rainfall characteristics at the Wanariset Sangai on the upper reaches of the Mentaya river, Central Kalimantan. The rainfall interception losses were quantified for one hectare each of unlogged and logged humid tropical rainforests. The results show that interception loss is higher in the unlogged forest (11% of total gross rainfall) than in the logged forest (6%). Interception loss was also simulated by the modified Rutter model and Gash's original and revised models. Both the Rutter and revised Gash models predicted total interception loss over a long period adequately, and resulted in estimates of the interception loss that deviated by 6 to 14% of the measured values, for both the unlogged and logged plots.

  19. Effects of peat fires on the characteristics of humic acid extracted from peat soil in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yustiawati; Kihara, Yusuke; Sazawa, Kazuto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Wulandari, Linda; Hendri I; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2015-02-01

    When peat forest fires happen, it leads to burn soil and also humic acids as a dominant organic matter contained in peat soil as well as the forest. The structure and properties of humic acids vary depending on their origin and environment, therefore the transformation of humic acid is also diverse. The impacts of the peat fires on peat soil from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated through the characterization of humic acids, extracted from soil in burnt and unburnt sites. The characterization of humic acids was performed by elemental composition, functional groups, molecular weight by HPSEC, pyrolysate compounds by pyrolysis-GC/MS, fluorescence spectrum by 3DEEM spectrofluorometer, and thermogravimetry. The elemental composition of each humic substance indicated that the value of H/C and O/C of humic acids from burnt sites were lower than that from unburnt sites. The molecular weight of humic acids from burnt sites was also lower than that from unburnt sites. Pyrolysate compounds of humic acids from unburnt sites differed from those of humic acids from burnt soil. The heating experiment showed that burning process caused the significant change in the properties of humic acids such as increasing the aromaticity and decreasing the molecular weight.

  20. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  1. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in surface soil of coal stockpile sites in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mizwar, Andy; Priatmadi, Bambang Joko; Abdi, Chairul; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution, and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in surface soils of three different coal stockpile, agricultural, and residential sites in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Total PAHs concentration ranged from 4.69 to 22.67 mg kg(-1)-dw. PAHs concentrations in soil of coal stockpile sites were higher than those in agricultural and residential soil. A complex of petrogenic origin and pyrolytic sources was found within the study area, as suggested by the isomeric ratios of PAHs. The results of principal component analysis and multiple linear regressions (PCA/MLR) showed that three sources contributed to the PAHs in the study area, including biomass and coal combustion (48.46%), raw coal (35.49%), and vehicular emission (16.05%). The high value of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) suggests that local residents are exposed to a high carcinogenic potential.

  2. Can extractive reserves save the rain forest: A ecological and socioeconomic comparison of non-timber forest product extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Salafsky, N.; Dugelby, B.L.; Terborgh, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Extractive reserves in tropical rain forests, in which only non-timber products are harvested, have been heralded by some conservationists as a means of maintaining biodiversity while providing income for local people. The study of extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, leads to a more tempered conclusion, for while the Peten program was quite successful, the Kalimantan program was not. The study finds the success of an extractive reserve to be contingent on: (1) ecological conditions, and (2) socioeconomic and political factors. Although the study focuses on market-oriented extractive reserves, many of the issues discussed apply as well to other land uses such as the collection of non-timber forest products for household consumption or small-scale timber extraction.

  3. Blood parasites of wild and domestic animals from South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Masbar, S; Palmieri, J R; Marwoto, H A; Purnomo; Darwis, F

    1981-03-01

    Wild and domestic animals trapped from forests, villages, and rice fields in South Kalimantan (3 degrees 20' S, 115 degrees 02' E, 25 m) were examined for blood parasites using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films and Nuclepore filter preparations of peripheral vein and heart puncture blood. Presbytis cristatus (silvered leaf monkey) (25%) and Felis catus (domestic cat) (7%) were infected with Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. In addition, P. cristatus was infected with Wuchereria kalimantani (35%); Cardiofilaria sp. (1%) and Dirofilaria sp. (1%). Microfilariae of Cardiofilaria were also recovered from Callosciurus notatus (squirrel), Pitta sordida (bird), Pycnonotus goiavier (bird) and Gallus gallus (bird). Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (civet) and Muntiacus muncak (barking deer), were positive for Dirofilaria sp. Bos indicus (cow) for Onchocerca sp. and Nectarinia jugularis (bird) for Splendidofilaria sp. Plasmodium coatneyi was found in 22% of the P. cristatus examined. Plasmodium sp. was also recovered from Zaocys fuscus and Ahaetulla prasina (reptile); Muscicapa sp. Lonchura malacca, Orthotomus sericeus, Rhipidura javanica, Treron vernans, Pycnonotus melanoleucus and G. gallus (bird). In addition 39% of the Cynopterus brachyotis and 29% of C. horsfieldi (fruit bats) were infected with Hepatocystis pteropi. A single G. gallus was infected with Leucocytozoon sabrazesi and another with Trypanosoma sp.

  4. A new species of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the gills of a dasyatid ray, Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878) from West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2016-10-11

    A new species of the cyclopoid copepod genus Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 is described based on material collected from the gills of an elasmobranch, Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878), collected in the Java Sea off the coast of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. To justify the establishment of the new species, Ergasilus kimi sp. nov., detailed comparisons are made with the 28 congeneric species that share the combination of a 3-segmented leg 1 endopod and the presence of 2 setae on the free exopodal segment of leg 5. This is the fourth report of an Ergasilus species infecting an elasmobranch and it is concluded that each represents an independent colonization event of elasmobranchs as hosts.

  5. Sediment facies, depositional environments, and distribution of phytoclasts in the recent Mahakam River delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Gastaldo, R.A. ); Huc, A.Y. )

    1992-12-01

    The Mahakam River delta is a tide- and wave-dominated delta located on the edge of the Kutei basin, eastern Kalimantan, Borneo. It is a coastal deltaic sequence, Neogene to Holocene in age, from which all recoverable hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) are considered to be derived from kerogen III predecessors. However, a complete understanding of the types of sediments sourcing the hydrocarbons has not yet been achieved. A vibracoring program sampled the principal fine-grained depositional environments in two transects; one within the fluvially-dominated regime, one within the tidally-dominated regime. Ten sedimentary facies are distinguished and phytoclasts have been recovered from all environments of deposition. Canopy parts from the mixed tropical forest community are preserved throughout the delta, whereas dicotyledonous angiosperm mangroves are restricted to the subtidal zone and delta front. Nypa parts are preserved in most depositional environments. In sites where there appears to be an absence of macrodetritus, dispersed cuticle is recoverable. Identifiable plant parts include wood and fibrous tissues, Nypa petioles and leaf laminae, dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves and isolated cuticles, fruits and seeds, roots and rootlets, and moss. Dammar is found either as dispersed resin ducts or amorphous clasts. Additional biotic components found in bedded plant litters include insects, gastropods, bivalves, sand dollars, ostracods, and crabs. Fluvial channels and depositional sites associated with these systems in the delta front can be differentiated from Nypa swamps and mixed tropical hardwood-palm swamps based on their phytological components and accessory biotic elements. 39 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. A district-based audit of the causes and circumstances of maternal deaths in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Supratikto, Gunawan; Wirth, Meg E.; Achadi, Endang; Cohen, Surekha; Ronsmans, Carine

    2002-01-01

    A district-based audit of maternal and perinatal mortality began during 1994 in three provinces of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both medical and non-medical factors were documented and an effort was made to progress from merely assessing substandard care to recommending improvements in access to care and the quality of care. Extensive discussions of cases of maternal death were held during regular meetings with providers, policy-makers and community members. The sources of information included verbal autopsies with family members and medical records. Between 1995 and 1999 the audit reviewed 130 maternal deaths. The leading causes of death were haemorrhage (41%) and hypertensive diseases (32%). Delays in decision-making and poor quality of care in health facilities were seen as contributory factors in 77% and 60% of the deaths, respectively. Economic constraints were believed to have contributed to 37% of the deaths. The distance between a patient's home and a health provider or facility did not appear to have a significant influence, nor did transport problems. The audit led to changes in the quality of obstetric care in the district. Its success was particularly attributable to the process of accountability of both health providers and policy-makers and to improved working relationships between health providers at different levels and between providers and the community. With a view to the continuation and further expansion of the audit it may be necessary to reconsider the role of the provincial team, the need of health providers for confidentiality, the added benefit of facility-based audits, the need to incorporate scientific evidence into the review process, and the possible consideration of severe complications as well as deaths. It may also be necessary to recognize that village midwives are not solely responsible for maternal deaths. PMID:11984609

  7. Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia Using a Mesoscale Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roswintiarti, O.; Raman, S.

    - This paper describes the meteorological processes responsible for the mean transport of air pollutants during the ENSO-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth Generation of the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) is used to simulate three-dimensional winds at 6-hourly intervals. A nonhydrostatic version of the model is run using two nested grids with horizontal resolutions of 45 km and 15 km. From the simulated wind fields, the backward and forward trajectories of the air parcel are investigated using the Vis5D model.The results indicate that the large-scale subsidence over Indonesia, the southwest monsoon low-level flows (2-8 m s-1), and the shallow planetary boundary layer height (400-800 m) play a key role in the transport of air pollutants from Kalimantan to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei.

  8. Petrographic and anatomical characteristics of plant material from two peat deposits of Holocene and Miocene age, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.A.; Hilbert, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Samples from two peat-forming environments of Holocene and Miocene age in Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, were studied petrographically using nearly identical sample preparation and microscopic methodologies. Both deposits consist of two basic types of organic material: plant organs/tissues and fine-grained matrix. There are seven predominant types of plant organs and tissues: roots possessing only primary growth, stems possessing only primary growth, leaves, stems/roots with secondary growth, secondary xylem fragments, fragments of cork cells, and macerated tissue of undetermined origin. The fine-grained matrix consists of fragments of cell walls and cell fillings, fungal remains, spores and pollen grains, and resin. Some of the matrix material does not have distinct grain boundaries (at ??500) and this material is designated amorphous matrix. The major difference between the Holocene peat and Miocene lignite in reflected light, oil immersion is a loss of red coloration in the cell walls of tissue in the lignite, presumably due to loss of cellulosic compounds. In addition, cortex and phloem tissue (hence primary roots and stems) are difficult to recognize in the lignite, probably because these large, thin-walled tissues are more susceptible to microbial degradation and compaction. Particle size in both peat and lignite samples display a bimodal distribution when measurements are transformed to a - log2 or phi (??), scale. Most plant parts have modes of 2-3?? (0.25 - 0.125 mm), whereas the finer-grained particulate matrix has modes of 7-9?? (0.008-0.002 mm). This similarity suggest certain degradative processes. The 2-3?? range may be a "stable" size for plant parts (regardless of origin) because this is a characteristics of a substrate which is most suitable for plant growth in peat. The finer-grained matrix material (7-9??) probably results from fungal decay which causes plant material to weaken and with slight physical pressure to shatter into its component

  9. Characteristics of Gaseous Carbon Emission from a Tropical Peatland Fire: A Plot-Scale Field Experiment in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Darung, U.; Limin, S. H.; Hatano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peatland in Southeast Asia is a vast reservoir of terrestrial carbon, which covers 24.8 million hectares and stores 68.5 PgC peat, equal to 11-14% of global peat carbon. In recent decades, large scale peatland fire has occurred frequently in that region, in which many areas of peatland were reclaimed with intention to use the land for forest plantation and rice paddy. We conducted a plot-scale peat burning experiment to elucidate the characteristics of gaseous carbon emission from a tropical peatland fire at the ground level. The experimental site was established at an open area 20 km southeast from Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The size of the burning plot is 4 m in length and 3 m in width. Gas samples were collected at heights of 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 (aboveground), -0.1 and -0.2 m (belowground) through stainless steel and/or aluminum tubes settled across the edge of the plot. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM) was determined. Soil temperature was recorded every 10 minutes 0.1 and 0.2 m below the ground surface. Twelve iron rods were installed in 1-m by 1-m square grid to determine the depth of burn scar. After ignition, flaming stage of peat burning was ceased within 1-2 hours. The following smoldering stage continued for a week. In the flaming stage, soil temperature at -0.1 m increased tentatively. After the smoldering stage began, the temperature rapidly increased to 350-450°C. Response of soil temperature at -0.2 m was less prominent. Concentrations of gaseous components became maximal in the flaming stage. During the smoldering stage, the concentrations gradually decreased. The influence of burning on CO2 and PM was prominently remained at -0.1 m, whereas those at -0.2 m were not so much. The averaged burnt depth was 5.8±5.1 cm. Based on bulk density of 0.22 g/cm3 and carbon content of 55.5%, the amount of carbon lost from the plot was 85.3 kg. Most of the

  10. The effect of total solar eclipse on the daily activities of Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb.) in Mangrove Center, Kariangau, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sya Shanida, Sya; Hanik Lestari, Tiffany; Partasasmita, Ruhyat

    2016-11-01

    The total solar eclipse is an interesting phenomenon because the sun is covered by the moon. This phenomenon is like a night deception for animals, humans, and plants. One of the animals is Bekantan (Nasalis larvatus (Wurmb.)). Nasalis larvatus change its activity when this phenomenon occurs. The aims of the present study are (1) daily activity of Nasalis larvatus on total solar eclipse on March 9th, 2016 and (2) the effect of total solar eclipse on its activity in Mangrove Center, Kariangau, East Kalimantan. The adlibitum method was used in this study on Bekantan's adult female. The result shows that the total solar eclipse has considerable effect on the daily activity of Bekantan. During total solar eclipse, the activity of Bekantan significantly stopped. When the total solar eclipse finished, Bekantan started its daily activity, and it was indicated by feeding activity which was led by alfa-male.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity of sources of branched tetraethers in shelf systems: The geochemistry of tetraethers in the Berau River delta (Kalimantan, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2016-08-01

    The bulk organic matter composition (total organic carbon (TOC) content and δ13CTOC) and composition of isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) in surface sediments from 43 stations in the Berau River delta (east Kalimantan, Indonesia), including two coast-shelf transects and stations within the river mouth, were examined to reveal the spatial heterogeneity in these parameters in order to assess the impact of a tropical river loaded with suspended matter on the sedimentary organic matter in the shelf system. The high-resolution study showed that, despite the extensive transport of eroded soil material by the river to the sea, terrestrial organic matter and brGDGTs are only deposited on a relatively small part of the shelf. The concentrations of brGDGTs are highest (up to 120 μg g-1 TOC) in sediments deposited in and close to the mouth of the Berau River and their distribution indicates that they represent a mixture of soil-derived and river in-situ produced brGDGTs. Crenarchaeol concentrations reach 700 μg g-1 TOC in sediments deposited on the outer shelf due to Thaumarchaeotal production in shelf waters. This results in a strong gradient (0.93-0.03) in the BIT index, with high values in the river mouth and low values on the shelf. The decline in the BIT index is caused by both decreasing concentrations of the brGDGTs and increasing concentrations of crenarchaeol. The BIT index shows a highly significant but non-linear relationship with δ13CTOC. On the shelf, in the area not under the direct influence of the Berau River, cyclic brGDGTs become relatively dominant, most probably due to in-situ production in the alkaline pore waters of the surface sediments. The spatial heterogeneity of sources of brGDGTs on the Berau shelf complicates the use of brGDGTs as temperature proxies. Application of the global soil calibration to sedimentary mixtures of brGDGTs in the river-influenced area of the shelf results in a severe underestimation of

  12. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from the sediment pond after a coal mine in Samarinda, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumawati, Eko; Sudrajat, Putri, Junita Susilaning

    2017-02-01

    Title isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) of sediment pond former coal mine in Samarinda, East Kalimantan. Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is a group of microbes that can be used to improve the quality of sediment former coal mine. In the metabolic activities, the SRB can reduce sulfate to H2S which immediately binds to metals that are widely available on mined lands and precipitated in the form of metal sulfides reductive. Isolation and identification of sulfate reducing bacteria carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Mulawarman, Samarinda. Postgate B is a liquid medium used for isolation through serial dilution. Physiological and biochemical characterization was done by Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Six isolates of sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the sediment pond former coal mine in Samarinda. Several groups of bacteria can grow at 14 days of incubation, however, another group of bacteria which takes 21 days to grow. The identification results showed that two isolates belong to the genus Desulfotomaculum sp., and each of the other isolates belong to the genus Desulfococcus sp., Desulfobacter sp., Desulfobulbus sp. and Desulfobacterium sp.

  13. Bionomics of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sungai Nyamuk Village, Sebatik Island - North Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sugiarto; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Soviana, Susi; Hakim, Lukman

    2017-03-14

    The bionomics of Anopheles was investigated in coastal Sungai Nyamuk Village, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan Province from August 2010 to January 2012. Mosquitoes were captured using human landing collections. A total of 5,103 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 11 species were caught and 2,259 adult parous females were tested by ELISA for Plasmodium antigen. Anopheles vagus, An. sundaicus and An. subpictus were the most abundant species caught. Overall, Anopheles vagus were zoophilic and exophagic, but there was variation between species. Anopheles sundaicus and An. subpictus were anthropophilic and endophagic. Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. sundaicus collected biting humans outdoors were positive for P. falciparum protein and were incriminated as the likely vectors of malaria in Sungai Nyamuk Village. This research also showed that malaria transmission in Sungai Nyamuk Village occurred outdoors. Residual house spraying therefore would not protect the human population from vector contact, so that combination use of long lasting nets and personel protection is needed.

  14. Placer and lode platinum-group minerals in south Kalimantan, Indonesia: evidence for derivation from Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zientek, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Platinum-group minerals occur in significant proportions in placer deposits in several localities in South Kalimantan. They consist of Pt-Fe alloy that may be intergrown with or contain inclusions of Ir-Os-Ru alloy, laurite and chromite. Alluvial PGM found along Sungai Tambanio are in part derived from chromatite schlieren in dunitic bodies intruded into clinopyroxene cumulates that may be part of an Alaskan-type ultramafic complex. A chromitite schlieren in serpentinite from one of these dunitic bodies is anomalous in PGE. The chondrite-normalized PGE pattern for this rock, pan concentrates from this area, and PGM concentrates from diamond-Au-PGM placer deposits have an "M'-shaped pattern enriched in Ir and Pt that is typical of PGE-mineralization associated with Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes. -Authors

  15. Reproductive parameters of female orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) 1971-2011, a 40-year study at Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Galdikas, Biruté Mary; Ashbury, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This study presents reproductive parameter data gathered by direct observation over a 40-year period (1971-2011) of the provisioned free-ranging population of orangutans at Camp Leakey in Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Age at first reproduction, interbirth interval (IBI), sex ratio at birth, and infant mortality for 19 female orangutans (11 first-generation wild-born ex-captive mothers and 8 second-generation mothers) are included in this analysis. Age at first reproduction among the first-generation mothers was similar to that among wild orangutans, while second-generation mothers had a significantly earlier age at first reproduction. IBIs were similar among first- and second-generation mothers and were significantly shorter than those recorded in studies of wild orangutan populations. There was an expected male-biased sex ratio at birth and a slightly higher than expected rate of infant mortality when compared to wild populations. Infant mortality was primarily seen among second-generation mothers who gave birth before the age of 12, and among first births of some first-generation mothers. These results lend support to the ecological energetics hypothesis, which predicts that increased diet quality leads to a faster rate of reproduction.

  16. [Population born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East-Indies].

    PubMed

    Prins, C J

    1997-04-01

    "The number of persons born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East Indies and residing in the Netherlands decreases every year. This is primarily caused by ageing. Moreover, immigration from Indonesia has been at a relatively low level for many years. About 178 thousand persons born in Indonesia or in the former Dutch East Indies were living in the Netherlands on 1 January 1996." Information is included on parents' nationality, length of time in the Netherlands, migration policy, and spatial distribution. (EXCERPT)

  17. Reservoir potential of carbonate rocks in the Kutai Basin region, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, H.; Paterson, D. W.; Syarifuddin, N.; Busono, I.; Corbin, S. G.

    1999-04-01

    Fifteen percent of the exploration wells drilled in the Kutai Basin region were targeted for stratigraphic play-types. Carbonate reservoirs comprise almost 70% of the objectives in these stratigraphic plays. There was need for a better understanding of the carbonate reservoir potential in the region. Accordingly, this study was carried out. The distribution, depositional environment as well as factors controlling the quality of carbonate reservoirs are reviewed and analyzed. Carbonate reservoirs in the study area can be found sparsely throughout the Kutai Basin. Carbonates range in age from Oligocene (Bebulu limestone) to Late Miocene (Dian limestone). The main constituents of these carbonate build-ups are platy-corals, encrusting red algae and larger benthonic foraminifera. Most of the carbonates were deposited in a shallow marine environment (inner to middle shelf) during rises in relative sea level. Highstand system tracts are characterized by well-developed carbonate facies-belts. The carbonate build-ups generally occur as isolated bedded mounds, from a few feet up to 1000 ft in thickness. The preservation of primary porosity is generally poor due to diagenetic processes during burial history, particularly the infilling of pores by non-ferroan calcite cement. The development of secondary porosity is limited, due to the retardation of subsurface fluid flow by non-permeable layers, and the absence of solution effects due to sub-aerial exposure and karstification. Preserved porosities are mainly present as vugs, best developed in coarse-grained shelf-margin facies, which may not have subsequently been completely filled by calcite cement. Early hydrocarbon migration may retard the diagenetic processes and preserve the primary carbonate porosity.

  18. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet <10% of lease area was planted. Projecting business as usual (BAU), by 2020 ∼40% of regional and 35% of community lands are cleared for oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  19. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Trigg, Simon N.; Gaveau, David A.; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989–2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007–2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994–2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008–2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet <10% of lease area was planted. Projecting business as usual (BAU), by 2020 ∼40% of regional and 35% of community lands are cleared for oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings. PMID:22523241

  20. Risk analysis of landslide disaster in Ponorogo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koesuma, S.; Saido, A. P.; Fukuda, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Ponorogo is one of regency in South-West of East Java Province, Indonesia, where located in subduction zone between Eurasia and Australia plate tectonics. It has a lot of mountain area which is disaster-prone area for landslide. We have collected landslide data in 305 villages in Ponorogo and make it to be Hazards Index. Then we also calculate Vulnerability Index, Economic Loss index, Environmental Damage Index and Capacity Index. The risk analysis map is composed of three components H (Hazards), V (Vulnerability, Economic Loss index, Environmental Damage Index) and C (Capacity Index). The method is based on regulations of National Disaster Management Authority (BNPB) number 02/2012 and number 03/2012. It has three classes of risk index, i.e. Low, Medium and High. Ponorogo city has a medium landslide risk index.

  1. Tectonic controls on the hydrocarbon habitats of the Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins, Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia: major dissimilarities in adjoining basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyana, Awang Harun; Nugroho, Djoko; Surantoko, Imanhardjo

    1999-04-01

    The Barito, Kutei, and Tarakan Basins are located in the eastern half of Kalimantan (Borneo) Island, Indonesia. The basins are distinguished by their different tectonic styles during Tertiary and Pleistocene times. In the Barito Basin, the deformation is a consequence of two distinct, separate, regimes. Firstly, an initial transtensional regime during which sinistral shear resulted in the formation of a series of wrench-related rifts, and secondly, a subsequent transpressional regime involving convergent uplift, reactivating old structures and resulting in wrenching, reverse faulting and folding within the basin. Presently, NNE-SSW and E-W trending structures are concentrated in the northeastern and northern parts of the basin, respectively. In the northeastern part, the structures become increasingly imbricated towards the Meratus Mountains and involve the basement. The western and southern parts of the Barito Basin are only weakly deformed. In the Kutei Basin, the present day dominant structural trend is a series of tightly folded, NNE-SSW trending anticlines and synclines forming the Samarinda Anticlinorium which is dominant in the eastern part of the basin. Deformation is less intense offshore. Middle Miocene to Recent structural growth is suggested by depositional thinning over the structures. The western basin area is uplifted, large structures are evident in several places. The origin of the Kutei structures is still in question and proposed mechanisms include vertical diapirism, gravitational gliding, inversion through regional wrenching, detachment folds over inverted structures, and inverted delta growth-fault system. In the Tarakan Basin, the present structural grain is typified by NNE-SSW normal faults which are mostly developed in the marginal and offshore areas. These structures formed on older NW-SE trending folds and are normal to the direction of the basin sedimentary thickening suggesting that they developed contemporaneously with deposition, as

  2. Drainage and land use impacts on changes in selected peat properties and peat degradation in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshari, G. Z.; Afifudin, M.; Nuriman, M.; Gusmayanti, E.; Arianie, L.; Susana, R.; Nusantara, R. W.; Sugardjito, J.; Rafiastanto, A.

    2010-11-01

    Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government drains and clears peat forests into open peats used for food crops, oil palm and industrial timber plantations. Major properties of tropical peat forests are high in Water Contents (WC), Loss on Ignition (LOI) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and low in peat pH, Dry Bulk Density (DBD), and Total Nitrogen (TN). In this study, we investigated impacts of drainage and land use change on these properties. We collected peat samples from peat forests, logged over peat forest, industrial timber plantation, community agriculture, and oil palms. We used independent t-tests and oneway ANOVA to analyze mean differences of the research variables. We found that peat pH, DBD, and TN tend to increase. A significant decrease of C/N ratio in oil palm and agriculture sites importantly denotes a high rate of peat decompositions. Water contents, LOI, and TOC are relatively constants. We suggest that changes in pH, DBD, TN and atomic C/N ratio are important indicators for assessing tropical peat degradation. We infer that land use change from tropical peat forests into cleared and drained peats used for intensive timber harvesting, oil palms and industrial timber plantations in Indonesia has greatly degraded major ecological function of tropical peats as Carbon storage.

  3. Vegetation correlates of gibbon density in the peat-swamp forest of the Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hamard, Marie; Cheyne, Susan M; Nijman, Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between primates and their habitats is essential for effective conservation plans. Peat-swamp forest has recently been recognized as an important habitat for the Southern Bornean gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis), but information is scarce on the factors that link gibbon density to characteristics of this unique ecosystem. Our aims in this study were firstly to estimate gibbon density in different forest subtypes in a newly protected, secondary peat-swamp forest in the Sabangau Catchment, Indonesia, and secondly to identify which vegetation characteristics correlate with gibbon density. Data collection was conducted in a 37.1 km(2) area, using auditory sampling methods and vegetation "speed plotting". Gibbon densities varied between survey sites from 1.39 to 3.92 groups/km(2). Canopy cover, tree height, density of large trees and food availability were significantly correlated with gibbon density, identifying the preservation of tall trees and good canopy cover as a conservation priority for the gibbon population in the Sabangau forest. This survey indicates that selective logging, which specifically targets large trees and disrupts canopy cover, is likely to have adverse effects on gibbon populations in peat-swamp forests, and calls for greater protection of these little-studied ecosystems.

  4. Assessing the influence of return density on estimation of lidar-based aboveground biomass in tropical peat swamp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuri, Solichin; Andersen, Hans-Erik; McGaughey, Robert J.; Brack, Cris

    2017-04-01

    The airborne lidar system (ALS) provides a means to efficiently monitor the status of remote tropical forests and continues to be the subject of intense evaluation. However, the cost of ALS acquisition can vary significantly depending on the acquisition parameters, particularly the return density (i.e., spatial resolution) of the lidar point cloud. This study assessed the effect of lidar return density on the accuracy of lidar metrics and regression models for estimating aboveground biomass (AGB) and basal area (BA) in tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) in Kalimantan, Indonesia. A large dataset of ALS covering an area of 123,000 ha was used in this study. This study found that cumulative return proportion (CRP) variables represent a better accumulation of AGB over tree heights than height-related variables. The CRP variables in power models explained 80.9% and 90.9% of the BA and AGB variations, respectively. Further, it was found that low-density (and low-cost) lidar should be considered as a feasible option for assessing AGB and BA in vast areas of flat, lowland PSF. The performance of the models generated using reduced return densities as low as 1/9 returns per m2 also yielded strong agreement with the original high-density data. The use model-based statistical inferences enabled relatively precise estimates of the mean AGB at the landscape scale to be obtained with a fairly low-density of 1/4 returns per m2, with less than 10% standard error (SE). Further, even when very low-density lidar data was used (i.e., 1/49 returns per m2) the bias of the mean AGB estimates were still less than 10% with a SE of approximately 15%. This study also investigated the influence of different DTM resolutions for normalizing the elevation during the generation of forest-related lidar metrics using various return densities point cloud. We found that the high-resolution digital terrain model (DTM) had little effect on the accuracy of lidar metrics calculation in PSF. The accuracy of

  5. Locomotor behavior of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in disturbed peat swamp forest, Sabangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Manduell, Kirsten L; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the locomotor behavior of wild Bornean orangutans (P. p. wurmbii) in an area of disturbed peat swamp forest (Sabangau Catchment, Indonesia) in relation to the height in the canopy, age-sex class, behavior (feeding or traveling), and the number of supports used to bear body mass. Backward elimination log-linear modeling was employed to expose the main influences on orangutan locomotion. Our results showed that the most important distinctions with regard to locomotion were between suspensory and compressive, or, orthograde (vertical trunk) and pronograde (horizontal trunk) behavior. Whether orangutans were traveling or feeding had the most important influence on locomotion whereby compressive locomotion had a strong association with feeding, suspensory locomotion had a strong association with travel in the peripheral strata using multiple supports, whereas vertical climb/descent and oscillation showed a strong association with travel on single supports in the core stratum. In contrast to theoretical predictions on positional behavior and body size, age-sex category had a limited influence on locomotion. The study revealed that torso orthograde suspension dominates orangutan locomotion, concurring with previous studies in dipterocarp forest. But, orangutans in the Sabangau exhibited substantially higher frequencies of oscillatory locomotion than observed at other sites, suggesting this behavior confers particular benefits for traversing the highly compliant arboreal environment typical of disturbed peat swamp forest. In addition, torso pronograde suspensory locomotion was observed at much lower levels than in the Sumatran species. Together these results highlight the necessity for further examination of differences between species, which control for habitat.

  6. Future Indonesia-East Timor Relations: An Analysis of the Regional Security Practices in the Cold War and After

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Indonesia In the fourteenth century, long before the arrival of Dutch and Portuguese colonizers, the era of Majapahit rule the old Javanese Hindu...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR...from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle FUTURE INDONESIA -EAST TIMOR RELATIONS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL SECURITY PRACTICES IN THE COLD WAR

  7. Australia-Indonesia Relations: Getting Beyond East Timor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Indonesian counterparts in dismantling the culpable Jemaah Islamiyah cells . ● For the United States, Australia’s links with Indonesia have always been useful...Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ( DFAT ) now confirm that Australian officials not only knew of the invasion plans, but were convinced by...archipelago. In its September 2003 Indonesia Country Brief, the Australian DFAT stated that: “Australia has consistently urged the Indonesian Government to

  8. Eco-Tourism Development Strategy Balurannational Park in the Regency of Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siswanto, Adil; Moeljadi

    2015-01-01

    Baluran National Park in the regency of Situbondo, East Java-Indonesia, highly prospective for development of sustainable tourism that can improve the welfare of local people. The suitable tourism type is eco-tourism with local people involvement. The purposes of this study are: 1) To know the local people involvement in eco-tourism development;…

  9. Magmatism in western Indonesia, the trapping of the Sumba Block and the gateways to the east of Sundaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soeria-Atmadja, R.; Suparka, S.; Abdullah, Chalid; Noeradi, Dardji; Sutanto

    1998-04-01

    The western Sulawesi magmatic belt and the Sunda-Banda arc define the eastern and south-eastern margins of Sundaland, which is part of the relatively stable Eurasian plate. The eastern margin is bounded by the Makassar Strait which separates western Sulawesi from Kalimantan. The initial opening of the Makassar Strait took place in the late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary leading to the opening of the Pacific-Indian Ocean gateway during Neogene time. Recent studies indicate similarities in the late Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphic sequence and calc-alkali magmatism between Sumba, south Sulawesi and south-east Kalimantan, suggesting a Sundaland origin for all of these areas. The southward migration of Sumba to the present frontal arc position of the Sunda-Banda arc has occurred since Late Cretaceous-Paleocene time.

  10. Serologic and molecular characteristics of hepatitis B virus among school children in East Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Lusida, Maria Inge; Amin, Mochamad; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2010-07-01

    Universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination was introduced in Indonesia in 1997; by 2008, coverage was estimated to be 78%. This study aimed to investigate the serologic status and virologic characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the children in East Java. A total of 229 healthy children born during 1994-1999 were enrolled in this study. Overall, 3.1% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 23.6% were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). HBV DNA was detected in 5 of 222 HBsAg-negative carriers, which were suggested to be cases of occult HBV infection. A single amino substitution (T126I) in the S region was frequently found. HBV infection remains endemic, and the prevalence of anti-HBs remains insufficient among children in East Java, Indonesia.

  11. Challenges of a transition to a sustainably managed shrimp culture agro-ecosystem in the Mahakam delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Roel; Sidik, Ahmad Syafei; van Zwieten, Paul; Aditya, Anugrah; Visser, Leontine

    Around 1990, when in other countries mangrove protection took off, massive conversion of mangrove forest into shrimp ponds started in the Mahakam delta. To identify constraints to and options for sustainable management we analysed institutions and constraints with stakeholders. In 3 sites we used participatory tools and a complementary survey to assess the livelihood framework. Since 1970, ponds for shrimp farming gradually replaced 75% of mangrove forested area. After 2004, recovery of mangrove took off, as, mainly due to low shrimp yields, ponds were abandoned. In 2008, 54% of the delta was dedicated to ponds for shrimp production. Around 80% of livelihood activities of pond-farmers, pond caretakers, and fishermen was related to mangroves. The involvement of men and women in these activities varied between sites and types. Poor households depended more on mangroves. Most activities resulted in seasonal income peaks; only a few activities resulted in a full daily livelihood. Ponds, on the other hand, provide 50% of households' livelihood, but this remains vulnerable in the context of the risky shrimp production. Skewed land holding, unequal sharing of benefits, competing claims and vested interests of stakeholders pose a great challenge to a transition to a more sustainable use of the mangrove area. In particular, ponds located on peat soils are non-sustainable and would require full restoration into mangrove; ponds on other soils could best be transformed into a mixed mangrove-pond system using a 'green-water' technology.

  12. INDONESIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCVEY, RUTH T.

    THIS UNIVERSITY-LEVEL TEXT IS AN ATTEMPT TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN SUPERFICIAL IMPRESSION AND SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING INDONESIA. IT PROVIDES AN INTRODUCTION TO INDONESIA THROUGH CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCE PATTERNS, BY K.J. PELZER, (2) INDONESIAN CULTURES AND COMMUNITIES, BY H. GEERTZ, (3) THE CHINESE MINORITY, BY G.W.…

  13. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1989-04-01

    Indonesia, an archipelago of 13,500 islands, ranks 5th as the most populous nation in the world. It has 175 million people, 105 million of which live on the island of Java alone. Indonesia has many distinct cultural and linguistic groups. Islam almost wholly replaced Hindu by the end of the 16th century, after arriving in the 12th century. Today 88% of the people are Muslim, while the rest includes Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, and others. The constitution guarantees religious freedom. Indonesia gained independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Indonesia's 1st president, Sukarno, led the rebellion leading to independence and remained in power from 1949-1967. After aligning with Asian communist countries and establishing an authoritarian regime in the early 1960s, the people rebelled, attempted a coup and, in 1967, the People's,s Consultative Assembly named Soeharto as president. He continues to be Indonesia's president and the dominant government and political figure. The constitution provides limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. During the 1970s, the strong economy was based on high oil revenues and an industrial policy which protected domestic industries. Beginning in the 1980s, however, lower energy earnings assisted by low inflation, a downward float against the dollar, and the government eliminating regulatory obstacles turned the economic tide. Even though Indonesia has a larger unrescheduled external debt than any other developing nation, the government is dealing successfully with servicing this debt. Foreign interests participate in the oil and minerals sectors. Indonesia acts on its free and active foreign policy by playing a prominent role in Asian affairs, but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesia is on friendly terms with its neighbors, and the military does not advocate developing the capability to project its power. The US and Indonesia carry on cordial diplomatic and trade relations

  14. Field measurements of trace gases and aerosols emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Cochrane, Mark A.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Putra, Erianto I.; Saharjo, Bambang H.; Nurhayati, Ati D.; Albar, Israr; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Yokelson, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Peat fires in Southeast Asia have become a major annual source of trace gases and particles to the regional-global atmosphere. The assessment of their influence on atmospheric chemistry, climate, air quality, and health has been uncertain partly due to a lack of field measurements of the smoke characteristics. During the strong 2015 El Niño event we deployed a mobile smoke sampling team in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan on the island of Borneo and made the first, or rare, field measurements of trace gases, aerosol optical properties, and aerosol mass emissions for authentic peat fires burning at various depths in different peat types. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870 nm), and a small subset of the data from analyses of particulate filters. The trace gas measurements provide emission factors (EFs; grams of a compound per kilogram biomass burned) for up to ˜ 90 gases, including CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, 15 oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, OCS, HCl, etc. The modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of the smoke sources ranged from 0.693 to 0.835 with an average of 0.772 ± 0.053 (n = 35), indicating essentially pure smoldering combustion, and the emissions were not initially strongly lofted. The major trace gas emissions by mass (EF as g kg-1) were carbon dioxide (1564 ± 77), carbon monoxide (291 ± 49), methane (9.51 ± 4.74), hydrogen cyanide (5.75 ± 1.60), acetic acid (3.89 ± 1.65), ammonia (2.86 ± 1.00), methanol (2.14 ± 1.22), ethane (1.52 ± 0.66), dihydrogen (1.22 ± 1.01), propylene (1.07 ± 0.53), propane (0.989 ± 0.644), ethylene (0.961 ± 0.528), benzene (0.954 ± 0.394), formaldehyde (0.867 ± 0.479), hydroxyacetone (0.860 ± 0.433), furan (0.772 ± 0.035), acetaldehyde (0.697 ± 0.460), and acetone (0.691 ± 0.356). These field data support significant revision

  15. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Indonesia focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between Indonesia and the US. In 1985, Indonesia's population totaled 173 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Infant mortality was 89/1000 and life expectancy 55 years. The Republic of Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 13,500 islands extending 4800 kilometers along the equator from the mainland of Southeast Asia to Australia. Indonesians are primarily of Malay stock and include many related but distinct cultural and linguistic groups. Republic based on the 1945 constitution providing for limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. The president, elected for a 5-year term, is the dominant government and political figure. Over the 1983-85 period, Indonesia experienced much success in stabilizing the economy following a downturn in 1981-82. Indonesia cut government expenditures, devalued the rupiah by 28% vis-a-vis the US dollar, and introduced a financial reform package to improve efficiency in the banking system and to encourage savings. Real gross domestic product (GDP) grew 4.2% in 1983 and 6% in 1984; inflation fell from 12% in 1983 to 9% in 1984 and 4% during the 1st part of 1985; the current account deficit declined from 8% to 3% of GDP by 1984. Agriculture is the most important domestic sector, accounting for more than 25%. The manufacturing sector accounts for 12% of GDP. Since the beginning of the Soeharto government, US relations with Indonesia have been close and cordial.

  16. Dangers, delights, and destiny on the sea: fishers along the East coast of north sumatra, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project between the International Labour Organization's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, in identifying work hazards of fishers along the east coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia, in July 2004. The study employed qualitative investigation techniques: participant observations at fishing villages and harbors; and interviews with local fishers and skippers. Fishers work long hours in life-threatening conditions, often with low pay. It would be synergistic to incorporate fishing safety and health policies and advocacy efforts into reconstruction undertakings of fisheries devastated by the 2004 tsunami.

  17. A new Bent-toed gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Riyanto, Awal; Kurniati, Hellen; Engilis, Andrew

    2016-05-05

    We describe Cyrtodactylus hitchi sp. nov., a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from montane forests in the Mekongga Mountains, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia. Although we cannot speculate about relationships, morphologically it shares several traits with C. batik, a large species known only from Mount Tompotika near the tip of Sulawesi's Eastern Peninsula. The following unique combination of characters distinguishes it from all other congeners: absence of precloacal groove, absence of precloacal and femoral pores, absence of enlarged femoral scales, no abrupt contact between large and small postfemoral scales, 18-20 lamellae under the fourth toes, and transversely enlarged, median subcaudal scales arranged in a single row.

  18. The Use of Hotspot Spatial Clustering and Multitemporal Satellite Imagery to Facilitate Peat Land Degradation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia (Case Study in Mensiku Miniwatershed of Kapuas River)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuarsyah, I.; Suwarno, Y.; Hudjimartsu, S.

    2016-11-01

    Peat land in Indonesia is currently a matter of interest to economic activity. In addition to having the uniqueness of the ecosystem which is reserve a huge of biodiversity and carbon storage, peat land is grow an alternative expansion of agriculture and plantation. Mensiku miniwatershed is a subset of Kapuas Watershed with the domination of the peat soil type. It located in the upstream from the Kapuas River and supporting for the continuation of the river ecosystem. The research objective is to facilitate peat land degradation by using hotspot spatial clustering and multitemporal satellite imagery. There have three main processes which are image processing, geoprocessing and statistical process using DBSCAN to determine hotspot clustering. The trend of LUC changes for 14 years (2002 to 2016) shows that the downward occurred in secondary peat forest (0.9% per year) and swampy shrub (0.6% per year). The upward occurred in mixed farms (0.6% per year) and plantations (0.8% per year). degradation rate of peat land over 14 years about 4.6 km2 per year. Hotspot predominantly occurrence in secondary peat forest with 200-250 centimeter depth and Saprists type. DBSCAN clustering obtain 2 clusters in 2002, obtain 4 clusters in 2009 and obtain 1 clusters in 2016. Regarding LUC platform, average density value over 14 years about 0.063 hotspot per km2. DBSCAN is common used to examine the cluster and perform the distribution and density with spatial analysis

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  20. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among pigs in Bali and East Java, Indonesia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Utsumi, Takako; Amin, Mochamad; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a fatal disease in Asia. Pigs are considered to be the effective amplifying host for JEV in the peridomestic environment. Bali Island and Java Island in Indonesia provide a model to assess the effect of pigs on JEV transmission, since the pig density is nearly 100-fold higher in Bali than Java, while the geographic and climatologic environments are equivalent in these areas. We surveyed antibodies to JEV among 123 pigs in Mengwi (Bali) and 96 pigs in Tulungagung (East Java) in 2008 by the hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test. Overall prevalences were 49% in Bali and 6% in Java, with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). Monthly infection rates estimated from age-dependent antibody prevalences were 11% in Bali and 2% in Java. In addition, 2-mercaptoethanol-sensitive antibodies were found only from Bali samples. Further, the average HAI antibody titer obtained from positive samples was significantly higher in Bali (1:52) than Java (1:10; P < 0.001). These results indicated that JEV transmission in nature is more active in Bali than East Java.

  2. Informing rubella vaccination strategies in East Java, Indonesia through transmission modelling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Wood, James; Khandaker, Gulam; Waddington, Claire; Snelling, Thomas

    2016-11-04

    An estimated 110,000 babies are born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) worldwide annually; a significant proportion of cases occur in Southeast Asia. Rubella vaccine programs have led to successful control of rubella and CRS, and even the elimination of disease in many countries. However, if vaccination is poorly implemented it might increase the number of women reaching childbearing age who remain susceptible to rubella and thereby paradoxically increase CRS. We used an age-structured transmission model to compare seven alternative vaccine strategies for their impact on reducing CRS disease burden in East Java, a setting which is yet to implement a rubella vaccine program. We also investigated the robustness of model predictions to variation in vaccine coverage and other key epidemiological factors. Without rubella vaccination, approximately 700 babies are estimated to be born with CRS in East Java every year at an incidence of 0.77 per 1000live births. This incidence could be reduced to 0.0045 per 1000 live births associated with 99.9% annual reduction in rubella infections after 20 years if the existing two doses of measles vaccine are substituted with two doses of measles plus rubella combination vaccine with the same coverage (87.8% of 9-month-old infants and 80% of 6-year-old children). By comparison a single dose of rubella vaccine will take longer to reduce the burden of rubella and CRS and will be less robust to lower vaccine coverage. While the findings of this study should be informative for settings similar to East Java, the conclusions are dependent on vaccine coverage which would need consideration before applying to all of Indonesia and elsewhere in Asia.

  3. Towards a prevention program for β-thalassemia. The molecular spectrum in East Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hernanda, Pratika Yuhyi; Tursilowati, Luluk; Arkesteijn, Sandra G J; Ugrasena, I Dewa Gede; Larasati, Marian C Shanty; Soeatmadji, Sentot Mustajab; Giordano, Piero C; Harteveld, Cornelis L

    2012-01-01

    Defining the spectrum of specific thalassemia mutations is an important issue when planning prevention programs in large multi ethnic countries as is Indonesia. In a first attempt to define the prevalence of the common mutations in East Java we selected a cohort of 17 transfusion-dependent patients attending the Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. After basic diagnostics we performed direct DNA sequencing for all β-globin genes. The results obtained on 34 independent chromosomes revealed the following prevalence rates: c.79 G>A p. Glu27Lys (Hb E) 47.0%; c.92+5G>C (IVS-I-5 G>C) 20.6%; c.109_110 delC p.Pro37Leu fs X7 [codon 35 (-C)] 17.6%; c.46del T p.Trp16Gly fsX4 [codon 15 (-T)] 5.9%; c.126_129delCTTT p. Phe42Leu fs X19 (codons 41/42) 2.9%; c.316-197 C>T [IVS-II-654 (C>T)] 2.9%; c*112 A>G (PolyA) 2.9%. Our preliminary results show that the distribution of the prevalent mutations in our cohort is quite homogeneous but with different forms than previously reported. This indicates that more studies on a larger scale and in different geographical areas are needed to refine our provisional results and to characterize the molecular background of the disease in the whole country.

  4. Preliminary assessment of the geothermal system of the Tiris volcanic area, East Java, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deon, F.; Moeck, I.; Sheytt, T.; Jaya, M. S.

    2012-04-01

    Indonesia, with 15 % of the world's active volcanoes, hosts a total estimated geothermal potential of 27000 MW of which 1197 MWe in 2011 have been installed. Exploration of magmatic remote areas is therefore important. Our investigation area is located at the volcano Lamongan, Tiris East Java, Indonesia, which is part of the modern Sunda Arc Region, characterized by extensional regime. The average ground water temperature in the area ranges between 27 and 29 ° C and the warm springs between 35 - 45 ° C, evidencing a geothermal potential of the area. Numerous maars and cindered cones have been located and studied here, some of them with a NW - SE lineament similar to the Tiris fault (only observed in satellite images). In this first exploration stage we characterized the geochemistry of the springs and investigated the petrology of the rocks. They were analyzed in terms of mineral composition (optical microscopy and electron microprobe) and major element composition (X-ray fluorescence). The samples have a typical basaltic - basaltic andesite composition, with abundant plagioclase with An65 up to An90, as well as olivine and pyroxene. The plagioclase crystals are several mm large, twinned and show no hydrothermal alteration. The fluid chemistry was determined in term of cation and anion concentration with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The chemistry of geothermal waters provides specific information about the deep of the fluids in geothermal system and the discharge location. The concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Li+, B3+ and Cl- suggest that the water of the Lamongan area derive from sea water intrusions. The high permeable pyroclastites, overlain by lower permeable basalt - andesitic basalt, observed in the field, may have channeled the sea water from the coast to the Tiris area. A structural lineament, NW - SE, may control the water intrusion, as the lineament of the springs confirms. The high HCO3-concentration in the fluid samples, as no carbonate

  5. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B S; Coutrier, Farah N; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Luase, Yaveth; Sumarto, Wajiyo; Caley, Marten; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2006-05-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three selected villages in each sub-district, and blood smear analyses of 701, 921, and 894 randomly selected subjects in January, May, and August revealed 30.5%, 25.3%, and 28.2% malaria positives, respectively, consisting mainly of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and in a few cases, P. malariae. Analysis of malaria prevalence at different age groups clearly reflected the common phenomenon that younger individuals are more vulnerable by infection of either P. falciparum or P. vivax. In falciparum malaria, the frequency of cases carrying gametocytes was also relatively high involving all age groups. The findings indicate that the malaria incidence and transmission in the area are relatively high and that further exploration is warranted to establish a precise malaria control program.

  6. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  7. The Geothermal System of the Arjuno-Welirang Volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, S.; Mazzini, A.; Vita, F.

    2015-12-01

    Arjuno-Welirang is a twin strato-volcano system located in the East of Java (Indonesia). It features two main peaks: Arjuno (3339 masl) and Welirang (3156 masl). The last recorded eruptive activity took place in August 1950 from the flanks of Kawah Plupuh and in October 1950 by the NW part of the Gunung Welirang. This strato-volcano is characterized by a solfataric area, with high T-vent fumarole at least up to 220°C, located mainly in the Welirang crater zone where sulphur deposits are abundant. In addition, several hot springs vent from the flanks of the volcano, indicating the presence of a large hydrothermal system During July 2015 we carried out a geochemical field campaign on the Arjuno-Welirang volcano-hydrothermal system area sampling water and dissolved gases from the thermal and cold springs located on the flanks of the volcano and from two high-T fumaroles located on the summit area of Welirang. Hydrothermal springs reveal temperatures up to 53°C and pH between 6.2 and 8.2. The hydrothermal springs show a volatile content (mainly CO2 and He) that is several order of magnitude higher than the Air Saturated Waters values (ASW) indicating a strong gas/water interaction processes between waters of meteoric origin and deep volatiles of volcanic origin. The hydrothermal springs have dissolved helium isotopic values with clear magmatic signature (R/Ra around 7) that is remarkably close to the helium isotope values from the fumaroles (R/Ra= 7.30).

  8. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, Loïc; Burton, Michael R.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Smekens, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. Mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3 d-1 were measured in the first few months of the eruption, decreasing to a loosely documented <20,000 m3 d-1 in 2012. The last few years of activity have been characterized by periodic short-lived eruptive bursts. In May and October 2011, we documented this activity using high-resolution time-lapse photography, open-path FTIR, and thermal infrared imagery. Gases (98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, 0.5% methane) were periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter which triggered mud fountains to ˜10 m and gas plumes to hundreds of meters above the vent. During periods of quiescence (1-3 min), no appreciable gas seepage occurred. We estimate that LUSI releases approximately 2300 t yr-1 of methane, 30,000 t yr-1 of CO2, and 800,000 t yr-1 of water vapor. Gas bubble nucleation depths are >4000 m for methane and approximately 600 m for carbon dioxide; however, the mass fractions of these gases are insufficient to explain the observed dynamics. Rather, the primary driver of the cyclic bubble-bursting activity is decompressional boiling of water, which initiates a few tens of meters below the surface, setting up slug flow in the upper conduit. Our measured gas flux and conceptual model lead to a corresponding upper-bound estimate for the mud-water mass flux of 105 m3 d-1.

  9. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation.

  10. Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ~ 30 000 people. Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the mechanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s). In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126) we use both analytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. The 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.

  11. Periodic gas release from the LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E.; Smekens, J.

    2012-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in a densely populated district of the Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industries, farmlands, and 10,000 homes. Peak mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3/d were measured in the first few months of the eruption, which have decreased to <20,000 m3/d in 2012. Mud volcanoes often release fluids in a pulsating fashion, with periodic timescales ranging from minutes to days, and LUSI is no exception. These oscillations, common in natural systems of multi-phase fluid flow, are thought to result from some combination of complex feedback mechanisms between conduit and source geometry, fluid compressibility, viscosity and density, changes in lithostatic stresses, reservoir pressure, fluid phases or vent conditions. Crisis management workers and local residents reported observations of pulsating eruptive cycles lasting a few hours during the first two years of the eruption, and possibly beyond. Since that time, activity has shifted to individual transient eruptions recurring at intervals of a few minutes. In May and October of 2011, we documented the periodic explosive release of fluids at LUSI using a combination of high-resolution time-lapse photography, continuous webcam, open path FTIR, and thermal infrared imagery. The mud, consisting of approximately 70% water, is erupted at temperatures close to boiling. Gases are periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter, triggering mud fountains ~20 m in height. No appreciable gas seepage was detected in the quiescent intervals between bubble bursts. Absorption spectrometry in the infrared spectrum reveals that the gas released during explosions consists of 98.5% water vapor, 1% carbon dioxide, and 0.3% methane. On rare occasions, minor amounts of ammonia were also detected. Using simplified plume geometries based on observations, we estimate that LUSI releases approximately 1,500 T

  12. Challenges for control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suroso, Thomas; Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis has been reported from several provinces of Indonesia: Papua (=former Irian Jaya), Bali, North Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara, South East Sulawesi, Lampung, North Sulawesi, Jakarta, West Kalimantan, and East Java. The highest level of endemicity of taeniasis/cysticercosis has been found in Papua. Recent surveys in Jayawijaya District of Papua in 2000 and 2001 showed that 5 of 58 local people (8.6%) harbored the adult tapeworm, Taenia solium, whereas 44 of 96 people (45.8%), 50 of 71 pigs (70.4%), and 7 of 64 local dogs (10.9%) were seropositive for T. solium cysticercosis. Current surveys in Bali and Samosir District, North Sumatra during 2002-2005 revealed that Taenia saginata taeniasis has increased in incidence whereas T. solium cysticercosis is now rather rare compared to one-two decades ago in Bali. Taenia asiatica taeniasis is still common in Samosir District. Data from other provinces of Indonesia are very limited or unavailable. Control of these diseases is not a priority in the health or veterinary services, neither at central or local government levels. However, limited efforts toward control of the diseases have been implemented such as training of health personnel, community education on disease prevention, and provision of anthelminthics. A working group for control of the disease in Indonesia and an international collaboration have been established among Ministry of Health, Indonesia; University of Indonesia; and Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan since 1996. Future goals include implementation of active case finding (active surveillance) and treatment of tapeworm carriers, sustainable public health education, establishment of a system to check the quality of beef/pork and determine the distribution of infected animals and strengthening of laboratory capacity. Efforts to motivate provinces and districts should be implemented in developing the strategic plan to control of the disease. Given the considerable differences in

  13. The LUSI Seismic Experiment: Deployment of a Seismic Network around LUSI, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Karyono; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Haryanto, Iyan; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian; Rohadi, Suprianto; Suardi, Iman; Rudiyanto, Ariska; Pranata, Bayu

    2015-04-01

    The spectacular Lusi eruption started in northeast Java, Indonesia the 29 of May 2006 following a M6.3 earthquake striking the island. Initially, several gas and mud eruption sites appeared along the reactivated strike-slip Watukosek fault system and within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. Lusi is located few kilometres to the NE of the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. Lusi sits upon the Watukosek fault system. From this volcanic complex originates the Watukosek fault system that was reactivated by the M6.3 earthquake in 2006 and is still periodically reactivated by the frequent seismicity. To date Lusi is still active and erupting gas, water, mud and clasts. Gas and water data show that the Lusi plumbing system is connected with the neighbouring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. This makes the Lusi eruption a "sedimentary hosted geothermal system". To verify and characterise the occurrence of seismic activity and how this perturbs the connected Watukosek fault, the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic system and the ongoing Lusi eruption, we deployed 30 seismic stations (short-period and broadband) in this region of the East Java basin. The seismic stations are more densely distributed around LUSI and the Watukosek fault zone that stretches between Lusi and the Arjuno Welirang (AW) complex. Fewer stations are positioned around the volcanic arc. Our study sheds light on the seismic activity along the Watukosek fault system and describes the waveforms associated to the geysering activity of Lusi. The initial network aims to locate small event that may not be captured by the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) seismic network and it will be crucial to design the second phase of the seismic experiment that will consist of a local earthquake tomography of the Lusi-Arjuno Welirang region and temporal variations of vp/vs ratios. Such variations will then be ideally related to

  14. Origin of fluids and eruption dynamics at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Hartnett, H. E.; Clarke, A. B.; Burton, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java (Indonesia) has been erupting mud, water and gases since May 2006. It is the most recent manifestation of mud volcanism in the Sunda back-arc region, part of a larger cluster of a dozen mud volcanoes scattered across East Java and Madura. LUSI discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters of mud per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupted fluids are a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures, accompanied by the bursting of gas bubbles on average every 1-3 minutes, which trigger mud fountains ~20 m in height. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and eruption behavior at this complex and evolving mud volcano, by using a combination of absorption infrared spectrometry of the gases, X-Ray diffraction of the solid fraction, major and trace element analyses of solids and dissolved ions in liquids, and isotopic analyses of separated water (D/H and 87Sr/86Sr). Similar analyses of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes) were also carried out for comparison. From open path FTIR measurements, we determine that the gases released during explosions at LUSI consist of 98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% methane, with corresponding fluxes of 2,300 t/yr of CH4, 30,000 t/yr of CO2 and 800,000 t/yr of water vapor. The methane flux is two orders of magnitude larger than estimates for any other single mud volcano on Earth. By comparing the mineral composition of solids present in the mud to rock outcrops of the local stratigraphy, the solids can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the liquid phase are more difficult to interpret. The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct

  15. Increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from East Java and Papua, Indonesia, in 2004 - implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Sutrisna, A; Soebjakto, O; Wignall, F S; Kaul, S; Limnios, E A; Ray, S; Nguyen, N-L; Tapsall, J W

    2006-12-01

    We examined gonococci isolated in 2004, in East Java and Papua, Indonesia, to review the suitability of ciprofloxacin-based and other treatment regimens. Gonococci from the two provinces were tested in Sydney for susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin and rifampicin. Of 163 gonococcal isolates from East Java (91) and Papua (72), 120 (74%) of gonococci, 62 (68%) and 58 (80%) from East Java and Papua, respectively, were penicillinase-producing gonococci and 162 displayed high-level tetracycline resistance. Eighty-seven isolates (53%) were ciprofloxacin resistant, 44 (48%) from East Java and 43 (60%) from Papua. All isolates were sensitive to cefixime/ceftriaxone, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin were in the range 0.05-8 mg/L. Sixty-nine gonococci (42%) showed combined resistance, to penicillin, tetracycline and quinolones. Quinolone resistance has now reached unacceptable levels, and their use for the treatment of gonorrhoea in Indonesia should be reconsidered.

  16. Organic chemical composition of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, R. J.; Campbell, P.; Lam, A.

    2009-12-01

    Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia is the site of LUSI, a terrestrial mud volcano that has been erupting since May 29, 2006. In response to a U.S. Department of State request, the U.S. Geological Survey has been assisting the Indonesian Government to describe the geological and geochemical aspects and potential health risk of the mud eruption. We report here on the organic chemical composition of the mud. Organic chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy following organic extraction by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and compound fractionation by adsorption chromatography. There is a petroliferous component in the mud that is fresh, immature, and nonbiodegraded. There is a complete suite of n-alkanes with a bell-shaped pattern typical of fresh petroleum with a Cmax around C20. The alkane content ranges from 0.12 to 1.01 mg/kg dry mud. The presence of certain hopanes (i.e. 17 α,21β(H)-30-norhopane and 17α,21β(H)-hopane) is also indicative of the presence of oil. The proportions of other biomarker compounds (pristane/phytane = 2.4) and the dominance of the C27 sterane (5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-chlolestane) suggest that oil formed under oxic conditions and has a likely coastal marine or terrigenous source. The presence of oleanane indicates a Cretaceous or younger age for the petrogenic material. These geochemical parameters are consistent with Indonesian oil derived from Tertiary marlstone source rocks that contained kerogen deposited under oxic conditions, probably the upper Miocene Klasafet Formation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present and range in content from 0.1 to 2.2 mg/kg dry mud. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, in particular, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalene are dominant except for perylene which is ubiquitous in the environment. The presence of both parent and higher homologue PAHs indicate a petrogenic rather than combustion source. PAHs are known carcinogens but toxicity data in sediments are

  17. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  18. Enteric Parasites of Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in Indonesia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-27

    Rehabilitation Center at Bohorok Sumatra, and from wild and ex-captive orangutans at the Tanjung Puting Preserve in South Borneo (Kalimantan) (Figure I). This...three orangutans examined in the Tanjung Puting Reserve in Kalimantan South Borneo included twelve harboring Balantidium, thirty-six shedding hookworm...Special Report 78-9 L EVEL ENTERIC PARASITES OF ORANGUTANS (Pongo pygmaeus) IN INDONESIA Erich E. Stafford, Austin L. Moede, Richard J. Brown

  19. A brief history of the development of plastic surgery in The Netherlands East-Indies from World War I until the independence of Indonesia (1914-1950).

    PubMed

    Haeseker, B

    1990-05-01

    This study of surgical operations published in the Medical Journal of the Netherlands East-Indies over the period 1914-1950, supplemented with a series of interviews with retired Dutch East-Indian surgeons and their relatives, shows a vivid interest in plastic surgery from World War I until the independence of Indonesia. One can conclude that plastic surgery was performed more frequently and on a larger scale than in Holland, due to a larger number of patients, specific tropical pathology and often a longer patient delay, requiring extensive reconstructive procedures. The East-Indian publications on plastic surgical topics outnumber the Dutch ones enormously.

  20. Low environmental selenium availability as an additional determinant for goiter in East Java, Indonesia?

    PubMed

    Untoro, J; Ruz, M; Gross, R

    1999-11-01

    Iodine deficiency, which is most visibly indicated by goiter, is highly prevalent in Indonesia. Since 1994, Indonesia has a decree that all salt used for human, livestock, and industry must be iodized. However, despite the increased distribution of iodized salt, pockets with significantly higher prevalence of goiter still remain. This situation may be consequence of selenium (Se) deficiency. This study aimed to assess the Se level in the environment of goiter prevalent areas. Five hundred eleven school children participated in this study. Goiter was measured using both ultrasound and palpation. Ninety-nine eggs were collected from free-living chicken in 11 villages, and the Se contents of egg yolk and egg white were determined by neutron activation analysis. In the villages studied, Se concentration in egg yolk ranged from 0.15 to 1.52 microg/g and in egg white from 0.18 to 2.97 microg/g. The prevalence of goiter measured by palpation ranged from 18.4% to 70% and by ultrasound from 0% to 100%. Because of the inconsistency of goiter rate measured by palpation and ultrasonography, the question remains whether low availability of Se in the environment might be an additional contributing factor for goiter.

  1. A Toba-scale eruption in the Early Miocene: The Semilir eruption, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Helen R.; Crowley, Quentin G.; Hall, Robert; Kinny, Peter D.; Hamilton, P. Joseph; Schmidt, Daniela N.

    2011-10-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is well-known for volcanic activity and has been the location of three catastrophic eruptions in the last million years: Krakatau, Tambora and Toba. However, there are no reports of large magnitude eruptions during the earlier Cenozoic despite a long volcanic record in Indonesia during subduction of Indian Ocean lithosphere since the Eocene. Here we report an Early Miocene major eruption, the Semilir eruption, in south Java, the main phase of which occurred at 20.7 ± 0.02 Ma. This major volcanic eruption appears similar in scale, but not in type, to the 74 ka Toba event. Its products can be identified elsewhere in Java and are likely to have been distributed widely in SE Asia and adjacent oceans. The Semilir eruption could have triggered a climate response, but cannot yet be linked with certainty to Early Miocene climatic events such as glaciations.

  2. Major east-west division underlies Y chromosome stratification across Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Hallmark, Brian; Cox, Murray P; Sudoyo, Herawati; Downey, Sean; Lansing, J Stephen; Hammer, Michael F

    2010-08-01

    The early history of island Southeast Asia is often characterized as the story of two major population dispersals: the initial Paleolithic colonization of Sahul approximately 45 ka ago and the much later Neolithic expansion of Austronesian-speaking farmers approximately 4 ka ago. Here, in the largest survey of Indonesian Y chromosomes to date, we present evidence for multiple genetic strata that likely arose through a series of distinct migratory processes. We genotype an extensive battery of Y chromosome markers, including 85 single-nucleotide polymorphisms/indels and 12 short tandem repeats, in a sample of 1,917 men from 32 communities located across Indonesia. We find that the paternal gene pool is sharply subdivided between western and eastern locations, with a boundary running between the islands of Bali and Flores. Analysis of molecular variance reveals one of the highest levels of between-group variance yet reported for human Y chromosome data (e.g., Phi(ST) = 0.47). Eastern Y chromosome haplogroups are closely related to Melanesian lineages (i.e., within the C, M, and S subclades) and likely reflect the initial wave of colonization of the region, whereas the majority of western Y chromosomes (i.e., O-M119*, O-P203, and O-M95*) are related to haplogroups that may have entered Indonesia during the Paleolithic from mainland Asia. In addition, two novel markers (P201 and P203) provide significantly enhanced phylogenetic resolution of two key haplogroups (O-M122 and O-M119) that are often associated with the Austronesian expansion. This more refined picture leads us to put forward a four-phase colonization model in which Paleolithic migrations of hunter-gatherers shape the primary structure of current Indonesian Y chromosome diversity, and Neolithic incursions make only a minor impact on the paternal gene pool, despite the large cultural impact of the Austronesian expansion.

  3. Analysis of Focal Mechanism and Microseismicity around the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Karyono; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Abdurrokhim, Abdurrokhim; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of May 2006 numerous eruption sites started in northeast Java, Indonesia following to a M6.3 earthquake striking the island.Within a few weeks an area or nearly 2 km2 was covered by boiling mud and rock fragments and a prominent central crater (named Lusi) has been erupting for the last 9.5 years. The M.6.3 seismic event also triggered the activation of the Watukosek strike slip fault system that originates from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex and extends to the northeast of Java hosting Lusi and other mud volcanoes. Since 2006 this fault system has been reactivated in numerous instances mostly following to regional seismic and volcanic activity. However the mechanism controlling this activity have never been investigated and remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the relationship existing between seismicity, volcanism, faulting and Lusi activity, we have deployed a network of 31 seismometers in the framework of the ERC-Lusi Lab project. This network covers a large region that monitors the Lusi activity, the Watukosek fault system and the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. In particular, to understand the consistent pattern of the source mechanism, relative to the general tectonic stress in the study area, a detailed analysis has been carried out by performing the moment tensor inversion for the near field data collected from the network stations. Furthermore these data have been combined with the near field data from the regional network of the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia that covers the whole country on a broader scale. Keywords: Lusi, microseismic event, focal mechanism

  4. An investigation of classical swine fever virus seroprevalence and risk factors in pigs in East Nusa Tenggara, eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sawford, Kate; Geong, Maria; Bulu, Petrus M; Drayton, Emily; Mahardika, Gusti N K; Leslie, Edwina E C; Robertson, Ian; Gde Putra, Anak Agung; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-05-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly infectious disease of pigs. It has had significant impacts on East Nusa Tenggara, eastern Indonesia since its introduction in 1997. In spite of its importance to this region, little is known about its seroprevalence and distribution, and pig-level and farmer-level factors that may have an impact on the serological status of an individual pig. To address this knowledge deficit, a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey was conducted in 2010 involving 2160 pigs and 805 farmers from four islands in the region. Farmer questionnaires and pig record forms were used to collect data about the farmers and pigs surveyed. Blood was collected from each pig to determine its CSFV serological status. Apparent and true prevalence were calculated for each island, district, subdistrict, and village surveyed. CSFV serological status was used as an outcome variable in mixed effects logistic regression analyses. Overall true CSFV seroprevalence was estimated at 17.5% (lower CI 16.0%; upper CI 19.5%). Seroprevalence estimates varied widely across the islands, districts, subdistricts, and villages. Manggarai Barat, a district on the western end of Flores Island, contained pigs that were positive for antibody to CSFV. This result was unexpected, as no clinical cases had been reported in this area. Older pigs and pigs that had been vaccinated for CSFV were more likely to test positive for antibody to CSFV. The final multivariable model accounted for a large amount of variation in the data, however much of this variation was explained by the random effects with less than 2% of the variation explained by pig age and pig CSFV vaccination status. In this study we documented the seroprevalence of CSFV across four islands in East Nusa Tenggara, eastern Indonesia. We also identified risk factors for the presence of antibody to CSFV. Further investigation is needed to understand why clinical CSFV has not been reported on the western end of Flores Island

  5. Precessional changes in the western equatorial Pacific Hydroclimate: A 240 kyr marine record from the Halmahera Sea, East Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haowen; Jian, Zhimin; Kissel, Catherine; Bassinot, Franck

    2015-01-01

    the precession band, an interhemispheric antiphase pattern in the tropical hydroclimate is supported by many paleorecords, and optimally explained by the forcing of precessional insolation change. However, scenarios within the western equatorial Pacific (WEP), which plays the role of the ascending center of atmospheric convection, remain poorly determined. In this study, a marine sediment core from the Halmahera Sea, East Indonesia, was analyzed with high-resolution XRF scanning, quantitative discrete XRF, and ICP-AES/MS measurements. The terrigenous fractions in this core are constrained by their trace elemental characteristics to be locally sourced from Halmahera Island, and hence reflect variations in the local riverine runoff and precipitation. On this basis, a continuous record of precipitation changes of the western equatorial Pacific was reconstructed with multidecadal resolution over the last ˜240 ka, using an age model established by the correlation between an adjusted ice volume model and benthic δ18O constrained by 14C dating. The records of terrigenous input show a dominant ˜23 kyr periodicity with a 90°˜100° phase lag to the boreal summer (i.e., in-phase with the boreal autumn) insolation change. This pattern can be explained by the variability in the convective activity over the WEP, which might be primarily controlled by precessional changes in the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system. A dynamic linkage is implied between the precessional variations in the convective activity in the WEP and the East Asian and Australia-Indonesian summer monsoons (EASM and AISM), in the sense of their distinct stable phase relationship to precession.

  6. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  7. Status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands cover around 13 Mha in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human activities have rapidly increased in the peatland ecosystems during the last two decades, invariably degrading them and making them vulnerable to fires. This causes high carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change. For this article, we used 94 high resolution (10-20 m) satellite images to map the status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan using visual image interpretation. The results reveal that less than 4% of the peatland areas remain covered by pristine peatswamp forests (PSFs), while 37% are covered by PSFs with varying degree of degradation. Furthermore, over 20% is considered to be unmanaged degraded landscape, occupied by ferns, shrubs and secondary growth. This alarming extent of degradation makes peatlands vulnerable to accelerated peat decomposition and catastrophic fire episodes that will have global consequences. With on-going degradation and development the existence of the entire tropical peatland ecosystem in this region is in great danger.

  8. Sediment yield from gullies, riparian mass wasting and bank erosion in the Upper Konto catchment, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, Anton; Bruijnzeel, L. A. (Sampurno); Prins, Th. M.

    2007-06-01

    Upland watershed rehabilitation programmes in Indonesia have faced increased scrutiny for not delivering the desired reductions in downstream sedimentation rates. Partly this reflects the fact that conservation measures have not been widely adopted or maintained by upland farmers, mainly for socio-economic reasons. Another potential explanation is that sediment contributions by gullying, (riparian) mass wasting and bank erosion have been seriously underestimated or even ignored. This paper presents estimates of sediment contributions by gullies, riparian mass wasting and bank erosion in the upland volcanic Konto catchment, East Java. Runoff and sediment yield from gullies were studied in two areas with contrasting soils and land use. Gullies in the Maron area (few gullies, Andic Cambisols, maize and rice cultivation on stable broad-based terraces) were related to improper drainage of trails, roads and yards. In the Binangsri area (more widespread gullying, Eutric Cambisols, onion cultivation on forward-sloping terraces), gullying was further enhanced by the practice of downslope furrowing to promote field drainage. Estimated annual sediment yields from the two areas were strikingly different at 22-26 and 50-87 Mg ha - 1 , respectively. Riparian mass wasting was estimated to contribute ca. 4% of total sediment yield at Maron and 8-19% in the main gully system at Binangsri, with the higher value in the latter case representing the effect of extreme rainfall in the latter half of the rainy season. Short-term wet season rates of gully wall retreat at Binangsri suggested a contribution by bank erosion of ca. 3% (8% including extreme events). As such, 11-27% of the annual sediment yield at Binangsri was estimated to have come from sources other than surface erosion. Substantial volumes of sediment (29-107 Mg km - 1 of river length) were also added to streams bordered by irrigated rice fields ( sawah) in non-gullied areas, mainly through the collapse of the lowermost

  9. High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Observations of Crater-Lake Surface Temperatures at Kawah Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Caudron, C.; van Hinsberg, V.; Bani, P.; Hilley, G. E.; Kelly, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Subaqueous volcanic eruptions comprise only 8% of all recorded eruptions in historical time, but have caused ~20% of fatalities associated with volcanic activity during this time (Mastin and Witter, 2000). Crater lakes, however, act as calorimeters, absorbing heat from intruding magma and integrating it over space and time and thus offer a unique opportunity to monitor volcanic activity. Kawah Ijen is a composite volcano located on east Java, Indonesia, whose crater hosts the largest natural hyperacidic lake (27 x 106 m3; pH <1) on Earth. As part of an international workshop on Kawah Ijen in September 2014, we tested a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater-lake apparent surface temperatures at high spatial (~30 cm) and temporal (every two minutes) resolution. We used a ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera from the crater rim to collect a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent surface temperatures typically ranged from ~21 to 28oC. At two locations, apparent surface temperatures were ~ 7 and 9 oC less than in-situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5 m depth, respectively. We observed large spatio-temporal variations in lake apparent surface temperatures, which were likely associated with wind-driven evaporative cooling of the lake surface. Our approach shows promise for continuous monitoring of crater-lake surface temperatures, particularly if the TIR camera is deployed as part of a permanent station with ancillary meteorological measurements to help distinguish temperature variations associated with atmospheric processes from those at depth within the lake and volcano.

  10. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Caudron, Corentin; van Hinsberg, Vincent J.; Hilley, George E.

    2016-08-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to date have not resolved how the lake's thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater lake apparent surface ("skin") temperatures at high spatial (˜32 cm) and temporal (every 2 min) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ˜21 to 33 °C. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ˜4 and 7 °C less than in situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5-m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as the evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  11. Diplomacy Through Earth Sciences: An Overview of US Geological Survey Technical Assistance Regarding the Ongoing LUSI Mud Eruption, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadevall, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    In June 2007, the US Department of State (DOS) requested assistance from the USGS to provide technical guidance and advice to the US Mission in Indonesia regarding the Lumpur Sidoarjo (LUSI) mud crisis. In May 2006, LUSI began as a mud eruption from a series of mud springs adjacent to an oil and gas exploration well being drilled near Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. The production of mud and waters from the LUSI crater area has now continued for more than 3 years with no significant change in mud production rate (~110,000 cubic meters per day) nor in temperature of the mud (70-80 degrees C). Engineers suggest that mud production will continue at these rates for years to decades to come. Regardless of future activity at LUSI, the current mud accumulation of more than 100 million cubic meters poses a physical and environmental hazard which requires continuous monitoring and observation. The first response to the 2007 DOS request involved a site visit to Indonesia in September 2007. The result of that visit was to recommend to the Government of Indonesia (GOI) that they focus on long-term management of the mud rather than focus on the controversy as to the cause of the eruption or the debate about stopping the flow. Other recommendations from the initial 2007 technical visit included contracting for a US scientist to be co-located with engineers of the Sidoarjo Mud Management Board (BPLS) in Surabaya, East Java, to advise and consult on day-to-day developments at the site of the mud eruption. A second technical team visit by USGS scientists and an engineer from the US Army Corps of Engineers in October-November 2008 made additional recommendations on the long-term management of the mud and was followed in December by the start of a 6 month contract for the US mud adviser. From the start of activity in mid-2006 through late-2008, there was a clear sense of urgency at the US Mission in Indonesia to provide guidance and advice and included the personal intervention of

  12. Differentials in female labour force participation rates in Indonesia: reflection of economic needs and opportunities, culture or bad data?

    PubMed

    Jones, G

    1986-12-01

    This study investigates regional differentials in female labor force participation rates by educational status in Indonesia, using data from the 1961, 1971, and 1980 censuses. Rates in the Javanese areas are always well above the Indonesian average; in mainly Sundanese West Java they are much lower than the average, and in South Sulawesi they are lower still. Kalimantan is the only region where there is no stability in rates over time, possibly due to the inaccessibility of much of its population for census-taking. When only urban areas are considered, the regional differentials do not alter very much. As in most of the world, participation rates for single women are higher than those of married women, and those for divorced and widowed women are higher still. Participation rates are lowest of all for women with a junior high school education, rise for those witha senior high school education; and rise sharply for those with a university or academy education. The provinces with the highest urban female labor force participation rates--Yogyakarta, Central Java, East Java, and Bali--are among the poorest provinces in Indonesia. Female labor force participation rates in Indonesia are much higher than in other Moslem countries. Geographic and socioeconomic differentials in female labor force participation rates in Indonesia are not an artifact of inconsistencies in the data, but can be related to 2 other sets of explanatory variables: 1) economic needs and opportunities and 2) cultural differences.

  13. Geographical Assessment of Rickettsioses in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Susana; Williams, Maya; Winoto, Imelda; Farzeli, Arik; Stoops, Craig A; Barbara, Kathryn A; Richards, Allen L; Blair, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    To expand the documentation of rickettsioses in Indonesia, we conducted an ectoparasite and small mammal investigation involving four major islands: Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Coastal and highland regions on each island surveyed were chosen to represent different ecologies in Indonesia. Indication of the presence of Rickettsia spp. was evident in all areas sampled. Typhus group rickettsiae-specific antibodies had significantly higher prevalence among small mammals captured in Java compared to the other islands surveyed (78% in coastal and 50% in highland regions) and the prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae-specific antibodies was significantly higher in Kalimantan than the other islands investigated. Hosts and vectors were restricted by Rickettsia spp. but not by coastal or highland regions. Our findings expand the range in which rickettsial pathogens have been documented within the Indonesian archipelago and point to a significant risk to human health.

  14. Contrasts between debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows at a channel of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Suwa, Hiroshi

    2004-07-01

    In order to differentiate between different types of sediment-laden-flows in volcanic channels, we carried out observation of debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows, and stream flows in the Curah Lengkong river on the southeast slope of Mount Semeru in East Java, Indonesia. The aims of this study are: (1) to provide quantitative data for these flows in motion; (2) to compare the data for different types of flow that occur in the same river; (3) to assess the influence of rainfall on debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows, and streamflow generation. The Curah Lengkong river transports large volumes of sediment, in the range of 1×10 5 to 5×10 5 m 3 per debris flow, and 10 3 to 10 5 m 3 per hyperconcentrated flow and stream flow. Large sediment discharges result from the following factors: continuous and voluminous sediment supply of fine juvenile material by daily explosions of the Semeru volcano, pyroclastic source material emplaced on steep slopes, strong erosion of weathered river banks, and strong rainfall intensities. The occurrence of the flows focuses in the period from November through April, and the daily timing of it is the mid to late afternoon. Nearly all debris flows are triggered by stationary rainfall confined to the upper slopes of Mount Semeru, whereas hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows are mainly generated by migratory or regional rains driven upwards on the eastern slope. This slope receives its maximum of annual rainfall (3800 mm) at 800 m asl. The peak surface velocity of debris flows is always greater than the peak frontal velocity. The peak discharge of debris flows occurs several minutes after the passage of the flow front. Volumetric concentrations of sediment are high (48% to 69%) between the debris flow front and the point of peak discharge; after the peak discharge it usually decreases gradually. Contrary to the case of debris flows, high concentration of sediment appears in various portion of hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows

  15. Evidence of Multiple Ground-rupturing Earthquakes in the Past 4000 Years along the Pasuruan Fault, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental and historical records of earthquakes, supplemented by paleoeseismic constraints can help reveal the earthquake potential of an area. The Pasuruan fault is a high angle normal fault with prominent youthful scarps cutting young deltaic sediments in the north coast of East Java, Indonesia and may pose significant hazard to the densely populated region. This fault has not been considered a significant structure, and mapped as a lineament with no sense of motion. Information regarding past earthquakes along this fault is not available. The fault is well defined both in the imagery and in the field as a ~13km long, 2-50m-high scarp. Open and filled fractures and natural exposures of the south-dipping fault plane indicate normal sense of motion. We excavated two fault-perpendicular trenches across a relay ramp identified during our surface mapping. Evidence for past earthquakes (documented in both trenches) includes upward fault termination with associated fissure fills, colluvial wedges and scarp-derived debris, folding, and angular unconformities. The ages of the events are constrained by 23 radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal. We calibrated the dates using IntCal13 and used Oxcal to build the age model of the events. Our preliminary age model indicates that since 2006±134 B.C., there has been at least five ground rupturing earthquakes along the fault. The oldest event identified in the trench however, is not well-dated. Our modeled 95th percentile ranges of the next four earlier earthquakes (and their mean) are A.D. 1762-1850 (1806), A.D. 1646-1770 (1708), A.D. 1078-1648 (1363), and A.D. 726-1092 (909), yielding a rough recurrence rate of 302±63 yrs. These new data imply that Pasuruan fault is more active than previously thought. Additional well-dated earthquakes are necessary to build a solid earthquake recurrence model. Rupture along the whole section implies a minimum earthquake magnitude of 6.3, considering 13km as the minimum surface rupture

  16. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater-lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Corentin Caudron,; Vincent van Hinsberg,; George Hilley,

    2016-01-01

    The crater lake of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, has displayed large and rapid changes in temperature at point locations during periods of unrest, but measurement techniques employed to-date have not resolved how the lake’s thermal regime has evolved over both space and time. We applied a novel approach for mapping and monitoring variations in crater-lake apparent surface (“skin”) temperatures at high spatial (~32 cm) and temporal (every two minutes) resolution at Kawah Ijen on 18 September 2014. We used a ground-based FLIR T650sc camera with digital and thermal infrared (TIR) sensors from the crater rim to collect (1) a set of visible imagery around the crater during the daytime and (2) a time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one location from pre-dawn to daytime. We processed daytime visible imagery with the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which the time series of TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Lake apparent skin temperatures typically ranged from ~21 to 33oC. At two locations, apparent skin temperatures were ~ 4 and 7 oC less than in-situ lake temperature measurements at 1.5 and 5 m depth, respectively. These differences, as well as the large spatio-temporal variations observed in skin temperatures, were likely largely associated with atmospheric effects such as evaporative cooling of the lake surface and infrared absorption by water vapor and SO2. Calculations based on orthorectified TIR imagery thus yielded underestimates of volcanic heat fluxes into the lake, whereas volcanic heat fluxes estimated based on in-situ temperature measurements (68 to 111 MW) were likely more representative of Kawah Ijen in a quiescent state. The ground-based imaging technique should provide a valuable tool to continuously monitor crater-lake temperatures and contribute insight into the spatio-temporal evolution of these temperatures associated with volcanic activity.

  17. Stress and mass changes during the 2011-2012 unrest at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudron, C.; Lecocq, T.; Syahbana, D.; Camelbeeck, T.; Bernard, A. M.; Surono, S.

    2013-12-01

    Kawah Ijen volcano (East Java, Indonesia) has been equipped since June 2010 with 3 broadband seismometers, temporary and permanent short-period seismometers. While the volcano did not experience any magmatic eruption for more than a century, several types of unrests occurred during the last years. Apart from the seismometers, temperature and leveling divers have been immerged in the extremely acidic volcanic lake (pH ~ 0). While finding instruments capable of resisting in such extreme conditions has been particularly challenging, the coupling of lake monitoring techniques with seismic data improves the understanding and monitoring of the volcanic-hydrothermal system. To detect small velocity changes, the approach developed by Brenguier et al. (2008) and Clarke et al. (2011) has been implemented to monitor Ijen volcano. First, the influence of several parameters detrimental to the recovering of the cross correlation function will be discussed (i.e.: different types of seismometers and their azimuthal distribution, presence of volcanic tremor in different frequency bands). At Kawah Ijen, the frequency band that is less affected by the volcanic tremor and the seasonal fluctuations at the source ranges between 0.5-1.0 Hz. Moreover, a stack of 5 days for the current CCF gives reliable results with low errors and allows to detect fluctuations which are missed using a 10-day stack. We will then present the results of this technique compared to other seismic parameters (e.g.: seismo volcanic events spectral analysis) and temporal changes in lake temperature, color or lake levels that occurred during 2011-2012 crises that were the strongest ever recorded by the seismic monitoring network. An unrest commenced in October 2011 with heightened VT (Volcano Tectonic) earthquakes and low frequency events activity, which culminated mid-December 2011. This unrest was correlated with an enhanced heat and hydrothermal fluids discharge to the crater and significant variations of the

  18. Bird of Mesangat in East Kutai, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanti, Arini; Suripto, Bambang A.; Sancayaningsih, Retno P.

    2017-02-01

    The reduction of forest cover and wetland to plantations has a negative effect on local avifauna. A survey was conducted along the Mesangat swamp in the Muara Ancalong district to estimate bird diversity in wetland and it forest habitats. Observation and traps were set up in open-bodies of water and lowland forest dominated by Malotus sumatranus and Calamus spp. A total of 70 species were recorded belonging to 58 genera across 33 families in 14 orders. The bird species were grouped into 8 categories according to their main food preferences; nectarivorous, piscivorous, carnivorous, insectivorous, granivorous, frugivorous, herbivorous, and omnivorous. Of these avifauna groups, insectivorous are the most abundant followed by piscivorous while herbivorous and omnivorous is being the least abundant. Based on the IUCN Red List, 2 species are listed as vulnerable, 13 species as near threatened, and the remaining 55 species are of least concern. In addition, 24 species are identified as protected species and 46 species are considered unprotected according to the Government Act (88) No. 7, 1999. The presence of vulnerable species in this study highlights the potential of Mesangat swamp as an important conservation area for avifauna.

  19. Phylogeography of the sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations.

    PubMed

    Becking, Leontine E; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; de Voogd, Nicole J

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea and could be regarded as the marine equivalents of terrestrial islands. The sponge Suberites diversicolor (Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitidae) is typical of marine lake habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Four molecular markers (two mitochondrial and two nuclear) were employed to study genetic structure of populations within and between marine lakes in Indonesia and three coastal locations in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia. Within populations of S. diversicolor two strongly divergent lineages (A & B) (COI: p = 0.4% and ITS: p = 7.3%) were found, that may constitute cryptic species. Lineage A only occurred in Kakaban lake (East Kalimantan), while lineage B was present in all sampled populations. Within lineage B, we found low levels of genetic diversity in lakes, though there was spatial genetic population structuring. The Australian population is genetically differentiated from the Indonesian populations. Within Indonesia we did not record an East-West barrier, which has frequently been reported for other marine invertebrates. Kakaban lake is the largest and most isolated marine lake in Indonesia and contains the highest genetic diversity with genetic variants not observed elsewhere. Kakaban lake may be an area where multiple putative refugia populations have come into secondary contact, resulting in high levels of genetic diversity and a high number of endemic species.

  20. Tertiary facies architecture in the Kutai Basin, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Steve J.; Chambers, John L. C.

    1999-04-01

    The Kutai Basin occupies an area of extensive accommodation generated by Tertiary extension of an economic basement of mixed continental/oceanic affinity. The underlying crust to the basin is proposed here to be Jurassic and Cretaceous in age and is composed of ophiolitic units overlain by a younger Cretaceous turbidite fan, sourced from Indochina. A near complete Tertiary sedimentary section from Eocene to Recent is present within the Kutai Basin; much of it is exposed at the surface as a result of the Miocene and younger tectonic processes. Integration of geological and geophysical surface and subsurface data-sets has resulted in re-interpretation of the original facies distributions, relationships and arrangement of Tertiary sediments in the Kutai Basin. Although much lithostratigraphic terminology exists for the area, existing formation names can be reconciled with a simple model explaining the progressive tectonic evolution of the basin and illustrating the resulting depositional environments and their arrangements within the basin. The basin was initiated in the Middle Eocene in conjunction with rifting and likely sea floor spreading in the Makassar Straits. This produced a series of discrete fault-bounded depocentres in some parts of the basin, followed by sag phase sedimentation in response to thermal relaxation. Discrete Eocene depocentres have highly variable sedimentary fills depending upon position with respect to sediment source and palaeo water depths and geometries of the half-graben. This contrasts strongly with the more regionally uniform sedimentary styles that followed in the latter part of the Eocene and the Oligocene. Tectonic uplift documented along the southern and northern basin margins and related subsidence of the Lower Kutai Basin occurred during the Late Oligocene. This subsidence is associated with significant volumes of high-level andesitic-dacitic intrusive and associated volcanic rocks. Volcanism and uplift of the basin margins resulted in the supply of considerable volumes of material eastwards. During the Miocene, basin fill continued, with an overall regressive style of sedimentation, interrupted by periods of tectonic inversion throughout the Miocene to Pliocene.

  1. Aircraft measurements of ozone, NOx, CO, and aerosol concentrations in biomass burning smoke over Indonesia and Australia in October 1997: Depleted ozone layer at low altitude over Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Sawa, Yousuke; Makino, Yukio; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Gras, John L.; Ryan, Brian F.; Diharto, Sri; Harjanto, Hery

    The 1997 El Niño unfolded as one of the most sever El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in this century and it coincided with massive biomass burning in the equatorial western Pacific region. To assess the influence on the atmosphere, aircraft observations of trace gases and aerosol were conducted over Kalimantan in Indonesia and Australia. Over Kalimantan in Indonesia, high concentrations of O3, NOx, CO, and aerosols were observed during the flight. Although the aerosol and NOx decreased with altitude, the O3 had the maximum concentration (80.5 ppbv) in the middle layer of the smoke haze and recorded very low concentrations (˜20 ppbv) in the lower smoke layer. This feature was not observed in the Australian smoke. We proposed several hypotheses for the low O3 concentration at low levels over Kalimantan. The most likely are lack of solar radiation and losses at the surface of aerosol particles.

  2. Mapping ecosystem services for land use planning, the case of Central Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  3. Mapping Ecosystem Services for Land Use Planning, the Case of Central Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2014-07-01

    Indonesia is subject to rapid land use change. One of the main causes for the conversion of land is the rapid expansion of the oil palm sector. Land use change involves a progressive loss of forest cover, with major impacts on biodiversity and global CO2 emissions. Ecosystem services have been proposed as a concept that would facilitate the identification of sustainable land management options, however, the scale of land conversion and its spatial diversity pose particular challenges in Indonesia. The objective of this paper is to analyze how ecosystem services can be mapped at the provincial scale, focusing on Central Kalimantan, and to examine how ecosystem services maps can be used for a land use planning. Central Kalimantan is subject to rapid deforestation including the loss of peatland forests and the provincial still lacks a comprehensive land use plan. We examine how seven key ecosystem services can be mapped and modeled at the provincial scale, using a variety of models, and how large scale ecosystem services maps can support the identification of options for sustainable expansion of palm oil production.

  4. Tropical forest heterogeneity from TanDEM-X InSAR and lidar observations in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Grandi, Elsa Carla; Mitchard, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Fires exacerbated during El Niño Southern Oscillation are a serious threat in Indonesia leading to the destruction and degradation of tropical forests and emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere. Forest structural changes which occurred due to the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation in the Sungai Wain Protection Forest (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), a previously intact forest reserve have led to the development of a range of landcover from secondary forest to areas dominated by grassland. These structural differences can be appreciated over large areas by remote sensing instruments such as TanDEM-X and LiDAR that provide information that are sensitive to vegetation vertical and horizontal structure. One-point statistics of TanDEM-X coherence (mean and CV) and LiDAR CHM (mean, CV) and derived metrics such as vegetation volume and canopy cover were tested for the discrimination between 4 landcover classes. Jeffries-Matusita (JM) separability was high between forest classes (primary or secondary forest) and non-forest (grassland) while, primary and secondary forest were not separable. The study tests the potential and the importance of potential of TanDEM-X coherence and LiDAR observations to characterize structural heterogeneity based on one-point statistics in tropical forest but requires improved characterization using two-point statistical measures.

  5. Genetic study of hepatitis B virus in Indonesia reveals a new subgenotype of genotype B in east Nusa Tenggara.

    PubMed

    Nurainy, Neni; Muljono, David H; Sudoyo, Herawati; Marzuki, Sangkot

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype is associated with viral anthropological history, clinical outcome of disease and response to treatment. This study examines the HBV genotypes in Indonesia. HBV genotypes were determined by whole-genome sequencing and from the sequence of the Pre-S2 and S regions in a larger series. Two HBV genotypes, B (HBV/B) and C (HBV/C), were predominant. Three previously reported HBV/B subgenotypes were identified, with certain population association: HBV/B2 (HBV/Ba) was found mostly in Indonesians of Chinese ethnic origin, HBV/B3 was dominant among the Javanese, and HBV/B5, reported earlier from the Philippines, was also discovered, albeit at low frequency. Two other subgenotypes, HBV/B4 from Vietnam and HBV/B6, recently reported from the Arctic region, were not found. A novel subgenotype, HBV/B7, was recognized, associated with populations of the Nusa Tenggara islands in eastern Indonesia. Characteristic differences in HBsAg serotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pre-S2 region distinguish HBV/B7 from other HBV/B subgenotypes and further establish the new HBV subgenotype.

  6. Shigella spp. surveillance in Indonesia: the emergence or reemergence of S. dysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Subekti, D; Oyofo, B A; Tjaniadi, P; Corwin, A L; Larasati, W; Putri, M; Simanjuntak, C H; Punjabi, N H; Taslim, J; Setiawan, B; Djelantik, A A; Sriwati, L; Sumardiati, A; Putra, E; Campbell, J R; Lesmana, M

    2001-01-01

    From June 1998 through November 1999, Shigella spp. were isolated in 5% of samples from 3,848 children and adults with severe diarrheal illness in hospitals throughout Indonesia. S. dysenteriae has reemerged in Bali, Kalimantan, and Batam and was detected in Jakarta after a hiatus of 15 years.

  7. Shigella spp. surveillance in Indonesia: the emergence or reemergence of S. dysenteriae.

    PubMed Central

    Subekti, D.; Oyofo, B. A.; Tjaniadi, P.; Corwin, A. L.; Larasati, W.; Putri, M.; Simanjuntak, C. H.; Punjabi, N. H.; Taslim, J.; Setiawan, B.; Djelantik, A. A.; Sriwati, L.; Sumardiati, A.; Putra, E.; Campbell, J. R.; Lesmana, M.

    2001-01-01

    From June 1998 through November 1999, Shigella spp. were isolated in 5% of samples from 3,848 children and adults with severe diarrheal illness in hospitals throughout Indonesia. S. dysenteriae has reemerged in Bali, Kalimantan, and Batam and was detected in Jakarta after a hiatus of 15 years. PMID:11266305

  8. The Oldest Gibbon Fossil (Hylobatidae) from Insular Southeast Asia: Evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O. Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891–1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here. PMID:24914951

  9. Changing incidence of oral and maxillofacial tumours in East Java, Indonesia, 1987-1992. Part 2: Malignant tumours.

    PubMed

    Budhy, T I; Soenarto, S D; Yaacob, H B; Ngeow, W C

    2001-12-01

    A total of 2193 tumours of the mouth and jaw diagnosed at the Laboratorium Patologi Anatomi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia from 1987 to 1992, inclusive, was studied. Malignant tumours constituted 45.3% of the lesions. Almost 71% of the malignant tumours were squamous cell carcinomas. The remainder were salivary gland tumours (21.5%) and sarcomas (4.5%). The male to female ratio for malignant tumours was 5.1:4.7. The incidence of malignant tumours per 100,000 population over the 6-year study period was 2.64. The yearly incidence seemed to increase except in 1990, when it dropped. The incidence of squamous cell carcinoma over the 6 years was 2.1. Calculation of the odds ratio suggested that people aged 40 and over are 5.8 times more likely to develop squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. The oldest gibbon fossil (Hylobatidae) from insular Southeast Asia: evidence from Trinil, (East Java, Indonesia), Lower/Middle Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Ingicco, Thomas; de Vos, John; Huffman, O Frank

    2014-01-01

    A fossil femur excavated by Eugène Dubois between 1891-1900 in the Lower/Middle Pleistocene bonebed of the Trinil site (Java, Indonesia) was recognised by us as that of a Hylobatidae. The specimen, Trinil 5703 of the Dubois Collection (Leiden, The Netherlands), has the same distinctive form of fossilization that is seen in many of the bonebed fossils from Trinil in the collection. Anatomical comparison of Trinil 5703 to a sample of carnivore and primate femora, supported by morphometric analyses, lead to the attribution of the fossil to gibbon. Trinil 5703 therefore provides the oldest insular record of this clade, one of the oldest known Hylobatidae fossils from Southeast Asia. Because living Hylobatidae only inhabit evergreen rain forests, the paleoenvironment within the river drainage in the greater Trinil area evidently included forests of this kind during the Lower/Middle Pleistocene as revealed here.

  11. Development of Geography Text Books Used by Senior High School Teachers Case Study at East Java-Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwanto, Edy; Fatchan, Ach.; Purwanto; Soekamto, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the geography text book for: (1) identify and describe the errors in the organization of geography textbooks, and (2) identify and describe the content of the textbook standard errors of geography. The text book is currently being used by teachers of Senior High School in East Java. To analyze the contents of…

  12. The deep crust beneath island arcs: Inherited zircons reveal a Gondwana continental fragment beneath East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, H. R.; Hamilton, P. J.; Hall, R.; Kinny, P. D.

    2007-06-01

    Inherited zircons in Cenozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks of East Java range in age from Archean to Cenozoic. The distribution of zircons reveals two different basement types at depth. The igneous rocks of the Early Cenozoic arc, found along the southeast coast, contain only Archean to Cambrian zircons. In contrast, clastic rocks of north and west of East Java contain Cretaceous zircons, which are not found in the arc rocks to the south. The presence of Cretaceous zircons supports previous interpretations that much of East Java is underlain by arc and ophiolitic rocks, accreted to the Southeast Asian margin during Cretaceous subduction. However, such accreted material cannot account for the older zircons. The age populations of Archean to Cambrian zircons in the arc rocks are similar to Gondwana crust. We interpret the East Java Early Cenozoic arc to be underlain by a continental fragment of Gondwana origin and not Cretaceous material as previously suggested. Melts rising through the crust, feeding the Early Cenozoic arc, picked up the ancient zircons through assimilation or partial melting. We suggest a Western Australian origin for the fragment, which rifted from Australia during the Mesozoic and collided with Southeast Asia, resulting in the termination of Cretaceous subduction. Continental crust was therefore present at depth beneath the arc in south Java when Cenozoic subduction began in the Eocene.

  13. Parents' Participation in Improving the Quality of Elementary School in the City of Malang, East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumarsono, Raden Bambang; Imron, Ali; Wiyono, Bambang Budi; Arifin, Imron

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at describing parents participation in improving the quality of education of elementary schools viewed from the school substance and management. This is a qualitative research using phenomenology approach. The research design employed is comparative multicase involving four elementary schools in Malang city, East java,…

  14. Application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to volcano mapping in the humid tropics: a case study in East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, Simon A.

    Volcanoes in humid tropical environments are frequently cloud covered, typically densely vegetated and rapidly eroded. These factors complicate field and laboratory studies and even the basic identification of potentially active volcanoes. Numerous previous studies have highlighted the potential value of radar remote sensing for volcanology in equatorial regions. Here, cloud- and vegetation-penetrating LHH-band (λ 24cm) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) are used to investigate persistently active volcanoes and prehistoric calderas in East Java, Indonesia. The LHH-band JERS-1 SAR produces high-spatial-resolution (18m) imagery with relatively high incidence angle that highlights structures and topographic variations at or greater than the wavelength scale while minimising geometrical distortions such as layover and foreshortening. These images, along with Internet browse data derived from the Canadian RADARSAT mission, provide new evidence relating regional tectonics to volcanism throughout East Java. Volcanic events, such as caldera collapse at the Tengger caldera, appear to have been partly controlled by northwest-aligned faults related to intra-arc sedimentary basins. Similar regional controls appear important at historically active Lamongan volcano, which is encircled by numerous flank maars and cinder cones. A previously undocumented pyroclastic sheet and debris avalanche deposit from the Jambangan caldera complex is also manifested in the synoptic radar images. At the currently active Semeru volcano these data permit identification of recent pyroclastic flow and lahar deposits. Radar data therefore offer a valuable tool for mapping and hazard assessment at late Quaternary volcanoes. The criteria developed in the analysis here could be applied to other regions in the humid tropics.

  15. Paleostress Determination Based on Multiple-Inverse Method using Calcite Twins and Fault-Slip Data in the East Walanae Fault Zone South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, Asri; Nishikawa, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Paleostress reconstructions from calcite twin and fault-slip data were performed to constrain the activity of the East Walanae Fault (EWF) South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The multiple-inverse method, which has been widely used with fault-slip data, was applied to calcite twin data in this study. Both independent data sets yield consistent stress states and provides a reliable stress tensors (maximum and minimum principal stresses: ?1and ?3, and stress ratio: ?), a predominance of NE-SW trending ?1and vertical to moderately-south-plunging ?3 with generally low ?. These stress states could have activated the EWF as a reverse fault with a dextral shear component and account for contractional deformation structures and landform around the trace of the fault. Most of the calcite twins and mesoscale faults were activated during the latest stage of folding or later. Based on the morphology and width of twin lamellae in the carbonate rocks, twinning of calcite in the deformation zone along the EWF may have occurred under the temperature of 200° C or lower. Inferred paleostress states around the EWF were most likely generated under the tectonic conditions influenced by the collision of Sulawesi with the Australian fragments since the Late Miocene. Radiocarbon dating from sheared soil collected from the outcrop along a major fault yielded ages between 3050 cal BP and 3990 cal BP suggesting a present activity of the EWF.

  16. Remote sensing application for Sardinella lemuru assessment: a case study of the south waters of Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambah, Abu B.; Miura, Fusanori; Kadarisman, Hanggar P.; Sartimbul, Aida

    2012-10-01

    The assessment of lemuru fish (Sardinella lemuru) using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has provided preliminary information on the habitat of lemuru fish at the South waters of Malang Regency, Indonesia. Lemuru fish catch data, mangrove mapping, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a concentration derived from MODIS/Aqua images have been used in this study. The average of SST during the study was 26.1 °C, the highest average was on December and August was the lowest. The average of chlorophyll-a concentration was 0.55 mg/m3, July was the highest and the lowest concentration of chlorophyll-a was on March. Most of the lemuru fish migrated to the west part of Malang waters during northwest monsoon (December-February), and moved toward eastern part during transitional (March-April-May). In contrast, on the southeast monsoon (June-August), lemuru spread across Malang waters. Habitat suitability of lemuru around coastal waters of Malang Regency related to their migration has different criteria for each month depend on the oceanographic factors and primary productivity. Based on the levels of habitat suitability, lemuru predicted to spawn on June. Sumbermanjing area was the most suitable area (72.39%). Lemuru moved away from Malang waters during transitional until the beginning of northwest monsoon. Primary productivity in coastal waters around Sumbermanjing increased in the southeast monsoon. It represented by January (0.7 mg/m3) in the northwest monsoon and increased reaches 3 mg/m3 in the southeast monsoon on July. It was followed by the increasing of lemuru catch.

  17. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called ;headless; diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  18. Capturing the Elite in Marine Conservation in Northeast Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Kusumawati, Rini; Visser, Leontine

    This article takes the existence of power networks of local elites as a social fact of fundamental importance and the starting point for the study of patronage in the governance of the coastal waters of East Kalimantan. We address the question of how to capture the elites for project implementation, rather than assuming the inevitability of elite capture of project funds. We analyze the multiple-scale networks of local power holders (punggawa) and the collaboration and friction between the political-economic interests and historical values of local actors and the scientific motivations of international environmental organizations. We describe how collaboration and friction between members of the elite challenge models that categorically exclude or co-opt local elites in foreign projects. In-depth ethnographic study of these networks shows their resilience through flows of knowledge and power in a highly volatile coastal environment. Results indicate the need for inclusion in decision making of local entrepreneurs, and - indirectly - their dependents in decentralized coastal governance.

  19. Monitoring and Characterizing the Geysering and Seismic Activity at the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Karyono; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Abdurrokhim, Abdurrokhim; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi eruption began on May 29, 2006 in the northeast of Java Island, Indonesia, and to date is still active. Lusi is a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system characterized by continuous expulsion of liquefied mud and breccias and geysering activity. Lusi is located upon the Watukosek fault system, a left lateral wrench system connecting the volcanic arc and the bakarc basin. This fault system is still periodically reactivated as shown by field data. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we conducted several types of monitoring. Based on camera observations, we characterized the Lusi erupting activity by four main behaviors occurring cyclically: (1) Regular activity, which consists in the constant emission of water and mud breccias (i.e. viscous mud containing clay, silt, sand and clasts) associated with the constant expulsion of gas (mainly aqueous vapor with minor amounts of CO2 and CH4) (2) Geysering phase with intense bubbling, consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful bursting events that do not seem to have a regular pattern. (3) Geysering phase with intense vapor and degassing discharge and a typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m height. (4) Quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (and the observed cycle) with no gas emissions or bursts observed. To investigate the possible seismic activity beneath Lusi and the mechanisms controlling the Lusi pulsating behaviour, we deployed a network of 5 seismic stations and a HD camera around the Lusi crater. We characterize the observed types of seismic activity as tremor and volcano-tectonic events. Lusi tremor events occur in 5-10 Hz frequency band, while volcano tectonic events are abundant in the high frequencies range from 5 Hz until 25 Hz. We coupled the seismic monitoring with the images collected with the HD camera to study the correlation between the seismic tremor and the different phases of the geysering activity. Key words: Lusi

  20. Accretionary nature of the crust of Central and East Java (Indonesia) revealed by local earthquake travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, Christian; Bohm, Mirjam; Asch, Günter

    2014-12-01

    Reassessment of travel time data from an exceptionally dense, amphibious, temporary seismic network on- and offshore Central and Eastern Java (MERAMEX) confirms the accretionary nature of the crust in this segment of the Sunda subduction zone (109.5-111.5E). Traveltime data of P- and S-waves of 244 local earthquakes were tomographically inverted, following a staggered inversion approach. The resolution of the inversion was inspected by utilizing synthetic recovery tests and analyzing the model resolution matrix. The resulting images show a highly asymmetrical crustal structure. The images can be interpreted to show a continental fragment of presumably Gondwana origin in the coastal area (east of 110E), which has been accreted to the Sundaland margin. An interlaced anomaly of high seismic velocities indicating mafic material can be interpreted to be the mantle part of the continental fragment, or part of obducted oceanic lithosphere. Lower than average crustal velocities of the Java crust are likely to reflect ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks of a subduction melange.

  1. Agarwood-planted tree inventory in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turjaman, Maman; Hidayat, Asep

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia has as a country that has a high diversity of agarwood-producing trees (APT) species compared to other countries in Asia. Unfortunately, the populations of APT species have declined significantly. The purpose of this study was to record and maps the agarwood-planted trees in Indonesia as a baseline for future management of this species. The questioners were distributed to 31 of provinces in Indonesia. The feedback came from 21 prefectures (67.7%), consisting from 121 regencies (36.6%) those in detail came from 579 district, 1,257 villages and 4,757 farmers group. The major of APT species planted by farmer groups are Aquilaria malaccensis, A. microcarpa, and Gyrinops versteegii. The potency of APT in Indonesia is 3.4 million trees, consisting from 0.2 million tree with DBH > 20 cm and 3.2 million tree with DBH < 20 cm. The highest APT in Indonesia is located in Central Kalimantan (24.7%) followed by North Sumatera (17.9%). The prediction of agarwood products and its derivate will be obtained in 2020 with economic value might be reached 1.6 trillion rupiahs if the inoculation technique used the standard procedure recommended by FORDA. These results showed how huge the potential of APT will be developed in the future.

  2. Reproductive Biology of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Brachyura: Portunidae) in East Lampung Waters, Indonesia: Fecundity and Reproductive Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zairion; Wardiatno, Yusli; Boer, Mennofatria; Fahrudin, Achmad

    2015-01-01

    The blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus is an important catch species for many coastal villages along the Java Sea coastline, but little is known regarding its reproductive biology or stock status. We examined the batch fecundity of female crabs that were collected monthly at landing sites from June 2011 to May 2012, calculated the relationships with body size, egg mass and month of the year, and determined the size at which females became potentially reproductive in the population inhabiting East Lampung waters (western Java Sea). Fecundity values ranged from 229,468 to 2,236,355 (mean = 926,638±30,975 [±SE]). The fecundity was positively and linearly correlated with carapace width (CW), but the relationships with body weight and egg mass were best described by logarithmic regression. A peaked, temporally cyclical pattern in fecundity was observed, with a peak period that was significantly different (F = 226.36; df = 22, p<0.05) from March to May 2012. Reproductive females were within the 111.0–155.9 mm CW size range; significantly higher reproductive potentials (F = 14.59; df = 30, p<0.05) were found in females within the 126.0–130.9 mm CW size group. The current minimum legal size (MLS = 100 mm CW) is not an appropriate limit reference point, and a precautionary approach is needed for a sustainable harvesting strategy. Resetting the MLS to 115 mm CW would potentially provide adequate protection for spawning females and increase total egg production, thereby maintaining population productivity and enhancing resilience in the face of current fishing pressures. PMID:26019748

  3. Reproductive Biology of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Brachyura: Portunidae) in East Lampung Waters, Indonesia: Fecundity and Reproductive Potential.

    PubMed

    Zairion; Wardiatno, Yusli; Boer, Mennofatria; Fahrudin, Achmad

    2015-04-01

    The blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus is an important catch species for many coastal villages along the Java Sea coastline, but little is known regarding its reproductive biology or stock status. We examined the batch fecundity of female crabs that were collected monthly at landing sites from June 2011 to May 2012, calculated the relationships with body size, egg mass and month of the year, and determined the size at which females became potentially reproductive in the population inhabiting East Lampung waters (western Java Sea). Fecundity values ranged from 229,468 to 2,236,355 (mean = 926,638±30,975 [±SE]). The fecundity was positively and linearly correlated with carapace width (CW), but the relationships with body weight and egg mass were best described by logarithmic regression. A peaked, temporally cyclical pattern in fecundity was observed, with a peak period that was significantly different (F = 226.36; df = 22, p<0.05) from March to May 2012. Reproductive females were within the 111.0-155.9 mm CW size range; significantly higher reproductive potentials (F = 14.59; df = 30, p<0.05) were found in females within the 126.0-130.9 mm CW size group. The current minimum legal size (MLS = 100 mm CW) is not an appropriate limit reference point, and a precautionary approach is needed for a sustainable harvesting strategy. Resetting the MLS to 115 mm CW would potentially provide adequate protection for spawning females and increase total egg production, thereby maintaining population productivity and enhancing resilience in the face of current fishing pressures.

  4. Phylogeography of the current rabies viruses in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dibia, I Nyoman; Sumiarto, Bambang; Susetya, Heru; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Scott-Orr, Helen; Mahardika, Gusti Ngurah

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a major fatal zoonotic disease in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine the recent dynamics of rabies virus (RABV) in various areas and animal species throughout Indonesia. A total of 27 brain samples collected from rabid animals of various species in Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java, and Flores in 2008 to 2010 were investigated. The cDNA of the nucleoprotein gene from each sample was generated and amplified by one-step reverse transcription-PCR, after which the products were sequenced and analyzed. The symmetric substitution model of a Bayesian stochastic search variable selection extension of the discrete phylogeographic model of the social network was applied in BEAST ver. 1.7.5 software. The spatial dispersal was visualized in Cartographica using Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics. We demonstrated inter-island introduction and reintroduction, and dog was found to be the only source of infection of other animals. Ancestors of Indonesian RABVs originated in Java and its descendants were transmitted to Kalimantan, then further to Sumatra, Flores, and Bali. The Flores descendent was subsequently transmitted to Sulawesi and back to Kalimantan. The viruses found in various animal species were transmitted by the dog.

  5. Phylogeography of the current rabies viruses in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Dibia, I Nyoman; Sumiarto, Bambang; Susetya, Heru; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Scott-Orr, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a major fatal zoonotic disease in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine the recent dynamics of rabies virus (RABV) in various areas and animal species throughout Indonesia. A total of 27 brain samples collected from rabid animals of various species in Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java, and Flores in 2008 to 2010 were investigated. The cDNA of the nucleoprotein gene from each sample was generated and amplified by one-step reverse transcription-PCR, after which the products were sequenced and analyzed. The symmetric substitution model of a Bayesian stochastic search variable selection extension of the discrete phylogeographic model of the social network was applied in BEAST ver. 1.7.5 software. The spatial dispersal was visualized in Cartographica using Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics. We demonstrated inter-island introduction and reintroduction, and dog was found to be the only source of infection of other animals. Ancestors of Indonesian RABVs originated in Java and its descendants were transmitted to Kalimantan, then further to Sumatra, Flores, and Bali. The Flores descendent was subsequently transmitted to Sulawesi and back to Kalimantan. The viruses found in various animal species were transmitted by the dog. PMID:25643792

  6. Time for a New Theater Security Cooperation Plan for Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-14

    be one of the most potentially rewarding examples of a new Muslim democracy. Indonesia stands 4 out from the Muslim Middle East because Islam in Indonesia is...by many Indonesians, the moderate nature of Islam in Indonesia creates conditions which are receptive to American engagement and PACOM TSC. THE

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of a serpentinite-derived laterite profile from East Sulawesi, Indonesia: Implications for the lateritization process and Ni supergene enrichment in the tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wei; Yang, Jianwen; Yang, Mengli; Pang, Baocheng; Liu, Xijun; Niu, Hujie; Huang, Xiaorong

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the lateritization process and supergene Ni enrichment in the tropical rainforest, a well developed laterite profile over the serpentinite in the Kolonodale area of East Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been investigated using field geology methods, mineralogical and geochemical techniques. Three lithostratigraphic horizons over the bedrock are distinguished from bottom to top: the saprolite horizon, the limonite horizon, and the ferruginous cap. In general, the profile is characterized by (1) a depth-related pH ranging from 5.56 to 8.56, with a higher value in the saprolite horizon and a lower value in the ferruginous cap, (2) a highly variable organic matter concentration from 1.11% to 4.82%, showing a increasing trend from bottom to top, (3) a progressive mineral assemblage transition from the silicate mineral dominant (mainly serpentine) to the Fe-oxyhydroxide dominant (mainly goethite), and (4) a typical laterite geochemical pattern with an increase of Fe, Al, Mn, Cr and Ti but a decrease of Mg, Ca, Na and K upward from the bedrock. The highest concentration of Ni (up to 11.53%NiO) occurs in the saprolite horizon, showing nearly 40 times richer compared to the bedrock. The mineral evolution during the lateritization process shows various paths from the primary minerals to altered minerals, which is integrally affected by the nature of the primary minerals and environmental conditions. Garnierite, as a significant ore mineral formed by the secondary precipitation processes in the study profile, is identified as a mixture of talc- and serpentine-like phases. The mass-balance calculation reveals that there are diversified elemental behaviors during the serpentinite lateritization under the rainforest conditions. In particular, Ni, as the ore-forming element in the laterite profile, is associated closely with the pH environment, organic matter concentration and mineral evolution during the lateritization process. The findings of the present study support a

  8. Indonesia to build methanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-08-05

    P.T. Kaltim Methanol Industri (Jakarta), a company set up to build a new methanol plant in Indonesia, expects to award contracts for the construction of a new plant, Indonesia's second methanol unit, by the end of this year. P.T. Kaltim Methanol is a private company owned by P.T. Humpuss, an industrial group active in transport, airlines, and shipping of LNG and methanol. The 2,000-m.t./day plant will be built at Bontang, Kalimantan Island, close to the fertilizer producer P.T. Pupuk Kaltim and near the country's largest natural gas reserves. The site is also a deepsea port, handy for transportation of ready product. Three groups are in discussions with the investor on plant supply as well as methanol offtake deals. They are H G/Kockner; John Brown/Davy/Lucky Goldstar, offering the ICI process independently; and Lurgi/Metallgesellschaft (MG), proposing the Lurgi process. At least 60% of the output is expected to be exported, and both ICI and MG are understood to be interested in selling product from the future plant. Japan, Southeast Asia, and the US are targeted.

  9. The Perennial Problem: The Chinese Minority in Indonesia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-28

    one another at least as much as Italian from Spanish and Spanish from Portuguese.(13) Hokkiens were the first Chinese to settle in Indonesia in large...Today, the Hokkiens and their descendants are the dominant Chinese group in East Indonesia , Central and East Java, and on the We1t coast of Sumatra. A... Hokkien ) term meaning ’master.’ But in Indonesia , it is used to denote a "skillful Chinese businessman who closely cooperates as a middleman with those

  10. Nature and genesis of Kalimantan diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Chris B.; Bulanova, Galina P.; Kohn, Simon C.; Milledge, H. Judith; Hall, Anne E.; Griffin, Brendan J.; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-11-01

    The origin of alluvial diamonds from the four main diamond mining districts in Kalimantan was studied through characterisation of their properties, and determination of PT and age of formation of representative collections of diamonds from four localities of the island. The diamonds are mostly colourless, yellow or pale brown, shiny surfaced, dodecahedroids, octahedron/dodecahedroids, and more rarely cube combination forms. They are intensively resorbed. They have surface radiation damage and show abrasion features indicative of fluvial transportation and crustal recycling. The diamonds were polished down to expose internal structures and mineral inclusions. The majority of the diamonds are internally homogeneous or have simple octahedral zonation and show plastic deformation. Analysis by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy of their N content and aggregation characteristics shows that many diamonds are well-aggregated type IaB implying a long-term, mantle residence time and/or high temperatures of formation. Identified inclusion parageneses are 68% peridotitic and 32% eclogitic. The peridotitic inclusions are represented by olivine, chromite, garnet, orthopyroxene and pentlandite. Olivines (Fo 92-93) belong to the dunite-harzburgite paragenesis, with one at Fo 90 identified as lherzolitic. Chromite inclusions with 65-66 wt.% Cr 2O 3 and < 1 wt.% TiO 2 are typical of chromite diamond inclusions world-wide. Two garnet inclusions identified are a subcalcic high chrome harzburgite "G10" and a mildly subcalcic type transitional between "G9" and "G10". The eclogitic inclusions are represented by omphacite, rutile, kyanite and coesite. Re/Os dating of a high Ni sulphide inclusion from one peridotitic diamond gave an Archean model age of 3.1 Ga ± 0.2 (2 sigma). In terms of their external and internal morphology, N aggregation characteristics and paragenesis the Kalimantan diamonds resemble those transported to surface by kimberlite or lamproite from sources in the

  11. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    PubMed

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands.

  12. The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007-2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, A. J.; Gertisser, R.; Troll, V. R.; Jolis, E. M.; Dahren, B.; Harris, C.; Tindle, A. G.; Preece, K.; O'Driscoll, B.; Humaida, H.; Chadwick, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Kelut volcano, East Java, is an active volcanic complex hosting a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most destructive lahars. In November 2007, an effusive eruption lasting approximately 7 months led to the formation of a 260-m-high and 400-m-wide lava dome that displaced most of the crater lake. The 2007-2008 Kelut dome comprises crystal-rich basaltic andesite with a texturally complex crystal cargo of strongly zoned and in part resorbed plagioclase (An47-94), orthopyroxene (En64-72, Fs24-32, Wo2-4), clinopyroxene (En40-48, Fs14-19, Wo34-46), Ti-magnetite (Usp16-34) and trace amounts of apatite, as well as ubiquitous glomerocrysts of varying magmatic mineral assemblages. In addition, the notable occurrence of magmatic and crustal xenoliths (meta-basalts, amphibole-bearing cumulates, and skarn-type calc-silicates and meta-volcaniclastic rocks) is a distinct feature of the dome. New petrographical, whole rock major and trace element data, mineral chemistry as well as oxygen isotope data for both whole rocks and minerals indicate a complex regime of magma-mixing, decompression-driven resorption, degassing and crystallisation and crustal assimilation within the Kelut plumbing system prior to extrusion of the dome. Detailed investigation of plagioclase textures alongside crystal size distribution analyses provide evidence for magma mixing as a major pre-eruptive process that blends multiple crystal cargoes together. Distinct magma storage zones are postulated, with a deeper zone at lower crustal levels or near the crust-mantle boundary (>15 km depth), a second zone at mid-crustal levels (~10 km depth) and several magma storage zones distributed throughout the uppermost crust (<10 km depth). Plagioclase-melt and amphibole hygrometry indicate magmatic H2O contents ranging from ~8.1 to 8.6 wt.% in the lower crustal system to ~1.5 to 3.3 wt.% in the mid to upper crust. Pyroxene and plagioclase δ18O values range from 5.4 to 6.7 ‰, and 6

  13. Recent progress of geological investigations in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prijosoesilo, Purnomo; Sunarya, Yaya; Wahab, A.

    Geologically, the Indonesian archipelago was formed as a result of the interaction and collision of the gigantic crustal blocks, i.e. the Eurasian, Indian, Australian and the Pacific plates. This process caused the formation of extensively distributed ultrabasic rocks in Eastern Indonesia, containing rich mineral resources. In Western Indonesia most ore bodies found are associated with the active volcano-plutonic arc or the stable mass of the Sunda Shelf. There are 60 known Tertiary sedimentary basins in Indonesia and only 36 of them have been "failry" explored, of which 14 basins have had hydrocarbon commercial production. Most of the hydrocarbon exploration and production during the last 100 years have been carried out in Western Indonesia. Many of the "unexplored" basins in Indonesia are located in the offshore areas with water depth over 200 m. Coal and geothermal resources are mostly found in Western Indonesia, particularly Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan. Coal production in 1990 has reached 11 million tons. The steady growth of production was primarily due to the establishment of the coal contract agreement with foreign contractors as well as the re-growth of the State coal mines in Bukit Asam and Sawahlunto, Sumatra. Aside from coal, geothermal is one of the alternative energy resources that have been developed in recent years. From some 16,000 MW resources potential estimated, presently only 140 MW geothermal generating power units have been commercially put on production in Kamojang, West Java. The most important minerals mined in Indonesia are tin (Sn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and bauxite. Most of the gold (Au) and silver (Ag) production are mined in association with copper (Cu) such as those in Tembagapura, Irian Jaya, with the exception of a few epithermal gold mines in other areas in the country. Between 1984 and 1990, Indonesia produced around 1.3-1.5 MMBPD crude oil and condensate plus 1.6-2.2 TSCF natural gas. Most of the natural gas production was

  14. Effectiveness of Ministry of Internal Affairs Regulation Number 15 Year 2008 about Mainstreaming Gender on Basic Education Level in the East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handayani, Trisakti; Widodo, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    General purpose of this research are: assessing the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province, analyze the problem of the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province and analyze the…

  15. Ecosystem services from a degraded peatland of Central Kalimantan: implications for policy, planning, and management.

    PubMed

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bryan, Bretr A; Meijaard, Erik; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Struebig, Matthew; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, landscapes are managed for multiple objectives to balance social, economic, and environmental goals. The Ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP) peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia provides a timely example with globally significant development, carbon, and biodiversity concerns. To inform future policy, planning, and management in the EMRP, we quantified and mapped ecosystem service values, assessed their spatial interactions, and evaluated the potential provision of ecosystem services under future land-use scenarios. We focus on key policy-relevant regulating (carbon stocks and the potential for emissions reduction), provisioning (timber, crops from smallholder agriculture, palm oil), and supporting (biodiversity) services. We found that implementation of existing land-use plans has the potential to improve total ecosystem service provision. We identify a number of significant inefficiencies, trade-offs, and unintended outcomes that may arise. For example, the potential development of existing palm oil concessions over one-third of the region may shift smallholder agriculture into low-productivity regions and substantially impact carbon and biodiversity outcomes. While improved management of conservation zones may enhance the protection of carbon stocks, not all biodiversity features will be represented, and there will be a reduction in timber harvesting and agricultural production. This study highlights how ecosystem service analyses can be structured to better inform policy, planning, and management in globally significant but data-poor regions.

  16. Total solar eclipse education for young generation at Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, S.; Widyanita; Fahriyah, H.; Rhodiyah, A. K.; Satrya, C. D.; Hilmi, M.; Ramadhania, G. E.; Naufal, L.; Mulki, F. A. M.; Herdiwijaya, D.

    2016-11-01

    The path of Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on March 9th 2016 passed through several cities in Indonesia and one of them is Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan. The TSE natural phenomenon provided a special moment and gave unforgettable and lifelong experiences for children who live in Palangkaraya. Some miss-information and a bad impression can be felt by children who do not understand about TSE that causes momentary darkness during totality phase. Therefore we designed a children education programs about the TSE that as follow: (1) socialization about TSE, (2) Popular astronomy seminar, (3) How to observe the Sun? (4) writing competition about TSE and (5) TSE observation. The events were held on March 8th - 9th 2016. More than 200 representatives of elementary school students and teachers throughout Palangkaraya have actively participated. The keynote speaker was an Indonesian expert astronomer with help from alumni of astronomy olympiad in order to provide inspiration for the participants, especially to the students. We conclude that students as young generation of the nation may have more motivation to work in science by direct learning from natural phenomena.

  17. Rickettsial Infections of Fleas Collected From Small Mammals on Four Islands in Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    fever group rickettsiae. R. typhi, the agent of murine typhus , was detected in X. cheopis collected from small mammals in West Java and East...spotted fever group rickettsiae. R. typhi, the agent of murine typhus , was detected in X. cheopis collected from small mammals in West Java and East...Kalimantan. R.felis was detected in X. cheopis collected from small mammals in Manado, North Sulawesi. R. felis and spotted fever group rickettsiae were

  18. Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katili, John A.

    Ocean. Contrary to those who positioned Sulawesi close to Kalimantan in Miocene time or who separated the eastern and western arms of Sulawesi and placed them around continental Australia during its drift northwards, I maintain the view that in Miocene time Sulawesi emerged as a double island arc east of Kalimantan. For the Halmahera arc-trench system a similar origin during a younger phase of crustal movement could be advocated. The shape of the two eastern arms of Sulawesi and Halmahera can be compared with an 'arrowhead' pointing westward, with two larger slightly arcuate western arms as a 'wave front' proceeding from it. Thus Sulawesi and Halmahera were once north-south trending island arcs convex towards the Pacific with westward-dipping subduction zones. After collision with the irian Jaya plate, a reversal of polarity occurred as demonstrated by the trenches which developed northwest of Sulawesi and west of Halmahera. This controversy cannot be solved without determining the absolute ages of the eastern Sulawesi subduction complex. Marine research should also focus on the Sorong transform fault system between Sulawesi and Irian Jaya to elucidate its role in the westward displacement of the Sula-Banggai - Buton continental fragments. The nature, structure and history of the ridges in the Central Banda Sea, and their relationship to the oceanic crust of the adjacent North and South Banda Basin, should be investigated in more detail. Seram, Buru and Ambon require detailed studies to determine whether the arc-trench system predominates or whether micro-continent tectonics played the more significant role in their evolution. In the geological future, eastern Indonesia will be squashed between Australia and Asia, and the region will resemble the complex terrains now observed in the Alps and the Hercynian regions, a conclusion already drawn by the Dutch pioneers several decades ago.

  19. Amateur Astronomy Network Development in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamani, Avivah

    2015-03-01

    Indonesia is a very big country with over 238 million people. And we only have one higher learning institution on astronomy, so how do we reach and convey astronomical information effectively to the whole country? The answer lies in Astronomy Clubs who play an increasingly important role to communicate and educate the public. As part of South East Asia, Indonesia is actively involved in the region to develop astronomy.

  20. Indonesia's migration transition.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  1. Supporting Indonesia's National Forest Monitoring System with LiDAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists at Applied GeoSolutions, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Winrock International, and the University of New Hampshire are working with the government of Indonesia to enhance the National Forest Monitoring System in Kalimantan, Indonesia. The establishment of a reliable, transparent, and comprehensive NFMS has been limited by a dearth of relevant data that are accurate, low-cost, and spatially resolved at subnational scales. In this NASA funded project, we are developing, evaluating, and validating several critical components of a NFMS in Kalimantan, Indonesia, focusing on the use of LiDAR and radar imagery for improved carbon stock and forest degradation information. Applied GeoSolutions and the University of New Hampshire have developed an Open Source Software package to process large amounts LiDAR data quickly, easily, and accurately. The Open Source project is called lidar2dems and includes the classification of raw LAS point clouds and the creation of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), Digital Surface Models (DSMs), and Canopy Height Models (CHMs). Preliminary estimates of forest structure and forest damage from logging from these data sets support the idea that comprehensive, well documented, freely available software for processing LiDAR data can enable countries such as Indonesia to cost effectively monitor their forests with high precision.

  2. Indonesia's great frontier and migration policy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The population of Indonesia is 175 million, of which 65% live in Java. Java has only 7% of the land area, causing a population density of 2,000/square mile. This has lead the government to introduce a policy of transmigration which encourages people to move from Java to the larger outer islands. In the last 35 years 4.3 million people have moved from Java to Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and Irian Jaya. The total area of Indonesia stretches over 3,200 miles and has 16,000 islands of which 1,000 are inhabited. It has vast resources of oil, lumber, rubber, tin, palm oil, copra, coffee, tea, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and quinine. Indonesia is also rich in minerals, including coal, bauxite, iron ore, and gold. Even with a national family planning program, population growth has reached 2.1% a year. 3 other islands that people are induced to move from are Madura, Bali, and Lombok, although their population densities are less then Java. The small islands near Singapore are being developed and Batam will be a free port to compete with Hong Kong. The most intense migration has been to Kalimantan (Borneo) which has 4 provinces. The migration policy began in 1905 and by 1930 100,000 people, had moved to other islands; 600,000 people were relocated to plantations in Java for labor needs. In 1979-84, a more ambitious program costing 2.3 billion moved 1.5 million people. In the most recent 1984-89 plan, a goal of 3.1 million were to be relocated but due to budgetary restrictions only 150,000 families have moved. The main social issue addresses the domination of other people by Javanese, not only in numbers but cultural differences. Some observers say the real reason for migration is political in ensuring the boundaries and geographic integrity of Indonesia.

  3. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Indonesian populations of Java, Kalimantan, Timor and Irian Jaya.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, M; Velickovic, Z; Panigoro, R; Dunckley, H

    2009-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) regulate the activity of natural killer and T cells through interactions with specific human leucocyte antigen class I molecules on target cells. Population studies performed over the last several years have established that KIR gene frequencies (GFs) and genotype content vary considerably among different ethnic groups, indicating the extent of KIR diversity, some of which have also shown the effect of the presence or absence of specific KIR genes in human disease. We have determined the frequencies of 16 KIR genes and pseudogenes and genotypes in 193 Indonesian individuals from Java, East Timor, Irian Jaya (western half of the island of New Guinea) and Kalimantan provinces of Indonesian Borneo. All 16 KIR genes were observed in all four populations. Variation in GFs between populations was observed, except for KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3, KIR2DP1 and KIR3DP1 genes, which were present in every individual tested. When comparing KIR GFs between populations, both principal component analysis and a phylogenetic tree showed close clustering of the Kalimantan and Javanese populations, while Irianese populations were clearly separated from the other three populations. Our results indicate a high level of KIR polymorphism in Indonesian populations that probably reflects the large geographical spread of the Indonesian archipelago and the complex evolutionary history and population migration in this region.

  4. Mari Belajar Sopan Santun Bahasa Indonesia. [Multimedia Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Filmed on location in East Java, Indonesia, the Mari Belajar Sopan Santun Bahasa Indonesia set consists of two videotapes, a manual, and extended notes on the individual video scenarios. The videos present interactions among Indonesian native speakers and foreign language learners as they engage in tasks and activities of everyday life. The…

  5. Policy Review of the Primary and Junior Secondary Education Sub-Sectors in East Java. Educational Policy and Planning Project. A Government of Indonesia-USAID Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soebagio, Retno L.; And Others

    Indonesian representatives and the Educational Research and Development Center studied East Javanese primary and junior secondary schools to develop a database for future planning and to identify deficiencies, constraints, and areas for fruitful reform. Issues of enrollment, personnel, curriculum, facilities and equipment, cost, and financing were…

  6. Some optical properties of smoke aerosol in Indonesia and tropical Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, J. L.; Jensen, J. B.; Okada, K.; Ikegami, M.; Zaizen, Y.; Makino, Y.

    Aerosol light-scattering coefficient at 530 nm and its hygroscopic growth were determined in biomass-burning smoke in the lower atmosphere over Kalimantan and northern Australia during the 1997 dry-season fires. Both in and away from plumes, light-scattering was considerably greater in the Indonesian region and hygroscopic growth in scattering was also consistently greater. The relative increase in scattering, from 20% to 80% relative humidity, was typically 1.37 in northern Australian and 1.65 in Kalimantan. Limited aerosol light absorption data indicate relatively small absorption in the Indonesian smoke. In part these differences can be explained by different combustion phases, mixed flaming and smoldering in the Australian savanna fires compared with predominantly smoldering in Indonesia, although these and other concurrent measurements suggest that underground peat combustion may have made a significant contribution to the Indonesian smoke.

  7. Ocean-shelf exchange through the Berau barrier reef, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarya, A.; Hoitink, A.; Van Der Vegt, M.

    2011-12-01

    The present study investigates the freshwater spreading on the Berau Continental Shelf, Indonesia, including the ocean-shelf exchange through a barrier reef located at the shelf edge. Moored and shipboard measurements on currents and turbulence were taken as part of the multidisciplinary East Kalimantan Research Programme. These measurements, and collected data on sea levels, currents, wind speed and bathymetry, were used to setup and calibrate a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in the ECOMSED environment, which is derived from the Princeton Ocean Model. The data and model results were first used to study the tidal propagation and mean circulation patterns on the entire Berau Shelf. The diurnal and semidiurnal tides propagate across the isobaths towards the coast, where amplitudes increase. Tide-induced mean currents dominate over monsoon-driven currents, and feature a southward transport pattern close to the coast and a northward transport patterns at 10 to 20 meters depth. Next, the river plume behaviour is studied. Key factors controlling the river plume behavior include advection of stratified waters by the subtidal motion and mixing, which inhibits the stratified region to extend beyond the reef region. The tides drive freshwater in northeastern direction, towards the reef area. The model is subsequently refined and used to study the freshwater transport and exchange of water via the reef gaps and over the reef flats in detail. Moored ADCP data reveal extremely large roughness heights in the reef passages and reef flats. These limit the exchange of tidal energy to some degree, acting as a control on sealevel gradients over the reefs. The spatial structure of velocity exhibits tidal eddies generated by irregularities of reef gaps. The flow in the center of the reef passage is often opposed to the flow near the reef boundaries. The mean mass transport in the passages that were studied were found to be caused by Eulerian residual currents generated by

  8. Subroto talks about Indonesia`s future

    SciTech Connect

    Perdue, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    Dr. Subroto became Indonesia`s Minister of Mines and Energy in 1978, and was Secretary-General of OPEC from July 1988 to June 1994, the only person to ever serve two 3-year terms in that position. He is currently the Chairman of the Indonesian Institute of Energy Economics. PEI had the opportunity to interview Subroto about Indonesia`s future outlook in oil exploration and resource development.

  9. Survey of Hylobates agilis albibarbis in a logged peat-swamp forest: Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Cara; Nekaris, K A I; Husson, Simon John

    2006-10-01

    Few data are available on gibbon populations in peat-swamp forest. In order to assess the importance of this habitat for gibbon conservation, a population of Hylobates agilis albibarbis was surveyed in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. This is an area of about 5,500 km(2) of selectively logged peat-swamp forest, which was formally gazetted as a national park during 2005. The study was conducted during June and July 2004 using auditory sampling methods. Five sample areas were selected and each was surveyed for four consecutive days by three teams of researchers at designated listening posts. Researchers recorded compass bearings of, and estimated distances to, singing groups. Nineteen groups were located. Population density is estimated to be 2.16 (+/-0.46) groups/km(2). Sightings occurring either at the listening posts or that were obtained by tracking in on calling groups yielded a mean group size of 3.4 individuals, hence individual gibbon density is estimated to be 7.4 (+/-1.59) individuals/km(2). The density estimates fall at the mid-range of those calculated for other gibbon populations, thus suggesting that peat-swamp forest is an important habitat for gibbon conservation in Borneo. A tentative extrapolation of results suggests a potential gibbon population size of 19,000 individuals within the mixed-swamp forest habitat sub-type in the Sabangau. This represents one of the largest remaining continuous populations of Bornean agile gibbons. The designation of the Sabangau forest as a national park will hopefully address the problem of illegal logging and hunting in the region. Further studies should note any difference in gibbon density post protection.

  10. Local Responses to Decentralization Policy in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic fieldwork in six junior high schools in East Java, Indonesia, focused on local responses to a national policy devolving authority over the curriculum to the schools. Interviews and observations in the schools revealed little change in teacher actions. The objectives of decentralization clashed with deeply rooted ideas about authority,…

  11. Developmental Book Activities and Needs in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Stanley A.; And Others

    This report is the fourth in a series of six studies of developmental book activity in East Asia. The scope of work in the Republic of Indonesia included assessment of books and materials in the educational process; books used by individuals for the improvement of reading skills and for learning enrichment; books for technical and professional…

  12. An international company`s gas strategy in the Far East and its related offshore operations: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Beuque, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This exploration and production strategy for gas was first developed in the late 60`s when Indonesia was rightly perceived as being a country with large, geologically promising and almost untouched offshore acreage. First oil, and later gas, discoveries were made in the Mahakam Delta Basin of Kalimantan, and very large gas fields were developed in response to a fast growing market for LNG, especially in Japan and the Far East. Thereafter, a proactive search for opportunities in several countries was started, and this led to a concentration on fields in Thailand and Myanmar that had been already discovered but had not been developed because of specific technical difficulties and/or marketing uncertainties. The risks and challenges of these projects are discussed, including the replacement of reserves in a mature area (Mahakam), the production of thin, numerous and structurally complicated reservoirs (Bongkot, Thailand), and the resolution of commercial problems (Myonmar). These challenges were successfully dealt with by the application of a combination of modern geoscientific technologies, the integration of separate disciplines and the introduction of cost-reduction measures.

  13. Population density of red langurs in Sabangau tropical peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ehlers Smith, David A; Ehlers Smith, Yvette C

    2013-08-01

    Because of the large-scale destruction of Borneo's rainforests on mineral soils, tropical peat-swamp forests (TPSFs) are increasingly essential for conserving remnant biodiversity, particularly in the lowlands where the majority of habitat conversion has occurred. Consequently, effective strategies for biodiversity conservation are required, which rely on accurate population density and distribution estimates as a baseline. We sought to establish the first population density estimates of the endemic red langur (Presbytis rubicunda) in Sabangau TPSF, the largest remaining contiguous lowland forest-block on Borneo. Using Distance sampling principles, we conducted line transect surveys in two of Sabangau's three principle habitat sub-classes and calculated group density at 2.52 groups km⁻² (95% CI 1.56-4.08) in the mixed-swamp forest sub-class. Based on an average recorded group size of 6.95 individuals, population density was 17.51 ind km⁻², the second highest density recorded in this species. The accessible area of the tall-interior forest, however, was too disturbed to yield density estimates representative of the entire sub-class, and P. rubicunda was absent from the low-pole forest, likely as a result of the low availability of the species' preferred foods. This absence in 30% of Sabangau's total area indicates the importance of in situ population surveys at the habitat-specific level for accurately informing conservation strategies. We highlight the conservation value of TPSFs for P. rubicunda given the high population density and large areas remaining, and recommend 1) quantifying the response of P. rubicunda to the logging and burning of its habitats; 2) surveying degraded TPSFs for viable populations, and 3) effectively delineating TPSF sub-class boundaries from remote imagery to facilitate population estimates across the wider peat landscape, given the stark contrast in densities found across the habitat sub-classes of Sabangau.

  14. Seismic scattering and velocity structure near the Earth's core-mantle boundary beneath the South China Sea and north Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, J.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    We constrain seismic scatterers near the Earth's core-mantle boundary beneath the South China Sea and north Indonesia using the observed PKP precursory energy and velocity structure in the region using the travel time of the core-reflected phases. The PKP precursor data are collected from the seismic data recorded in the USArray and the core-reflected seismic data include ScS and ScP phases recorded in the China National Digital Seismographic Network, the F-net in Japan, the Global Seismographic Network and several regional arrays. Migration of PKP precursory energy reveals crescent-shaped scatterers distributed from the middle of the South China Sea to the north of Sulawesi Island. ScSH-SH differential-travel-times suggest a complex shear-velocity structure near the core-mantle boundary, changing from a low-velocity patch to a high shear-velocity patch and to another low shear-velocity patch from east to west beneath the middle of the South China Sea. ScP-P differential travel-time residuals reveal a low-velocity patch in northeast of Sulawesi Sea, a high-velocity patch in north of Sulawesi Sea, another low-velocity patch in the middle of Sulawesi Sea and another high-velocity patch in north of the Kalimantan Island. Overall, the seismic structure in the region can be characterized by alternative presence of high- and low-velocity patches near the core-mantle boundary, with the abrupt shear-wave velocity changes between the patches being the source of seismic scattering in the region.

  15. Why do orangutans leave the trees? Terrestrial behavior among wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) at Tuanan, Central Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, Alison M; Posa, Mary Rose C; Dunkel, Lynda P; Spillmann, Brigitte; Atmoko, S Suci Utami; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A

    2015-11-01

    Orangutans (genus Pongo) are the largest arboreal mammals, but Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus spp.) also spend time on the ground. Here, we investigate ground use among orangutans using 32,000 hr of direct focal animal observations from a well-habituated wild population of Bornean orangutans (P. p. wurmbii) living in a closed-canopy swamp forest at Tuanan, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Ground use did not change with increasing observation time of well-habituated individuals, suggesting it was not an artifact of observer presence. Flanged males spent the most time on the ground (ca. 5% of active time), weaned immatures the least (around 1%). Females and immatures descended mainly to feed, especially on termites, whereas flanged males traveled more while on the ground. Flanged males may travel more inconspicuously, and perhaps also faster, when moving on the ground. In addition, orangutans engaged in ground-specific behavior, including drinking from and bathing in swamp pools. Supplementary records from 20 ground-level camera traps, totaling 3986 trap days, confirmed the observed age-sex biases in ground use at Tuanan. We conclude that ground use is a natural part of the Bornean orangutan behavioral repertoire, however it remains unclear to what extent food scarcity and canopy structure explain population differences in ground use.

  16. EPA Collaboration with Indonesia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Indonesia is a key actor in the global environmental arena. In addition to significant ecological resources, Indonesia also has the fourth largest population in the world and the third largest greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. A Neogene back-arc origin for the Banda Sea basins: geochemical and geochronological constraints from the Banda ridges (East Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honthaas, Christian; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Maury, René C.; Bellon, Hervé; Hémond, Christophe; Malod, Jacques-André; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Villeneuve, Michel; Cotten, Joseph; Burhanuddin, Safri; Guillou, Hervé; Arnaud, Nicolas

    1998-12-01

    Dredgings conducted during the French-Indonesian cruises Banda Sea II and III collected volcanic rocks from several ridges of the Banda Sea area (Tukang Besi ridge, site 218; Lucipara ridge, sites 214 and 305; Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China, sites 219 and 220). With the exception of one 46-Ma-old N-MORB type basalt, thought to belong to an ophiolitic complex, K-Ar and Ar-Ar datings indicate that all the dredged volcanics are Neogene. They range in age from ca. 10 Ma (Tukang Besi back-arc basalts) to 8-7 Ma (Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China calc-alkaline andesites) and to 7-3 Ma (Lucipara OIB-type transitional basalts and cordierite-bearing andesites). Radiogenic isotopic signatures of andesites are consistent with an AFC (Assimilation coupled with Fractional Crystallization) process involving assimilation of continental crust. 8-3-Ma-old calc-alkaline volcanic activity is also recorded on the Wetar segment, an inactive part of the East Sunda arc, and corresponding isotopic compositions are also consistent with an AFC process involving continental crust. These features suggest that Lucipara-Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China ridges and the Wetar segment were representing a single volcanic arc 8-7 Ma ago. The corresponding calc-alkaline activity was related to the subduction of the Indian oceanic lithosphere beneath continental blocks of Australian origin. Back-arc opening processes occurred from 6 to 3 Ma as a multi-rift opening for the Wetar basin and as a single-rift opening for the Damar basin while subduction-related magmatism was still active in the Wetar segment. Volcanic activity stopped at 7 Ma in the Nieuwerkerk-Emperor of China ridge. On Lucipara ridge, 6-3 Ma volcanic activity emplaced concomitantly transitional basalts and cordierite-bearing andesites. The mineralogical and chemical features of the latter are consistent with an AFC process involving assimilation of continental crust by mantle-derived basaltic magmas. The end of magmatic activity on both volcanic

  18. The Geothermal Systems along the Watukosek fault system (East Java, Indonesia):The Arjuno-Welirang Volcanic Complex and the Lusi Mud-Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Mazzini, Adriano; Vita, Fabio; Sciarra, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    The Java Island is characterized by an intense volcanic activity with more then 100 active volcanoes. Moreover, this island is also known by the presence of many mud volcanoes and hydrothermal springs. In particular, in the 2006 several sudden hot mud eruptions, with fluids around 100° C, occurred in the NE side of the island resulting in a prominent eruption named Lusi (contraction of Lumpur Sidoarjo) located along the major Watukosek strike-slip fault zone. The Watukosek fault system, strikes from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, intersects Lusi and extends towards the NE of the Java island. Conversely of the normal mud eruptions (cold fluids emitted in a short time period of few days), the Lusi eruption was characterized by a persistent effusive hot fluids emissions for a long-time period of, so far, nearly a decade. Moreover, the isotopic composition of emitted gases like Helium showed a clear magmatic origin. For this reasons we decided to investigate the near Arjuno-Welirang complex located on the same strike-slip fault. Arjuno-Welirang is a twin strato-volcano system located in the East of Java along the Watukosek fault, at about 25 km SW respect to the Lusi volcano system. It features two main peaks: Arjuno (3339 masl) and Welirang (3156 masl). The last recorded eruptive activity took place in August 1950 from the flanks of Kawah Plupuh and in October 1950 from the NW part of the Gunung Welirang. This strato-volcano is characterized by a S-rich area, with high T-vent fumarole at least up to 220° C (and likely higher), located mainly in the Welirang crater. In addition, several hot springs vent from the flanks of the volcano, indicate the presence of a large hydrothermal system. During July 2015, in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), we carried out a geochemical field campaign on the Arjuno-Welirang volcano hydrothermal system area, sampling water and dissolved gases from the thermal and cold springs located on the flanks of

  19. Hotspot sequential pattern visualization in peatland of Sumatera and Kalimantan using shiny framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abriantini, G.; Sitanggang, I. S.; Trisminingsih, R.

    2017-01-01

    Fires on peatland frequently occurred in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Fires on peatland can be identified by hotspot sequential patterns. Sequential pattern mining is one of data mining techniques that can be used to analyse hotspot sequential patterns. Sequential pattern discovery equivalent classes (SPADE) algorithm can be applied to extract hotspot sequential patterns. The objectives of this work are: 1) to obtain hotspot sequential pattern in Sumatra and Kalimantan in 2014 and 2015, and 2) to develop a web based application using Shiny framework that is available in R package for hotspot sequential pattern visualization in peatland of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Hotspot sequential patterns were obtained using minimum support of 0.01 with the focus of analysis is the hotspot sequences with length two or more events. This work generated as many 89 sequences with length 2 or more in Sumatra in 2014, 147 sequences in Sumatra in 2015, 48 sequences in Kalimantan in 2014, and 51 sequences in Kalimantan in 2015. Hotspot sequential patterns are visualized based on peatland’s characteristics, weather, and social economy. The features in this web based application have been tested and the results show that all features work properly according to the test scenario.

  20. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  1. Cenozoic carbonates in Borneo: case studies from northeast Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. E. J.; Chambers, J. L. C.; Evans, M. J.; Moss, S. J.; Nas, D. S.

    1999-04-01

    Modern and Tertiary carbonate production is, and was, extensive and diverse in the seas surrounding Borneo, and mirrors the variety of carbonate depositional systems seen in SE Asia. The availability of favourable conditions for carbonate sedimentation around Borneo was related to a combination of factors, including tectonic setting, the formation of large basinal areas, differential subsidence providing shallow marine areas, a tropical climate and a range of local factors, such as currents or limited clastic input. A detailed sedimentological and diagenetic study was undertaken of middle Eocene to Plio-Pleistocene carbonates which developed in the north Kutai Basin and the Mangkalihat Peninsula, northeast Kalimantan. Carbonate sedimentation in this area occurred in a range of depositional environments, from mixed carbonate clastic shelves, localised and transient shoals or reefs, a variety of platform top settings to deep water redeposited carbonates. An understanding of carbonate depositional environments, spatial facies relationships, and diagenesis is essential in order to develop models for these carbonates which can be used as predictive tools in the subsurface. This study also helps to evaluate tropical carbonate development in SE Asia and the evolution of sedimentary environments in Borneo during the Cenozoic.

  2. Social and Environmental Impacts of Forest Management Certification in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Daniela A.; Loucks, Colby J.; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.

    2015-01-01

    In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the FSC-certified timber concessions compared to non-certified logging concessions. Employing triple difference matching estimators, we find that between 2000 and 2008 FSC reduced aggregate deforestation by 5 percentage points and the incidence of air pollution by 31%. It had no statistically significant impacts on fire incidence or core areas, but increased forest perforation by 4 km2 on average. In addition, we find that FSC reduced firewood dependence (by 33%), respiratory infections (by 32%) and malnutrition (by 1 person) on average. By conducting a rigorous statistical evaluation of FSC certification in a biodiversity hotspot such as Indonesia, we provide a reference point and offer methodological and data lessons that could aid the design of ongoing and future evaluations of a potentially critical conservation policy. PMID:26132491

  3. Fire emissions and regional air quality impacts from fires in oil palm, timber, and logging concessions in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-08-01

    Fires associated with agricultural and plantation development in Indonesia impact ecosystem services and release emissions into the atmosphere that degrade regional air quality and contribute to greenhouse gas concentrations. In this study, we estimate the relative contributions of the oil palm, timber (for wood pulp and paper), and logging industries in Sumatra and Kalimantan to land cover change, fire activity, and regional population exposure to smoke concentrations. Concessions for these three industries cover 21% and 49% of the land area in Sumatra and Kalimantan respectively, with the highest overall area in lowlands on mineral soils instead of more carbon-rich peatlands. In 2012, most remaining forest area was located in logging concessions for both islands, and for all combined concessions, there was higher remaining lowland and peatland forest area in Kalimantan (45% and 46%, respectively) versus Sumatra (20% and 27%, respectively). Emissions from all combined concessions comprised 41% of total fire emissions (within and outside of concession boundaries) in Sumatra and 27% in Kalimantan for the 2006 burning season, which had high fire activity relative to decadal emissions. Most fire emissions were observed in concessions located on peatlands and non-forested lowlands, the latter of which could include concessions that are currently under production, cleared in preparation for production, or abandoned lands. For the 2006 burning season, timber concessions from Sumatra (47% of area and 88% of emissions) and oil palm concessions from Kalimantan (33% of area and 67% of emissions) contributed the most to concession-related fire emissions from each island. Although fire emissions from concessions were higher in Kalimantan, emissions from Sumatra contributed 63% of concession-related smoke concentrations for the population-weighted region because fire sources were located closer to population centers. In order to protect regional public health, our results

  4. Mining outlook in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The outlook for mining in Indonesia is presented. Coal appears to be the most promising growth area for Indonesian mining interests, with production slated to reach 1.5 million t/yr by 1985, up from 0.5 million ton in 1983. Also discussed production and trends, aluminum, copper, nickel, silver, gold, tin and iron sands in Indonesia.

  5. Long-time risk of groundwater/drinking water pollution with sulphuric compounds beneath burned peatlands in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hammen, V C

    2007-01-01

    Smoke-haze episodes caused by vegetation and peat fires affect parts of Indonesia every year with significant impacts on human health and climate. The forest fires 1997/1998 were by far the largest in Indonesian history, burning between 5 and 8 million hectares before they were stopped by the monsoon rains in December 1997. Fires sprang up again in 1998 on Kalimantan when monsoon rain paused. Peat forests and peatlands are in particular severely affected. In the 1997/1998 haze event, 2.1-2.5 million hectare of peat swamp forest burnt in Indonesia. The remaining ash contains high concentrations of sulphur and sulphuric compounds which eventually leach into the groundwater, thus polluting groundwater and drinking water. The thicker the peat layer is and the higher the number of fires in the respective area the more sulphuric compounds will leach into the groundwater. Risk areas for the sulphur loads of the ash are identified.

  6. Respiratory health risk assessment of children living close to industrial areas in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Salami, Indah R S; As, Zulfikar A; Marselina, Mariana; Roosmini, Dwina

    2014-01-01

    Industrial areas are considered to have higher risk of air pollution impact especially to children living close to the industry. Two separate industrial areas in Indonesia were compared. The first location was in the area of coal transportation activity in South Kalimantan, and the second location was in the area of Bogor, West Java where used battery processing industry was often found. Fifty children (boys and girls, aged 6-15 years) were involved in South Kalimantan whereas in West Java there were 48 children (boys and girls, aged 10-12 years) involved. The control groups were also studied in both areas. Predicted average daily intake (ADD) of respirable particulate was estimated and respiratory function was measured using spirometer. The study showed that the PM2.5 concentration in industrial area was 3 times higher than those found in the control location. As a result, the predicted ADD of particulate of children living close to industry in South Kalimantan was 25.45±10.55 µg/kg.day whereas in West Java, the ADD was 1.5 times higher. For both studied area, boys' respirable particulate intake was shown to have higher intake than those in girls. Lung function of children revealed that more than 68% of children in the coal transportation area had decreased pulmonary function. The study also noted that some children in West Java had indicated an obstructive and restrictive respiratory condition. The risk of girls having mild lung disease was found to be 1.3 times greater than those in the control group whereas in boys, the risk was 1.9 times than those in control area. Respiratory function of children in West Java study area was considered to worsen by the higher Pb emission from used battery processing activity.

  7. A geochemical study of macerals from a Miocene lignite and an Eocene bituminous coal, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria

    1996-01-01

    Optical and chemical studies of maceral concentrates from a Miocene lignite and an Eocene high-volatile bituminous C coal from southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia were undertaken using pyro-Lysis, optical, electron microprobe and FTIR techniques Pyrolysis products of vitrinite from bituminous coal were dominated by straight-chain aliphatics and phenols. The huminite of the Miocene lignite produced mostly phenolic compounds upon pyrolysis. Differences in the pyrolysis products between the huminite and vitrinite samples reflect both maturation related and paleobotanical differences. An undefined aliphatic source and/or bacterial biomass were the likely contributors of n-alkyl moieties to the vitrinite. The resinite fraction in the lignite yielded dammar-derived pyrolysis products, as well as aliphatics and phenols as the products of admixed huminite and other liptinites. The optically defined resinite-rich fraction of the bituminous coal from Kalimantan produced abundant n-aliphatic moieties upon pyrolysis, but only two major resin markers (cadalene and 1,6-dimethylnaphthalene). This phenomenon is likely due to the fact that Eocene resins were not dammar-related. Data from the electron microprobe and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry strongly support the results obtained by Py GC MS and microscopy.

  8. Indonesia lowers infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Bain, S

    1991-11-01

    Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia.

  9. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  10. A comprehensive survey of lignin geochemistry in the sedimentary organic matter along the Kapuas River (West Kalimantan, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Pei Sun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Wang, Jough-Tai; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Wang, Shu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    In this first study of lignin geochemistry in the world's longest river on an island, surface sediments were collected along the Kapuas River, three lakes in the upper river, a tributary in the lower river and a separate river during June-July 2007 and December 2007-January 2008. The samples were analyzed for lignin-derived phenols and bulk elemental and stable carbon isotope compositions. Λ values (the sum of eight lignin phenols, expressed as mg/100 mg organic carbon (OC)) ranged from 0.13 to 3.70. Ratios of syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) and cinnamyl/vanillyl (C/V) ranged from 0.34 to 1.18 and 0.28 to 1.40, respectively, indicating the presence of non-woody angiosperm tissues. The high vanillic acid to vanillin (Ad/Al)v (0.71-2.01) and syringic acid to syringaldehyde (Ad/Al)s (0.72-2.12) ratios indicate highly degraded lignin materials. In the upper Kapuas River, highly degraded soil materials discharged from lands that were barren as a result of deforestation activities were detected in the locations directly in those vicinities. The middle Kapuas River showed rapid organic matter degradation, probably due to the presence of fresh terrestrial and phytoplankton organic matter fueling the biogeochemical cycling. The Kapuas Kecil River, one of the two branches in the lower reach of the Kapuas River, showed higher levels and diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter due to input from anthropogenic sources and increased marine organic matter near the mouth. This study shows that different stretches along the river exhibit different levels and composition of sedimentary organic matter, as well as different carbon dynamics, which is directly attributable to the varying landscapes and quality of organic matter.

  11. My Classroom: Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the teaching experiences of Alief Noor Farida--a junior lecturer at Indonesia's "Universitas Negeri Semarang" (Semarang State University [UNNES]). Now teaching her fourth semester and an alumna of the English Education program at UNNES, Ms. Farida is an especially motivated and dedicated educator. She teaches 18…

  12. Indonesia’s Aceh Problem: Measuring International and Domestic Costs (Asia-Pacific Security Studies, Volume 2, Number 5, July 2003)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    unlike East Timor and Papua) has been part of Indonesia since independence, and successful Acehnese secession, the government fears, might set a precedent...for the unraveling of the state. Therefore, Indonesia will strive to retain Aceh as part of the state. Indonesia’s current military offensive, which...independence demands. While the decision to end peace talks lies with the Government of Indonesia , both sides are at fault. Acehnese secessionists have

  13. Deriving optical properties of Mahakam Delta coastal waters, Indonesia using in situ measurements and ocean color model inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhiman, Syarif; Suhyb Salama, Mhd.; Vekerdy, Zoltán; Verhoef, Wouter

    2012-03-01

    The development of an operational water quality monitoring method based on remote sensing data requires information on the apparent and inherent optical properties of water (AOP and IOP respectively). This study was performed to determine the apparent and inherent optical properties of coastal waters of the Mahakam Delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Inherent optical properties (IOPs) were derived from above-water radiometric measurements and ocean color model inversion. Retrieved IOPs and measured concentrations show good agreement both for total suspended matter (TSM) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) (R2 = 0.72 and 0.80 respectively). The linear relationship between the retrieved IOPs and the measured concentrations was then used to estimate the specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs) using the basic equation of the Lambert-Beer law. The specific backscattering coefficient of TSM (bb,TSM∗(550)) was found to be 0.0087 m2 g-1, and the specific absorption coefficient of Chl a (aChl∗(440)) was found to be 0.023 m2 g-1 in the Mahakam Delta. The estimated values of SIOP for TSM and Chl a could be considered spatially constant for the Mahakam Delta, and resulted in reliable estimates of TSM and Chl a concentrations (R2 = 0.84 and 0.85 respectively). The specific backscattering coefficient of TSM found in this study is similar to that of the Barito Estuary (in the southern part of Kalimantan) but lower than that of the Berau Estuary (in the northern part of Kalimantan), whereas the specific backscattering coefficient of Chl a is similar to that found in the Berau Estuary. This study contributes to the development of an operational method based on remote sensing data to map water constituent concentrations in the Mahakam Delta, as well as to enrich the information about the optical properties of Indonesian waters.

  14. Abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sedgh, Gilda; Ball, Haley

    2008-09-01

    Each year in Indonesia, millions of women become pregnant unintentionally, and many choose to end their pregnancies, despite the fact that abortion is generally illegal. Like their counterparts in many developing countries where abortion is stigmatized and highly restricted, Indonesian women often seek clandestine procedures performed by untrained providers, and resort to methods that include ingesting unsafe substances and undergoing harmful abortive massage. Though reliable evidence does not exist, researchers estimate that about two million induced abortions occur each year in the country and that deaths from unsafe abortion represent 14-16% of all maternal deaths in Southeast Asia. Preventing unsafe abortion is imperative if Indonesia is to achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality. Current Indonesian abortion law is based on a national health bill passed in 1992. Though the language on abortion was vague, it is generally accepted that the law allows abortion only if the woman provides confirmation from a doctor that her pregnancy is life-threatening, a letter of consent from her husband or a family member, a positive pregnancy test result and a statement guaranteeing that she will practice contraception afterwards. This report presents what is currently known about abortion in Indonesia. The findings are derived primarily from small-scale, urban, clinic-based studies of women's experiences with abortion. Some studies included women in rural areas and those who sought abortions outside of clinics, but none were nationally representative. Although these studies do not give a full picture of who is obtaining abortions in Indonesia or what their experiences are, the evidence suggests that abortion is a common occurrence in the country and that the conditions under which abortion takes place are often unsafe.

  15. [Circular migration in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Mantra, I B

    1979-12-01

    The author examines circular migration in Indonesia, with primary focus on the 1970s. It is found that circular, or repeated return migration, generally occurs over short distances and for short periods and is more frequent than lifetime migration. The relationships between improvements in the national transport system, access to labor force opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and circular migration are discussed.

  16. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  17. Urologic cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Umbas, Rainy; Safriadi, Ferry; Mochtar, Chaidir A; Djatisoesanto, Wahjoe; Hamid, Agus Rizal A H

    2015-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, start to become more common in Indonesia. According to the government statement, incidence of malignant diseases increased annually up to 8% in the last decade and these diseases become the seventh leading cause of death in Indonesia. On the basis of the latest Globocan report on cancer incidence in Indonesia, prostate cancer ranks sixth; followed by bladder (12th) and kidney (18th). More than half of patients with kidney cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Besides renal cell carcinoma, there are significant number of people affected with squamous cell and transitional cell carcinoma because of kidney stones. Radical nephrectomy or cytoreductive nephrectomy was the primary treatment, mostly done as an open procedure. Transitional cell carcinoma is the commonest histology type in bladder cancer cases followed by squamous cell carcinoma, which almost always related to bladder stones. Unfortunately, >70% of our cases were diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancer, and ∼60% of these patients refused further radical treatment. Incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly and it becomes the third most common cancer in men. However, most of our patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in localized disease. Nearly 40% of the elderly patients are treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, it requires more research by the Indonesian urologists and other healthcare providers to diagnose these cancers in earlier stage as well as community education for prevention.

  18. Assessment of atmospheric impacts of biomass open burning in Kalimantan, Borneo during 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Mastura

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning from the combustion of agricultural wastes and forest materials is one of the major sources of air pollution. The objective of the study is to investigate the major contribution of the biomass open burning events in the island of Borneo, Indonesia to the degradation of air quality in equatorial Southeast Asia. A total of 10173 active fire counts were detected by the MODIS Aqua satellite during August 2004, and consequently, elevated the PM10 concentration levels at six air quality stations in the state of Sarawak, in east Malaysia, which is located in northwestern Borneo. The PM10 concentrations measured on a daily basis were above the 50 μg m-3 criteria as stipulated by the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for most of the month, and exceeded the 24-h Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines of 150 μg m-3 on three separate periods from the 13th to the 30th August 2004. The average correlation between the ground level PM10 concentrations and the satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.3 at several ground level air quality stations, implied the moderate relationship between the aerosols over the depth of the entire column of atmosphere and the ground level suspended particulate matter. Multiple regression for meteorological parameters such as rainfall, windspeed, visibility, mean temperature, relative humidity at two stations in Sarawak and active fire counts that were located near the centre of fire activities were only able to explain for 61% of the total variation in the AOD. The trajectory analysis of the low level mesoscale meteorological conditions simulated by the TAPM model illustrated the influence of the sea and land breezes within the lowest part of the planetary boundary layer, embedded within the prevailing monsoonal southwesterlies, in circulating the aged and new air particles within Sarawak.

  19. Tropospheric O3 over Indonesia during biomass burning events measured with GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and compared with backtrajectory calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Burrows, J. P.

    During the dry season, biomass burning is an important source of ozone precursors for the tropical troposphere, and ozone formation can occur in biomass burning plumes originating in Indonesia and northern Australia. Satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring experiment) data are used to characterize the amount of tropospheric ozone production over this region during the El Niño event in September 1997 compared to a so called "normal" year 1998. Large scale biomass burning occurred over Kalimantan in 1997 caused by the absence of the northern monsoon rains, leading to significant increases in tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric ozone was determined from GOME data using the Tropospheric Excess Method (TEM). Backtrajectory calculations show that Indonesia is influenced every summer by the emissions of trace gases from biomass buring over northern Australia. But in 1997 over Indonesia an increasing of tropospheric ozone amounts can be observed caused by the fires over Indonesia itself as well as by northern Australia. The analysis of the measurements of BIBLE-A (Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment) and using ATSR (Along the Track Scanning Radiometer) data show differences in the view to the intensity of fire counts and therefore in the amount of the emission of precursors of tropospheric ozone comparing September 1997 to September 1998.

  20. Exploring Indonesia: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelander, Bjorn

    This book provides an overview of Indonesia's history and culture. The book begins with prehistoric times and continues through nationhood. Each chapter provides background information along with student activities and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction to the Lands and Peoples of Indonesia"; (2) "Early…

  1. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tauran, Patricia M; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-12-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia.

  2. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tauran, Patricia M.; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia. PMID:26458777

  3. Volcano hazard mitigation program in Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sudradjat, A.

    1990-01-01

    Volcanological investigations in Indonesia were started in the 18th century, when Valentijn in 1726 prepared a chronological report of the eruption of Banda Api volcno, Maluku. Modern and intensive volcanological studies did not begin until the catastrophic eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, in 1919. The eruption took 5,011 lives and destroyed thousands of acres of coffee plantation. An eruption lahar generated by the crater lake water mixed with volcanic eruptions products was the cause of death for a high number of victims. An effort to mitigate the danger from volcanic eruption was first initiated in 1921 by constructing a tunnel to drain the crater lake water of Kelut volcano. At the same time a Volcanological Survey was established by the government with the responsibility of seeking every means for minimizing the hazard caused by volcanic eruption. 

  4. Infant malnutrition in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, H. A. P. C.

    1953-01-01

    Infant malnutrition, resulting frequently in the death of children of pre-school age, is a problem requiring urgent solution in Indonesia. Children suffering from malnutrition show a variety of symptoms, the most characteristic being emaciation, growth retardation, liver changes, dyspigmentation of skin and hair, other skin lesions, oedema, muscular wasting, anaemia, and xerophthalmia. The indicative value of xerophthalmia, which often leads to the development of keratomalacia, in the diagnosis of malnutrition is stressed by the author. Further research is required to determine the causes—and particularly the part played by diet—of the clinical differences observed in malnutrition cases. Far greater interest in the problem of malnutrition must be shown by the entire medical profession in Indonesia if treatment is to be carried out successfully. The specific symptom, xerophthalmia, is easily curable with cod-liver oil. General malnutrition can be prevented only if sufficient amounts, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of protein, vitamin A, and calories are provided for every child. The Indonesian must be taught, by practical example, the necessity of adequate feeding, and be encouraged to make maximum use of locally available foods. It is hoped that the centres to deal with malnutrition, envisaged by the Ministry of Health, will provide both curative and preventive treatment and facilities for propaganda and research. ImagesFIG. 1-2FIG. 3-4FIG. 5-6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13106702

  5. Inventory of Forts in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinandi, N.; Suryaningsih, F.

    2015-08-01

    The great archipelago in Indonesia with its wealthy and various nature, the products and commodities of tropic agriculture and the rich soil, was through the centuries a region of interest for other countries all over the world. For several reasons some of these countries came to Indonesia to establish their existence and tried to monopolize the trading. These countries such as the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch and the British built strengthened trade stations which later became forts all over Indonesia to defend their interest. The archipelago of Indonesia possesses a great number of fortification-works as legacies of native rulers and those which were built by European trading companies and later became colonial powers in the 16th to the 19th centuries. These legacies include those specific structures built as a defence system during pre and within the period of World War II. These fortresses are nowadaysvaluable subjects, because they might be considered as shared heritage among these countries and Indonesia. It's important to develop a vision to preserve these particular subjects of heritage, because they are an interesting part of the Indonesian history and its cultural treasures. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has national program to compile a comprehensive documentation of the existing condition of these various types of forts as cultural heritage. The result of the 3 years project was a comprehensive 442 forts database in Indonesia, which will be very valuable to the implementation of legal protection, preservation matters and adaptive re-use in the future.

  6. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    include the possibilities of environmental damage due to the high intensity electromagnetic energy from outer space. As is well known, most Indonesian land areas consist of tropical forest which is rich with flora and fauna; these may face risks from receiving such electromagnetic energy illumination. It is considered that rectenna location selection in the main islands (like Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Irian, etc.) which are densely populated should be avoided. The same conditions should also be considered for the location in the forest, due to the flora and fauna damage possibilities during the physical development process. From this study it can be considered that the appropriate rectenna location should be placed on uninhabited small coral islands (atoll) sized about 5x5 km 2 , which are located along the equator. Such coral islands are vailable in the western and eastern parts of Indonesia. It is also considered that such coral islands should be located not too far from major inhabited islands, that is about 5-10 km offshore due to the convenience of physical rectenna development and electric energy distribution to the mainland. Such a coral island is to be considered to suffer minimal effects if the surface is illuminated by microwave energy. The same effect suffered by resident creatures like birds and reptiles should also be minimal. Because of the very limited infrastructure available on the mainland (and likely no facilities at all), a rectenna development study should consider all technical risks. For example, antenna installation and building of other support components should be done in such a location so that sea surface transportation can be easily performed. Communication system may be performed only by radio transceivers and satellite systems. The existence of human resources, that are needed to physically develop buildings, must be considered since the location is a remote island. There will also be no expert staff available, so that they will

  7. English Language Teaching in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musthafa, Bachrudin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the education system in Indonesia, the development of a national English syllabus, English in elementary and secondary schools and in higher education, private sector English courses, teacher preparation and professional development, and expatriate English teachers. (Author/VWL)

  8. Women at risk: Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lubis, I

    1996-01-01

    In Indonesia, women, commercial sex workers, truck drivers, migrant workers, and people who live in port areas easily accessible to tourists and fishermen are particularly at risk of becoming infected with HIV. Recognizing the country's potential vulnerability to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the government and the World Bank agreed to fund a $35.4 million, 3-year HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) prevention project to strengthen the capacity of government, nongovernmental organizations, and community-based organizations to carry out the basics of HIV/AIDS prevention, extend the sentinel surveillance system, ensure blood safety, launch public education campaigns, educate health workers on universal precautions and safe waste disposal, promote safer sex skills and behavioral change, and test the sensitivity of certain antibiotics to syphilis and gonorrhea. The program will also establish a STD control program and address the economic impact of the disease by improving the livelihood strategies of HIV/AIDS-affected communities.

  9. Prehospital care in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, E; Pusponegoro, A

    2005-01-01

    Current system: Hospitals of varying standards are widespread but have no system of emergency ambulance or patient retrieval. Indonesia's only public emergency ambulance service, 118, is based in five of the biggest cities and is leading the way in paramedic training and prehospital care. Challenges and developments: There are many challenges faced including the culture of acceptance, vast geographical areas, traffic, inadequate numbers of ambulances, and access to quality training resources. Recently there have been a number of encouraging developments including setting up of a disaster response brigade, better provision of ambulances, and development of paramedic training. Conclusions: An integrated national regionalised hospital and prehospital system may seem fantastic but with the enthusiasm of those involved and perhaps some help from countries with access to training resources it may not be an unrealistic goal. PMID:15662073

  10. Family planning Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Singarimbun, M

    1968-06-01

    The growth of family planning activities in Indonesia in the Postwar period is traced; and future prospects for family planning are assessed. Transmigration projects initiated by the Dutch and supported by President Sukarno after Indonesian independence as a means of decreasing population pressure on the island of Java, are identified as the only official response to the population problem until 1965. In the face of the government's opposition to the idea of birth control as a population control measure, the activities of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) after its founding in 1957 were limited to advising mothers on spacing of their children for health reasons. Statements made in support of a national family planning program by government officials at a 1967 IPPA Congress and on other occasions are noted. The major components of an approved national family planning program to start in 1969 are described. However, the government's policy as of late 1967 and early 1968 is characterized as one of mainly benevolent encouragement and help to voluntary organizations. The chief impediment to family planning in Indonesia is said to be a lack of motivation and the force of traditional values that favor large families. On the positive side are: 1) Studies showing considerable interest in birth control by the rural population; 2) A long history of traditional birth control practices; 3) The absence of outright opposition by religious groups to the principle of family planning. However, financial costs, the need for the training of personnel, and a general unawareness of the magnitude of the task lying ahead constitute other formidable obstacles.

  11. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  12. Assessment of the components of the Kalimantan and Sulawesi power development project: Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-31

    This report, conducted by Utility Consulting was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The report concerns a power development project on the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. This is TDA Volume 2, the main text (Report Volume 1), and it includes the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Transmission line and substation investment plan; (3) The distribution component; (4) Telecommunications; (5) PLN information systems; and Appendix: Figures and tables.

  13. Measurement of carbon dioxide flux from tropical peatland in Indonesia using the nocturnal temperature-inversion trap method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriana, Windy; Tonokura, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Inoue, Gen; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido H.

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of CO2 flux from peatland soil respiration is important to understand the effect of land use change on the global carbon cycle and climate change and particularly to support carbon emission reduction policies. However, quantitative estimation of emitted CO2 fluxes in Indonesia is constrained by existing field data. Current methods for CO2 measurement are limited by high initial cost, manpower, and the difficulties associated with construction issues. Measurement campaigns were performed using a newly developed nocturnal temperature-inversion trap method, which measures the amount of CO2 trapped beneath the nocturnal inversion layer, in the dry season of 2013 at a drained tropical peatland near Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. This method is cost-effective and data processing is easier than other flux estimation methods. We compared CO2 fluxes measured using this method with the published data from the existing eddy covariance and closed chamber methods. The maximum value of our measurement results was 10% lower than maximum value of eddy covariance method and average value was 6% higher than average of chamber method in drained tropical peatlands. In addition, the measurement results shows good correlation with groundwater table. The results of this comparison suggest that this methodology for the CO2 flux measurement is useful for field research in tropical peatlands.

  14. Breastfeeding practices in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suharyono; Paul, M

    1997-01-01

    Official efforts to promote breast feeding in Indonesia and to urge hospitals to adopt "baby-friendly" policies have increased the proportion of breast-fed infants to 97%. The duration of exclusive breast feeding is less than 3 months, however, despite official advocacy of breast milk only for 4 months. Moreover, the proportion of infants exclusively breast fed for 4 months actually declined from 51% in 1991 to 47% in 1994. Factors associated with the early introduction of infant formula and solid foods include lack of sufficient quantity of breast milk, suckling problems, inverted nipple, formula advertisements, mothers' desire to be "modern," low support from husbands, hospitals' failure to implement rooming-in, and the special difficulties faced by working mothers. The Indonesian Government has launched an IEC campaign to achieve an exclusive breast feeding rate of 80-100% by the year 2000. This goal will require the referral of women who experience difficulties with breast feeding to lactation clinics, the provision of opportunities for women to breast feed at workplaces (e.g., employment-based day care centers), extension of the pregnancy leave further into the postpartum period, and establishment of baby-friendly communities and districts.

  15. Malaria distribution, prevalence, drug resistance and control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Hay, Simon I; Baird, J Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 230 million people live in Indonesia. The country is also home to over 20 anopheline vectors of malaria which transmit all four of the species of Plasmodium that routinely infect humans. A complex mosaic of risk of infection across this 5000-km-long archipelago of thousands of islands and distinctive habitats seriously challenges efforts to control malaria. Social, economic and political dimensions contribute to these complexities. This chapter examines malaria and its control in Indonesia, from the earliest efforts by malariologists of the colonial Netherlands East Indies, through the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign of the 1950s, the tumult following the coup d'état of 1965, the global resurgence of malaria through the 1980s and 1990s and finally through to the decentralization of government authority following the fall of the authoritarian Soeharto regime in 1998. We detail important methods of control and their impact in the context of the political systems that supported them. We examine prospects for malaria control in contemporary decentralized and democratized Indonesia with multidrug-resistant malaria and greatly diminished capacities for integrated malaria control management programs.

  16. Malaria Distribution, Prevalence, Drug Resistance and Control in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R.F.; Hay, Simon I.; Baird, J. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 230 million people live in Indonesia. The country is also home to over 20 anopheline vectors of malaria which transmit all four of the species of Plasmodium that routinely infect humans. A complex mosaic of risk of infection across this 5000-km-long archipelago of thousands of islands and distinctive habitats seriously challenges efforts to control malaria. Social, economic and political dimensions contribute to these complexities. This chapter examines malaria and its control in Indonesia, from the earliest efforts by malariologists of the colonial Netherlands East Indies, through the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign of the 1950s, the tumult following the coup d’état of 1965, the global resurgence of malaria through the 1980s and 1990s and finally through to the decentralization of government authority following the fall of the authoritarian Soeharto regime in 1998. We detail important methods of control and their impact in the context of the political systems that supported them. We examine prospects for malaria control in contemporary decentralized and democratized Indonesia with multidrug-resistant malaria and greatly diminished capacities for integrated malaria control management programs. PMID:21295677

  17. Pediatric cardiac surgery in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Asou, T; Rachmat, J

    1998-10-01

    Pediatric cardiac surgery in Indonesia first developed thanks to the cooperation of various cardiac centers abroad. The establishment of the 'Harapan Kita' National Cardiac Center in 1985 was one of the most important initial steps. Thereafter, the discipline advanced remarkably in terms of the number of the operations performed and the variety of the diseases treated and, as a result, the surgical outcome also improved. Numerous problems remain to be solved. Only 1% of the children with congenital heart disease are today properly treated in Indonesia. Some of the underlying problems responsible for this situation include a shortage of pediatric cardiac professionals, the lack of the information and education on the part of the patients, and a shortage of funding, both privately and publicly. It would thus be welcome for pediatric cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and nurses in Indonesia to learn about congenital heart disease from doctors and nurses in advanced countries in order to improve the outlook at home.

  18. Indonesia: persues ICPD Action Programme.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the focus of Indonesia's population policies have utilized people- and family-centered approaches, emphasizing poverty alleviation as a central challenge for development initiatives. However, the ongoing economic crisis in the country is hampering its efforts to extend reproductive health services to the people. The crisis also resulted in loss of jobs, price increases, and a drop in the purchasing power of families. Despite these conditions, Indonesia will still pursue its implementation of the ICPD Program of Action, and the international community should help the country achieve the goals of the ICPD amidst the economic crisis.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of TT virus (TTV) and characterization of two novel TTV genotypes in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Muljono, D H; Nishizawa, T; Tsuda, F; Takahashi, M; Okamoto, H

    2001-07-01

    The prevalence of TT virus (TTV) DNA among 244 healthy individuals in 23 cities on 12 islands in Indonesia was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers derived from the coding region (N22), which can detect TTV DNA of genotypes 1-6. By N22 PCR, TTV DNA was detected in 102 (42%) individuals. The amplified PCR products were molecularly cloned and three clones each were subjected to sequence analysis. Three hundred one (98%) of the 306 TTV clones were classified into genotype 1, 2 or 3, and none into genotypes 4-6. The remaining five clones from two individuals (Kt-08 and Kt-10) on Kutai, Kalimantan Island, differed by >30% from known TTV isolates of all 21 genotypes and were tentatively classified into genotypes 22 and 23, respectively. Using primers specific for the new TTV genotype 22 or 23, TTV genotype 22 was detected significantly more frequently in Kutai than in the other 22 cities (41% vs. 5%, P < 0.001). TTV genotype 23 was restricted to Kutai (17% vs. 0%, P < 0.001), suggesting the indigenous nature of this genotype. Analysis of two TTV isolates (Kt-08F and Kt-10F) demonstrated the extreme diversity of TTV and the preservation of the genomic organization and transcription profile.

  20. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  1. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Swasono, Meutia F; Murni, Sri; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Reports showed that an important parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica is found endemic in several areas of Indonesia including Papua, Bali and North Sumatra. At present it is known that the highest prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia, caused by T. solium is among the indigenous communities in Papua (formerly Irian Jaya). In the early 1970s, 8-9% of stool samples from the Enarotali hospital, Paniai District (Irian Jaya) were found positive with Taenia eggs. The samples were from members of the Ekari (Kapauku) ethnic group. Stool samples from the Moni ethnic group, living east of surrounding lakes, were egg negative. Cysticerci of T. solium were discovered in pigs. During the years 1973-1976 cases of burns increased and were ultimately found to be primarily associated with epileptic seizures induced by neurocysticercosis cases. Among 257 cases of burns, 88 cases (62.8%) were suffering from epileptic seizures before or during hospitalization. In the year 1981 T. solium seropositive persons were mostly (16%) found in the endemic Obano village. In 1997 the parasite was discovered in Jayawijaya District, which is located approximately 250 km east of Paniai District. During 1991-1995, a local health center in Assologaima, Jayawijaya District reported 1120 new cases with burns and a further 293 new cases of epileptic seizures among 15,939 inhabitants. The histopathologic appearance and mitochondrial DNA analysis found the cysts to be similar to those of T. solium from other regions of the world. Sensitive and specific serological diagnostic methods were used and improved. Cysticerci were detected in dogs, as well as in pigs. A coproantigen test for detection of adult tapeworms in patients was carried out. Medical treatment with praziquantel for taeniasis and albendazole for cysticercosis (with prednisone and sodium phenytoin treatment in cases with neurocysticercosis) was undertaken. Lifestyle, religion, and

  2. Quantifying changes in the rates of forest clearing in Indonesia from 1990 to 2005 using remotely sensed data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Stehman, Stephen V.; Potapov, Peter V.; Arunarwati, Belinda; Stolle, Fred; Pittman, Kyle

    2009-07-01

    Timely and accurate data on forest change within Indonesia is required to provide government, private and civil society interests with the information needed to improve forest management. The forest clearing rate in Indonesia is among the highest reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), behind only Brazil in terms of forest area lost. While the rate of forest loss reported by FAO was constant from 1990 through 2005 (1.87 Mha yr-1), the political, economic, social and environmental drivers of forest clearing changed at the close of the last century. We employed a consistent methodology and data source to quantify forest clearing from 1990 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2005. Results show a dramatic reduction in clearing from a 1990s average of 1.78 Mha yr-1 to an average of 0.71 Mha yr-1 from 2000 to 2005. However, annual forest cover loss indicator maps reveal a near-monotonic increase in clearing from a low in 2000 to a high in 2005. Results illustrate a dramatic downturn in forest clearing at the turn of the century followed by a steady resurgence thereafter to levels estimated to exceed 1 Mha yr-1 by 2005. The lowlands of Sumatra and Kalimantan were the site of more than 70% of total forest clearing within Indonesia for both epochs; over 40% of the lowland forests of these island groups were cleared from 1990 to 2005. The method employed enables the derivation of internally consistent, national-scale changes in the rates of forest clearing, results that can inform carbon accounting programs such as the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) initiative.

  3. Wildlife species composition in various forest types on Sebuku Island, South Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmana, C.; Manshur, A.; Rusdian, O.; Putro, H. R.; Hakim, F.; Ermyanyla, M.

    2017-01-01

    Sebuku is one of the small islands in South Kalimantan Provincehaving various forest types with high potential economic in mining sector. Based on it’s business permit, the island has been divided up into several mining concessions. So that biological diversity studies in this island is an interesting in order to serve biological baseline data if someday this island to be extractedfor mining. This research was conducted on 28th November to 5th December 2015 aims to explore wildlife species inhabit mangrove forest, beach forest, and lowland forest usinga rectangle transect (40 x 1000 meter) in each forest type. The results show there are 90 wildlife species identified in Sebuku Island. The beach forest has the highest wildlife species richness (36 species), while the area having the highest protected wildlife species isthe lowland forest. Mangrove forests generally have a lower wildlife species richness. Nevertheless, in Sebuku Island, can be found mangrove forest that have a quite high wildlife species richness (28 species, 50% protected). It is due to silt sedimentation in the estuary area, so that this area become feeding ground for shore and migratory birds.

  4. Mapping the diversity of gender preferences and sex imbalances in Indonesia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is usually viewed as a country free of the acute forms of gender discrimination observed elsewhere in East or South Asia, a situation often ascribed to Indonesia's bilateral kinship system. I re-examine this hypothesis by focusing on ethnic and regional variations in sex differentials. New indicators of marriage practices and gender bias derived from 2010 census microdata highlight the presence of patrilocal patterns as well as a distinct presence of son preference in fertility behaviour in many parts of the archipelago. I also present evidence for excessive child sex ratios and excess mortality of females in some areas that appear to be related to son preference and patrilocal residence systems. The findings confirm the association between son preference, sex differentials in mortality, prenatal sex selection, and kinship systems. I conclude with a more regional perspective on demographic vulnerability of females, distinguishing bilateral South East Asia from more patrilineal Melanesia.

  5. New Insights into the Active Tectonics of Eastern Indonesia from GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, S.; Koulali Idrissi, A.; McClusky, S.; Meilano, I.; Cummins, P. R.; Tregoning, P.; Syafii, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian archipelago encompasses a wide range of tectonic environments, including island arc volcanism, subduction zones, and arc-continent collision. Many of the details of this tectonic activity are still poorly understood, especially where the Australian continent collides with Indonesia, separating the Sunda Arc in west from that at the Banda Arc in the east. While it seems clear that the Australian plate is subducted under both the Sunda and Banda Arcs, it is not clear what happens along the 1000 km -long stretch in between. The question of just where the plate motion is accommodated is of major importance to assessments of earthquake and tsunami hazard in the region. To help resolve these questions the Geospatial Information Agency of Indonesia has collaborated with the Australian National University and the Bandung Institute of Technology in a GPS campaign spanning much of eastern Indonesia, from Lombok in the west to Alor in the east. We have combined these data with those from previous campaigns, resulting in over 27 campaign and 18 continuous GPS sites being used in the analysis. The improvement in site density allowed us to develop of a more complete description of tectonic activity in this region than has been obtained in previous studies. Our preliminary results suggests that there is a relatively simple transition from subduction at the Java Trench off east Java, to a partitioned convergence along both the Timor Trough and the Flores Thrust in the Nusa Tenggara region.

  6. Indonesia a US Foreign Policy Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    THESIS XCD INDONESIA , A US FOREIGN POLICY DILEMMA By JAMES N. LOTHROP, JR. Lieutenant Colonel, Ordnance Corpfc LIBRARY JUL IS  lU^RM...ELEMENT (Thesis) INDONESIA , A US FOREIGN POLICY DILEMMA by Lt Col James N. Lothrop, Jr. Ordnance US Army War College Carlisle Barracks...policy ...... 19 3. STRATEGIC VALUE OF INDONESIA . . . . 21 Social aspects . 21 Economic aspects ..... 22 Geographic aspects 26 Military and

  7. [The state of vector-borne diseases in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2000-01-01

    From epidemiological point of view, Indonesia is an extremely interesting area owing its insular structure and ecological, anthropological, cultural and economical diversity. As everywhere, vector-borne diseases are the result of complex and variable epidemiological systems, subject both to biogeographical rules and human activity. Two main arboviroses are present in Indonesia: dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Dengue appears as an endemoepidemic disease and is mostly circumscribed to urban areas. Haemorrhagic cases were first observed in 1968; since then, the incidence has been constantly increasing and the disease is now one of the principal causes of child lethality. Japanese encephalitis is a rural endemic disease transmitted by rice-field mosquitoes; its incidence remains relatively low since pigs, which are usual link-hosts for the virus, are uncommon in this mainly Muslem country. Human clinical cases are recorded from non-Muslem islands such as Bali or Irian Jaya which raises the question of immunisation for travellers. Recently, Japanese encephalitis was observed on east of the Wallace line which had been considered as the eastern cut-off line. Malaria is common throughout the country, Plasmodium vivax being the most frequent species. Some of the Anopheline vectors are related to brackish water as are coastal species; others have been favoured by rice growing. Several species bite and rest outdoors, rendering control measures complex. Moreover, chloroquine resistance is increasing in both P. falciparum and P. vivax. All three filaria species responsible for human lymphatic filariasis exist in Indonesia. Bancroft filariasis is present in rather limited foci on most of the islands; malayan filariasis is very prevalent on many islands, mostly in coastal areas, and Timor filariasis exist only on a few small islands. These parasitic diseases are cumulative and do not practically endanger the health of travellers. In the past, plague was common on Java island

  8. Burden of stroke in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Y; Venketasubramanian, N; Kiemas, L S; Misbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of death among Indonesians above five years of age, comprising 15.4% of all deaths, age-gender-standardised death rate 99/100 000, and age-gender-standardised disability-adjusted life years lost 685/100 000. Stroke prevalence is 0.0017% in rural Indonesia, 0.022% in urban Indonesia, 0.5% among urban Jakarta adults, and 0.8% overall. Frequent risk factors include hypertension, smoking and hypercholesterolaemia. The mean age of stroke patients is 58.8 years. Subarachnoid haemorrhage is found in 1.4% of patients, intracerebral haemorrhage in 18.5%, and ischaemic stroke in 42.9%. Only city hospitals have neurology, neurosurgery and neuroimaging services. Indonesia has 40 stroke units. Commonly used medications for stroke are easily available. Hospital-based rehabilitative services are available in large hospitals. Traditional medicine is widely practiced. Efforts to combat stroke include education, more stroke units and rehabilitative services especially in the rural areas.

  9. Imaging tropical peatlands in Indonesia using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI): implications for carbon stock estimates and peat soil characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Terry, N.; Slater, L.; Warren, M.; Kolka, R.; Kristijono, A.; Sudiana, N.; Nurjaman, D.; Darusman, T.

    2015-01-01

    Current estimates of carbon (C) storage in peatland systems worldwide indicate tropical peatlands comprise about 15% of the global peat carbon pool. Such estimates are uncertain due to data gaps regarding organic peat soil thickness and C content. Indonesian peatlands are considered the largest pool of tropical peat carbon (C), accounting for an estimated 65% of all tropical peat while being the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions from degrading peat worldwide, posing a major concern regarding long-term sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. We combined a set of indirect geophysical methods (ground penetrating radar, GPR, and electrical resistivity imaging, ERI) with direct observations from core samples (including C analysis) to better understand peatland thickness in West Kalimantan (Indonesia) and determine how geophysical imaging may enhance traditional coring methods for estimating C storage in peatland systems. Peatland thicknesses estimated from GPR and ERI and confirmed by coring indicated variation by less than 3% even for small peat-mineral soil interface gradients (i.e. below 0.02°). The geophysical data also provide information on peat matrix attributes such as thickness of organomineral horizons between peat and underlying substrate, the presence of wood layers, buttressed trees and soil type. These attributes could further constrain quantification of C content and aid responsible peatland management in Indonesia.

  10. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  12. An Analysis of Language Code Used by the Cross-Married Couples, Banjarese-Javanese Ethnics: A Case Study in South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiani

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe the use of language code applied by the participants and to find out the factors influencing the choice of language codes. This research is qualitative research that describe the use of language code in the cross married couples. The data are taken from the discourses about language code phenomena dealing with the…

  13. Telecommunications and National Goals in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flournoy, Don M.

    This discussion of the cultural aspects of mass media in Indonesia covers the following topics: (1) PALAPA, the Indonesian communications satellite; (2) cultural, demographic, and economic characteristics of Indonesia; (3) television policies and programming; (4) the number of government- and privately-owned radio stations; (5) a longitudinal…

  14. Special Education in Indonesia (Scope and Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semiawan, Conny

    The paper covers characteristics of Indonesia's special education program. Considered are the scope of special education, some viewpoints on the impact of culture on the perspective of special education in Indonesia (including programs, services, teacher training, and financial resources). The scope of special education is considered; and some…

  15. Report on Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Charles Elroy

    This resource packet was compiled by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia. The materials provide information for teaching about the diaspora of Hinduism and Islamic beliefs throughout the southeast Asia archipelagoes and their influence on art and culture. The handouts supplement information on Indonesia as part of an Asian…

  16. Islam in Indonesia’s Political Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    vastly out of proportion to its representation in society. A central challenge to understanding Islamist politics in Indonesia today is to...ideals, Thalib clearly wants to have an impact on Muslim politics in Indonesia . No matter how aggressive his actions in Maluku or his propaganda

  17. Culture Project: Imaginary Travel to Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Harold, Jr.

    When U.S. citizens travel to Indonesia, it is hard for the majority of them to understand the country's culture and people. This project outlines some of the major fallacies individuals have when in Indonesia, and how they can avoid them by studying ahead of time. The project begins by requiring the individuals to plan their trip properly, know…

  18. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  19. The Plio Quaternary Ambon arc, Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honthaas, Christian; Maury, René C.; Priadi, Bambang; Bellon, Hervé; Cotten, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Plio-Quaternary lavas and granites have been collected from Ambon, Seram, Kelang, Haruku, Saparua, Ambelau and Banda Api islands, Eastern Indonesia. They include low-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites, dacites and rhyolites and high-K calc-alkaline andesites, dacites, rhyolites and granites. All these rocks present the usual chemical characteristics of island-arc magmas. The high-K suite of Ambon is mostly represented by cordierite-bearing dacites (known as ambonites) and granites. Low-K and high-K magmas were emplaced in neighbouring islands or even in the same island (Ambon), often concomitantly, during two magmatic pulses at 5-3.2 Ma and 2.3-1 Ma, respectively. We propose that the low-K suite results from the evolution of basaltic magmas derived from mantle melting above the Western Irian Jaya plate which subducts along the Seram trough. Intermediate and acidic rocks of the high-K suite (e.g. ambonites) are thought to derive from low-K mafic magmas through massive assimilation of the Seram-Ambon continental crust, as originally proposed by Van Bemmelen in 1949. The timing of magmatic events and the geochemical features of the studied lavas are clearly different from those of the southern part of the Banda arc, in which the low-K suite is lacking. In agreement with earlier seismic evidence for two different slabs subducting beneath the Seram-Ambon continental block and beneath the southern Banda arc (from Wetar to Manuk), respectively, we propose to recognise a new Plio-Quaternary island arc, i.e. the Ambon arc, extending west-east from Ambelau to the Banda Archipelago active low-K volcanoes through Kelang, southwestern Seram, Ambon, Haruku and Saparua.

  20. Space Radar Image of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The summits of two large volcanoes in Central Java, Indonesia are shown in the center of this radar image. Lava flows of different ages and surface roughness appear in shades of green and yellow surrounding the summit of Mt. Merbabu (mid-center) and Mt. Merapi (lower center). Mt. Merapi erupted on November 28, 1994 about six weeks after this image was taken. The eruption killed more than 60 people and forced the evacuation of more than 6,000 others. Thousands of other residents were put on alert due to the possibility of volcanic debris mudflows, called lahars, that threatened nearby towns. Mt. Merapi is located approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) north of Yogyakarta, the capital of Central Java. The older volcano at the top of the image is unnamed. Lake Rawapening is the dark blue feature in the upper right. The light blue area southeast of the lake is the city of Salatiga. Directly south of Salatiga and southeast of Mt. Merapi is the city of Boyolali. Scientists are studying Mt. Merapi as part of the international 'Decade Volcanoes' project, because of its recent activity and potential threat to local populations. The radar data are being used to identify and distinguish a variety of volcanic features. This image was acquired on October 10, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 7.5 degrees South latitude and 110.5 degrees East longitude and covers an area of 33 kilometers by 65 kilometers (20 miles by 40 miles).

  1. Population change and economic development in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ananta, A; Pungut, U H

    1992-07-01

    Standard demographic transition theory holds that transition takes place concurrently with socioeconomic development. Oshima has generalized that the pace of demographic transition in Indonesia has been slow and in keeping with standard theory. This article, however, challenges Oshima's contentions and points out that Indonesia has been able to attain a level of demographic transition with a lower level of economic development than that experienced by present-day developed countries during their transitions from high fertility and mortality to low fertility and mortality. Sections consider the theory of demographic transition, population and economic change in Indonesia, and the likely impact of demographic changes on the future of Indonesia's economy. The more rapid demographic transition experienced in Indonesia may be used to stimulate even faster economic progress in the country.

  2. A Case Study of SSP for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostavan, A.; Kaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    The market of the Solar Power Satellite must be worldwide, because it can be provide electricity anywhre in the world from the Earth's orbits. We have perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provide by the Space Solar Power, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of the Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the Solar Power Satellite. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia and the benefits and disadvantages of he SSP for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot SPS.

  3. "Peer" educator initiatives for adolescent reproductive health projects in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, Terence H; Hasmi, Eddy; Widyantoro, Ninuk

    2004-05-01

    Since the ICPD in 1994, the Government of Indonesia has struggled with the challenge of providing sexual and reproductive health education to adolescents. Following an attempt at a family-centred approach, a pilot project was carried out in Central and East Java to train peer educators, coordinated by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN). A total of 80 peer educators (male/female teams) carried out small-group information sessions in ten different districts. Over 1,300 adolescents attended in all. Forty peer counsellors in 20 teams then carried out five outreach sessions each in their communities, attended by nearly 4,000 adults and adolescents. Educators chosen were older in age, knowledge level, authority and communication skills than adolescents, but were well accepted as mentors. Adolescents wanted to know how to deal with sexual relationships and feelings, unwanted pregnancy and STDs. With 42 million Indonesian adolescents needing information, the government cannot produce enough manuals to satisfy demand. New strategies are required to put information in the public domain, e.g. via the media. The approach described in this paper would probably be beyond the staffing and resource capacity of most districts in Indonesia. Nonetheless, it shows that there was great enthusiasm across a variety of communities for efforts to educate young people on protecting their reproductive health.

  4. Surface Currents. East Central Indian Ocean Including the East Indian Archipelago (Indonesia)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    44 IT If 0 - .~~~~!LT - .6 - - 4 . - , . - , ,4,4. i ..... It # I ,pm 1 0n .46I * aI Im9 IsI I I too -is 49 .4 4 *, Zoo 4. .. 4I4 I A 4- . 4477. 46...AKAX EXPLORATION INC. FOREIGN HYDROGRAPHER/R, A. N. DEPT. TRANSPORTATIO&AUSTRLIA RKAD hi TRUC"TONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE aRo E COMPLITMG PORN 20

  5. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  6. Wind profiler dedicated in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Ken

    A dedication ceremony was recently held in Biak, Indonesia, to commemorate the opening of the Biak VHF wind profiler. The wind profiler, which operates at 50 MHz, was constructed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory in cooperation with the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN). The Biak facility completes the NOAA'Colorado University trans-Pacific wind-profiler network. Other stations in the network, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, are Piura, Peru; Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia; and Christmas Island in Kirabati. The Christmas Island facility is supported by NOAA's Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program Project Office.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    SAD-A284017 \\ITATION PAGE ""i. *to at. e .. ic. .ewo 1O’ U * p . 21s .ffens. - I. AGENCY USE ONLY tLeav blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES...COVERED 1. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Hepatitis E virus in Indonesia / PE - 62787A PR -ool .Ol 6.AUTHOR(S) Jennings GB; Lubis 1...Listiyaningsih E ; Burans JP; Hyams KC TA- ENX 1AJ - 1438 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMiNG ORGANIZATIONNaval Medical Research

  8. GPS measurements of crustal deformation in eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Colleen Whitney

    Here we present crustal velocities from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements made. between 1991 and 1997 at 56 sites throughout eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). From these measurements, we interpret the relative motions of the plates and fault slip rates in the region. Results indicate the tectonics of eastern Indonesia are defined by the interactions of plates and microplates whose boundaries appear to be largely discrete. In a few regions the plate boundaries encompass broad zones of deformation. We identify five distinct tectonic blocks in eastern Indonesia. These include the Northern Australia Block, the Southeast Asia Block, the Bird's Head Block, The South Banda Basin Block, and the East Sulawesi Block. We quantify the motions along the boundaries that bound these blocks, and estimate poles of rotation to define how these blocks move. Two large shear zones exist in eastern Indonesia. The Banda Sea comprises a large deforming region dominated by north-northeast trending left-lateral shear. It appears that shearing is accommodated by the relative motion of several crustal slivers. The southeastern Eurasian plate boundary is therefore broadly distributed. A shear zone also separates Bird's Head from Australia. We estimate about 80 mm/yr of left-lateral shear is needed to accommodate the rapid westward motion of Bird's Head, making this the fastest continental shear zone in the world.

  9. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  10. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  11. Japanese Comic Illustrations and Children's Picture/Illustrated Books of East Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Laina

    This paper examines the influence of Japanese comic illustrations on children's books in countries in East Asia. It has become increasingly obvious that recent children's books in countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, as well as China and Malaysia/Indonesia contain illustrations with some features of the Japanese comic illustrations. This…

  12. Resilience and Well-Being among Children of Migrant Parents in South-East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucy P.; Graham, Elspeth

    2012-01-01

    There has been little systematic empirical research on the well-being of children in transnational households in South-East Asia--a major sending region for contract migrants. This study uses survey data collected in 2008 from children aged 9, 10, and 11 and their caregivers in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam (N = 1,498). Results indicate…

  13. Studies in Family Planning, Volume 5 Number 5. East Asia Review, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeny, S. M., Ed.

    An annual review, third in a series, covers developments in the field of population and family planning in East Asia. For each of the 10 countries involved (Hong Kong, Indonesia, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Vietnam) there is an article written by the agent responsible for the family planning…

  14. Tectonic map of Indonesia: A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Warren Bell

    1970-01-01

    Orogeny, volcanism, and seismicity are now intensely active in Indonesia. Many Dutch tectonists--Brouwer, Umbgrove, van Bemifielen, Smit4Sibinga, Vening Meinesz, Westerveld, and others--recognized that this complex cluster of islands represents an early stage in the evolution of orogenic belts. Not until Indonesia is understood can we comprehend the Alps. This report summarizes some aspects of work to date on the Tectonic Map of Indonesia. The preparation of this map is a joint project of the Geological Survey of Indonesia and the United States Geological Survey, sponsored by the Government of Indonesia and the United States Agency for International Development. The Tectonic Map of Indonesia will be published at a scale of 1:5,000,000. Adjacent regions in other countries will be included to provide a broader context. The map limits presently envisaged are the parallels of 12° N. and 15° S., and the meridians of 91° and 148° E. Tectonic features will be shown in many colors and patterns. Bathymetry is being newly compiled, and will be shown with contours and shades of blue. Figure 1 shows the islands of Indonesia.

  15. The development of psychiatry in Indonesia: from colonial to modern times.

    PubMed

    Pols, H

    2006-08-01

    During the colonial period, mental health care policy in the Dutch East Indies was centred on the mental hospital, which provided custodial care. In 1949, independent Indonesia inherited four very large mental hospitals, about 10 acute-care clinics in the major cities, and an agricultural colony. During the 1950s, mental hospital care remained largely custodial. In 1966, the Directorate of Mental Health adopted the three-fold principles of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation as the foundation of a comprehensive mental health care system. During the 1970s and 1980s, the number of mental hospitals in Indonesia doubled and a variety of treatment methods were introduced. Special attention was given to the care provided by dukuns, or indigenous healers.

  16. The cultural politics of mining and natural disaster in Indonesia: by fire and sword.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeff; Lewis, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters are inevitably the outcome of cultural agonisms. The cultural politics of natural disasters are shaped by competing claims and conceptions of 'nature'. Recent disasters in Indonesia are directly linked to these contending conceptions and the ways in which different social groups imagine risk and reward. The Sidoarjo volcanic mudflow of 2006 represents a volatile and violent exemplar of contending cultural and economic claims. Like other disasters in Indonesia and elsewhere in the developing world, this 'natural' disaster is characterised by differing conceptions of 'nature' as cultural tradition, divine force, and natural resource. A new extractive project in East Java is exhibiting similar economic and cultural agonisms, particularly around the notion of development, environment, self-determination, and tradition. This paper examines the 'disputes over meaning' associated with natural disasters in contemporary societies, and the ways in which they are related to human culture, social organisation, and hierarchical systems of violence.

  17. Women and tobacco in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To present a broad exploration of the relationship of women and tobacco in Indonesia and to describe action on tobacco and health specific to women taken by government and non-government agencies.
DATA SOURCES—Published and unpublished prevalence surveys, official documents, vernacular newspapers, secondary sources, unstructured interviews, and personal observations.
STUDY SELECTION—Data on smoking prevalence among women was primarily sought from official household surveys but several smaller scale local surveys were also examined. The only representative national household data on smoking prevalence from 1995 suggested a national prevalence for occasional and regular smoking of 2.6% for women aged 20 years or older. Smaller, local level surveys had reported rates varying from 4% for junior high school girls, and 2.9% for women undergraduates at a provincial university, to 6.4% of women in a representative sample in Jakarta. Claims that the incidence of female smoking is increasing cannot be confirmed due to an absence of comparable national longitudinal data.
CONCLUSION—Although Indonesian women are conspicuous in growing and processing tobacco, their rates of smoking are low in comparison with their male compatriots and internationally. Anecdotal evidence suggests that their disinclination to smoke is commonly attributed to cultural values, which stigmatise women smokers as morally flawed, while at the same time sanctioning smoking by men. Although there is little evidence of tobacco advertising directly targeting women, Indonesian health activists interviewed by the author felt that women are increasingly taking up smoking due to a weakening of stigma and to Western cultural influences. Cultural factors in the low rates of smoking among Indonesian women deserve closer investigation as they have proved to be a major source of health protection, albeit within a stigmatising context. More also needs to be known about the dynamics of

  18. 78 FR 74115 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Indonesia: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigations AGENCY... (PRC)); Nicholas Czajkowski at (202) 482- 1395 (the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia)), AD/CVD... investigations of monosodium glutamate from Indonesia and the PRC.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

  19. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    clinics. The strong community structures on Bali encourage birth control use. Bali, which is predominantly Hindi, is more receptive to the IUD than Java, which is predominantly Muslim. In East Java, the authoritarian bureaucracy makes efficient use of its money. Central Java is making slow but steady progress in family planning. In West Java, fieldworkers are teamed with paramedics; there, door-to-door contraceptive supply was more effective than the clinic system. In many areas traditional methods, i.e., herbs, massage, total abstinence for long periods of time, etc., were favored. More educated women often do not use contraceptives for fear of side effects. The need for family planning on the outer Indonesian islands is not as great, but programs are being set under way. These programs are the beginning of an attempt to alleviate problems that could be encountered if Indonesia's population growth continues unchecked.

  20. Murine typhus in travelers returning from Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Parola, P.; Vogelaers, D.; Roure, C.; Janbon, F.; Raoult, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first three documented cases of murine typhus imported into Europe from Indonesia, discuss clues for the diagnosis of the disease, and urge that murine fever be considered in the diagnosis of febrile disease in travelers. PMID:9866749

  1. A boost for maternal health in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L

    1998-01-01

    High maternal mortality has long been a major problem in Indonesia. Complications of abortion, such as hemorrhage and infection, account for 15-30% of maternal mortality in the country. The manager of AVSC's program in Indonesia expects the situation to worsen in the context of recent domestic economic and political crises. The current shortage of contraceptives will result in more unintended pregnancies and may increase the incidence of induced abortion. Because abortion is illegal in Indonesia, it is often performed under unsafe conditions, increasing the risk of complications and maternal death. To help reduce the consequences of unsafe abortion, AVSC launched a postabortion care (PAC) program in Indonesia in September 1997. Its goal is to improve the quality and availability of emergency services for managing postabortion complications, postabortion family planning counseling and services, and referrals for other reproductive health services. Implementing strategies to avoid treatment delays is part of the goal of AVSC's PAC program.

  2. Murine typhus in travelers returning from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Parola, P; Vogelaers, D; Roure, C; Janbon, F; Raoult, D

    1998-01-01

    We report the first three documented cases of murine typhus imported into Europe from Indonesia, discuss clues for the diagnosis of the disease, and urge that murine fever be considered in the diagnosis of febrile disease in travelers.

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  4. Indonesia: places people at centre of development.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    Indonesia's population increased from 119.2 to 201.4 million in the past 26 years, but its population growth rate has declined to an estimated 1.6%, and its total fertility rate has dropped from 5.6 during 1967-70 to less than 2.9. A decline in Indonesia's infant mortality rate from 150 in 1961 to 50 in 1997 has led to an almost 20-year increase in life expectancy.

  5. Rickettsia Felis in Xenopsylla Cheopis, Java, Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Gonzalez JP, et al. Identification of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in fleas from the Thai-Myanmar border. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:173–81. 6...Oriental rat fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) collect- ed from rodents and shrews in Java, Indonesia. We describe the first evidence of R. felis in...Indonesia and nat- urally occurring R. felis in Oriental rat fleas . Murine typhus (endemic typhus, fleaborne typhus),caused by Rickettsia typhi, is

  6. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia. PMID:26478663

  7. A new small karst-dwelling species of Cyrtodactylus (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Riyanto, Awal; Bauer, Aaron M; Yudha, Donan Satria

    2014-04-07

    A new small karst-dwelling species of the genus Cyrtodactylus is described from East Java and Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cyrtodactylus semiadii sp. nov. is a small species (SVL to 47.1 mm in females, 42.1 mm in males) distinguished from all other congeners by unique characters combination: short, robust, cylindrical tail, indistinct ventrolateral folds, absence of precloacal groove, absence of enlarged femoral scales, absence of precloacal and femoral pores and lack of enlarged median subcaudal scales. It is the third member of the genus recorded from Java. 

  8. Theft of electricity in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priatna, Dedy Supriadi

    In 1996, among 196 million Indonesian people, only 47.6% had access to electricity; 45.4% in rural areas and 51.5% in urban. 64% of population lived in 61,975 villages, and electric power was supplied to 69% of villages. The government has set a goal to achieve nearly universal services by the year 2014. The government can use existing installed capacity of PLN's system more efficiently. Theft of electricity, which currently constitutes a large share of PLN's losses, should be reduced. The potential of the private sector including captive power and local communities, to participate in electric power generation can also be utilized. The large interest that has been shown by the private sector might be followed by making electric power provision profitable and therefore attractive for the private sector. PLN profits, that in 1996 were only 5.22% instead of the 8% recommended by the World Bank as the best practice for Indonesia, have to be increased by improving their performance levels. The government should also seek solutions for the extremely poor households who will never be able to afford both connection charges and a monthly bill. In 1996 the extremely poor households included 5,251,788 households, constituting 12.1% of the total Indonesian households. Only 1.2% of these households had access to electricity. The objective of this study is to seek the policies that can be implemented in Indonesia that will make it possible to generate and deliver electricity profitably, and reduce theft while providing nearly universal services. For this purpose, the options that are proposed in this study are reducing theft of electricity; something like the CAMPFIRE that has successfully reduced poaching of elephants in Africa: that is, consumer-owned systems, both partially (distribution facilities) and completely (generation and distribution facilities); performance-based regulation (PBR); and solutions for supplying the extremely poor based on the minimum subsidies from the

  9. Maternal characteristics and clinical diagnoses influence obstetrical outcomes in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Adisasmita, Asri; Smith, Carl V; El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; Deviany, Poppy Elvira; Ryon, Judith J; Kiely, Michele; Rogers-Bloch, Quail; Gipson, Reginald F

    2015-07-01

    This Indonesian study evaluates associations between near-miss status/death with maternal demographic, health care characteristics, and obstetrical complications, comparing results using retrospective and prospective data. The main outcome measures were obstetric conditions and socio-economic factors to predict near-miss/death. We abstracted all obstetric admissions (1,358 retrospective and 1,240 prospective) from two district hospitals in East Java, Indonesia between 4/1/2009 and 5/15/2010. Prospective data added socio-economic status, access to care and referral patterns. Reduced logistic models were constructed, and multivariate analyses used to assess association of risk variables to outcome. Using multivariate analysis, variables associated with risk of near-miss/death include postpartum hemorrhage (retrospective AOR 5.41, 95 % CI 2.64-11.08; prospective AOR 10.45, 95 % CI 5.59-19.52) and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia (retrospective AOR 1.94, 95 % CI 1.05-3.57; prospective AOR 3.26, 95 % CI 1.79-5.94). Associations with near-miss/death were seen for antepartum hemorrhage in retrospective data (AOR 9.34, 95 % CI 4.34-20.13), and prospectively for poverty (AOR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.33-3.54) and delivering outside the hospital (AOR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.08-3.82). Postpartum hemorrhage and severe preeclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of near-miss/death in Indonesia. Poverty and delivery outside the hospital are significant risk factors. Prompt recognition of complications, timely referrals, standardized care protocols, prompt hospital triage, and structured provider education may reduce obstetric mortality and morbidity. Retrospective data were reliable, but prospective data provided valuable information about barriers to care and referral patterns.

  10. Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Sariwati, Elvieda; Palupi, Niken W.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Kusriastuti, Rita; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006–2008) and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) were identified (1985–2010) for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1–99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR1–99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface. Results We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east. Conclusion Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) distribution, anti-relapse therapy

  11. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Surjadjaja, Claudia; Surya, Asik; Baird, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients. Indonesia's hugely diverse human population carries many variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, most of them exhibiting severely impaired enzyme activity. Therefore, the patients most likely to benefit from primaquine therapy by preventing aggressive relapse, may also be most likely to suffer harm without G6PD deficiency screening. Indonesia faces the challenge of controlling and eventually eliminating malaria across > 13,500 islands stretching > 5,000 km and an enormous diversity of ecological, ethnographic, and socioeconomic settings, and extensive human migrations. This article describes the occurrence of P. vivax in Indonesia and the obstacles faced in eliminating its transmission. PMID:27708185

  12. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading... United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Governments of China and Indonesia....

  13. Socio-Economic Factors on Indonesia Education Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzizah, Yuni

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, regional governments in Indonesia have had greater autonomy due to the commencement of a reformation movement across Indonesia. Large portions of education management were delegated to the regional governments. Because of this, the education level varies strongly across Indonesia' provinces. Referring to the data provided by the…

  14. Counting the Full Cost: Parental and Community Financing of Education in East Asia. Directions in Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    This collaborative report focuses on nine countries in East Asia: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. While acknowledging that these countries share some common features, the report also highlights each country's particular characteristics and the implications of…

  15. Indonesia; World Bank assists Second Population Project.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Indonesia's First Population Project, funded jointly by the International Development Association and UNFPA, was started in 1972 and provided for construction of service and training facilities, equipment, research and evaluation studies, education, and communication activities. The national family planning program has made progress in the last 20 years. Acceptor and family planning personnel statistics are given. The World Bank has recently awarded Indonesia a loan to fund its Second Population Project, to aid in reaching the goal of a 50% reduction in fertility by 2000.

  16. Coping with pollution in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1989-01-01

    The plight of fishermen from Jakarta Bay and Muara Angke, Indonesia, is described. Lack of general education and education in modern fishing techniques and pollution in the coastal areas has reduced the quantity and quality of fish caught. The changes in the Bay are recounted by Sho Boen Seng, the 78-year old unofficial head of Muara Angke who remembers when fish were plentiful and catches available closer to the shoreline. The fishing community north of Jakarta suffers from degraded resources, not just from the loss of coral reefs and mangroves, but from millions of tons of industrial and municipal dumping of wastewaters. There has also been construction of port facilities and fish farming which has thrust sedimentation into the Bay and wiped out near-shore spawning areas for shrimp and clams. Coliform bacteria counts and toxic metals in the Bay exceed US standards, and parts of the Bay are oxygen starved (eutropic). Current and tidal patterns have been changed. Fishermen have travel 6 hours and fish 12 miles out from the shore. Poor fishing families fish close to shore and eat the contaminated fish; as a consequence many suffer from chronic intestinal and stomach disorders. Conditions are similar to Ambon Bay and the Flores Sea and other coastal areas, because 75% of Indonesian cities follow the 54,716 miles of coastline. Conditions for the fishermen of Muara Angke are hampered by low prices paid for fish due to the money lenders who control finance in the village. The Indonesian government has provided loans to small fisherman to buy motors for their boats and halted trawler fishing in the Bay. These efforts have not been effective because too many fishermen still use the old ways, and the regulations came after the Bay had already been overfished and was too shallow for much of a catch. More help from government is needed to provide general and fishing education.

  17. Gender and advocacy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ray-ross, S

    1997-01-01

    The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) and the Indonesian Midwives Association (IBI) have developed a two-phase training program regarding gender issues for the association's midwives. The first phase focuses on the leadership, management, and advocacy skills necessary to articulate program needs and to take part in making decisions regarding family planning and reproductive health. The second phase concerns the integration of gender into project design. Proposals developed by the midwives include the following: 1) to improve counseling services for women in a district where 70% of the women using contraception do not decide for themselves which methods to use; 2) to reduce maternal mortality in a district where it has increased by 20% and where women have died while waiting for husbands or fathers-in-law to make the decision to bring them to hospitals; 3) to develop gender-sensitive materials concerning HIV/AIDS; and 4) to expand gender training to all levels of IBI, to provide follow-up technical support, and to integrate gender into the mission statement of the organization. Dr. Nafsiah Mboi (member of Parliament and vice chair of the Global Commission on Women's Health), Dr. Widyastuti Wibisana (director of community participation in the Ministry of Health), Dr. Kokila Vaidya (WHO Medical Officer), Carla Bianpoen (gender specialist with the World Bank), and Titi Sumbung (director of the Melati Foundation) helped to develop and to conduct the program. IBI, which has 65,000 members, provides family planning, reproductive health, and maternal and child health services throughout Indonesia.

  18. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Indonesia Area, December, 1996 and August, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These images of the Pacific Ocean near Indonesia were produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The images show sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions during December 1996 and August 1997. The difference in sea level between these months is tied to the movement of warm water away from Indonesia.

    In December (left image), red and white areas indicate the presence of warm, higher than average sea level around Indonesia. At this time, massive amounts of warm water were detected around Indonesia by the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The warm, wet air from this water fed the normally heavy rainfall in this region.

    By August 1997 (right image), sea level had dropped well below average as shown by purple areas (sea level at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal). The warm water had shifted east towards the west coast of North and South America, taking the rains with it.

    The white and red areas indicate patterns of unusually high heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal.

    The movement of warm water away from the western Pacific is tied to the weather-disrupting phenomenon known as El Nino. The departure of the large mass of warm water that is normally located near Indonesia has affected where rain clouds form, altered the typical atmospheric patterns and brought devastating drought to Indonesia. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction.

    Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmosphere system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has issued an advisory indicating the presence of the early indications of El

  19. Imaging tropical peatlands in Indonesia using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI): implications for carbon stock estimates and peat soil characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Terry, N.; Slater, L.; Warren, M.; Kolka, R.; Kristiyono, A.; Sudiana, N.; Nurjaman, D.; Darusman, T.

    2015-05-01

    Current estimates of carbon (C) storage in peatland systems worldwide indicate that tropical peatlands comprise about 15% of the global peat carbon pool. Such estimates are uncertain due to data gaps regarding organic peat soil thickness, volume and C content. We combined a set of indirect geophysical methods (ground-penetrating radar, GPR, and electrical resistivity imaging, ERI) with direct observations using core sampling and C analysis to determine how geophysical imaging may enhance traditional coring methods for estimating peat thickness and C storage in a tropical peatland system in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both GPR and ERI methods demonstrated their capability to estimate peat thickness in tropical peat soils at a spatial resolution not feasible with traditional coring methods. GPR is able to capture peat thickness variability at centimeter-scale vertical resolution, although peat thickness determination was difficult for peat columns exceeding 5 m in the areas studied, due to signal attenuation associated with thick clay-rich transitional horizons at the peat-mineral soil interface. ERI methods were more successful for imaging deeper peatlands with thick organomineral layers between peat and underlying mineral soil. Results obtained using GPR methods indicate less than 3% variation in peat thickness (when compared to coring methods) over low peat-mineral soil interface gradients (i.e., below 0.02°) and show substantial impacts in C storage estimates (i.e., up to 37 MgC ha-1 even for transects showing a difference between GPR and coring estimates of 0.07 m in average peat thickness). The geophysical data also provide information on peat matrix attributes such as thickness of organomineral horizons between peat and underlying substrate, the presence of buried wood, buttressed trees or tip-up pools and soil type. The use of GPR and ERI methods to image peat profiles at high resolution can be used to further constrain quantification of peat C pools and

  20. Applications of exploration technologies to reservoir prediction and management -- Field examples of South-East Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Allen, G.; Madaoui, K.; Gouadain, J.; Kremer, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes how modern geoscience techniques, developed for a large part in intensive exploration programs, can be used at the field level to improve reservoir prediction and production planning and also to optimize recovery. Detailed sedimentological studies has allowed the authors to determine the environment of the reservoir formations and help define the likely shape and size of individual sands and refine the reservoir model. An illustration is given by fields located in the Mahakam delta area of Kalimantan (Handil, Tunu) and in the Gulf of Thailand (Bongkot). Sequence stratigraphy assists in identifying efficient regional seals which, at field scale, lead to the recomposition of a great number of individual sands (several hundreds in some cases) into fewer flow units, making the system manageable from a reservoir standpoint. This technology was used extensively to delineate the giant Peciko gas field of Indonesia. The geophysical approach of reservoir parameters and the use of seismic attributes are rapidly expanding. The Yadana gas field in the Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar) is a case in point to show how porosities can be determined from impedances obtained by seismic inversion techniques. An example from the Bongkot field shows how 3D seismic and direct hydrocarbon indication technology (DHI) are used to deal with complex faulting to optimize deviated well profiles and improve recoveries.

  1. First determination of magma-derived gas emissions from Bromo volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, A.; Bani, P.; Moussallam, Y.; Di Napoli, R.; Allard, P.; Gunawan, H.; Hendrasto, M.; Tamburello, G.

    2015-10-01

    The composition and fluxes of volcanic gases released by persistent open-vent degassing at Bromo Volcano, east Java (Indonesia), were characterised in September 2014 from both in-situ Multi-GAS analysis and remote spectroscopic (dual UV camera) measurements of volcanic plume emissions. Our results demonstrate that Bromo volcanic gas is water-rich (H2O/SO2 ratios of 56-160) and has CO2/SO2 (4.1 ± 0.7) and CO2/Stot (3.2 ± 0.7) ratios within the compositional range of other high-temperature magma-derived gases in Indonesia. H2/H2O and H2S/SO2 ratios constrain a magmatic gas source with minimal temperature of ~ 700 °C and oxygen fugacity of 10- 17-10- 18 bars. UV camera sensing on September 20 and 21, 2014 indicates a steady daily mean SO2 output of 166 ± 38 t d- 1, which is ten times higher than reported from few previous studies. Our results indicate that Bromo ranks amongst the strongest sources of quiescent volcanic SO2 emission measured to date in Indonesia, being comparable to Merapi volcano in central Java. By combining our results for the gas composition with the SO2 plume flux, we assess for the first time the fluxes of H2O (4725 ± 2292 t d- 1), CO2 (466 ± 83 t d- 1), H2S (25 ± 12 t d- 1) and H2 (1.1 ± 0.8) from Bromo. Our study thus contributes a new piece of information to the still limited data base for volcanic gas emissions in Indonesia, and confirms that much remain to be done to fully assess the contribution of this very active arc region to global volcanic gas fluxes.

  2. Maternal Self-Efficacy in the Home Food Environment: A Qualitative Study among Low-Income Mothers of Nutritionally At-Risk Children in an Urban Area of Jakarta, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolopaking, Risatianti; Bardosono, Saptawati; Fahmida, Umi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the factors that encompass maternal self-efficacy in providing food for the home. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mothers of nutritionally at risk children in an urban area of East Jakarta, Indonesia. This study was based on Social Cognitive Theory, Family Stress Models, and Ecological Frameworks. Data…

  3. Genetic diversification of penaeid shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus between Indonesia and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naim, Sidrotun; Brown, Judith K; Nibert, Max L

    2014-08-30

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, most notably the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. First discovered in L. vannamei from Brazilian aquaculture farms in 2003, IMNV was additionally confirmed in L. vannamei from Indonesian farms in 2006 and has since been found in numerous provinces there. Only two complete sequences of IMNV strains have been reported to date, one strain from the Brazilian state of Piauí collected in 2003 and another from the Indonesian province of East Java collected in 2006. In this study, we determined the complete sequences of two additional Indonesian strains, one from Lampung province collected in 2011 and another from East Java province collected in 2012. We also determined partial sequences for six other strains to enhance phylogenetic comparisons, which have heretofore been limited by the small number of reported sequences, including only one for an Indonesian strain. The new results demonstrate clear genetic diversification of IMNV between Indonesia and Brazil, as well as within Indonesia. Analyses of conserved sequence motifs suggest a revised RNA pseudoknot prediction for ribosomal frameshifting.

  4. Astro Talk in Social Media - Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.

    2015-03-01

    Social media is a new trend in communicating and connecting to people. It is also a good choice to build awareness of astronomy as issues spread easily and quickly, creating hot topics. This paper will analyze the trend of astro talk in Indonesia and hope to inspire astronomers to use social media in raising awareness.

  5. Public Health and Midwifery in Indonesia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS: ^472 21 March 1961 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY IN INDONESIA 3y M. Joedono DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release...established to service the translation and research needs of the various government departments. ,-^’ JPRS: J^72 CSO: 1335-S/d PUBLIC HEALTH AND MIDWIFERY

  6. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  7. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  8. Language in education: The case of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nababan, P. W. J.

    1991-03-01

    Although over 400 languages are spoken in Indonesia, by 1986 60% of the population had some competence in the Indonesian national language, a substantial increase over 1971. Bahasa Indonesia was declared the state language in the 1945 constitution, and reformed spelling was agreed in 1972. It is the sole medium of instruction, except in the first three grades of elementary school in nine regions, where vernaculars may be used transitionally. Thereafter vernaculars are taught as school subjects. Bilingualism, and even multilingualism in Indonesian and one or more vernaculars and/or foreign languages is increasing, and despite the use of Indonesian for official documentary purposes at all levels it does not appear that vernaculars are dying out, although their spheres of use are restricted. Bahasa Indonesia fulfils the four functions: cognitive, instrumental, integrative and cultural, while vernaculars are only integrative and cultural. The curriculum of Indonesian, established centrally, is pragmatic or communicative. It is expressed in a standard syllabus for course books. This approach equally applies to foreign languages, which are introduced at secondary level, although here receptive reading is given more weight than productive skills. A full description of the syllabus organization of the various languages is given. Nonformal language learning also takes place, in the national basic education and literacy programme, which teaches Bahasa Indonesia, and in vocational courses in foreign languages for commerce.

  9. The Lamaholot Language of Eastern Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaya, Naonori

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the grammar of the Lewotobi dialect of Lamaholot, an Austronesian language spoken in the eastern part of Flores Island and neighboring islands of Indonesia. Lamaholot belongs to the Central Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of Austronesian, within which it is in a subgroup with the languages of Timor and Roti. The number of speakers…

  10. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  11. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  12. Cancer in Indonesia, present and future.

    PubMed

    Tjindarbumi, Didid; Mangunkusumo, Rukmini

    2002-03-01

    Cancer control has been in effect in Indonesia since the early 1920s. It was the Dutch Colonial Government who started with the Institution for Cancer Control, which was closed by the Japanese Occupation Administration between 1942 and 1945. After the independence of the Republic of Indonesia, a Cancer Control Foundation was established in 1962. At present, clinical and non-clinical departments in government teaching hospitals (there are 13 teaching hospitals) usually handle all cancer problems. In 1993, Dharmais Cancer Center in Jakarta was established and has become the top referral cancer hospital for Indonesia. Until now, there have been no nationwide accurate data on cancer registration, owing to a lack of funds and manpower. Cancer data collection is usually provided as a relative frequency study from several departments of the teaching hospitals. It is currently estimated that there will be at least 170-190 new cancer cases annually for each 100 000 people. The most frequent and primary cancers are cervix, breast, lymph node, skin and nasopharynx. Since Indonesia is now in a transition phase and has many problems concerning the economy and health care, we suggested a well-planned cancer control program. It includes the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of cancer in cities, where inhabitants can afford to subsidize a certain proportion of the budgets for the implementation of this program.

  13. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rent news and information and is published Monday through Friday in 8 volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia...JPRS-EER-87-141 23 SEPTFMRFR 1QS7 u etc* U ü J. Ma M i%\\ ■■■■■« FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Eur ft e N9BQ6W M...EER-87-141 23 SEPTEMBER 1987 EAST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL INTRABLOC Romanian Efforts To Weaken Minority Magyar Position Viewed (Martti Valkonen

  15. Halimeda bioherms of the eastern Java Sea, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H. H.; Phipps, C. V.; Effendi, L.

    1987-04-01

    Extensive areas of coalescing bioherms composed primarily of disarticulated Halimeda plates occur on a large carbonate bank (Kalukalukuang Bank) located 50 to 70 km east of the central Sunda Shelf margin (eastern Java Sea, Indonesia). High-resolution seismic profiles suggest that these features attain maximum thicknesses of up to 52 m above an acoustically reflective surface interpreted as the top of the Pleistocene. Piston cores and vibracores from the bioherms indicate a composition of Halimeda packstone containing varying amounts of foraminifera-rich carbonate mud. A shell lag occurs at their base above the Pleistocene(?) surface. Seismic stratigraphy of the bioherms suggests that they generally developed as individual mounds that accreted both vertically and laterally until they coalesced to form composite features. Discordant reflectors are common and probably represent morphological modifications associated with high-energy events, current scour, or local mass movement. Halimeda bioherms occur in water depths ≥20 m on both exposed and reef-protected bank margins, unlike the only other recorded modern examples, which occur in the lagoonal facies behind the northern Great Barrier ribbon reefs of Australia. Their presence and rapid growth rates (to 5.9 m/1000 yr as determined from carbon-14 dating of piston core subsamples) are possibly related to upwelling of deep, nutrient-rich, south-moving water from Makassar Strait.

  16. Historical ecology of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Maria Lourdes D; Heymans, Johanna J; Pauly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a review of the status of marine resources of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia, based on narratives of early European expeditions in various museums and libraries in Europe, Canada, and local archives in Papua. More than 500 pertinent documents on the study area were identified and located in various European museums and at the University of British Columbia library. About half of these were scanned (25,000 pages), which yielded the equivalent of 900 pages of text (or 4% of the total number of pages scanned) with observations on abundance and impact of the human population on the marine ecosystem within 2 degrees North and 2 degrees South between 127 degrees and 132 degrees East. In general, these observations, which spanned the period from 1810 to the present, suggest a decrease in the perceived occurrences of turtles, fish, and invertebrates; perceived abundance of turtles, fish, and algae; percieved subsistence exploitation of marine resources; and an increase in perceived commercial exploitation of marine resources. We conclude with a discussion of the problems and potential of contents analysis, and its use in the historical reconstruction of broad biodiversity trends.

  17. Implementation of reverse flotation method to reduce reactive and non-reactive silica in bauxite ore from West Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulandari, Winny; Purwasasmita, Mubiar; Sanwani, Edy; Pixelina, Adinda Asri; Maulidan, Agus

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study that implements reverse flotation method to separate silica from West Kalimantan bauxite ores. The study is aimed to find the good process condition to obtain low-silica bauxite as the feed for the Bayer process. The experiments were carried out in a 1 L of flotation cell tank. Dodecylamine was used as the collector, starch as the depressant, and MIBC as the frother. The varied parameters were solid content to solution (15-30% w/w), and pH (6 - 10). The results of XRF of products show that in all reverse flotation experiments, the ratio of alumina to silica (Al/Si) are increased from 7 up to 14. The increase of solid percentage in the flotation gives a good result for Al/Si ratio as well as alumina and silica recovery in concentrate, with 30% w/w solid percentage to solution increases Al/Si ratio to 14.38, with silica recovery of 20%. The good separation with variation of depressants is obtained with depressant concentration of 400 g/ton bauxite, with Al/Si ratio in concentrate 15 and ratio in tailing 7. For the pH variation, the good condition is obtained at pH 8, while for collector concentration, the good condition is obtained at 200 g/ton bauxite. XRD analysis of the feed indicates that bauxite ore consists of gibbsite, diaspore, kaolinite, halloysite, quartz, boehmite, hematite and rutile. It is found that the concentrate has similar minerals, but halloysite became very minor or classified as a trace.

  18. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  19. Oil and gas developments in the Far East in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Courteney, S.; Soeparjadi, R.A.; Ahmad, S.M.S.

    1988-10-01

    As a result of the stabilization of oil prices in 1987 following their collapse in 1986, the rate of slowdown in Far East exploration activities began to ease. Seismic acquisition increased slightly, and the fall in exploratory drilling was less dramatic in 1987 than in 1986. No major discoveries were reported during 1987, although small-to-medium-size oil and gas discoveries added to the potential reserves of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan, People's Republic of China, Pakistan, Republic of China, and Thailand. Development drilling continued to rise by a modest amount. Far East oil and condensate production decreased in 1987 by just over 1% to 5.37 million b/d, whereas gas output rose to 11.7 bcf/day. New acreage awards were significantly higher in 1987 than in 1986, particularly in some of the region's key producing countries. 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Analysis of pig movements across eastern Indonesia, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Christley, Robert M; Geong, Maria; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of live animal movement through markets and from farm-to-farm is needed to inform strategies for control of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) in south-east Asia, particularly due to consumer preference for fresh meat. In eastern Indonesia a TAD of principal interest for control is classical swine fever (CSF) due to its impacts on smallholder farmers. Pig movement is considered a contributor to failure of current CSF control efforts but pig movement patterns are not well understood. This study investigated movement of live pigs in West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands during 2009-2010, with the aim of informing CSF control policies for Nusa Tenggara Timor province. A market survey of 292 pig sellers and 281 pig buyers across nine live pig markets and a farmer survey across 18 villages with 289 smallholder farmers were conducted and information collected on pig movements. The data obtained was used for social network analysis (SNA) on formal (via a market) and informal (village-to-village) movements using information on trading practices, source and destination locations, and the number of pigs being moved. Both inter- and intra-island movements were identified, however inter-island movement was only observed between Flores and Sumba islands. West Timor and Sumba had highly connected networks where large numbers of villages were directly and indirectly linked through pig movement. Further for West Timor, both formal and informal pig movements linked the capital Kupang, on the eastern end of the island to the western districts bordering East Timor connecting all five districts and demonstrating that informal movement transports pigs over distances similar to formal movement on this island. Sumba had a higher potential for pigs to move to a greater number of sequential locations across the entire island. Flores was found to have a more fragmented network, with pig movements concentrated in its eastern or western regions, influenced by terrain. Markets were

  1. Civil-Military Relations in Indonesia: Reformasi and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    4 (July). Crouch, Harold. 1988. The Army and Politics in Indonesia . Revised edition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. -----. 1999. “Wiranto and...University of North Carolina Press. Kammen, Douglas and Siddharth Chandra. 1999. A Tour of Duty: Changing Patterns of Military Politics in Indonesia in...1996. The Dual Function of the Indonesian Armed Forces: Military Politics in Indonesia . Canberra: Australian Defence Studies Centre. Mohammed Fajrul

  2. [Demographic characteristics of consumers in Indonesia?].

    PubMed

    Ananta, A

    1993-06-01

    "This paper presents a mosaic of business opportunities arising from the different demographic characteristics of the provinces in the western part of Indonesia. The author discusses the total number of population, density, and per capita income to [shed] some light on the volume of the market. He also presents the business impact of the [changes] in fertility, mortality, and the...life style of those aged 40-64." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  3. Indonesia 1979: The Record of Three Decades,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Foreign reporting on Indonesia is, in my opinion, excessively biased against the Soeharto regime. Its failures are magnified, while its achievements are...predictive power. In judging the achievements of the "Generation of 1945" and es- pecially those of the Soeharto regime, I assume--within the mainstream of...from the Western political tradition, the government that evolved after General Soeharto took charge in March 1966 is probably as a whole as good as

  4. The history of transmigration in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Supadi, D T

    1980-12-01

    The author outlines the historical development of the transmigration program in Indonesia since it was initiated by the Dutch colonial government at the beginning of the twentieth century. Comparisons are made between the prewar, colonial period of migration, which lasted from 1905 to 1941, and the postwar period of migration, which began with independence in 1945. Information is included on the selectivity of migrants, the extent and direction of migration, and the objectives and results of the transmigration program.

  5. Unfocused response to AIDS in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Maclaren, L

    1997-01-01

    Indonesia has a population of more than 200 million among which less than 500 official cases of HIV/AIDS have been recorded. The number of estimated cases is far greater. High rates of male migration, widespread prostitution, high rates of sexually transmitted disease infection, the absence of sex education for youth, women's low status, and the absence of a national AIDS awareness campaign were cited in 1993 as reasons why HIV would spread quickly throughout Indonesia. Access to basic information about AIDS remains a problem for both urban and rural populations in Indonesia. A national AIDS strategy was made public in 1993 by President Suharto. Supported by the Australians, the plan comprehensively covers almost every key aspect in managing HIV/AIDS. The plan since its release, however, has been largely ignored and the government has done little aside from a handful of television public service announcements, a few pamphlets distributed by the Department of Health, a few small HIV surveillance projects which have yielded little useful information, and the training of government officials to provide AIDS education. Approximately 15 nongovernmental organizations have been actively and successfully conducting AIDS prevention work.

  6. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  7. 8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  8. 3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION OF THE EAST AND NORTH WINGS OF THE BUILDING. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  10. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  11. Solar Radio Observation using Callisto Spectrometer at Sumedang West Java Indonesia: Current Status and Future Development Plan in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manik, T.; Sitompul, P.; Batubara, M.; Harjana, T.; Yatini, C. Y.; Monstein, C.

    2016-04-01

    Sumedang Observatory (6.91°S, 107,84°E) was established in 1975 and is one of the solar observation facilities of the Space Science Center of Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), located around 40 km, east part of Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. Several instrumentations for solar and space observation such as optical telescopes, radio solar spectrograph, flux gate magnetometer, etc. are operated there, together with an ionosphere sounding system (ionosonde) that was set up later. In July 2014, a standard Callisto (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) spectrometer was installed at Sumedang Observatory for solar radio activity monitoring. Callisto has been developed in the framework of IHY2007 and ISWI, supported by UN and NASA. Callisto spectrometer has observation capability in the frequency range of 45-870 MHz. The Callisto spectrometer receives signal by using a set of 21 elements log-periodic antenna, model CLP5130-1N, pointed to the Sun and equipped with a low noise pre-amplifier. With respect to the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) measurements, the Callisto spectrometer is operated individually in frequency ranges of 45-80 MHz and 180-450 MHz. Observation status and data flow are monitored in on-line from center office located in Bandung. The data was transferred to central database at FHNW (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz) server every 15 minutes to appear on e-Callisto network subsequently. A real time data transfer and data processing based on Python software also has been developed successfully to be used as an input for Space Weather Information and Forecasting Services (SWIFtS) provided by LAPAN. On 5th November 2014, Callisto spectrometer at Sumedang observed the first clear solar radio event, a solar radio burst type II corresponding to a coronal mass ejection (CME), indicated by a strong X-ray event of M7.9 that was informed on by Space Weather

  12. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  13. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  14. The stable isotope geochemistry of volcanic lakes, with examples from Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Kreulen, R.

    2000-04-01

    Stable isotope compositions ( δD, δ18O and δ34S) of volcanic lake waters, gas condensates and spring waters from Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Russia were measured. The spring fluids and gas samples plot in a broad array between meteoric waters and local high-temperature volcanic gas compositions. The δD and δ18O data from volcanic lakes in East Indonesia plot in a concave band ranging from local meteoric waters to evaporated fluids to waters heavier than local high-temperature volcanic gases. We investigated isotopic fractionation processes in volcanic lakes at elevated temperatures with simultaneous mixing of meteoric waters and volcanic gases. An elevated lake water temperature gives enhanced kinetic isotope fractionation and changes in equilibrium fractionation factors, providing relatively flat isotope evolution curves in δ18O- δD diagrams. A numerical simulation model is used to derive the timescales of isotopic evolution of crater lakes as a function of atmospheric parameters, lake water temperature and fluxes of meteoric water, volcanic gas input, evaporation, and seepage losses. The same model is used to derive the flux magnitude of the Keli Mutu lakes in Indonesia. The calculated volcanic gas fluxes are of the same order as those derived from energy budget models or direct gas flux measurements in open craters (several 100 m 3 volcanic water/day) and indicate a water residence time of 1-2 decades. The δ34S data from the Keli Mutu lakes show a much wider range than those from gases and springs, which is probably related to the precipitation of sulfur in these acid brine lakes. The isotopic mass balance and S/Cl values suggest that about half of the sulfur input in the hottest Keli Mutu lake is converted into native sulfur.

  15. The Development of Educational Evaluation Models in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasoetion, N.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this project was to develop model evaluation procedures that could be applied to large educational undertakings in Indonesia. Three programs underway in Indonesia were selected for the development of evaluation models: the Textbook-Teacher Upgrading Project, the Development School Project, and the Examinations (Item Bank)…

  16. Avian influenza in Indonesia: Observations of disease detection in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, also known as highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI), has spread throughout Indonesia since 2003. As of June 2007 there have been a total of 100 documented human cases in Indonesia, 80 of which have been fatal. Although efforts have be...

  17. Sculpture of Indonesia. [Teacher's Packet for a Teacher Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the sculpture found in Indonesia. The packet contains: (1) a slide list with descriptions listing time period and dimensions of each piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the setting of Indonesia, the Central Javanese Period and the Eastern Javanese Period; (3) descriptions of how to…

  18. Indonesia: Internal Conditions, the Global Economy, and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Helga; Sheppard, Eric S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes recent trends in the economic and regional development of Indonesia and examines the internal and external forces influencing the process. Shows how these forces account for the rise of a strong centralized state. Discusses Indonesia's current problems. Includes tables, maps, and graphs of economic investment figures, world trade, and…

  19. Educational Decentralization and Behavior Change Needs in Indonesia. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joseph

    This working paper examines behavior change as a key element in creating an enabling environment to sustain educational reform in Indonesia. It recommends elevating the importance of a formalized behavior change framework and methodology so that future plans for educational reform in Indonesia will include social marketing as a planned…

  20. Therapeutic apheresis in Asia: An Indonesia single center experience.

    PubMed

    Triyono, Teguh; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries, like Indonesia, apheresis is still a relative new procedure. Nowadays, therapeutic apheresis procedures are performed in the field of hematology and neurology, especially in the teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Therapeutic apheresis procedure, that is, leukocytapheresis, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and thrombocytapheresis are already performed. In the period 2009-2013, 204 apheresis procedures in 137 patients to reduce the leukocytes, 72 TPE procedures in 17 patients, and 14 thrombocyte reductions were performed in the Sardjito hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the future, to improve the therapeutic apheresis implementation, it is important to increase the insurance coverage and also should be considered to introduce the apheresis medicine into the curriculum of appropriate physician programs in Indonesia. Especially in Indonesia, a lot of efforts are still being needed to improve implementation of therapeutic apheresis.

  1. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  2. Eastern Indonesia Megaregional Project - principles and results of a regional study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, N.G.; Bertagne, A.J.; Samuel, L.

    1995-06-01

    The International Megaregional Project is a worldwide project involving the compilation and interpretation of long regional seismic lines which cross several basins with the same transect. The goal of the project is to synthesize the current geologic knowledge of the areas traversed and to identify new areas of exploration interest. The International Megaregional framework which has been established serves as a focus for the geologic efforts and seismic data compilation. This project was conducted with the cooperation of a consortium of multinational oil companies as well as Pertamina and CGG. Megaregional lines can provide new insights into: (1) what is and is not basement, (2) maturation history and migration pathways, (3) regional structure, and (4) regional stratigraphy. The lines can thereby lead to the development of new exploration concepts. The project is based on 4900 km, of state-of-the-art marine seismic data acquired in 1993. The poster session includes examples of several Megaregional lines from three areas in Eastern Indonesia and another area east of Natuna Island. Key geologic features imaged by the transacts include, subduction zones (lava Trench, Timor Trough) Island Arcs (Sumatra/Bali Arc), back arc basins (eg.. Bali Basin) and major wrench zones (Sorong Fault). The seismic expression of reef plays (Natuna Sea, Salawati Basin), deltaic plays (eg, Mahakam Delta), and other plays is well illustrated. These lines provide an unprecedented perspective on the petroleum setting of Eastern Indonesia.

  3. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Indonesia ergonomics roadmap: where we are going?

    PubMed

    Wignjosoebroto, Sritomo

    2007-12-01

    There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least

  5. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  6. Monitoring Anak Krakatau Volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, Arne; Ibs-von Seht, Malte; Knieβ, Rudolf; Faber, Eckhard; Klinge, Klaus; Reichert, Christian; Atje Purbawinata, Mas; Patria, Cahya

    2006-12-01

    Krakatau volcano, in Indonesia, showed its destructive vigor when it exploded in 1883 [Self and Rampino, 1981]. The eruption and subsequent tsunami caused more than 35,000 casualties along the coasts of the Sunda Strait. In 1928, the `child' of Krakatau, Anak Krakatau, emerged from the sea at the same location as its predecessor and has since grown to a height of 315 meters. The volcano exhibits frequent activity-on average one large eruption every four years-yet again posing risk for the coastal population of Java and Sumatra and for the economically important shipping routes through the Sunda Strait.

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-17

    Ministry of equipped to deal with this. To provide services for the Finances, assures us. A similar rule will apply to pen- hundreds of thousands of...JPRS-EER-90-105 17 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -’PRS Report-- East Europe REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL...TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 , VmR...U..ON 3TA.... A East Europe JPRS-EER-90-105 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC PNUC

  8. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    by Media (KOMPAS, 9 Apr 87) 22 Rift Threatens South Kalimantan NU (KOMPAS, 27 Apr 87) •• 23 Specialists Analyze GOLKAR Victory in Aceh...which have been dumped on markets formerly held by the US and/or Australia. In combating this, the US has squeezed some Australian markets ...may be too damaged to allow him to pursue his free market policies over the head of Congress, as he might have done with success in the earlier

  9. The challenge of installing a tsunami early warning system in the vicinity of the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterjung, J.; Münch, U.; Rudloff, A.

    2010-04-01

    Indonesia is located along the most prominent active continental margin in the Indian Ocean, the so-called Sunda Arc and, therefore, is one of the most threatened regions of the world in terms of natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. On 26 December 2004 the third largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded (magnitude 9.3, Stein and Okal, 2005) occurred off-shore northern Sumatra and triggered a mega-tsunami affecting the whole Indian Ocean. Almost a quarter of a million people were killed, as the region was not prepared either in terms of early-warning or in terms of disaster response. In order to be able to provide, in future, a fast and reliable warning procedure for the population, Germany, immediately after the catastrophe, offered during the UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Hyogo/Japan in January 2005 technical support for the development and installation of a tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean in addition to assistance in capacity building in particular for local communities. This offer was accepted by Indonesia but also by other countries like Sri Lanka, the Maldives and some East-African countries. Anyhow the main focus of our activities has been carried out in Indonesia as the main source of tsunami threat for the entire Indian Ocean. Challenging for the technical concept of this warning system are the extremely short warning times for Indonesia, due to its vicinity to the Sunda Arc. For this reason the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) integrates different modern and new scientific monitoring technologies and analysis methods.

  10. Poverty and mental health in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung

    2014-04-01

    Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, J. S.; Robert, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic CO2 emissions among countries of the world. The demand for energy in Indonesia has been growing rapidly in recent years as Indonesia attempts to modernize and upgrade the standard of living for its citizens. With such a large population (a quarter of a billion people), the recent increase observed in the per capita energy use equates to a large escalation in total CO2 emissions. However, the economy and political climate is rather turbulent and thus emissions tend to fluctuate wildly. For example, Indonesia's energy consumption dropped substantially during the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. It is likely that the recent tsunami will also significantly impact energy consumption as the hard-hit Aceh region is the largest fuel-producing region of Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesia is a country whose emissions are more unpredictable than most countries that emit comparable levels of CO2. Complicating matters further, data collection practices in Indonesia are less diligent than in other countries with more stable economies. Thus, though CO2 emissions from Indonesia are a particular challenge to model, they are an important component to understanding the total global carbon cycle.

  12. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird)

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Elizabeth C.; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2–3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future. PMID:27486664

  13. Detection and Characterization of Low Temperature Peat Fires during the 2015 Fire Catastrophe in Indonesia Using a New High-Sensitivity Fire Monitoring Satellite Sensor (FireBird).

    PubMed

    Atwood, Elizabeth C; Englhart, Sandra; Lorenz, Eckehard; Halle, Winfried; Wiedemann, Werner; Siegert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Vast and disastrous fires occurred on Borneo during the 2015 dry season, pushing Indonesia into the top five carbon emitting countries. The region was affected by a very strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate phenomenon, on par with the last severe event in 1997/98. Fire dynamics in Central Kalimantan were investigated using an innovative sensor offering higher sensitivity to a wider range of fire intensities at a finer spatial resolution (160 m) than heretofore available. The sensor is onboard the TET-1 satellite, part of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) FireBird mission. TET-1 images (acquired every 2-3 days) from the middle infrared were used to detect fires continuously burning for almost three weeks in the protected peatlands of Sebangau National Park as well as surrounding areas with active logging and oil palm concessions. TET-1 detection capabilities were compared with MODIS active fire detection and Landsat burned area algorithms. Fire dynamics, including fire front propagation speed and area burned, were investigated. We show that TET-1 has improved detection capabilities over MODIS in monitoring low-intensity peatland fire fronts through thick smoke and haze. Analysis of fire dynamics revealed that the largest burned areas resulted from fire front lines started from multiple locations, and the highest propagation speeds were in excess of 500 m/day (all over peat > 2m deep). Fires were found to occur most often in concessions that contained drainage infrastructure but were not cleared prior to the fire season. Benefits of implementing this sensor system to improve current fire management techniques are discussed. Near real-time fire detection together with enhanced fire behavior monitoring capabilities would not only improve firefighting efforts, but also benefit analysis of fire impact on tropical peatlands, greenhouse gas emission estimations as well as mitigation measures to reduce severe fire events in the future.

  14. Public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wirawan, I Made Ady

    2010-01-01

    Although climate change is a global concern, there are particular considerations for Indonesia as an archipelagic nation. These include the vulnerability of people living in small islands and coastal areas to rising sea levels; the expansion of the important mosquito-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue, into areas that lack of immunity; and the increase in water-borne diseases and malnutrition. This article proposes a set of public health responses to climate change health impacts in Indonesia. Some important principles and practices in public health are highlighted, to develop effective public health approaches to climate change in Indonesia.

  15. Identification of recently active faults and folds in Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the spatial pattern of active deformation in Java, Indonesia with the aim of characterizing the deformation of the upper plate of the subduction zone in this region. The lack of detailed neotectonic studies in Java is mostly because of its relatively low rate of deformation in spite of significant historical seismic activity. In addition, the abundance of young volcanic materials as well as the region's high precipitation rate and vegetation cover obscure structural relationships and prevent reliable estimates of offset along active faults as well as exhumed intra-arc faults. Detailed maps of active faults derived from satellite and field-based neotectonic mapping, paleoseismic data, as well as new data on the fault kinematics and estimates of orientation of principal stresses from volcano morphology characterize recently active faults and folds. The structures in West Java are dominated by strike-slip faulting, while Central and northern part of East Java are dominated by folds and thrusting with minor normal faulting. The structures vary in length from hundreds meters to tens of kilometers and mainly trend N75°E, N8°E with some minor N45°W. Our preliminary mapping indicates that there are no large scale continuous structures in Java, and that instead deformation is distributed over wide areas along small structures. We established several paleoseismic sites along some of the identified structures. We excavated two shallow trenches along the Pasuruan fault, a normal fault striking NW-SE that forms a straight 13 km scarp cutting Pleistocene deltaic deposits of the north shore of East Java. The trenches exposed faulted and folded fluvial, alluvial and colluvial strata that record at least four ground-rupturing earthquakes since the Pleistocene. The Pasuruan site proves its potential to provide a paleoseismic record rarely found in Java. Abundant Quaternary volcanoes are emplaced throughout Java; most of the volcanoes show elongation in N100°E and N20

  16. ENSO variations and drought occurrence in Indonesia and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harger, J. R. E.

    The "El Nino-Southern Oscillation" (ENSO) consists of a sympathetic movement involving the Pacific ocean and associated atmosphere in an essentially chaotic manner along the equator. The system oscillates between extremes of the so-called "warm events" usually lasting 1 or 2 yr and involving movement of warm sea water from the western Pacific along the equator to impact on the west coast of the American continent and "cold events" associated with easterly trade-wind-induced flows of colder water from the eastern Pacific towards the west. Information drawn from meteorological records in southeast Asia clearly indicates that each event is unique in terms of the signature which it imposes on the rainfall and temperature from location to location. Nevertheless, a strong underlying pattern within the context of each event, itself apparently initiated or molded by the character of the preceding years, can be detected. This pattern permits relatively circumscribed predictions of forward conditions (drought intensity) for 2-3 yr, to be made once the event "locks in" for the duration of the warm event and at least 1 yr beyond. The character of the intervening non-ENSO years can also be projected but in a more tenuous, though fairly regular manner. When the non-ENSO years leading up to a warm event are scored in terms of the extent to which they depart from the secular warming trend for the warmest month using data from Jakarta and Semarang on the north coast of Java, the cumulative temperature deviations signal the character of the upcoming ENSO event. This signal does not, however, allow an exact determination to be made with respect to whether or not an ENSO event will occur in the next year. For the available historical instrumental data, all markedly upward-moving traces eventually delivered a hot dry season in east Indonesia. This sort of tendency within non-ENSO blocks can thus serve as a caution in the sense that a very hot ENSO event is likely in the offing. The

  17. Divergence of the dengue virus type 2 Cosmopolitan genotype associated with two predominant serotype shifts between 1 and 2 in Surabaya, Indonesia, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Kotaki, Tomohiro; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Labiqah, Amaliah; Ahwanah, Nur Laila Fitriati; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Kameoka, Masanori; Konishi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the biggest dengue endemic countries, and, thus, is an important place to investigate the evolution of dengue virus (DENV). We have continuously isolated DENV in Surabaya, the second biggest city in Indonesia, since 2008. We previously reported sequential changes in the predominant serotype from DENV type 2 (DENV-2) to DENV type 1 (DENV-1) in November 2008 and from DENV-1 to DENV-2 in July 2013. The predominance of DENV-2 continued in 2014, but not in 2015. We herein phylogenetically investigated DENV-2 transitions in Surabaya between 2008 and 2014 to analyze the divergence and evolution of DENV-2 concomitant with serotype shifts. All DENV-2 isolated in Surabaya were classified into the Cosmopolitan genotype, and further divided into 6 clusters. Clusters 1-3, dominated by Surabaya strains, were defined as the "Surabaya lineage". Clusters 4-6, dominated by strains from Singapore, Malaysia, and many parts of Indonesia, were the "South East Asian lineage". The most recent common ancestor of these strains existed in 1988, coinciding with the time that an Indonesian dengue outbreak took place. Cluster 1 appeared to be unique because no other DENV-2 isolate was included in this cluster. The predominance of DENV-2 in 2008 and 2013-14 were caused by cluster 1, whereas clusters 2 and 3 sporadically emerged in 2011 and 2012. The characteristic amino acids of cluster 1, E-170V and E-282Y, may be responsible for its prevalence in Surabaya. No amino acid difference was observed in the envelope region between strains in 2008 and 2013-14, suggesting that the re-emergence of DENV-2 in Surabaya was due to the loss or decrease of herd immunity in the 5-year period when DENV-2 subsided. The South East Asian lineage primarily emerged in Surabaya in 2014, probably imported from other parts of Indonesia or foreign countries.

  18. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance in Thailand and Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of malaria transmission in Thailand and Indonesia to assist in the understanding and reducing the incidence of the deadly disease. Satellite observations are being integrated into this work, and this is described herein.

  19. Indonesia 1997: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    The Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics, State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data from the DHS were collected from 34,255 households and complete interviews were conducted with 28,810 women aged 15-49. The interviews took place between September 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997. The summary statistics presented were taken from the Indonesia country report with exception as noted. Included in this article are table and charts presenting valuable data on Indonesia general characteristics of the population, fertility, contraceptive use, and knowledge about contraception, marital and contraceptive status, infant mortality, and health.

  20. United States East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Snowy to the north and west and cloudy to the east, this MODIS image from February 28, 2002, shows the eastern U.S. Piedmont, a region of relatively low-lying, rolling plateau that runs between New Jersey to the north and Alabama to the south. Bounded on the west by the Appalachians and on the east by the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont is fertile agricultural land, and appears to be greening up in (from bottom left) Georgia, South Carolina, and parts of North Carolina, while winter has left its snowy mark on West Virginia (left of center), and to the northeast in Pennsylvania, New York, and New England.

  1. Contrasting Protoliths of Cretaceous Metamorphic Rocks from the Luk Ulo Accretionary Wedge Complex of Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadarusman, A.; Massone, H.; Permana, H.; Munasri, A.

    2005-12-01

    Rocks of the Lok Ulo Accretionary Complex crop out over a small (<100 km2) area in the Karangsambung residency of Central Java. They are part of Cretaceous accretionary wedge complexes in Central Indonesia, which are distributed sporadically in an arc extending from southwest and central Java to southeast Kalimantan and southern Sulawesi. The Lok Ulo complex consists of various types of rocks occurring as tectonic slabs in a black-shale matrix tectonic melange. The slabs are composed of a dismembered ophiolite, sedimentary rocks, and crystalline schists and gneisses. Detailed work on all the various metamorphic rock types in the Lok Ulo complex will be the focus of the study. Our investigations already show that the metamorphic rocks have two different kinds of protoliths and differ in P-T evolution as well. The first group (called `oceanic plate protolith') consists of fine-grained metabasites with metapelitic intercalations ranging from greenschist to amphibolite facies. High-pressure rocks such as eclogite, partially containing lawsonite, jadeite-glaucophane schist and blueschist crop out in a thin zone between the low-grade schists and a serpentinite zone along Kali Muncar. They are associated with a succession of metabasalt, serpentinite, chert and red limestone as common constituents of an ophiolite. The second group (called `continental crustal protolith') consists of low to high grade medium pressure metapelites, calc-silicate rocks, and metagranites (gneisses, quartzites, marbles, felsic granulites), and minor bimodal low grade metavolcanic. These rocks are presumably associated with a monotonous sequence of metapelites from the chlorite zone up to the garnet zone exposed in the northern and eastern part of the Karangsambung area (e.g. Kali Loning). Our findings suggest that the metamorphic rocks from the Lok Ulo complex are not the simple result of subduction metamorphism along the Indo-Australian oceanic plate (margin of the Sundaland craton) in the

  2. AGE-STRUCTURAL TRANSITION IN INDONESIA

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Philip; Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper responds to recent calls for empirical study of the impact of age-structural transition. It begins by reviewing evidence of cohort oscillations in twentieth-century Indonesia, which indicates that current older generations are likely to have smaller numbers of children on whom they may rely than generations before and after them. However, to assess whether the imbalances implied by this situation are actually influencing people’s lives, attention to further factors shaping the availability and reliability of younger generations, notably differences in socio-economic status and in patterns of inter-generational support flows, is required. Community-level Indonesian data confirm that elders in the lower social strata are child-poor. Social structural and family network patterns, however, have a greater influence on the availability of inter-generational support than cohort differentials. PMID:27158254

  3. Marriage and Socioeconomic Change in Contemporary Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Buttenheim, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between economic trends and entry into marriage in a rapidly developing setting. We examine Indonesian marriage in the 1990’s, a decade of substantial economic growth followed by a sudden financial collapse in 1998. We use discrete-time hazard models to analyze information on 4,078 women and 4,496 men from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. While previous research has shown that marriages may be postponed after economic downturn, we find no evidence of such delays at the national level following the 1998 financial crisis. In contrast, we use regional wage rate data to show that entry into marriage is inversely related to economic growth throughout the decade for all women and for men from lower socioeconomic strata. PMID:26336321

  4. GHG Effect on Surface Temperature in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, W. E.

    The increasing of green house gas emissons into the atmosphere could influence the Climate and Earth Ecosystem. The increasing CO_2 emmision in developed countries and developing countries are influenced by economic growth factor, cheaped price fuel without tax and there is not regulation yet for making arrangement energy efficiency. The result of inventarisation CO_2 emmision related to energy sector between 1990 until 2000 in Indonesia are having increased trend, and the CO_2 emmision percapita is still lower then OECD countries. The green house gas concentrations are measured continously in Bandung, Jakarta, and the others place. The CO_2 and CH_4 concentration ever had results higher than globally mean. The fluctuation of green house gas concentrations are influenced by activities of surounding research location.

  5. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  6. A nationwide parasite eradication campaign. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    On January 6, 1996, Dr. Haryono Suyono, Minister of State for Population and Chairman of BKKBN, the Minister of Health, and the Governor of West Java inaugurated the revitalization of village population and development institutions throughout Indonesia. The event was coined "The Movement of One Million Village Institutions." It highlighted progress made by village community institutions which successfully implemented nationwide polio vaccination and the village health insurance scheme for needy families. The movements are based upon community self-reliance and sharing, with the government providing assistance when and where needed. Relatively more affluent families are encouraged to help the less well-off in their villages meet their basic needs, including health and educational expenses. These institutions have now gone beyond promoting just family planning, but also help family income generation and village insurance schemes, provide fellowships to children of the less privileged, and help families build clean, cement house floors.

  7. National news. Indonesia. Promoting ARH awareness.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Limited availability of IEC materials is hindering efforts to promote adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia. This, in turn, reflects a lack of awareness on the part of policy makers and community leaders about the importance of interventions directed at young people. Two ongoing United Nations Population Fund projects seek to promote awareness of adolescent reproductive health needs in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, West Java, Bali, Lampung, and Riau. A coalition of governmental and nongovernmental agencies has been established to implement the project. By project end in 1999, government agencies and nongovernmental organizations are expected to have incorporated youth-oriented activities into their overall programming and formulated relevant policy guidelines. Another project (Strengthening Strategies to Improve Adolescent Reproductive Health through Materials Development), implemented by the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association, is focusing on the development and distribution of reproductive health materials for specific target audiences.

  8. A magnetotelluric profile across Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, O.; Hoffmann-Rothe, A.; Müller, A.; Dwipa, S.; Arsadi, E. M.; Mahfi, A.; Nurnusanto, I.; Byrdina, S.; Echternacht, F.; Haak, V.

    1998-12-01

    Along a N30°E striking profile in central Java, Indonesia we recorded broadband magnetotelluric data at 8 sites in the period range 0.01 s-10000s. A preliminary analysis of apparent resistivity, phase and magnetic transfer function data favours a one-dimensional interpretation of most sites for the upper 3-5 km of the crust and a two- or three- dimensional structure for the lower crust. Several conductive features can be distinguished: (i) a strong “ocean effect” at the southern most site, (ii) a zone of very high conductivity in the central part of the profile, and (iii) a conductor in the north that cannot be caused by the shallow Java sea. We discuss tentatively causes for these anomalies. The conductor in the central part of the profile is probably connected with volcanic or geothermal activity, while the anomaly in the north could be an expression of processes associated with an active fault zone.

  9. Country report: Clinical chemistry in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Satyawirawan, F S; Silman, E

    1999-01-01

    Seven hundred clinical laboratories in all over 27 provinces in Indonesia participated the Indonesian External Quality Assurance Scheme (Program Nasional Pemantapan Kualitas Laboratorium Kesehatan bidang Kimia Klinik). Among those laboratories, the government laboratory account for 288 (41%), and the rest 412 (59%) are private laboratories. Automatic analyzer was used by approximately 22% of the participating laboratories. Seventeen analytes were included in the program: bilirubin, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, total protein, urea, uric acid, triglycerides, AST, ALT, calcium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-GT, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Using WHO scoring system, median overall VIS of 128 was obtained. It means that the all over performance was fairly good . Bilirubin got the best median VIS (33). Sodium (median VIS 177), potassium (162) and chloride (209) got the worst VIS compared to the other parameters.

  10. Female education and child mortality in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mellington, N; Cameron, L

    1999-12-01

    This paper uses a sample of 6620 women from the 1994 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey to examine the relationship between female education and child mortality in Indonesia. Female education is measured in terms of both years of education and literacy. Both primary education and secondary schooling significantly decrease the probability of child death, while literacy plays an insignificant role. When the sample is divided into urban and rural locations, primary and secondary education are significant in both areas in reducing the likelihood of a mother experiencing child mortality. The benefits of public and private infrastructure appear to differ in rural and urban areas. The results confirm that investment in female human capital lowers the probability of child mortality.

  11. Scientists assess impact of Indonesia fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The fires burning in Indonesia over the past several months are setting aflame the biomass and wildlife habitat of the tropical forests, spreading a dangerously unhealthy haze across the populous country and nearby nations in southeast Asia, causing transportation hazards, and sending plumes of smoke up into the troposphere.Most of the fires have been set—by big landowners, commercial loggers, and small farmers—in attempts to clear and cultivate the land, as people have done in the past. But this year a drought induced by El Niño limited the rainfall that could help extinguish the flames and wash away the smoke and haze. In addition, some scientists say that smoke could even delay the monsoon, which usually arrives in early November.

  12. VIEW EAST, EAST ELEVATION OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE, NOTE ROD LINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST, EAST ELEVATION OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE, NOTE ROD LINES EXITING THE BUILDING AND ROD LINES WITH SUPPORTS IN FOREGROUND LEFT. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  13. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 3. East side, details of north half of east web; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side, details of north half of east web; also details of roadway, railing and overhead bracing; looking northeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

  15. Perspective view looking from the east to the east northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking from the east to the east northeast facade, with Swiss Chalet in background, to replicate the view shown in MD-1109-J-18 - National Park Seminary, Japanese Pagoda, 2805 Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  16. 29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUMFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ARE REPLACEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, drainage pipes for approach, and scupper downspouts. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  20. Issue Paper on US Defense Relations with Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    34 of jurisdiction over territorial waters and claimed territoriality of the Malacca Straits, subject to whatever degree of constraint that...consideration should be given to the retention of the United States Defense Liaison Group in Indonesia. • The United States should not, in word or... waters problems with Indonesia should, as far as possible, be settled within a multilateral framework. • The United States should be prepared to

  1. Recent situation of schistosomiasis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Izhar, Ali; Sinaga, R M; Sudomo, M; Wardiyo, N D

    2002-05-01

    Schistosomiasis in Indonesia is limited to two very isolated areas, the Napu and Lindu valleys, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The disease was initially found in 1937 in the village of Tomado. In 1940, a study on schistosomiasis in the Lake Lindu area was initiated and an infection rate of 56% among the people in the three villages of Anca, Tomado and Langko was found. Before a comprehensive control programme was initiated, the infection rate among the population of approximately 4000 people in the Napu valley was very high, e.g. 72% in the village of Winowanga. In 1982, more coordinated and intensive schistosomiasis control measures in the Napu and Lindu valleys were initiated. The average infection rate after control measures were greatly decreased-in Napu valley it was 1.83%, while in Lindu valley it was 0.46%, in 1999. The control approaches can be described over five phases, from 1982 to 1986, up to 1998 to present. In 1998, an agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Asian Development Bank was signed to develop the schistosomiasis endemic areas of Central Sulawesi into a better socio-economic condition. The objectives of the project are not only to control schistosomiasis, but mainly to protect the National Park which is located between the Lindu and Napu valleys. It is an integrated project named 'Central Sulawesi Integrated Area Development and Conservation Project' and many relevant sectors have been involved in the implementation of this project for the development of the area, including control of schistosomiasis. The implementation of the integrated project started in 1999.

  2. System Thinking Scales and Learning Environment of Family Planning Field Workers in East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Listyawardani, Dwi; Hariastuti, Iswari

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is needed due to the growing complexity of the problems faced family planning field workers in the external environment that is constantly changing. System thinking ability could not be separated from efforts to develop learning for the workers, both learning at the individual, group, or organization level. The design of the study…

  3. Challenges modeling clastic eruptions: applications to the Lusi mud eruption, East Java, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    Clastic eruptions involve brecciation and transport of the hosting rocks by ascent fluids (gas and/or liquids), resulting in a mixture of rock clasts and fluids (i.e. mud breccia). This kind of eruptions is often associated with geological features such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vents or more generically with piercement structures. Over the past decades, several numerical models, often based on those used in volcanology, have been employed to better understand the behavior of such clastics systems. However, modeling multiphase flow is challenging, and therefore most of the models are considering only one phase flow. Many chemical, mechanical and physical aspects remain still poorly understood. In particular, the rheology of the fluid is one of the most important aspects, but also the most difficult to characterize. Experimental flow curves can be obtained on the finest fraction, but coarser particles (> 1mm) are usually neglected. While these experimental measurements usually work well on magma, they are much more difficult to perform when clay minerals are involved. As an initial step, we use analytical and simplified numerical models (flow in a pipe) to better understand the flow dynamics within a main conduit connected to an overpressured reservoir. The 2D numerical model solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we present an overview of the state-of-the-art in modeling clastic eruptions as well as the limitations and challenges of such numerical models. We also discuss the challenges associated to the specific case of Lusi. In particular the difficulty to characterize the mud properties and the technical challenges associated with the acquisition of new data and development of more sophisticated models. Previous attempts to model e.g. the longevity of the Lusi eruption were not particularly successful. A possibility is because the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal system is reactivated by frequent seismicity and by the connection with the neighboring volcanic complex feeding it.

  4. Seasonal variations in geochemistry of the hyperacidic Ijen Crater Lake, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarti, S.; Sumarti, S.; van Bergen, M. J.; Takano, B.; Sukarnen, S.

    2001-12-01

    Kawah Ijen is a typical crater lake in a tropical climate where there is a balance between the volume of atmospheric precipitation and the level of water in the lake. The crater lake has a regular oval form (600 x 1000 m2), is 180 m deep, and contains about 36 million m3 of turquoise-green colored water (pH ~ 0.2). The water contains extremely high Cl, SO4, F concentrations, the maximum values being about 2,500 mg/kg, 80,000 mg/kg and 1,300 mg/kg respectively. Twenty-four samples of lake water taken during August 1996 (dry season) show most major elements to be homogeneously distributed throughout the lake at this time to a depth of 165 m within a standard deviation of less than 10 %. Homogeneity is most likely due to thorough mixing driven by thermal convection. However, iron and sulphur do not behave in the same way showing variations up to 14 % variation. Monthly monitoring of surface water (1997-2001) shows temporal fluctuations in acidity (pH 0 ~ 0.6) and water level, concentrations of major elements, temperature (20 ~ 45° C). Between 1976-1996, the water level varied by ~ 15 m; and from 1997-2001 by ~ 10 m. The onset of the wet season may coincide with an episodical decrease, a spike, in major element concentrations up to 70 % of their dry season value. This spike occurs annually at the lowest temperature and highest degree of dilution, indicates of the influence of rainfall. However, volcanic gases entering beneath the lake bottom may have added to these temporal changes in the lake especially during phreatic eruptions. Shallow earthquake records do not indicate correlations between seismic activity and chemical changes in the lake. Temporal variations of lake surface temperature show good agreement with major element variations in surface water. Crater lake surface water collected at three points on August 1996, March 2001, May 2001 revealed that the surface water was homogenous in the dry and rainy season within a standard deviation below 7 %. The geochemical and seasonal variations in the lake are important in assessing the environmental impact of acidic water that drains in to the Banyupahit-Banyuputih River, particularly in the Asembagus area (40 km from the lake) where the water is used for irrigation. The fluoride level in the 55 well water samples was high. In 50 % of the samples it was above the 1.5 mg/kg limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ratios of B/F, B\\Cl, B/SO4 as conservative elements indicate that Banyuputih River contaminates the groundwater.

  5. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia*

    PubMed Central

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer’s education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking. PMID:24966446

  6. Genetic admixture history of Eastern Indonesia as revealed by Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Mona, Stefano; Grunz, Katharina E; Brauer, Silke; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Castrì, Loredana; Sudoyo, Herawati; Marzuki, Sangkot; Barnes, Robert H; Schmidtke, Jörg; Stoneking, Mark; Kayser, Manfred

    2009-08-01

    Eastern Indonesia possesses more linguistic diversity than any other region in Southeast Asia, with both Austronesian (AN) languages that are of East Asian origin, as well as non-Austronesian (NAN) languages of likely Melanesian origin. Here, we investigated the genetic history of human populations from seven eastern Indonesian islands, including AN and NAN speakers, as well as the relationship between languages and genes, by means of nonrecombining Y-chromosomal (NRY) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. We found that the eastern Indonesian gene pool consists of East Asian as well as Melanesian components, as might be expected based on linguistic evidence, but also harbors putative indigenous eastern Indonesian signatures that perhaps reflect the initial occupation of the Wallacea by aboriginal hunter-gatherers already in Palaeolithic times. Furthermore, both NRY and mtDNA data showed a complete lack of correlation between linguistic and genetic relationships, most likely reflecting genetic admixture and/or language shift. In addition, we noted a small fraction of the NRY and mtDNA data shared between eastern Indonesians and Australian Aborigines likely reflecting an ancient link between Asia and Australia. Our data thus provide insights into the complex genetic ancestry history of eastern Indonesian islanders characterized by several admixture episodes and demonstrate a clear example of the lack of the often-assumed correlation between the genes and languages of human populations.

  7. Tobacco Use and Exposure among Children in Migrant and Non-migrant Households in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukamdi; Wattie, Anna Marie

    2013-12-01

    This research note aims to understand the impact of parental migration on the children who stay behind by examining the issue of smoking. It asks whether tobacco use and exposure are higher among children in migrant households compared with those in non-migrant households in Java, Indonesia. Data were collected in 2008 in two provinces, West Java and East Java, as part of the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project. The analytical sample used here relates to children aged 9, 10 and 11 living in both non-migrant and transnational households (N=451). The findings show that the incidence of ever having smoked among these primary school-aged children is relatively low at less than 10 percent, but that boys are much more likely to have used tobacco than girls. Findings from multivariate logistic models predicting smoking behavior show no difference between the children of migrants and non-migrants; nor does household wealth appear to influence whether or not a child has tried tobacco. Gender, child stunting (low height-for-age), carer's education, family functioning and tobacco use by friends are the four main factors found to be significantly associated with child smoking.

  8. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Malcolm A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East. PMID:25139165

  9. Cancer control programs in East Asia: evidence from the international literature.

    PubMed

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  10. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  11. Mitigation of carbon dioxide from the Indonesia energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Adi, A.C.; Nurrohim, A.; Hidajat, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Energy consumption in Indonesia is growing fast in line with the development of national economy. During (1990 - 1993) the emission of CO{sub 2} gas coming from energy sector increased from 150 million tones to 200 million tones in 1993. Whereas, the total methane emission from the oil, gas and coal sub-sector reached 550 kilo tones in 1991 and increased to 670 kilo tones in 1994. This amount of CO{sub 2} and Methane from energy sector was 26% and 10 % respectively of the total emission of Indonesia. Based on the last two decades of Indonesia`s economic growth experience, as a developing country this high economic growth rate of Indonesia in the future will be kept until reaching the newly industrialized country level, which is more than 6% annually in the next decade. This high growth rate economic projection will also added the level of GHG emission in the future. As a developing country Indonesia is one of the fast growing countries. The GDP growth in the year 1995 was more than 7 percent, therefore growth rate of energy consumption in this country also rose following the economic growth.

  12. 10. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST TOWER IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST TOWER IS SEEN AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH ON THE SKYLINE, AND THE EAST WALKWAY ABUTMENT IS SEEN AT THE LEFT OF THE VIEW. THE VERTICAL CABLE RUNS FROM THE EYEBOLT TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE SPACER. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 2. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North Coweta Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  14. 17. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North McDonald Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  15. 20. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South McDonald Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  16. 7. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South Coweta Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  17. 13. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of south side of East Ward Street east of Sibett Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  18. 4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 (Enterprise Diesel; reduction gear in foreground; in left rear, two D.C. generators with Ames Ironworks horizontal engine and sturtevant vertical engine - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Plan Progress Report for CEMA Agriculture (Ngok Bin, Petr Ivashov; INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT DER LANDWIRTSCHAFT, No 6, 1985) 1 ECONOMY...INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA Civil Air Transport Pilot Training School Described (Dmitri Zassorov; VOLKSARMEE, No 47, 1985) 12 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Former...AFFAIRS CURRENT 5-YEAR PLAN PROGRESS REPORT FOR CEMA AGRICULTURE Moscow/East Berlin INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT DER LANDWIRTSCHAFT in German No 6, 1985 pp

  20. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    VA . 22161 O o3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90-042 CONTENTS 30 MARCH 1990 POLITICAL CZECHOSLOVAKIA Jicinsky on Constitutional Background of Federation [LIDOVE...vice [NEPSZABADSAG] Is it possible that one day they will president, by Judit Kozma, Andras Szigethy, and Bela come here to auction the factory away

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-03

    SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 DTCCQüÄury TEMBNT i. DISTRIBUTION STA’ Approved fox public release; jMslribaüon UnEmited East Europe JPRS-EER-90-137...28Aug90p5 [Article by Judit Kozma: "Vacated Enterprise Head- quarters Will Also Be Nationalized; State Property Agency Begins Privatization"] [Text

  2. JPRS Report East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Radio Broadcasts for Baltic, Ukrainian Polonia Begin [TRYBUNA 8 May] .................................... 2 YUGOSLAVIA Reasons for Tudjman’s...for Baltic, Ukrainian Polonia Elena Lagadinova, deputy chairman; Begin Khristina Pepeldzhiyska, deputy chairman; 90P20027A Warsaw TR YBUNA in Polish 8...Commission for [Text] On 7 May, Polish Radio began broadcasting Socioeconomic Development; special programs for Poles [ Polonia ] residing in the East. 2

  3. East Texas Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brandi, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, "Loblolly Magazine" is published twice a year. Issues are frequently devoted to a distant theme. The theme of this issue, "East Texas Storytellers," attempts to capture some of the local color and regional history of eastern Texas. The first article,…

  4. East Texas Quilts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Patchwork quilting is an original folk art in the United States. Pilgrims first used worn out scraps of cloth to make bed covers in an age of scarcity. Featured here are stories on East Texas Quilts, their origins, the love and hard work which goes into the making of a quilt (Ira Barr and others). The techniques needed to construct a quilt are…

  5. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-18

    above total includes one to two events a month,79 upkeep of an old-age home, of the community library and a kosher 99 butcher shop. The old-age home...the kosher butcher shop, which is open Tuesday to Thursday from 1000 to 1800 hours, includes, in addition to the about 10 East Berlin regular

  6. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  7. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-16

    benefiting big businesses. "We certainly do not want to create an economic life that benefits big 10 INDONESIA JPRS-SEA-93-002 16 February 1993... Indonesia regarding their aspirations for creating political and economic democracy. Such democracy is the basic idea of Pancasila democracy, which...He also emphasized that small and medium businesses play a very important role in development in Indonesia . Besides creating jobs and expanding

  8. JPRS Report East Asia Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-24

    Reported [PRACHEACHON 12 Jan] 2 INDONESIA POLITICAL Biographic Information on New Cabinet Members [TEMPO 27 Mar] 4 MILITARY Profiles of...investigate what can be done in order to help in both areas after she returns home. INDONESIA JPRS-SEA-93-007 24 May 1993 POLITICAL Biographic...after serving as a minister for 20 years. During those years, the professor at the Economics Faculty of the University of Indonesia con- tinued to

  9. Tectonic Control of Piercement Structures in Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Hadi, S.; Etiope, G.; Inguaggiato, S.

    2014-12-01

    A recent field expedition in Central Java targeted the mapping and sampling of several piercements structures in central Java (Indonesia), most of which have never been documented before. Here, at least seven structures erupting mud water and gas are distributed along a NE-SW alignment that extends for about 10 kilometers. Some of the mapped structures (Bledug Kuwu, Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, Mendikil, Banjarsari, Krewek) have been named after the neighboring local village. None of these have obvious elevation despite the vigorous emission of gas and mud, suggesting that significant caldera collapse is ongoing. Among the most relevant: Bledug Kuwu is certainly the most impressive structure with three main eruption sites in the crater area bursting more than 5 m large hot mud bubbles. Similar characteristics are present at the smaller (200 m in diameter) Bledug Cangkring Krabagan, that is also surrounded by numerous pools and gryphons seeping around the main crater. The smaller sized Mendikil is the only visited structure that, at the moment of the sampling, did not show seepage of hot fluids. Banjarsari and Krewek (up to 200 m wide) are characterized by scattered hot water-dominated pools where gas is vented vigorously. In particular the hot pools are systematically covered by travertine concretions. Water and gas geochemisty confirms the seepage of CO2 dominated gas and water with hydrothermal signature. The investigated structures appear to follow an obvious NE-SW oriented lineament that most likely coincides with a tectonic structure (fault?) that controls their location. Indeed the field observations and the analyses suggest that likely scenario is that this fault (?) acts as a preferential pathway for the expulsion of hydrothermal fluids to the surface. Very little is known about this region, neither is known why several of these structures erupt hot mud despite their significant distance from the two closest volcanic structures (i.e. Mt. Muria 60 km to the NW

  10. Quaternary Deformation of Sumba, Indonesia: Evidence from Carbonate Terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Dolan, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Banda Arc of Indonesia remains one of the least understood tectonic domains on the modern Earth. The island of Sumba, located approximately 50 km south of Flores and 120 km north of the Java Trench, northwest of where it transitions into the Timor Trough, lies in a region of tectonic transition and potentially offers insights into regional dynamics. The Banda Arc is volcanically active, but Sumba itself is not volcanic. The northern coast of Sumba is covered in Quaternary coral terraces, with the rest of the island's surface geology composed of Mio-pliocene carbonates and uplifted Late Cretaceous-Oligocene forearc basin and volcanic rocks. The purpose of this study is to remotely map the topographic expression of the coral terraces and use the information gained to better understand deformation on Sumba since their deposition. The ages of the coral terraces, of which many platforms are exposed over significant areas of the island, have been constrained at Cape Luandi in north central Sumba, but uplift rates calculated from those ages may not be representative of the island as a whole. The lateral continuity of these dated terraces can help constrain the extent to which uplift of Sumba is spatially variable. Analysis of the terraces using SRTM digital elevation data with ArcGIS software makes it possible to trace the same terrace platforms over large distances, and shows that the north central part of the island has experienced the most uplift since the deposition of the terraces, forming an anticline with the east limb dipping more steeply than the west. The terraces are not well preserved on the southern half of the island. Exposure of older rocks and lack of terrace preservation, as well as a south-skewed drainage divide suggests the southern half of the island experiences greater exhumation, but this could be driven by climate or other factors and does not necessarily indicate more rapid uplift. Study of Quaternary deformation of Sumba can offer greater

  11. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060). Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1) pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will); 2) women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs); 3) relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth) and 4) midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care). Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following traditional

  12. East Asia Review, 1973. To sum up.

    PubMed

    Keeny, S M

    1974-05-01

    Observations are made related to the review of family planning activities in East Asia in 1973. The number of new acceptors for the region increased from 2.7 million in 1972 to 3.4 million in 1973. The leaders were Indonesia, which almost doubled its achievement of calendar year 1972, the Philippines, and Korea. In Thailand, the number of new acceptors dropped by about 10%. South Vietnam is the only country in the region without an official policy. Most couples still think that the ideal number of children is 4, with at least 2 sons. Some religious opposition does exist, particularly with reference to sterlization and abortion. More attention is being paid to women in their 20s. Sterilization and condoms are becoming more popular. Korea reports a sharp increase in vasectomies. Better methods and continuation rates should be stressed. In Taiwan a couple who start with 1 method and continue to practice some method lower their reproduction rate by 80%. More responsibility is being delegated to nurses and midwives, but too slowly. In Indonesia, the number of field workers rose from 3774 in 1972 to 6275 in 1973. The Philippines and Thailand are experimenting to see what kind of workers get best results and under what kind of salary and incentive arrangements. In-service training tends to be neglected, but preservice training is improving. Costs, in general, have risen, though in Korea the cost per acceptor has dropped from US$8.00 to US$7.80. Korea and Taiwan have reduced their annual population growth rates by more than 1/3 in 10 years, from 30 to 19-20 per 1000 each. Singapore's rate is 17 and Hong Kong's 14 (exclusive of inmigration). The number of couples currently practicing contraception in Singapore is 71%. Target systems assigning quotas to clinics are generally used except in Thailand and Malaysia, where programs emphasize maternal and child health, rather than population planning. Most programs require about 10 years to get the annual growth rate down to 2% by

  13. Bahasa Indonesia and Bahasa Malaysia--Parallel Development of Language Siblings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostock, William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of Bahasa Indonesia, the official language of the Republic of Indonesia, and Bahasa Malaysia, the official language of the Federation of Malaysia. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  14. 78 FR 5416 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ..., Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations..., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, dated December 28, 2012, (``the... People's Republic of China (``China''), Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the...

  15. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  16. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  17. Fine-scale habitat use by orang-utans in a disturbed peat swamp forest, central Kalimantan, and implications for conservation management.

    PubMed

    Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C; Husson, Simon J; Harsanto, Fransiskus A; Chivers, David J

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to see how orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) were coping with fine-scale habitat disturbance in a selectively logged peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Borneo. Seven habitat classes were defined, and orang-utans were found to use all of these, but were selective in their preference for certain classes over others. Overall, the tall forest classes (≥20 m) were preferred. They were preferred for feeding, irrespective of canopy connectivity, whereas classes with a connected canopy (canopy cover ≥75%), irrespective of canopy height, were preferred for resting and nesting, suggesting that tall trees are preferred for feeding and connected canopy for security and protection. The smaller forest classes (≤10 m high) were least preferred and were used mainly for travelling from patch to patch. Thus, selective logging is demonstrated here to be compatible with orang-utan survival as long as large food trees and patches of primary forest remain. Logged forest, therefore, should not automatically be designated as 'degraded'. These findings have important implications for forest management, forest classification and the designation of protected areas for orang-utan conservation.

  18. A composite analysis of the Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) development over the Central Kalimantan and its relation with the propagation of the rainfall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trismidianto; Yulihastin, E.; Satyawardhana, H.; Ishida, S.

    2017-01-01

    The composite analysis for 45-cases of the MCC which identified by using infrared satellite imagery over the Central Kalimantan (110° - 116°E, 4°S - 1°N) has been observed. The data used is a combination of satellite data and reanalysis data. This study reported that the MCCs develops triggered by the orographic convective that helped by the convergent surface wind flow through interaction with the sea breeze in the afternoon until midnight and dissipated in the morning. The new convective systems are generated by the divergent outflow of the cold pool, in conjunction with the morning land breeze during MCCs mature. After dissipated, the new convective systems induce the land convection over the Java Island that became heavy rainfall. The initial and mature region are characterized by weak low-level convergence and upper-level divergence, but the low-level divergence begin appear during mature. The MCC develops largely driven by MCC-scale moisture convergence in the lower troposphere and cold core structure in the lower level. The weak surface divergence and upper-level divergence, warm advection in the lower atmosphere are dissipation characteristics. MCCs develop due to low-level cold advection and temperature and separated when dissipated that indicate the existence of the new convective systems propagation.

  19. Indonesia to become a larger donor to the UNFPA, Country Director J.S. Parsons predicts.

    PubMed

    Mann, R

    1992-08-01

    The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) is influential with governments because of its international coordinating role in line with the Amsterdam Declaration of 1989. The present shortage of funds for UNFPA can be traced to the weak world economy, monetary needs in eastern Europe and in the former USSR, and the stagnation of voluntary contributions to UNFPA. The reduction of funding has affected the Indonesian family planning (FP) program called BKKBN. Indonesia is a priority country for UNFPA because of the self-reliance and success of the national program; the efficient utilization of a staff of 46,000 working for 19 million acceptors; the total fertility rate drop from 5.6 in 1971 to 3.1 in 1991; a 95% and 93% knowledge of FP and contraceptives among married women, respectively; and the national contraceptive prevalence is 49.7%. Smaller private projects and strategies are recommended for nationwide adaptation. Unfulfilled needs include adolescent reproductive health care, slums, quality of services, and reaching remote fishing or highland communities. BKKBN has been assisting its Vietnamese counterpart with technical advice which is in accordance with the international objectives of UNFPA. BKKBN has also assisted Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Kenya. Indonesia could contribute condoms, pills, and IUDs to the UNFPA effort to increase its share, although not on the same order as Japan and the Netherlands. The 4th Asian and Pacific conference is scheduled to be held in Bali in August 1992 in preparation for the World Population Conference to be arranged in Egypt in 1994 with an agenda of policies and strategies for all the regions of Asia, Pacific, Middle East, and Latin America. The formulation of a World Population Declaration is envisioned on South to South cooperation on FP beholding BKKBN's experience in FP information exchange with other countries.

  20. Basin and Crustal Structure of Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia from Two Seismic Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Irsam, M.; Masturyono, M.; Murjaya, J.; Nugraha, A. D.; Pandhu, R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Zulhan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Between October 2013 and February 2014, a dense portable seismic broadband network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Jakarta is located in Java Island, Indonesia, with a population over 10 million. Overall 96 points were sampled through the successive deployments of 52 seismic broadband sensors at different parts of the city. After recording continuous seismic data for 5 months, the network was shifted to Bandung, another city to the south-east of Jakarta on March 2014. Bandung is situated on a old lake deposit surrounded by volcanic provinces. The configuration of the seismic network at Bandung encompasses the whole city as well as an active volcano-Tangkuban Perahu and Lembang Fault both located just outside of the city.In both of the experiments, oceanic and anthropogenic noise were recorded as well as local and regional earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded data of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 4000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from stacked interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh and body waves. The traveltimes that were extracted from the group velocity filtering of Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a Transdimensional Bayesian seismic tomography method to map the velocity perturbations across cities. The constructed images at Jakarta mark the very low group velocities of Rayleigh waves, as low as 150 m/s at 1 Hz showing influence of a very low velocity basin. Low seismic velocity regions imaged through seismic noise tomography beneath both cities potentially posses a large risk of causing seismic amplification during a large earthquake close to the cities.

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-19

    the employees of the Central Elections Office, and [made by senators]. It requires that [the time for or delegates from foreign representations...several other papers, such as the center for Central and East Europe. Moreover we are 23 March issue of HAROMSZEK, published in Sep- granting one-half...million to a joint venture on a modern siszentgyorgy [Sfintu Gheorghe]. system of payment. The Hungarian central bank has This is not the wish of a man

  2. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-22

    construction of a plant for caustic soda , chlorine, and chlorine products in our country with the participation of the USSR (with 80 percent of the...and Haldia (India), Karachi (Pakistan), Zarka (Jordan), and Banyas (Syria—one of the biggest refineries in the Middle East), the soda factory in...the ruins of princely manors offer an excellent motive for evoking glorious pages of the country’s history . We know that hundreds of thousands of

  3. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-14

    PRS-EER-90-020 14 FEBRUARY 1990,FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -’PRS Report- East Europe cc> REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...goals under the national anti-Albanian plot cultivated by Mr. Gorbachev and Mr. plan. The plan to "rotate managers" (reactivated in Bush at the Malta ...found under the appropriate municipalities are also valid for the various districts of date in the DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN. Bucharest Municipality

  4. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION ST&fmTWTX" Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited East Eur • • e A 99Ö06A 0152 REPRODUCED BY US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...beneficial result. The appropriate superior state, departmental and public bodies must always assume the most active stance and use our alerts and...countries. One need only call to mind the meetings with representatives of Finland, France, Greece, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Canada, Malta , Austria

  5. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 JDT[C QUAlITY !Il ED East Europe JPRS-EER-90-027 CONTENTS 5...34This is a letter from the Technical and communist oppression, the people in Czechoslovakia are Economic Department of the Railway here. They tell...committees having jurisdiction by 23 February. Parties police department has begun investigating the incident. may announce new candidates to replace

  6. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-11

    34- ••.•ad East Eur • if e REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA . 22161 ro DTIC QUALITY...county seat Szekszard; 17. Vas County, county seat Szombathely; 18. Veszprem County, county seat Veszprem; and 19. Zala County, county seat...27Aug90p5 [Article by Judit Hunyadi: "Hey Pal, That’s the Ukrai- nian Disease, Eat Chocolate; Orenburg, Where Is Your Truth?"] [Excerpts] We are at

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD. VA , 22161 0 C." DTMC QUALMr M- 1 3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90-045 CONTENTS 4 APRIL 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC...Joint Venture in Banking Data Support Established [NEPSZA VA 30 Jan] ..................... 43 Commentary on Kornai’s ’Passionate Pamphlet’ [FIGYELO 1...yesterday by Bela [Report by Jozsef Kiss, Eva Kovacs, Judit Stefany, Beata Horvath, managing director of Unio Publishing House. Tari, and Istvan Janos Toth

  8. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA . 22161 VEC QUA=Y rg=1𔄁BD -3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90...Reform’ [DUGA 14-27 Oct] ........................................... 38 SOCIAL HUNGARY Pensions To Be Boosted to Subsistence Level [NEPSZA VA 19 Dec...course of the year 25000575 Budapest NEPSZA VA in Hungarian compensations be adjusted consistent with actual con-19 Dec 89 pp 2-3 sumer price levels

  9. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    POLITYKA Weekly News Roundup [POLITYKA 4 AugJ 23 ECONOMIC INTRABLOC IMF Chief on East European Economic Changes [FIGYELO 5 Jul] 26...Aug] ■■■■■■■■■■■ 38 Price Guarantees Not Enough To Stabilize Food Market [ZIELONY SZTANDAR 22 Jul] 40 Farmers Subsidize Own Crops To Bring...revealed by the fact that the valuable experts started looking for work elsewhere. Those who left or are ready to leave will accomplish two things

  10. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    between the BCP CC and the central committee of their [the East German] party became strained. Todor Pavlov , who was at the time chief editor of...Socialist Unity Party of Germany] CC. DIE WELT came into the picture then. An article titled "Stalinist Pavlov Criticizes Young Bulgarian Philosophers...Marendic, Federal Secretary for Agriculture Stevo Mirkovic, Deputy and Assistant Fed- eral Secretaries for Internal Affairs Ivan Erak and Petar

  12. Anti-Guerilla Warfare in Aceh, Indonesia from 1980-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Anti-Guerilla Warfare In Aceh, Indonesia From 1980-2005 CSC 2005 Subject Area Warfighting ANTI-GUERILLA WARFARE IN ACEH, INDONESIA FROM... Indonesia From 1980-2005 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK... Indonesia . This paper will also examine possible solutions to this conflict. I have focused on recent articles that show that the use of military

  13. Video-Seismic coupling for debris flow study at Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi Wibowo, Sandy; Lavigne, Franck; Mourot, Philippe; Sukatja, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    Previous lahar disasters caused at least 44.252 death toll worldwide from 1600 to 2010 of which 52 % was due to a single event in the late 20th century. The need of a better understanding of lahar flow behavior makes general public and stakeholders much more curious than before. However, the dynamics of lahar in motion is still poorly understood because data acquisition of active flows is difficult. This research presents debris-flow-type lahar on February 28, 2014 at Merapi volcano in Indonesia. The lahar dynamics was studied in the frame of the SEDIMER Project (Sediment-related Disasters following the 2010 centennial eruption of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia) based on coupling between video and seismic data analysis. We installed a seismic station at Gendol river (1090 meters asl, 4.6 km south from the summit) consisting of two geophones placed 76 meters apart parallel to the river, a high definition camera on the edge of the river and two raingauges at east and west side of the river. The results showed that the behavior of this lahar changed continuously during the event. The lahar front moved at an average speed of 4.1 m/s at the observation site. Its maximum velocity reached 14.5 m/s with a peak discharge of 473 m3/s. The maximum depth of the flow reached 7 m. Almost 600 blocks of more than 1 m main axis were identified on the surface of the lahar during 36 minutes, which represents an average block discharge of 17 blocks per minute. Seismic frequency ranged from 10 to 150 Hz. However, there was a clear difference between upstream and downstream seismic characteristics. The interpretation related to this difference could be improved by the results of analysis of video recordings, especially to differentiate the debris flow and hyperconcentrated flow phase. The lahar video is accessible online to the broader community (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlVssRoaPbw). Keywords: lahar, video, seismic signal, debris flow, hyperconcentrated flow, Merapi, Indonesia.

  14. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  15. Taeniasis/cysticercosis in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Sudewi, A A Raka; Swastika, I Kadek; Sutisna, Putu; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Yulfi, Hemma; Darlan, Dewi Masyithah; Kapti, I Nengah; Samaan, Gina; Sato, Marcello Otake; Okamoto, Munehiro; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2011-07-01

    Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are found in humans in Bali, Indonesia. During a field survey of 660 people in Bali from 2002-2009 of taeniasis/cysticercosis cases using mitochondrial DNA confirmation of the species, we detected 80 cases of T. saginata taeniasis, 2 dual T. saginata/T. solium infections with T. solium metacestodes in the brain and 12 neurocysticercosis (NCC) cases at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. Although the prevalence of NCC in Bali is low, sporadic cases are still present. There is no Taenia asiatica in Bali. We summarize here the field survey findings of taeniasis, including 1 dual infection with taeniasis and cysticercosis in 2007, and the reason why there are no T. asiatica cases and we describe 3 NCC cases admitted to Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali in 2004. Diagnosis was based on anamnesis, clinical examination, including CT Scan, histopathological, serological and mitochondrial DNA examinations. In order to prevent unexpected symptomatic NCC after treatment with praziquantel, we recommend introducing a rapid test to confirm taeniasis carriers and cysticercosis cases as a tool for real time diagnosis.

  16. Unmet Needs for Cardiovascular Care in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past twenty years the heaviest burden of cardiovascular diseases has begun to shift from developed to developing countries. However, little is known about the real needs for cardiovascular care in these countries and how well those needs are being met. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of unmet needs for cardiovascular care based on objective assessment. Methods and Findings Multilevel analysis is used to analyse the determinants of met needs and multilevel multiple imputation is applied to manage missing data. The 2008 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS4) survey is the source of the household data used in this study, while district data is sourced from the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Finance. The data shows that nearly 70% of respondents with moderate to high cardiovascular risk failed to receive cardiovascular care. Higher income, possession of health insurance and residence in urban areas are significantly associated with met needs for cardiovascular care, while health facility density and physician density show no association with them. Conclusions The prevalence of unmet needs for cardiovascular care is considerable in Indonesia. Inequality persists as a factor in meeting needs for cardiovascular care as the needs of people with higher incomes and those living in urban areas are more likely to be met. Alleviation of poverty, provision of health care insurance for the poor, and improvement in the quality of healthcare providers are recommended in order to meet this ever-increasing need. PMID:25148389

  17. Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality.

  18. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  19. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-22

    Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R and D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  20. Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade Equation in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Fechter, Nadine; Bustaman, Yosman

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of short-term and long-term fluctuations/volatility of Indonesia exchange rate and investigates whether this volatility has affected Indonesia's exports flows. In particular the paper investigates the impact of exchange rate volatility on aggregate Indonesia exports flows to the United State and also on imports. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test was employed on quarterly data for the period January 2000 to December 2008 to test for stationarity on the variables of interest. Estimates of the long-term influence of exchange rate volatility on the trade flows are obtained using the Johansen Cointegration Test. The results suggest that a significant long-term relationship linking exchange rate volatility and the trade volume between Indonesia and the United States exists. A negative long-term relationship between exchange rate fluctuations and the export volume sent from Indonesia to the US is obtained. On the other hand, exchange rate volatility exerts a positive long-term effect upon the import volume.

  1. Introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Hadisoemarto, Panji F; Reich, Michael R; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of pentavalent vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b antigen in Indonesia's National Immunization Program occurred nearly three decades after the vaccine was first available in the United States and 16 years after Indonesia added hepatitis B vaccine into the program. In this study, we analyzed the process that led to the decision to introduce pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia. Using process tracing and case comparison, we used qualitative data gathered through interviews with key informants and data extracted from written sources to identify four distinct but interrelated processes that were involved in the decision making: (a) pentavalent vaccine use policy process, (b) financing process, (c) domestic vaccine development process and (d) political process. We hypothesized that each process is associated with four necessary conditions that are jointly sufficient for the successful introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia, namely (a) an evidence-based vaccine use recommendation, (b) sufficient domestic financing capacity, (c) sufficient domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and (d) political support for introduction. This analysis of four processes that led to the decision to introduce a new vaccine in Indonesia may help policy makers and other stakeholders understand and manage activities that can accelerate vaccine introduction in the future.

  2. Oceanography of East Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface

  3. 76 FR 72213 - Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia; Notice of Commission... countervailing duty orders on certain lined paper school supplies from India and Indonesia and the antidumping duty orders on certain lined paper school supplies from China, India, and Indonesia would be likely...

  4. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States... duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission... orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead...

  5. The Implementation of Special Autonomy in West Papua, Indonesia: Problems and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    SPECIAL AUTONOMY IN WEST PAPUA, INDONESIA : PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS by Muhammad Yusran Halmin December 2006 Thesis Advisor...of Special Autonomy in West Papua, Indonesia : Problems and Recommendations 6. AUTHOR(S) Muhammad Yusran Halmin 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...words) West Papua in the easternmost area of Indonesia has long been recognized as one of its most controversial provinces. Since its

  6. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...

  7. The complete genomes of subgenotype IA hepatitis A virus strains from four different islands in Indonesia form a phylogenetic cluster.

    PubMed

    Mulyanto; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman; Suparyatmo, Joseph Benedictus; Amirudin, Rifai; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Despite the high endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in Indonesia, genetic information on those HAV strains is limited. Serum samples obtained from 76 individuals during outbreaks of hepatitis A in Jember (East Java) in 2006 and Tangerang (West Java) in 2007 and those from 82 patients with acute hepatitis in Solo (Central Java), Denpasar on Bali Island, Mataram on Lombok Island, and Makassar on Sulawesi Island in 2003 or 2007 were tested for the presence of HAV RNA by reverse transcription PCR with primers targeting the VP1-2B region (481 nucleotides, primer sequences at both ends excluded). Overall, 34 serum samples had detectable HAV RNA, including at least one viremic sample from each of the six regions. These 34 strains were 96.3-100 % identical to each other and formed a phylogenetic cluster within genotype IA. Six representative HAV isolates from each region shared 98.3-98.9 % identity over the entire genome and constituted a IA sublineage with a bootstrap value of 100 %, consisting of only Indonesian strains. HAV strains recovered from Japanese patients who were presumed to have contracted HAV infection while visiting Indonesia were closest to the Indonesian IA HAV strains obtained in the present study, with a high identity of 99.5-99.7 %, supporting the Indonesian origin of the imported strains. These results indicate that genetic analysis of HAV strains indigenous to HAV-endemic countries, including Indonesia, are useful for tracing infectious sources in imported cases of acute hepatitis A and for defining the epidemiological features of HAV infection in that country.

  8. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  9. Roadmap to a Tobacco Epidemic: Transnational Tobacco Companies Invade Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indonesia is the world’s fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. Objective To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. Methods We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and “The Roadmap.” Results Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernized versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI maintained the basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and Westernization of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. Conclusion PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians. PMID:21852413

  10. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market.

  11. International energy outlook. Volume 1. Mideast, Far East, and Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developing nations of the Mideast, Far East, and Africa face a bleaker - and more-complicated - energy picture than that of the West. Rapid industrial and agricultural expansion in the region severely drains already-inadequate energy systems. Energy-importing countries find they must diversify and develop indigenous resources, but often lack the technical known-how to do so. Volume 1 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the way 22 countries in the Mideast, Far East, and Africa are responding to the energy problems. The countries covered are: Algeria, Australia, Burma, China, Egypt, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, Taiwan, Tunisia and Turkey. The range and detail of country reports vary, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations, its main emphasis is on the future, including estimates of future production and consumption, and descriptions of energy development plans. Some of the countries in this region are fortunate to have petrochemical resources, while electric energy expansion is crucial to national development in all. Coal will be filling the gap left by diminishing oil supplies. 61 tables.

  12. Medical care as the carrot: the Red Cross in Indonesia during the war of decolonization, 1945-1950.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, L

    2013-01-01

    During the war of decolonisation in Indonesia 1945-1950, the Dutch Red Cross and the Dutch East Indies Red Cross delivered aid to sick and wounded soldiers and civilians. This was supposed to happen in cooperation with organisations including the Indonesian Red Cross, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the military health service and civilian health services. Due to lack of resources, doctors and nurses, and due to differing interests, cooperation went anything but smoothly, severely undermining medical aid. On top of that, the aid that was given turned out be a tool of propaganda for the Dutch cause. Aid was deliberately--and with Red Cross consent--used as a political-military tool in the service of Dutch national interests. In a military strategy of carrot and stick, medical care served as the carrot.

  13. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-29

    PRS-EER-91-055 9 APRIL 1991 Foreigni A N N I V E R S A R Y 1941 - 1991 -PRS Report’- East Europe 0IC QTTALt’I ETVIIEUD a REPRODUCED BY U.S...Leningrad, and Lyubomir nists) in the so-called Macedonization of Bulgarians in Shopov , former head of the Balkan Countries Depart- Pirin Macedonia. The... y schooi. In ating. trailers full of cigarettes, salami, inexpensive shirts, stations for teaching in Lithuanian are operating, determined to open up

  15. Potential fraudulent behaviors in e-procurement implementation in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, S. N.; Setiani, N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.

    2017-03-01

    Corruptions in public procurement have occurred in various parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Implementation of SPSE (electronic procurement system) as the e-procurement system in Indonesia is based on the government’s intentions towards clean and good governance by fighting corruption, collusion, and nepotism. Procurement in Indonesia is carried out through SPSE, which is developed by LKPP (Government Policy on Procurement of Goods/Services). Although this system has brought many positive effects, there are still found many practices of fraud occurring in the implementation of the system. In this paper, we try to identify these practices and then to systematically categorize and analyze them.

  16. Zika Virus, a Cause of Fever in Central Java, Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    ZIKA VIRUS, A CAUSE OF FEVER IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA J.G. Olson, T.G. Ksiazek, Suhandiman and Triwibowo REPORT NO. TR-879 NAMRU- DT1 &, AUG 0 9...75, No. 3, 1981 Zika virus, a cause of fever in Central Java, Indonesia J. G. OLSON’, T. G. KSIAZEK’, SUHANDIMAN 2 AND TRIwIBOWO 2 ’U.S. Naval...clinical history was taken and a involvement. Three additional isolations of ZIKA check list of signs and symptoms was completed were made from

  17. Survey of abuses against injecting drug users in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sara LM; Triwahyuono, Agus; Alexander, Risa

    2009-01-01

    In Indonesia, an ongoing government "war on drugs" has resulted in numerous arrests and anecdotal reports of abuse in detention, but to date there has been little documentation or analysis of this issue. JANGKAR (also known in English as the Indonesian Harm Reduction Network), a nongovernmental organization (NGO) based in Jakarta, surveyed 1106 injecting drug users in 13 cities about their experiences of police abuse. Of those interviewed, 667 or 60% reported physical abuse by police. These findings indicate the importance of continuing efforts to promote police reform and harm reduction in Indonesia. PMID:19852845

  18. East African Rift Valley, Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This rare, cloud free view of the East African Rift Valley, Kenya (1.5N, 35.5E) shows a clear view of the Turkwell River Valley, an offshoot of the African REift System. The East African Rift is part of a vast plate fracture which extends from southern Turkey, through the Red Sea, East Africa and into Mozambique. Dark green patches of forests are seen along the rift margin and tea plantations occupy the cooler higher ground.

  19. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  20. Economic stability and health status: evidence from East Asia before and after the 1990s economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sandra

    2006-02-01

    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.

  1. The Usage Evaluation of Official Computer Terms in Bahasa Indonesia in Indonesian Government Official Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, A.; Gunawan, D.; Lydia, M. S.; Charlie, C.

    2017-03-01

    According to Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia 1945 Pasal 36, Bahasa Indonesia is a National Language of Indonesia. It means Bahasa Indonesia must be used as an official language in all levels ranging from government to education as well as in development of science and technology. The Government of Republic of Indonesia as the highest and formal authority must use official Bahasa Indonesia in their activities including in their official websites. Therefore, the government issued a regulation instruction called Instruksi Presiden (Inpres) No. 2 Tahun 2001 to govern the usage of official computer terms in Bahasa Indonesia. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the usage of official computer terms in Bahasa Indonesia compared to the computer terms in English. The data are obtained from the government official websites in Indonesia. The method consists of data gathering, template detection, string extraction and data analysis. The evaluation of official computer terms in Bahasa Indonesia falls into three categories, such as good, moderate and poor. The number of websites in good category is 281 websites, the moderate category is 512 websites and the poor category is 290 websites. The authorized institution may use this result as additional information to evaluate the implementation of official information technology terms in Bahasa Indonesia.

  2. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential.

  3. East African ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekle, Kelali

    2016-10-01

    In the developing world astronomy had been treated as the science of elites. As a result of this overwhelming perception, astronomy compared with other applied sciences has got less attention and its role in development has been insignificant. However, the IAU General Assembly decision in 2009 opened new opportunity for countries and professionals to deeply look into Astronomy and its role in development. Then, the subsequent establishment of regional offices in the developing world is helping countries to integrate astronomy with other earth and space based sciences so as to progressively promote its scientific and development importance. Gradually nations have come to know that space is the frontier of tomorrow and the urgency of preeminence on space frontier starts at primary school and ascends to tertiary education. For this to happen, member nations in east African region have placed STEM education at the center of their education system. For instance, Ethiopian has changed University enrollment strategy to be in favor of science and engineering subjects, i.e. every year seventy percent of new University entrants join science and engineering fields while thirty percent social science and humanities. Such bold actions truly promote astronomy to be conceived as gateway to science and technology. To promote the concept of astronomy for development the East African regional office has actually aligned it activities to be in line with the focus areas identified by the IAU strategy (2010 to 2020).

  4. VIEW OF UPSTREAM (EAST) SIDES OF UPPER (EAST) END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UPSTREAM (EAST) SIDES OF UPPER (EAST) END OF LOCK, SOUTHEAST AND NORTHEAST CONTROL HOUSES, LOCK UNDER REPAIR, BUILDING NOS. 51, 52 AND SOUTHWEST CONTROL HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS WEST-NORTHWEST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Machinery and Control Houses, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  5. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN SOUTH END OF EAST BOILER ROOM. CYLINDRICAL TANKS ARE WORTHINGTON DEAERATORS. THESE REMOVED AIR FROM BOILER FEED WATER TO MINIMIZE CORROSION AND PITTING OF THE BOILER TUBES. AIR REMOVAL ALSO HELPED AVOID THE FORMATION OF FOAM IN THE SYSTEM. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF OFFICE BUILDING, EAST SIDE OF FOSTER HANGAR AND FRANCIS HANGAR, AND NORTH SIDE OF DAVIS HANGAR AND METAL STORAGE HANGAR - Capital City Airport, Francis Aviation, North side of Grand River Avenue, Lansing, Ingham County, MI

  7. User Perceptions of Shared Sanitation among Rural Households in Indonesia and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kali B.; Karver, Jonathan; Kullman, Craig; Graham, Jay P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of sharing sanitation facilities does not meet the current World Health Organization/UNICEF definition for what is considered improved sanitation. Recommendations have been made to categorize shared sanitation as improved sanitation if security, user access, and other conditions can be assured, yet limited data exist on user preferences with respect to shared facilities. Objective This study analyzed user perceptions of shared sanitation facilities in rural households in East Java, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. Methods Cross-sectional studies of 2,087 households in East Java and 3,000 households in Bangladesh were conducted using questionnaires and observational methods. Relative risks were calculated to analyze associations between sanitation access and user perceptions of satisfaction, cleanliness, and safety. Results In East Java, 82.4% of households with private improved sanitation facilities reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation compared to 68.3% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31]. In Bangladesh, 87.7% of households with private improved facilities reported feeling satisfied compared to 74.5% of households with shared improved facilities [RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10, 1.20]. In East Java, 79.5% of households who reported a clean latrine also reported feeling satisfied with their place of defecation; only 38.9% of households who reported a dirty latrine also reported feeling satisfied [RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.45, 2.08]. Conclusion Simple distinctions between improved and unimproved sanitation facilities tend to misrepresent the variability observed among households sharing sanitation facilities. Our results suggest that private improved sanitation is consistently preferred over any other sanitation option. An increased number of users appeared to negatively affect toilet cleanliness, and lower levels of cleanliness were associated with lower levels of satisfaction. However, when sanitation

  8. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  9. East Candor Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows east Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame; for scale, the impact crater in upper right corner is 15 km (9 miles) wide. The image, centered at latitude 7.5 degrees S., longitude 67.5 degrees, is a composite of Viking 1 Orbiter high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low-resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976.

    East Candor Chasma occupies the eastern part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. East Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by walled cliffs, most likely faults. The walls may have been dissected by landslides forming reentrants; one area on the north wall shows what appears to be landslide debris. Both walls show spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. In the lower part of the image northwest-trending, linear depressions on the plateau are younger graben or fault valleys that cut the south wall.

    Material central to the chasma shows layering in places and has been locally eroded by the wind to form flutes and ridges. These interior layered deposits have curvilinear reentrants carved into them, and in one locale a lobe flows away from the top of the interior deposit. The lobe may be mass-wasting deposits due to collapse of older interior deposits (Lucchitta, 1996, LPSC XXVII abs., p. 779- 780); this controversial idea requires that the older layered deposits were saturated with ice, perhaps from former lakes, and that young volcanism and/or tectonism melted the ice and made the material flow.

  10. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. )

    1996-01-01

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  11. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N.

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  12. The history of the veterinary profession and education in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Arifiantini, Iis

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the veterinary profession in Indonesia dates back to the middle of the 19th century. During the Dutch colonization period a development program for large ruminants was started by the 'Nederlandsch-Indië' government. In 1907 this government established a veterinary laboratory, planned by Dr. J.K.F. de Does. The laboratory was then merged with a veterinary training course for Indonesian (bumiputera) 'veterinarians' named 'Cursus tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Veeartsen'. In 1910 the name of the training course was changed to 'Inlandsche Veeartsenschool', and in 1914 the school was named 'Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsenijschool' (NIVS). During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the veterinary school was named 'Bogor Semon Zui Gakko'. After the declaration of independence by Indonesia in August 1945, it became the High School of Veterinary Education. In 1946 the curriculum was extended from 4 to 5 years. Thereafter the school was closed and re-opened a few times due to the changing political circumstances. In 1947 the first Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ('Diergeneeskundige Faculteit') of the University of Indonesia was established in the former building of NIVS at Taman Kencana Campus in Bogor. Between 1948 and 1963, four more veterinary faculties were established in Indonesia: Gajah Mada, Syiahkuala, Airlangga and Udayana. The Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (IVMA) was established on January 9, 1953. The membership now exceeds 20,000 veterinarians and the association has 15 special interest groups. Since 2008, five new faculties of veterinary medicine have been established, bringing the total to 10.

  13. Introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadisoemarto, Panji F; Reich, Michael R; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pentavalent vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b antigen in Indonesia’s National Immunization Program occurred nearly three decades after the vaccine was first available in the United States and 16 years after Indonesia added hepatitis B vaccine into the program. In this study, we analyzed the process that led to the decision to introduce pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia. Using process tracing and case comparison, we used qualitative data gathered through interviews with key informants and data extracted from written sources to identify four distinct but interrelated processes that were involved in the decision making: (a) pentavalent vaccine use policy process, (b) financing process, (c) domestic vaccine development process and (d) political process. We hypothesized that each process is associated with four necessary conditions that are jointly sufficient for the successful introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia, namely (a) an evidence-based vaccine use recommendation, (b) sufficient domestic financing capacity, (c) sufficient domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and (d) political support for introduction. This analysis of four processes that led to the decision to introduce a new vaccine in Indonesia may help policy makers and other stakeholders understand and manage activities that can accelerate vaccine introduction in the future. PMID:27107293

  14. Orangutans not infected with Plasmodium vivax or P. cynomolgi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balbir; Simon Divis, Paul Cliff

    2009-10-01

    After orangutans in Indonesia were reported as infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi and P. vivax, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Plasmodium spp. We found that these orangutans are not hosts of P. cynomolgi and P. vivax. Analysis of >or=1 genes is needed to identify Plasmodium spp. infecting orangutans.

  15. Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jason C; Druce, Julian D; Leder, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease.

  16. Blurred Vision?: Public and Private Higher Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, A. R.

    2007-01-01

    If, as some have argued, private higher education is now the most dynamic segment of higher education, it is also the case that its growth, partly in response to the increasing mismatch between spiralling demand and limited state capacity, is often ad hoc. The article examines the contours of this trend in Indonesia, where the balance of public…

  17. Democratizing Indonesia through Education? Community Participation in Islamic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lyn; Raihani, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, Indonesia embarked on a journey to democracy. This journey involved the decentralization of education from 2002. The new school-based management (SBM) system required greater community and parental participation in schools--thereby, it was hoped, contributing to a deepening of democracy. Islamic schools ("madrasah") also adopted…

  18. Unity in Diversity: History and Religion in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bruce William

    This paper, intended as lecture material for university students or as background material for teachers of social studies and world history, assumes that students already have some knowledge about the origins, practices, and beliefs of Islam, but that they have no prior background about Indonesia or its history. The paper describes the diversity…

  19. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  20. Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwadi, Agung; Muljoatmodjo, Suheru

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Indonesian system of education of Islamic schooling, secular education, and out-of-school education. The provision of 9-year universal basic education is planned by 2004. The national plan challenges the education system to facilitate the change in Indonesia's economic structure from an agriculturally based system to one more…

  1. Decentralisation in Education, Institutional Culture and Teacher Autonomy in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Indonesia has seen several recent attempts to devolve control over the curriculum to the local level. Rather than catalogue all of the problems encountered in the course of their implementation, the present contribution focuses on a single reform, the Local Content Curriculum (LCC). Analysis of local responses to this reform provides insights into…

  2. Cultural Immersion in Indonesia through Pancasila: State Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Robert M.; Webb, Sheila Anne

    1989-01-01

    Offers guidelines for Westerners seeking to gain an understanding of Indonesian culture. Explains the five principles or Silas of Pancasila, which serves as both the state ideology and civil religion of Indonesia. Considers other sources of the country's value system. Discusses the implications of Pancasila for Westerners conducting business in…

  3. Implementation of School-Based Management in Indonesia. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Karam, Rita; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative and qualitative status report on the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in Indonesia, identifies factors associated with the successful practices of SBM, and assesses SBM effects on student achievement eight years after its inception. The authors' findings are based on face-to-face surveys of…

  4. Human avian influenza in Indonesia: are they really clustered?

    PubMed

    Eyanoer, Putri Chairani; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the epidemiology of human H5N1 cases in Indonesia is important. The question of whether cases are clustered or not is unclear. An increase in clustered cases suggests greater transmissibility. In the present study, 107 confirmed and 302 suspected human H5N1 cases in Indonesia during 2005-2007 were analyzed for spatial and temporal distribution. Most confirmed cases (97.2%) occurred on two main islands (Java and Sumatera). There were no patterns of disease occurrence over time. There were also no correlations between occurrence patterns in humans and poultry. Statistical analysis showed confirmed cases were clustered within an area on Java island covered by 8 districts along the border of three neighboring provinces (Jakarta, West Java, and Banten). This study shows human H5N1 cases in Indonesia were clustered at two sites where there was a high rate of infection among poultry. These findings are important since they highlight areas of high risk for possible human H5N1 infection in Indonesia, thus, preventive measures may be taken.

  5. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  6. Critical Pedagogy(ies) for ELT in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kasey R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the theoretical underpinnings that present a rationale for the use of critical pedagogy as an English Language Teaching (ELT) approach in Indonesia. A brief description of critical pedagogy is given, followed by a detailed rationale for its use including an overview of critical pedagogy studies done in Asia, an exploration…

  7. School-Based Management Developments and Partnership: Evidence from Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandur, Agustinus

    2012-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) with devolution of authority and responsibility to school level decision-makers has become the most prominent feature of public school management systems in most countries around the world. This article provides the global trends and current developments in SBM in Indonesia with an emphasis on how SBM has created…

  8. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  9. Hair mercury levels of residents in China, Indonesia, and Japan.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q; Suzuki, Y; Hisashige, A

    1998-01-01

    The authors used gold-amalgamation cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and ECD-gas chromatography to analyze total mercury and methylmercury levels in hair samples obtained from 362 residents in Harbin, China; Medan, Indonesia; and Tokushima, Japan. In this study, the authors initially questioned whether mercury levels in hair differed among different study areas, and if there were differences, they questioned the contributing factors. In the three countries surveyed, total mercury and methylmercury levels in hair were lowest in residents of China and were highest in residents of Japan. In the district of Tokushima, Japan, total mercury and methylmercury levels were highest in the coastal district, followed by the middle district; the lowest levels occurred in the mountainous district. In Japan, an individual's total mercury level correlated very closely with that person's methylmercury level; in China and Indonesia, the correlation between these 2 parameters was low. No subjects in China or Indonesia had high levels of methylmercury in hair; this was true even if their total mercury levels were high. This finding suggests that the high total mercury levels observed in some residents of China and Indonesia reflected exposure to inorganic mercury. In Japan, mercury (especially methylmercury) levels in hair samples were quite high. Fish and shellfish, caught in seas uncontaminated by human activity, appeared to be major sources of the high levels of hair mercury in Japanese subjects.

  10. Between Myths and Realities: Indonesia's Intellectual Climate Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubis, Mochtar

    1977-01-01

    Discusses changes in attitudes and values in Indonesia in response to the marked social change experienced since independence from the Dutch. The delicate balance between modernism and traditionalism is assessed. Journal available from American-Asian Education Exchange, Inc., 88 Morningside Drive, New York, New York 10027. (Author/DB)

  11. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Junior Secondary School Students in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmiyati, Nuri; Rasyid, Muhammad Amin; Rahman, M. Asfah; Arsyad, Azhar; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the Multiple Intelligences profiles of the students at junior secondary school in Makassar. The Multiple Intelligences Inventory was used to identify the dominant intelligence among the students. The sample of this research was 302 junior secondary schools students in Makassar Indonesia who willing to participated…

  12. English in Political Discourse of Post-Suharto Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernsten, Suzanne

    This paper illustrates increases in the use of English in political speeches in post-Suharto Indonesia by analyzing the phonological, morphological, and syntactic assimilation of loanwords (linguistic borrowing), as well as hybridization and code switching, and phenomena such as doubling and loan translations. The paper also examines the mixed…

  13. Early Supplemental Feeding and Spontaneous Play in West Java, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walka, Helen; Pollitt, Ernesto; Triana, Nina; Jahari, Abas B.

    This study examined the effects of nutritional supplements on the duration and level of spontaneous play of 55 mildly to moderately malnourished toddlers living within the tea plantations of West Java, Indonesia. Infants were randomly assigned by their day care centers to one of three supplement groups: (1) energy and micronutrient supplements;…

  14. Islamic Higher Education and Social Cohesion in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraince, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the role of public Islamic higher education in promoting better relations between various religious communities in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Based on field research conducted between December 2005 and March 2006, it documents how progressive Islamic education leaders have advanced a tradition of critical intellectualism in…

  15. The geological evolution of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertisser, Ralf; Charbonnier, Sylvain J.; Keller, Jörg; Quidelleur, Xavier

    2012-07-01

    Merapi is an almost persistently active basalt to basaltic andesite volcanic complex in Central Java (Indonesia) and often referred to as the type volcano for small-volume pyroclastic flows generated by gravitational lava dome failures (Merapi-type nuées ardentes). Stratigraphic field data, published and new radiocarbon ages in conjunction with a new set of 40K-40Ar and 40Ar-39Ar ages, and whole-rock geochemical data allow a reassessment of the geological and geochemical evolution of the volcanic complex. An adapted version of the published geological map of Merapi [(Wirakusumah et al. 1989), Peta Geologi Gunungapi Merapi, Jawa Tengah (Geologic map of Merapi volcano, Central Java), 1:50,000] is presented, in which eight main volcano stratigraphic units are distinguished, linked to three main evolutionary stages of the volcanic complex—Proto-Merapi, Old Merapi and New Merapi. Construction of the Merapi volcanic complex began after 170 ka. The two earliest (Proto-Merapi) volcanic edifices, Gunung Bibi (109 ± 60 ka), a small basaltic andesite volcanic structure on Merapi's north-east flank, and Gunung Turgo and Gunung Plawangan (138 ± 3 ka; 135 ± 3 ka), two basaltic hills in the southern sector of the volcano, predate the Merapi cone sensu stricto. Old Merapi started to grow at ~30 ka, building a stratovolcano of basaltic andesite lavas and intercalated pyroclastic rocks. This older Merapi edifice was destroyed by one or, possibly, several flank failures, the latest of which occurred after 4.8 ± 1.5 ka and marks the end of the Old Merapi stage. The construction of the recent Merapi cone (New Merapi) began afterwards. Mostly basaltic andesite pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits of both Old and New Merapi (<11,792 ± 90 14C years BP) cover the lower flanks of the edifice. A shift from medium-K to high-K character of the eruptive products occurred at ~1,900 14C years BP, with all younger products having high-K affinity. The radiocarbon record points towards an

  16. Educational Development in East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millo, Yiftach; Barnett, Jon

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines educational development in East Timor. It is particularly concerned with the period between October 1999 and May 2002 when the country was governed by the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). The paper argues that UNTAET missed an important opportunity to implement the transformation in education…

  17. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    The cross-sectional picture of urban and rural fertility which emerges from recently published Indonesian national level data from the 1976 Intercensal Survey are described. The data reveal only small differences in the average numbers of children ever born or children surviving of ever married women (or mothers) in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. In urban areas, ever married mothers had a standardized average of 3.4 children ever born, and in rural areas 3.3 These averages cannot reveal any differences in past and present childbearing levels. The fertility of urban women, as opposed to rural women, appeared more highly associated with indicators which tend to directly or indirectly depress the average number of children ever born: a higher age at 1st marriage; a higher level of "sterility;" a higher survival ratio of children born; and a higher level of educational attainment. At least some of these factors might be regarded as associated with modernizing trends in the urban areas: increased accessibility to educational facilities; the opening of female opportunities outside the home so that marriage occurs later in life; and a better health environment so that there is less pregnancy wastage and time spent in bearing children. These factors help to provide an incentive to women to limit their fertility; knowledge of contraception methods provides a means. The depressing factors most highly associated with average rural fertility do not appear associated with modernization but with traditional folk customs regarding acceptable behavior. The inflating effects of early marriage are offset by a greater prevalence of marital disruption. This may reflect a cultural acceptability. The reasons may include adolescent or true sterility leading to disunion, the outmigration of a partner, or some other form of disharmony. Female labor force participation is more prevalent in rural than urban areas. There are both traditional and modern aspects to be seen in its

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  19. Complex emotions, complex problems: understanding the experiences of perinatal depression among new mothers in urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Andajani-Sutjahjo, Sari; Manderson, Lenore; Astbury, Jill

    2007-03-01

    In this article, we explore how Javanese women identify and speak of symptoms of depression in late pregnancy and early postpartum and describe their subjective accounts of mood disorders. The study, conducted in the East Java region of Indonesia in 2000, involved in-depth interviews with a subgroup of women (N = 41) who scored above the cutoff score of 12/13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during pregnancy, at six weeks postpartum, or on both occasions. This sample was taken from a larger cohort study (N cohort = 488) researching the sociocultural factors that contribute to women's emotional well-being in early motherhood. The women used a variety of Indonesian and Javanese terms to explain their emotional states during pregnancy and in early postpartum, some of which coincided with the feelings described on the EPDS and others of which did not. Women attributed their mood variations to multiple causes including: premarital pregnancy, chronic illness in the family, marital problems, lack of support from partners or family networks, their husband's unemployment, and insufficient family income due to giving up their own paid work. We argue for the importance of understanding the context of childbearing in order to interpret the meaning of depression within complex social, cultural, and economic contexts.

  20. Philippine mitochondrial DNA diversity: a populated viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia?

    PubMed

    Tabbada, Kristina A; Trejaut, Jean; Loo, Jun-Hun; Chen, Yao-Ming; Lin, Marie; Mirazón-Lahr, Marta; Kivisild, Toomas; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of the Philippine population, and this is an important gap in our understanding of Southeast Asian and Oceanic prehistory. Here we describe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 423 Philippine samples and analyze them in the context of the genetic diversity of other Southeast Asian populations. The majority of Philippine mtDNA types are shared with Taiwanese aboriginal groups and belong to haplogroups of postglacial and pre-Neolithic origin that have previously been identified in East Asian and Island Southeast Asian populations. Analysis of hypervariable segment I sequence variation within individual mtDNA haplogroups indicates a general decrease in the diversity of the most frequent types (B4a1a, E1a1a, and M7c3c) from the Taiwanese aborigines to the Philippines and Sulawesi, although calculated standard error measures overlap for these populations. This finding, together with the geographical distribution of ancestral and derived haplotypes of the B4a1a subclade including the Polynesian Motif, is consistent with southward dispersal of these lineages "Out of Taiwan" via the Philippines to Near Oceania and Polynesia. In addition to the mtDNA components shared with Taiwanese aborigines, complete sequence analyses revealed a minority of lineages in the Philippines that share their origins--possibly dating back to the Paleolithic--with haplogroups from Indonesia and New Guinea. Other rare lineages in the Philippines have no closely related types yet identified elsewhere.