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Sample records for east mesa site

  1. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  2. Preliminary results of geothermal desalting operations at the East Mesa test site Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suemoto, S. H.; Mathias, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has erected at its Geothermal Resource Development site two experimental test vehicles for the purpose of desalting hot fluids of geothermal origin. Both plants have as a feed source geothermal well Mesa 6-1 drilled to a total depth of 8,030 feet and having a bottom hole temperature of 400 F. Formation fluid collected at the surface contained 24,800 mg/1 total dissolved solids. The dissolved solids consist mainly of sodium chloride. A multistage distillation (3-stage) plant has been operated intermittently for one year with no operational problems. Functioning at steady-state conditions with a liquid feed rate of 70 g/m and a temperature of 221 F, the final brine blowdown temperature was 169 F. Product water was produced at a rate of about 2 g/m; average total dissolved solids content of the product was 170 mg/1. A product quality of 27.5 mg/1 at a pH of 9.5 was produced from the first stage.

  3. Geothermal fluids to irrigate energy crops on Imperial East Mesa Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, F.E.; Thomas, T.R.; Singh, K.

    1981-10-01

    Geothermal fluid at 2200 parts per million(ppM) total dissolved solids from the East Mesa, California was compared to 1400 ppM ground water from a 100 m well as irrigation sources for Beta vulgaris (L.) USH-11 sugar beet and Tamarix aphylla (L.) athel, a biomass and windbreak tree. In 1980 there was no significant difference between the yields from the two waters. In 1981, there was no significant difference between biomass production from the waters on the athel. The geothermal water produced a larger yield of sucrose than the ground water. The data suggest that raising sugar beets with either water is feasible on the East Mesa.

  4. New fusulinids from Lower Permian turbidites at Conglomerate Mesa, southeastern inyo Mountains, east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    Seven previously unrecognized fusulinid species from Lower Permian (Wolfcampian and Leonardian) turbidites near Conglomerate Mesa in east-central California, four of which are named as new species, are here described and figured. The four new species are Schwagerina merriami, S. wildei, Parafusulina mackevetti, and Skinnerella rossi. These fusulinid species have close affinities to similar taxa in Texas and northeastern Nevada, and they are distinct from some other faunas of slightly different age in the Conglomerate Mesa area that are dominated by endemic species and other species with Eastern Klamath Mountains affinities.

  5. Deep Resistivity Structure of Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore H. Asch; Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Jackie M. Williams; Maryla Deszcz-Pan

    2006-12-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), funded by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. Data stations were located in and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend to the west the hydrogeologic study that was conducted in Yucca Flat in 2003. This work has helped to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale(Bechtel Nevada, 2006)) in the Yucca Flat area and west towards Shoshone Mountain in the south, east of Buckboard Mesa, and onto Rainier Mesa in the north. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology within the region. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit (UCCU) are generally characterized in the upper 5 km. The interpretation is not well determined where conductive TCU overlies conductive Chainman Shale, where resistive Eleana Formation overlies resistive LCA units, or where resistive VTA rock overlies units of the Eleana Formation. The nature of the

  6. Heat flow and geothermal potential of the East Mesa KGRA, Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The East Mesa KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) is located in the southeast part of the Imperial Valley, California, and is roughly 150 kilometers square in areal extent. A new heat flow technique which utilizes temperature gradient measurements across best clays is presented and shown to be as accurate as conventional methods for the present study area. Utilizing the best clay gradient technique, over 70 heat flow determinations have been completed within and around the East Mesa KGRA. Background heat flow values range from 1.4 to 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = .000001 cal. per square centimeter-second) and are typical of those throughout the Basin and Range province. Heat flow values for the northwest lobe of the KGRA (Mesa anomaly) are as high as 7.9 hfu, with the highest values located near gravity and seismic noise maxima and electrical resistivity minima. An excellent correlation exists between heat flow contours and faults defined by remote sensing and microearthquake monitoring.

  7. Nature and extent of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Pahute Mesa, which has been identified in the FFACO as consisting of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units. Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a regional model that will be used to predict a contaminant boundary for these Corrective Action Units. Hydrogeologic maps have been prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted at Pahute Mesa. Much of the groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa occurs within lava-flow aquifers. An understanding of the distribution and hydraulic character of these important hydrogeologic units is necessary to accurately model groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa. This report summarizes the results of a study by Bechtel Nevada geologists to better define the hydrogeology of lava-flow aquifers at Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) aid in the development of the hydrostratigraphic framework for Pahute Mesa, and (2) provide information on the distribution and hydraulic character of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa for more accurate computer modeling of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  8. Corrosion of materials and scaling in low-salinity East Mesa geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    McCawley, F.X.; Cramer, S.D.; Riley, W.D.; Carter, J.P.; Needham, P.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Field corrosion studies were conducted at the East Mesa Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) in the Imperial Valley, Calif., to determine the optimum materials of construction for use in geothermal mineral energy resource recovery plants. These studies included characterization of geothermal environments and in situ corrosion testing. The corrosion resistance of 10 alloys exposed to 5 brine and steam process environments was evaluated using the low-salinity, high-temperature brine from geothermal well Mesa 6-1. Of these alloys, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy S, Inconel 625, titanium-2 nickel, and 316 L stainless steel had excellent resistance to corrosion in all of the process environments; E-Brite 26-1 and 430 stainless steel had fair resistance. Although general corrosion rates for 4130 steel and 1020 carbon steel were substantially higher than those of the other iron-base alloys, these two alloys could prove useful in low-salinity process environments because of their low cost. Aluminum alloy 5005 was the least corrosion resistant alloys and pitted severely. Scales formed on all of the alloys in every process environment. Calcite, aragonite, and an amorphous silicate were the major components of the scales.

  9. Land subsidence caused by the East Mesa geothermal field, California, observed using SAR interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Massonnet, D.; Holzer, T.; Vadon, H.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric combination of pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the ERS-1 satellite maps the deformation field associated with the activity of the East Mesa geothermal plant, located in southern California. SAR interferometry is applied to this flat area without the need of a digital terrain model. Several combinations are used to ascertain the nature of the phenomenon. Short term interferograms reveal surface phase changes on agricultural fields similar to what had been observed previously with SEASAT radar data. Long term (2 years) interferograms allow the study of land subsidence and improve prior knowledge of the displacement field, and agree with existing, sparse levelling data. This example illustrates the power of the interferometric technique for deriving accurate industrial intelligence as well as its potential for legal action, in cases involving environmental damages. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. NTS (Nevada Test Site) Mesa recharge study FY 1989: Letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B F; Mihevc, T M

    1990-03-01

    Pahute Mesa is a large geomorphic feature that is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and a portion of the Nellis Air Force Range. The identification of radionuclide migration at the U20n site has resulted in an increased interest in the hydrology of Pahute Mesa. An important aspect of groundwater studies is to estimate groundwater recharge from precipitation. Although some meteorological data have been collected on Pahute Mesa, they are not sufficient for making these recharge estimates. The elevation of Pahute Mesa that lies within the boundaries of the NTS ranges from under 6,000 feet to over 7,000 feet. Accompanying these elevation changes is a variety of plant communities. Vegetation in areas of low elevation is dominated by sagebrush and pinyon/juniper at the higher elevation. Communities of Gambel oak are interspersed with pinyon/juniper. Varying plant communities on Pahute Mesa are indicative of the nonuniformity of precipitation and soil types. To understand the mechanisms that lead to recharge, it is necessary to know the spatial as well as temporal variation in precipitation. At the same time, the conditions in the soil need to be monitored to determine if the precipitation is, in fact, infiltrating to the critical depth needed to attain groundwater recharge. These areas of study are covered in this report. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. New permian fusulinids from conglomerate mesa, southeastern inyo Mountains, east-central california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the Conglomerate Mesa area in the southeastern Inyo Mountains, east-central California, a series of distinctive fusulinid assemblages ranging in age from late Artinskian to Kungurian or Roadian was developed in units 7-10 of the sedimentary rocks of Santa Rosa Flat (part of the Owens Valley Group). The fauna of unit 7 shows some eastern Klamath Mountains affinity, but most of the species in unit 7 and the lower half of unit 8 are highly endemic and comprise three new genera with 12 new species, two unusual unassigned forms, and two other new species assigned to previously described genera. New taxa include: Crenulosepta new genus with five new species, C. inyoensis, C. delicata, C. fusiformis, C. rossi, and C. wahlmani; Nigribaccinus new genus with three new species, N. giganteus, N. elegans, and N. ? nestelli; and the new genus Inyoschwagerina with four new species, I. magnified, I. elayeri, I. elongata, and I.? linderae. Cuniculinella Skinner and Wilde, 1965, is represented by one new species, C. parva, and Skinnerella Coogan, 1960 by one new species, S.? mcallisteri. Faunas from the upper half of unit 8, unit 9, and unit 10 have a strong West Texas affinity. New species from these units are Skinnerella davydovi, S. hexagona, Parafusulina cerrogordoensis, P. complexa, P. halli, P. owensensis, and P. ubehebensis. Copyright ?? 2009, The Paleontological Society.

  12. 5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING HORSE MESA DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THREE PENSTOCKS ARE AT CENTER AND CONCRETE TOWER LINES. AGGREGATE OPERATION IS VISIBLE ABOVE CONSTRUCTION SITE July 22, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Mesa = Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two mesas on the northern plains of Mars. 'Mesa' is the Spanish word for 'table,' and that is a very good description of the two elliptical features captured in this MOC image. In both cases, the mesa tops and the material beneath them, down to the level of the surrounding, rugged plain, are remnants of a once more extensive layer (or layers) of material that has been largely eroded away. The circular feature near the center of the larger mesa is the site of a filled and buried impact crater.

    Location near: 53.5oN, 153.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  14. Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackie M. Williams; Jay A. Sampson; Brian D. Rodriguez; and Theodore H. Asch.

    2006-11-03

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas. Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near or within the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site, including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology, and its effects on ground-water flow. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit (Bechtel Nevada, 2006). During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. This work will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale) from the Yucca Flat area and west towards

  15. Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Riney, T.D.; Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (k/sub v/ approx. 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

  16. Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riney, T. David; Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the .Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (kv ~ 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

  17. Compilation of results of three-dimensional stress determinations made in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.L.; Magner, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1971, the US Bureau of Mines overcore method has been used to determine the state of stress at nine locations within Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Results of these determinations indicate a generally consistent pattern of relatively high stress in a northeast-southwest direction and relatively low stress in a northwest-southeast direction within the mesas. The pattern is consistent with estimates of the regional stress orientation based on geologic and geophysical evidence, including earthquake focal-plane solutions. The state of stress in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas is probably mostly tectonic in origin, with significant modifications in stress magnitude and orientation owing to the topography of the mesas, their location above the average regional elevation, and influence of local geologic features at individual measurement locations.

  18. Actinide Sorption in Rainier Mesa Tunnel Waters from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P; Zavarin, M; Leif, R; Powell, B; Singleton, M; Lindvall, R; Kersting, A

    2007-12-17

    The sorption behavior of americium (Am), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), and uranium (U) in perched Rainier Mesa tunnel water was investigated. Both volcanic zeolitized tuff samples and groundwater samples were collected from Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, NV for a series of batch sorption experiments. Sorption in groundwater with and without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated. Am(III) and Pu(IV) are more soluble in groundwater that has high concentrations of DOM. The sorption K{sub d} for Am(III) and Pu(IV) on volcanic zeolitized tuff was up to two orders of magnitude lower in samples with high DOM (15 to 19 mg C/L) compared to samples with DOM removed (< 0.4 mg C/L) or samples with naturally low DOM (0.2 mg C/L). In contrast, Np(V) and U(VI) sorption to zeolitized tuff was much less affected by the presence of DOM. The Np(V) and U(VI) sorption Kds were low under all conditions. Importantly, the DOM was not found to significantly sorb to the zeolitized tuff during these experiment. The concentration of DOM in groundwater affects the transport behavior of actinides in the subsurface. The mobility of Am(III) and Pu(IV) is significantly higher in groundwater with elevated levels of DOM resulting in potentially enhanced transport. To accurately model the transport behavior of actinides in groundwater at Rainier Mesa, the low actinide Kd values measured in groundwater with high DOM concentrations must be incorporated in predictive transport models.

  19. Development of Combined Site-Specific MESA and LEPA Methods on a Linear Move Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A site-specific controller, hardware and software systems were developed with the capability to switch between either mid-elevation spray application (MESA) or low energy precision application (LEPA) methods. These systems were field tested and used to manage site-specific irrigations under a linear...

  20. Geologic Surface Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing, Buckboard Mesa, Climax Stock, Dome Mountain, Frenchman Flat, Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grasso, Dennis N.

    2003-01-01

    Surface effects maps were produced for 72 of 89 underground detonations conducted at the Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa and Aqueduct Mesa, Climax Stock, Shoshone Mountain, Buckboard Mesa, and Dome Mountain testing areas of the Nevada Test Site between August 10, 1957 (Saturn detonation, Area 12) and September 18, 1992 (Hunters Trophy detonation, Area 12). The ?Other Areas? Surface Effects Map Database, which was used to construct the maps shown in this report, contains digital reproductions of these original maps. The database is provided in both ArcGIS (v. 8.2) geodatabase format and ArcView (v. 3.2) shapefile format. This database contains sinks, cracks, faults, and other surface effects having a combined (cumulative) length of 136.38 km (84.74 mi). In GIS digital format, the user can view all surface effects maps simultaneously, select and view the surface effects of one or more sites of interest, or view specific surface effects by area or site. Three map layers comprise the database. They are: (1) the surface effects maps layer (oase_n27f), (2) the bar symbols layer (oase_bar_n27f), and (3) the ball symbols layer (oase_ball_n27f). Additionally, an annotation layer, named 'Ball_and_Bar_Labels,' and a polygon features layer, named 'Area12_features_poly_n27f,' are contained in the geodatabase version of the database. The annotation layer automatically labels all 295 ball-and-bar symbols shown on these maps. The polygon features layer displays areas of ground disturbances, such as rock spall and disturbed ground caused by the detonations. Shapefile versions of the polygon features layer in Nevada State Plane and Universal Transverse Mercator projections, named 'area12_features_poly_n27f.shp' and 'area12_features_poly_u83m.shp,' are also provided in the archive.

  1. Hydraulic Property and Soil Textural Classification Measurements for Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, Brian A.; Nimmo, John R.

    2009-12-29

    This report presents particle size analysis, field-saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements, and qualitative descriptions of surficial materials at selected locations at Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Measurements and sample collection were conducted in the Rainier Mesa area, including unconsolidated sediments on top of the mesa, an ephemeral wash channel near the mesa edge, and dry U12n tunnel pond sediments below the mesa. Particle size analysis used a combination of sieving and optical diffraction techniques. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements employed a single-ring infiltrometer with analytical formulas that correct for falling head and spreading outside the ring domain. These measurements may prove useful to current and future efforts at Rainier Mesa aimed at understanding infiltration and its effect on water fluxes and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone.

  2. Hydraulic Property and Soil Textural Classification Measurements for Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebel, Brian A.; Nimmo, John R.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents particle size analysis, field-saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements, and qualitative descriptions of surficial materials at selected locations at Rainier Mesa, Nevada. Measurements and sample collection were conducted in the Rainier Mesa area, including unconsolidated sediments on top of the mesa, an ephemeral wash channel near the mesa edge, and dry U12n tunnel pond sediments below the mesa. Particle size analysis used a combination of sieving and optical diffraction techniques. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements employed a single-ring infiltrometer with analytical formulas that correct for falling head and spreading outside the ring domain. These measurements may prove useful to current and future efforts at Rainier Mesa aimed at understanding infiltration and its effect on water fluxes and radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone.

  3. Reducing Uncertainty in the Distribution of Hydrogeologic Units within Volcanic Composite Units of Pahute Mesa Using High-Resolution 3-D Resistivity Methods, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sweetkind, Don; Burton, Bethany L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the groundwater table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the NTS including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. Volcanic composite units make up much of the area within the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NTS, Nevada. The extent of many of these volcanic composite units extends throughout and south of the primary areas of past underground testing at Pahute and Rainier Mesas. As situated, these units likely influence the rate and direction of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Currently, these units are poorly resolved in terms of their hydrologic properties introducing large uncertainties into current CAU-scale flow and transport models. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with DOE and NNSA-NSO acquired three-dimensional (3-D) tensor magnetotelluric data at the NTS in Area 20 of Pahute Mesa CAU. A total of 20 magnetotelluric recording stations were established at about 600-m spacing on a 3-D array and were tied to ER20-6 well and other nearby well control (fig. 1). The purpose of this survey was to determine if closely spaced 3-D resistivity measurements can be used to characterize the distribution of shallow (600- to 1,500-m-depth range) devitrified rhyolite lava-flow aquifers (LFA) and zeolitic tuff confining units (TCU) in areas of limited drill hole control on

  4. Magnetotelluric Data, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. The 2005 data stations were located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat. The MT data presented in this report will help refine what is known about the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. Subsequent interpretation will include a three dimensional (3 D) character analysis and a two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  5. GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.N.

    2001-11-02

    This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of underground nuclear detonations conducted at two of the most extensively used testing areas of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1951 and 1992, numerous investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency meticulously mapped the surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing. Their work documented the effects of more than seventy percent of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and all of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Pahute Mesa.

  6. Performance evaluation of Magma Power Company's reinjection well No. 46-7 at the East Mesa KGRA, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-02-01

    The performance of the Magma Power Company's reinjection well No. 46-7 at East Mesa has been examined. Water was cooled to 100/sup 0/F(+-) to simulate total heat extraction and then tested using membrane filter flow procedures. The cooled water contains particles which are in the high colloid size range, and formation impairment by these particles is unlikely. There is evidence that acid soluble corrosion products and calcium compounds constitute about two thirds of the particulates, and that the acid insoluble residue contains precipitated silica, insoluble corrosion products, and possibly formation fines carried in the produced water. Under stabilized conditions, the suspended solids content of the water is less than 2 parts per million. However, during the frequent production well start ups, a higher concentration of suspended solids is carried in the produced water and into the injection well, conceivably augmenting fill in the injector. But most likely, fill occurs when the injection well surges during shut-downs, because of inadequate sand control in the well completion. At the time of the test, the injection well was found to be severely impaired. Back flowing the well restored the injectivity to a calculated maximum sub-frac injection capacity of about 60,000 b/d of water at T = 350/sup 0/F, which corresponds to a calculated maximum hypofrac injection capacity of about 20,000 b/d of cold water (T = 100/sup 0/F).

  7. Electric logging and electrical properties of rocks in Rainier Mesa area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Electric logs obtained in 33 drill holes in the Rainier Mesa region were evaluated. Aside from the usual character correlations associated with densely welded tuffs, correlations over considerable distances in the ash-fall tuffs may be noted at the horizons of tunnel bed subunits 4J and 3D, and at the contact of tunnel bed subunit 3A and the Tub Spring Member of the Belted Range Tuff. The latter correlation is the most widespread in the bedded tuffs in the area. Although diagnostic in several holes drilled Aqueduct Mesa, the electric log does not universally reflect the top of zeolitization within holes drilled Rainier Mesa. This report, the final in a trilogy of reports dealing with rock properties interpreted chiefly from geophysical logs, examines the electrical measurement obtained in 33 vertical drill holes in the Rainier Mesa area, Nevada. 85 refs., 36 figs., 8 tab.

  8. Sourcebook of locations of geophysical surveys in tunnels and horizontal holes including results of seismic-refraction surveys: Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Area 16, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.D.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction surveys have been obtained sporadically in tunnels in zeolitized tuff at the Nevada Test Site since the late 1950's. Commencing in 1967 and continuing to date (1982), extensive measurements of shear- and compressional-wave velocities have been made in five tunnel complexes in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas and in one tunnel complex in Shoshone Mountain. The results of these surveys to 1980 are compiled in this report. In addition, extensive horizontal drilling was initiated in 1967 in connection with geologic exploration in these tunnel complexes for sites for nuclear weapons tests. Seismic and electrical surveys were conducted in the majority of these holes. The type and location of these tunnel and borehole surveys are indexed in this report. Synthesis of the seismic refraction data indicates a mean compressional-wave velocity near the nuclear device point (WP) of 23 tunnel events of 2430 m/s (7970 f/s) with a range of 1846 to 2753 m/s (6060 to 9030 f/s). The mean shear-wave velocity of 17 tunnel events is 1276 m/s (4190 f/s) with a range of 1140 to 1392 m/s (3740 to 4570 f/s). Experience indicates that these velocity variations are due chiefly to the extent of fracturing and (or) the presence of partially saturated rock in the region of the survey.

  9. Sourcebook of locations of geophysical surveys in tunnels and horizontal holes, including results of seismic refraction surveys, Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Area 16, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic refraction surveys have been obtained sporadically in tunnels in zeolitized tuff at the Nevada Test Site since the late 1950's. Commencing in 1967 and continuing to date (1982), .extensive measurements of shear- and compressional-wave velocities have been made in five tunnel complexes in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas and in one tunnel complex in Shoshone Mountain. The results of these surveys to 1980 are compiled in this report. In addition, extensive horizontal drilling was initiated in 1967 in connection with geologic exploration in these tunnel complexes for sites for nuclear weapons tests. Seismic and electrical surveys were conducted in the majority of these holes. The type and location of these tunnel and borehole surveys are indexed in this report. Synthesis of the seismic refraction data indicates a mean compressional-wave velocity near the nuclear device point (WP) of 23 tunnel events of 2,430 m/s (7,970 f/s) with a range of 1,846-2,753 m/s (6,060-9,030 f/s). The mean shear-wave velocity of 17 tunnel events is 1,276 m/s (4,190 f/s) with a range of 1,140-1,392 m/s (3,740-4,570 f/s). Experience indicates that these velocity variations are due chiefly to the extent of fracturing and (or) the presence of partially saturated rock in the region of the survey.

  10. Micrometeorological and Soil Data for Calculating Evapotranspiration for Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMeo, Guy A.; Flint, Alan L.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Nylund, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    Micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at two instrumented sites on Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site, January 1, 2002 - August 23, 2005. Data collected at each site include net radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity at two heights; wind speed and direction; subsurface soil heat flux; subsurface soil temperature; volumetric soil water; and matric water potential. These data were used to estimate 20-minute average and daily average evapotranspiration values. The data presented in this report are collected and calculated evapotranspiration rates.

  11. Micrometeorological and Soil Data for Calculating Evapotranspiration for Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada 2002-05.

    SciTech Connect

    Guy A. DeMeo; Alan L. Flint; Randell J. Laczniak; Walter E. Nylund

    2006-12-28

    Micrometeorological and soil-moisture data were collected at two instrumented sites on Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site, January 1, 2002/August 23, 2005. Data collected at each site include net radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity at two heights; wind speed and direction; subsurface soil heat flux; subsurface soil temperature; volumetric soil water; and matric water potential. These data were used to estimate 20-minute average and daily average evapotranspiration values. The data presented in this report are collected and calculated evapotranspiration rates.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata and ROTC 1, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, John; Marutzky, Sam

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) was developed for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain. The CAIP is a requirement of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) (FFACO, 1996). The FFACO addresses environmental restoration activities at U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) facilities and sites including the underground testing area(s) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This CAIP describes the investigation activities currently planned for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU. These activities are consistent with the current Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project strategy described in Section 3.0 of Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the FFACO (1996) and summarized in Section 2.1.2 of this plan. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU extends over several areas of the NTS (Figure 1-1) and includes former underground nuclear testing locations in Areas 12 and 16. The area referred to as ''Rainier Mesa'' includes the geographical area of Rainier Mesa proper and the contiguous Aqueduct Mesa. Figure 1-2 shows the locations of the tests (within tunnel complexes) conducted at Rainier Mesa. Shoshone Mountain is located approximately 20 kilometers (km) south of Rainier Mesa, but is included within the same CAU due to similarities in their geologic setting and in the nature and types of nuclear tests conducted. Figure 1-3 shows the locations of the tests conducted at Shoshone Mountain. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU falls within the larger-scale Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Investigation Area, which also includes the northwest section of the Yucca Flat CAU as shown in Figure 1-1. Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain lie adjacent to the Timber Mountain Caldera Complex and are composed of volcanic rocks that erupted from the

  13. Post-Silent Canyon caldera structural setting for Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.G.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Orkild, P.P.

    1985-12-31

    At Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, the Silent Canyon caldera of about 14 Ma age is almost completely concealed beneath ash-flow tuffs of the 11.5 Ma old Rainier Mesa Member of the Timber Mountain Tuff. Structures unequivocally related to the caldera are not observed in the Rainier Mesa Member. Structure contours on top of Rainier Mesa Member at Pahute Mesa define a series of elongate, fault-bounded blocks. Between the East Boxcar and Almendro Faults these blocks tilt eastward away from westward-dipping normal faults and elsewhere they also have a strong northward component of dip, away from Timber Mountain caldera. Episodic movement along these faults controlled thicknesses of members of Paintbrush Tuff (13.3 - 12.7 Ma) and tuffs and lavas of Area 20 (14 - 13.3 Ma), which have steeper eastward and northward components of dip than the overlying Rainier Mesa Member and also thicken eastward within each structural block. Fault blocks north of Timber Mountain caldera on Pahute Mesa are very similar to blocks described at Yucca mountain south of the caldera, and probably were generated by regional Basin and Range extension and four episodes of caldera-forming volcanism at Timber Mountain. Faults bounding these blocks on Pahute Mesa formed during early episodes of caldera-forming volcanism at Timber Mountain and reactivated during later episodes, so that fault displacements and bedding plane attitudes increase with age. Because these faults have episodic activity, even a relatively small post-Rainier Mesa displacement may define the location of important displacement within underlying units.

  14. Seismicity of the Pahute Mesa area, Nevada Test Site: 8 October 1975 to 30 June 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, A.M.; Wuollet, Geraldine M.; Covington, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 1,075 earthquakes occurred in the Pahute Mesa area with 2.5≤ML≤4.9 during the period October 28, 1975, to June 28, 1976. The majority of these earthquakes are aftershocks of the nuclear events, Kasseri, Inlet, Muenster, Fontina, Cheshire, Estuary, Colby, and Pool (5.8≤ML≤6.3). Smaller nuclear events (ML≤5.5) on Rainier Mesa and Yucca Flat detonated in the same time period did not trigger aftershock sequences. The aftershock series were displaced laterally from ground zero and occurred deeper (at 4–6 km) than the nuclear even depth of burial (~1 km). The aftershocks appear to occur on vertical faults with approximately north-south strike.

  15. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Jasoni, Richard L; Larsen, Jessica D; Lyles, Brad F.; Healey, John M; Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Lefebre, Karen J

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  16. 23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM, SHOWING SPILLWAY DISCHARGE TUNNEL AT LEFT, RIGHT (OR NORTH) SPILLWAY, HEFU POWER UNIT, AND ORIGINAL POWER PLANT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 24. CLOSEUP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF HORSE MESA DAM. HEFU PENSTOCK IS AT CENTER RIGHT, AND LEFT (OR SOUTH) SPILLWAY CHUTE IS AT UPPER RIGHT - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 6. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING CONCRETE BEING PLACED. PENSTOCK OPENINGS ARE VISIBLE AT CENTER LEFT. August 24, 1926 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SHOWING THE COMPLETED HORSE MESA DAM, EXCEPT FOR TRANSFORMER EQUIPMENT BEING INSTALLED ABOVE THE POWER PLANT 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Development of Phenomenological Models of Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site - BENHAM and TYBO

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1999-09-21

    Although it is well accepted that underground nuclear explosions modify the in situ geologic media around the explosion point, the details of these changes are neither well understood nor well documented. As part of the engineering and containment process before a nuclear test, the physical environment is characterized to some extent to predict how the explosion will interact with the in situ media. However, a more detailed characterization of the physical environment surrounding an expended site is needed to successfully model radionuclide transport in the groundwater away from the detonation point. It is important to understand how the media have been altered and where the radionuclides are deposited. Once understood, this information on modified geologic media can be incorporated into a phenomenological model that is suitable for input to computer simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The primary goals of this study are to (1) identify the modification of the media at a pertinent scale, and (2) provide this information to researchers modeling radionuclide transport in groundwater for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. Results from this study are most applicable at near-field scale (a model domain of about 500 m) and intermediate-field scale (a model domain of about 5 km) for which detailed information can be maximized as it is incorporated in the modeling grids. UGTA collected data on radionuclides in groundwater during recent drilling at the ER-20-5 site, which is near BENHAM and TYBO on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Computer simulations are being performed to better understand radionuclide transport. The objectives of this modeling effort include: evaluating site-specific information from the BENHAM and TYBO tests on Pahute Mesa; augmenting the above data set with generalized containment data; and developing a phenomenological model suitable for input to

  3. Preliminary geologic section from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, to Enterprise, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, P.J.

    1967-01-01

    The 154-mile long geologic cross section trends nearly perpendicular to the structural grain of the Basin-Range province in Nevada, and in Utah extends eastward into the transition zone between the Basin-Range and Colorado Plateau provinces. The structure is characterized by complex thrust: faults, involving uppermost Precambrian to lower Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and normal faults which cut: the thick sequence of Tertiary volcanic rocks as well as older rocks. Some of the normal faults are the result of caldera collapse. The principal normal faults trend northerly west: of Delamar, Nev., and form north-trending basins and ranges. Farther east the principal faults trend northwesterly, and form a moderately rugged highland rather than distinct basins and ranges. The uppermost Precambrian-Paleozoic strata thin markedly eastward across the region. The pre-Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks vary from 32,500 feet: in thickness at the Nevada Test: Site (Harley Barnes, E. N. Hinrichs, F. A. McKeown and P. P. Orkild, written commun., 1963) to 4,500 feet: in the Beaver Dam Mountains in western Utah (Cook, 1960). Thick Mesozoic deposits, similar to those of the Colorado Plateau, are present in western Utah, but are represented in eastern Nevada by only thin patches of Triassic rock.

  4. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES SATURN V STAND (BACKGROUND), BLOCK HOUSE (MIDDLE GROUND), STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND (FAR RIGHT). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND COLD CALIBRATION TEST STAND AND COMPONENTS TEST LAB. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. Velocity logging and seismic velocity of rocks in the Rainier Mesa area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.D.; Magner, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Velocity data obtained in 38 vertical drill holes in the Rainier and Aqueduct Mesa area were evaluated. Twenty-three geophone surveys and 20 acoustic logs were used to define the in-situ velocity of rocks in the region. The vertical velocity profile can be subdivided into the caprock; the unsaturated zone, the base of which is approximately defined by the top of pervasive zeolitization; the saturated zone of zeolitized rocks; and the pre-Tertiary clastic and carbonate rocks. Comparisons of geophone and acoustic log surveys indicate considerable positive drift (higher acoustic log velocity) in several holes, and none of the postulated causes (dispersion, geologic structure, data error, invasion) can be isolated.

  7. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  8. Summary of micrographic analysis of fracture coating phases on drill cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The flow path between Pahute Mesa and the groundwater discharge area in Oasis Valley (approximately 18 miles to the southwest) is of concern due to the relatively short travel distance between a recharge area where underground nuclear testing has been conducted and the off-site water users. Groundwater flow and transport modeling by IT Corporation (IT) has shown rapid tritium transport in the volcanic rock aquifers along this flow path. The resultant estimates of rapid transport were based on water level data, limited hydraulic conductivity data, estimates of groundwater discharge rates in Oasis Valley, assumed porosities, and estimated retardation rates. Many of these parameters are poorly constrained and may vary considerably. Sampling and analytical techniques are being applied as an independent means to determine transport rates by providing an understanding of the geochemical processes that control solute movement along the flow path. As part of these geochemical investigations, this report summarizes the analysis of fracture coating mineral phases from drill core samples from the Pahute mesa area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Archived samples were collected based on the presence of natural fractures and on the types and abundance of secondary mineral phases present on those fracture surfaces. Mineral phases present along fracture surfaces are significant because, through the process of water-rock interaction, they can either contribute (as a result of dissolution) or remove (as a result of precipitation or adsorption) constituents from solution. Particular attention was paid to secondary calcite occurrences because they represent a potential source of exchangeable carbon and can interact with groundwater resulting in a modified isotopic signature and apparent water age.

  9. US Geological Survey investigations in the U12n. 03 drift, Rainier Mesa, Area 12, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ege, J.R.; Carroll, R.D.; Magner, J.E.; Cunningham, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U12n.03 drift was designed for a nuclear test site and mining was started on April 18, 1966, and completed May 22, 1967. The drift was driven along a bearing of N. 26/sup 0/ W. at an elevation of 1849.2 m (6067 ft) to a total length of 660.2 m (2166 ft). The drift lies entirely within tunnel bed 4 of Tertiary age and crosses at nearly right angles, the Aqueduct syncline, a prominent geologic feature in Rainier Mesa. A combination of faults cutting nearly parallel to the drift, weak clay-rich tuff, and excessive ground water, all occurring in the trough of the syncline caused severe construction and support problems. These geologic factors created weak plastic rock that resulted in swelling and squeezing ground. Remedial measures were initiated that only temporarily stabilized ground and water conditions. The drift was eventually abandoned for the purposes of a nuclear test site and was subsequently used as a water storage facility. The US Geological Survey performed seismic velocity, electrical resistivity, and geologic surveys in the U12n.03 drift to provide information needed for site evaluation. Electrical resistivity measurements indicate that sections of rock which may be potentially unstable for tunnel construction due to the presence of clay may be defined by this technique.

  10. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit Nos. 101 and 102: Central and western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the basis for and present the results of a value of information analysis (VOIA) for the Pahute Mesa underground test area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The value of information analysis was used to evaluate and compare potential characterization options at the Pahute Mesa underground test area for site remediation purposes. Thirty six characterization options were evaluated, ranging from a single, inexpensive study using existing data and intended to address a single question or uncertainty, to a forty-million-dollar suite of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to address multiple uncertainties. The characterization options were compared and ranked based on how effective the experts though the information collection would be in reducing uncertainties, how this effected the distance to contaminant boundary, and the cost of the option.

  11. Evaluation of the Hydrologic Source Term from Underground Nuclear Tests on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site: The CHESHIRE Test

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A; Tompson, A F B; Carle, S F; Bourcier, W L; Bruton, C J; Daniels, J I; Maxwell, R M; Shumaker, D E; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M

    2001-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to develop, summarize, and interpret a series of detailed unclassified simulations that forecast the nature and extent of radionuclide release and near-field migration in groundwater away from the CHESHIRE underground nuclear test at Pahute Mesa at the NTS over 1000 yrs. Collectively, these results are called the CHESHIRE Hydrologic Source Term (HST). The CHESHIRE underground nuclear test was one of 76 underground nuclear tests that were fired below or within 100 m of the water table between 1965 and 1992 in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS. These areas now comprise the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit (CAU) for which a separate subregional scale flow and transport model is being developed by the UGTA Project to forecast the larger-scale migration of radionuclides from underground tests on Pahute Mesa. The current simulations are being developed, on one hand, to more fully understand the complex coupled processes involved in radionuclide migration, with a specific focus on the CHESHIRE test. While remaining unclassified, they are as site specific as possible and involve a level of modeling detail that is commensurate with the most fundamental processes, conservative assumptions, and representative data sets available. However, the simulation results are also being developed so that they may be simplified and interpreted for use as a source term boundary condition at the CHESHIRE location in the Pahute Mesa CAU model. In addition, the processes of simplification and interpretation will provide generalized insight as to how the source term behavior at other tests may be considered or otherwise represented in the Pahute Mesa CAU model.

  12. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada 1957-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Fenelon

    2006-08-15

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  13. Database of Ground-Water Levels in the Vicinity of Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1957-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    More than 1,200 water-level measurements from 1957 to 2005 in the Rainier Mesa area of the Nevada Test Site were quality assured and analyzed. Water levels were measured from 50 discrete intervals within 18 boreholes and from 4 tunnel sites. An interpretive database was constructed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in the Rainier Mesa area. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes hydrograph narratives that describe the water-level history of each well.

  14. East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section Oklahoma ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East Lawn Site and Planting Plan with Section - Oklahoma City Civic Center, Bounded by N. Shartel Avenue to the West, N. Hudson Avenue to the East, Couch Drive to the North, and Colcord Drive to the South, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  15. VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST TEST SITE FROM TOP OF STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW INCLUDES POWER PLANT TEST STAND AND SATURN V TEST STAND IN THE WEST TEST AREA (FAR BACKGROUND). - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  17. Ganges Chasma Landing Site: Access to Sand Sheets, Wall Rock and Layered Mesa Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James W., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    The floor of Ganges Chasma offers an ideal landing site for the MSP 2001 lander. This site is exquisite both in terms of engineering constraints and science objectives. The floor of Ganges Chasma is mantled with an extensive sand sheet. Sand sheets develop in conditions which are unfavorable for dune formation. These may include a high water table, periodic flooding, surface cementation, and coarse grained sands. The most extensive sand sheets on Earth are located in the eastern Sahara. These sheets have a relief of less than 1 m over wide areas and total thickness ranges from a few cm to 10 m. The surfaces of sand sheets are composed of granule to pebbly lag deposits. Sand sheets provide an extremely safe landing site and have very low relief. The safety concerns regarding slopes, rocks, and dust would be alleviated by the sand sheet. Furthermore, this vast sand sheet would allow the Marie Curie Rover to cover great distances. Rover navigability would be very easily compared to the tedious rock avoidance maneuvers that Sojourner had to accomplish. This exercise would be an important precursor test for the more capable Athena Rover which will execute longer traverses. Moreover, the Rover has already been "field tested" on sand at the JPL Mars sandbox. Dust should not be a problem: Thermal inertia is 7.7 to 8.9 cgs units. This site satisfies all engineering constraints.

  18. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. Hangar no. 1 south and east side. Site view seen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 1 south and east side. Site view seen from main runway. Note control tower building. Looking 340 NNW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  20. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. Modeling the fate of radionuclides in the unsaturated zone at the Nevada Test Site: Examples from Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwicklis, E. M.; Dash, Z. V.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Levitt, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zyvoloski, G.; Gable, C. W.; Miller, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located 105 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, hosted 828 underground nuclear explosions between 1951 and 1992, leaving an estimated 1.3e+08 curies of tritium, fission products, activation products and unspent fuel in the subsurface when the nuclear test moratorium was adopted in September, 1992. In two former testing areas of the NTS - Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa- a significant fraction of the initial radionuclide inventory was introduced from nuclear tests with working points in the unsaturated zone. In Yucca Flat, an arid, low-elevation alluvium-filled basin where most tests were conducted in vertical shafts, unsaturated flow and transport models indicate that radionuclide migration to the water table is most likely where overlying subsidence craters receive significant infiltration from overland flow during infrequent runoff events. At Rainier Mesa, a wetter, high-elevation remnant of a once more extensive volcanic plateau, most tests were conducted at the ends of horizontal drifts in the vicinity of local perched water zones. Unsaturated flow and transport models of one of the larger tunnel complexes (N-tunnel) indicate that despite relatively high infiltration rates on the mesa, radionuclide diffusion from the flowing fractures to the porous matrix may significantly attenuate radionuclide movement to the water table.

  2. Analysis of fractures in volcanic cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Prothro, L.B.; Roberson, K.E.

    1997-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County, southern Nevada, was the location of 828 announced underground nuclear tests, conducted between 1951 and 1992. Approximately one-third of these tests were detonated near or below the water table. An unavoidable consequence of these testing activities was introducing radionuclides into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. Groundwater flows beneath the NTS almost exclusively through interconnected natural fractures in carbonate and volcanic rocks. Information about these fractures is necessary to determine hydrologic parameters for future Corrective Action Unit (CAU)-specific flow and transport models which will be used to support risk assessment calculations for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Underground Test Area (UGTA) remedial investigation. Fracture data are critical in reducing the uncertainty of the predictive capabilities of CAU-specific models because of their usefulness in generating hydraulic conductivity values and dispersion characteristics used in transport modeling. Specifically, fracture aperture and density (spacing) are needed to calculate the permeability anisotropy of the formations. Fracture mineralogy information is used qualitatively to evaluate diffusion and radionuclide retardation potential in transport modeling. All these data can best be collected through examination of core samples.

  3. 49. HORSE MESA DAM, AUXILIARY SPILLWAY, 40.0' x 44.5' REGULATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. HORSE MESA DAM, AUXILIARY SPILLWAY, 40.0' x 44.5' REGULATING GATE HOIST. INSTALLATION ASSEMBLY February 3, 1937 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 10. East oblique of missile site control building, with better ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. East oblique of missile site control building, with better view of exhaust (the taller columns) and intake shafts - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-09

    Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures.

  6. 2. EAST SIDE; LOOKING WEST FROM SITE OF STOCKYARDS; UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE; LOOKING WEST FROM SITE OF STOCKYARDS; UPPER LEFT CORNER WAS ORIGINALLY ATTACHED TO SHEEP HOTEL (BUILDING 142); UPPER RIGHT CORNER WAS ORIGINALLY ATTACHED TO HOG HOTEL (BUILDING 138) - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  7. Site overview. View of east side of hangar no. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. View of east side of hangar no. 2 at left and hangar no. 1 at rear. Seen from south edge of base near Warner Avenue and Jamboree Road. Looking 310 NW. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  8. 5. Long view of east half of site from Lawrence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Long view of east half of site from Lawrence General Hospital parking deck (former location of coating mill) showing north side of Clay Storage Silos and northeast block of Wilder Mill; view to southwest. - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  9. 9. VIEW OF SITE B FROM EAST END OF ANDERSON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SITE B FROM EAST END OF ANDERSON WAY, FACING WEST (BUILDINGS 126, 128, 129, 130, and 131 ARE VISIBLE.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. 14. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA. TRACK FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF HORSE MESA. TRACK FROM AGGREGATE BARGES TO MIXING PLANT IS AT LOWER LEFT, RIGHT SPILLWAY CHUTE IS TAKING FORM AT UPPER RIGHT April 29, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Quality assurance and analysis of water levels in wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Periodic and continual water-level data from 1963 to 1998 were compiled and quality assured for 65 observation wells on Pahute Mesa and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada. As part of the quality assurance of all water levels, ancillary data pertinent to computing hydraulic heads in wells were compiled and analyzed. Quality-assured water levels that were not necessarily in error but which did not represent static heads in the regional aquifer system, or required some other qualification, were flagged. Water levels flagged include those recovering from recent pumping or well construction, water levels affected by nuclear tests, and measurements affected by borehole deviations. A cursory examination of about 30 wells with available water-level and down-hole temperature data indicate that water levels in most wells on Pahute Mesa would not be significantly affected by temperature if corrected to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Wells with large corrections (greater than 10 feet) are those with long water columns (greater than 1,500 feet of water above the assumed point of inflow) in combination with mean water-column temperatures exceeding 105 degrees Fahrenheit. Water-level fluctuations in wells on Pahute Mesa are caused by several factors including infiltration of precipitation, barometric pressure, Earth tides, ground-water pumpage, and seismic events caused by tectonic activity and underground nuclear testing. No observed water-level fluctuations were attributed to a naturally occurring earthquake. The magnitude and duration of changes in water levels caused by nuclear tests are affected by the test size and the distance from a well to the test. Identifying water levels that might be affected by past nuclear tests is difficult because pre-testing water-level data are sparse. Hydrologically significant trends were found in 13 of 25 wells with multiple years of water-level record. The largest change in water levels (1,029 feet in 25 years) occurred in well U-19v PS 1D as a result of

  12. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This statement evaluates and compares the environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions of the residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site and associated vicinity properties at Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. This statement is also intended to aid the BLM in amending their management framework plans and final resource management plan, as well as assisting in compliance with the withdrawal application as appropriate. The site is a 114-acre tract of private and state owned land which contains approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of tailings and associated contaminated soils. The vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as building material. An estimated 3465 vicinity properties would be cleaned up during remedial action of the tailings pile. The tailings were produced by the former Climax Uranium Company which processed uranium ore, which it sold to the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1951 to 1966 and to private sources from 1966 to 1970. This statement evaluates six alternatives for stabilization and disposal of the tailings and other contaminated materials: (1) No action. (2) Stabilization at the Grand Junction site. (3) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with truck transport. (4) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with train and truck transport. (5) Disposal at the Two Road site with truck transport. (6) Disposal at the Two Road site with train and truck transport. All of the alternatives except no action include remedial action at an estimated 3465 vicinity properties. Alternative 3 is DOE`s preferred alternative.

  13. Estimation of unsaturated zone traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, using a source-responsive preferential-flow model

    SciTech Connect

    Brian A. Ebel; John R. Nimmo

    2009-09-11

    Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated

  14. Estimation of Unsaturated Zone Traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Using a Source-Responsive Preferential-Flow Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebel, Brian A.; Nimmo, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated

  15. Mesa Verde Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Gregory E.

    Mesa Verde archaeoastronomy has been studied for over 100 years through academic research. Investigators have excavated, stabilized, and documented the major dwellings in Mesa Verde National Park. Evidence for astronomical orientation and alignment was found in Cliff Palace and Sun Temple. The level of documentation increased with each new research project. With good documentation practices, together, the research has shown that the cultures of the Mesa Verde were advanced in their social organization and use of astronomy. Consultation with Native American tribal leaders will add significant background to the depth of knowledge that their ancestors possessed.

  16. Addendum for the Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0 (page changes)

    SciTech Connect

    John McCord

    2007-05-01

    This document, which makes changes to Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, S-N/99205--076, Revision 0 (June 2006) was prepared to address review comments of this final document by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated July 19, 2006. The document includes revised pages that address NDEP review comments and comments from other document users. Change bars are included on these pages to identify where the text was revised. In addition to the revised pages, the following clarifications are made: • On Plate 1 (inserted in the back of the document), the ET Unit legend has been revised. The revised Plate 1 is included and replaces the original Plate 1. • Some of the Appendix D perturbation sensitivity analysis plots included on the CD for Sections D.3.1 and D.3.2 were not properly aligned. A revised CD is provided with all plots properly aligned.

  17. Soils and geomorphology of the East Chestnut Ridge site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R. , Rutledge, TN; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-10-01

    Soil mapping of the East Chestnut Ridge site in conjunction with subsurface soil and rock coring provides an in-depth evaluation of the site and its suitability for disposal of wastes. Landforms and surface and subsurface hydrology, the natural, undisturbed, soil-saprolite-geohydrology system beneath the zone of engineering modifications provides for the ultimate containment of wastes and a means for the filtration and purification of any leachate before it reaches the aquifer. The surface location and extent of each geologic formation on the site were mapped. These locations correlated well with projections of subsurface contacts to the surface even through the criteria used by the pedologist and geologist to identify soil and rock from the same formation may be different. Soil thickness over bedrock of the Copper Ridge, Chepultepec, Longview, and Kingsport Formations is sufficient to provide considerable buffering between trench bottoms and groundwater or rock. Soil thickness over the Mascot Formation is comparatively thin, and pinnacles and ledges exposed on steeper sideslopes are common. Soil underlain by the Mascot Formation is not suited for a trench landfill. According to soil coring and active borrow pit observations, chert beds in the soil and saprolite are preferred zones of water flow. Construction of adequate clay liners beneath disposal units sited on the Longview dolomite may require placement and compaction of other native soils to achieve sufficiently low soil permeabilities. Karst geomorphic processes that initiated the formation of dolines evidently started several million years ago. Doline formation and enlargement is episodic, with short periods of activity followed by long periods of stability. Analysis of doline soil stratigraphy suggests that most of the large dolines on the site have been stable for most of the past 10,000 to 1000,000 years. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

    2009-09-01

    The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the

  19. Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

    2010-11-01

    The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the

  20. Site Characterization at a Tidal Energy Site in the East River, NY (usa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Colby, J.

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive tidal energy site characterization is performed using ADV measurements of instantaneous horizontal current magnitude and direction at the planned hub centerline of a tidal turbine over a two month period, and contributes to the growing data base of tidal energy site hydrodynamic conditions. The temporal variation, mean current statistics, and turbulence of the key tidal hydrodynamic parameters are examined in detail, and compared to estimates from two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound. Tidal hydrodynamic conditions, including mean annual current (at hub height), the speed of extreme gusts (instantaneous horizontal currents acting normal to the rotor plane), and turbulence intensity (as proposed here, relative to a mean current of 2 m s-1) can vary greatly among tidal energy sites. Comparison of hydrodynamic conditions measured in the East River tidal straight in New York City with those reported for two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound indicate differences of mean annual current speeds, difference in the instantaneous current speeds of extreme gusts, and differences in turbulence intensities. Significant differences in these parameters among the tidal energy sites, and with the tidal resource assessment map, highlight the importance of conducting site resource characterization with ADV measurements at the machine scale. As with the wind industry, which adopted an International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) wind class standard to aid in the selection of wind turbines for a particular site, it is recommended that the tidal energy industry adopt an appropriate standard for tidal current classes. Such a standard requires a comprehensive field campaign at multiple tidal energy sites that can identify the key hydrodynamic parameters for tidal current site classification, select a list of tidal energy sites that exhibit the range of hydrodynamic conditions that will be encountered, and adopt consistent measurement practices (standards) for site

  1. Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2008-01-01

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types?volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in

  2. Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph M. Fenelon; Randell J. Laczniak; and Keith J. Halford

    2008-06-24

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types—volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in

  3. Geology in the Vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM Underground Nuclear Tests, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    L. B. Prothro

    2001-12-01

    Recent radiochemical evidence from groundwater characterization and monitoring wells in the vicinity of the TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site, suggests that migration of radionuclides within groundwater beneath this portion of Area 20 may be more rapid than previously thought. In order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in the TYBO-BENHAM area for more accurate flow and transport modeling, a reevaluation of the subsurface geologic environment in the vicinity of the two underground tests was conducted. Eight existing drill holes provided subsurface control for the area. These holes included groundwater characterization and monitoring wells, exploratory holes, and large-diameter emplacement holes used for underground nuclear weapons tests. Detailed and consistent geologic descriptions of these holes were produced by updating existing geologic descriptions with data from petrographic, chemical, and mineralogic analyses, and current stratigraphic concepts of the region. The updated descriptions, along with surface geologic data, were used to develop a detailed geologic model of the TYBO-BENHAM area. This model is represented by diagrams that correlate stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration intervals between holes, and by isopach and structure maps and geologic cross sections. Regional data outside the TYBO-BENHAM area were included in the isopach and structure maps to better evaluate the geology of the TYBO-BENHAM area in a regional context. The geologic model was then evaluated with regard to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration to assess the model's implications for flow and transport modeling. Implications include: (1) confirmation of the general hydrogeology of the area described in previous studies; (2) the presence of two previously unrecognized buried faults that could act as zones of enhanced permeability within aquifers; and (3) secondary alteration within tuff confining units

  4. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  5. Report of drilling and radionuclide migration investigations at UE20n. number sign. 1, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, S.J.

    1991-04-01

    Exploratory hole UE20n{number sign}1 was drilled 305 m down hydraulic gradient of the Cheshire event (U20n) as part of the Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site. The hole was designed to investigate the possibility of groundwater transport of radionuclides from the U20n cavity region. Drilling reached a total depth of 1005.8 m. Composite static water levels in the borehole were measured at approximately 620 m below ground surface. The borehole penetrated about 386 m of saturated zone, which was comprised primarily of rhyolite lava flows of the Upper Rhyolite Lavas, Tuffs, and Rhyolites of Area 20. Evidence from UE20n{number sign}1 suggests the presence of a relatively more permeable zone in the 730 to 750-m depth interval. The neutron log suggests that greater quantities of water were present at depths between 729 and 747 m. Core collected over three depth intervals showed the highest fracture density in a reddish-grey rhyolite lava flow in the 733.8 to 738.1-m core interval. Groundwater flow away from U20n through this permeable zone is suggested by the UE20n{number sign}1 borehole temperature logs. Elevated {sup 3}H activities were observed with the highest activities found near 732 m. The {sup 3}H activities observed in the 732 to 802-m interval in UE20n{number sign}1 were of similar magnitude to those found in the cavity region in the U20n post-shot hole. The activities of {sup 125}Sb and {sup 85}Kr, which are known to be mobile in groundwater, were of similar magnitude to those found near the cavity region, while {sup 137}Cs, which is thought to be adsorbed during transport, was found in activities two to three orders of magnitude lower than near the cavity. These temperature and radioisotope data suggest that radionuclide migration via groundwater flow may be occurring laterally from the U20n rubble chimney through the permeable zone located at the 730 to 750-m depth. 25 refs., 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Small Martian Mesa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-381, 4 June 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was acquired during the first week of June 2003. It shows a small mesa surrounded by a plain of dust-mantled dunes and ripples near 5.9oS, 202.8oW. Large, house-sized boulders have tumbled down the mesa slopes. This one of the highest resolution images from Mars, each pixel covers an area of 1.5 meters (5 feet) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  7. Mesas on Depression Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and buttes on the floor of a depression in the Labyrinthus Noctis region of Mars. This is part of the western Valles Marineris. Each mesa is a remnant of a formerly more extensive sequence of rock. The image is located near 7.0oS, 99.2oW. It covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  9. Mystery of the Mesa: A Science Detective Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Richard; Tisdale, Mary

    1993-01-01

    Explains how archaeologists who found the "Mesa Site" in Northern Alaska used evidence to make interpretations about America's earliest settlers. Includes related science activities and a color poster. (PR)

  10. 12. Smelter site along Coronado Boulevard, looking east. AZ174(Arizona Copper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Smelter site along Coronado Boulevard, looking east. AZ-174(Arizona Copper Company Smelter Blower House) near center of photograph. - Clifton Townsite, Confluence of Chase Creek & San Francisco River, Clifton, Greenlee County, AZ

  11. Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-06-01

    The Pahute Mesa groundwater flow model supports the FFACO UGTA corrective action strategy objective of providing an estimate of the vertical and horizontal extent of contaminant migration for each CAU in order to predict contaminant boundaries. A contaminant boundary is the model-predicted perimeter that defines the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing above background conditions exceeding Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) standards. The contaminant boundary will be composed of both a perimeter boundary and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary. Additional results showing contaminant concentrations and the location of the contaminant boundary at selected times will also be presented. These times may include the verification period, the end of the five-year proof-of-concept period, as well as other times that are of specific interest. The FFACO (1996) requires that the contaminant transport model predict the contaminant boundary at 1,000 years and “at a 95% level of confidence.” The Pahute Mesa Phase I flow model described in this report provides, through the flow fields derived from alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) and recharge models, one part of the data required to compute the contaminant boundary. Other components include the simplified source term model, which incorporates uncertainty and variability in the factors that control radionuclide release from an underground nuclear test (SNJV, 2004a), and the transport model with the concomitant parameter uncertainty as described in Shaw (2003). The uncertainty in all the above model components will be evaluated to produce the final contaminant boundary. This report documents the development of the groundwater flow model for the Central and Western Pahute Mesa CAUs.

  12. Astronomy Developments and Site Testing in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, D. A. H.

    2015-04-01

    Two astronomical site testing initiatives are beginning in both Kenya and Ethiopia, with the aim of selecting suitable locations in those countries for initially modest sized (1-2m) optical telescopes. The first project, in Kenya, has to date involved a study of existing meteorological satellite data, from which potential sites have been selected for further studies (see paper by Graham et al. in these proceedings). A similar program of astronomical site testing, including using DIMMs, will begin later in 2014 in the Lalibela region of northern Ethiopia, at three potential sites ranging in altitude from ∼3600 to 4500 m. In parallel to this, the Entoto Observatory and Research Centre (EO), comprising twin 1-m alt-az telescopes, has been established at Mt. Entoto, on the outskirts of Addis Ababa, and science operations are due to begin in early 2015.

  13. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Mankinen, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  14. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

    2006-09-21

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  15. Modeling Approach/Strategy for Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1, with ROTC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2008-06-01

    This document describes an approach for preliminary (Phase I) flow and transport modeling for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU). This modeling will take place before the planned Phase II round of data collection to better identify the remaining data gaps before the fieldwork begins. Because of the geologic complexity, limited number of borings, and large vertical gradients, there is considerable uncertainty in the conceptual model for flow; thus different conceptual models will be evaluated, in addition to different framework and recharge models. The transport simulations will not be used to formally calculate the Contaminant Boundary at this time. The modeling (Phase II) will occur only after the available data are considered sufficient in scope and quality.

  16. An inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Joseph

    1991-03-01

    At the request of True Mid Pacific Geothermal, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii, Inc. has conducted an inventory survey at the site of the proposed Kilauea Middle East Rift Zone (KMERZ), Well Site No.2, TMK: 1-2-10:3. The Principal Investigator was Joseph Kennedy M.A., assisted by Jacob Kaio, Field Supervisor and field crew Mark Borrello B.A., Michael O'Shaughnessy B.A., and Randy Adric. This report supercedes all previous reports submitted to the Historic Presentation Section of the Department of Land and Natural Resources. In addition to 100% surface coverage of the 400 x 400 foot well pad itself, 100% surface coverage of a substantial buffer zone was also completed. This buffer zone was established by the Department of Land and Natural Resources, Historic Preservation personnel and extends 1000 feet east and west of the well site and 500 feet north and south of the well site.

  17. 18. Tail race of the Hayden Ditch, looking east toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Tail race of the Hayden Ditch, looking east toward the Tempe Bridge and Hayden's Butte, the site of Charles Hayden's vision of the Tempe Canal. This ditch, which formerly supplied the San Francisco Canal, has been out of service since the 1950s. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Optimal site selection for a high-resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Tessa R.; Roberts, Jason L.; Moy, Andrew D.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Tozer, Carly R.; Gallant, Ailie J. E.; Abram, Nerilie J.; van Ommen, Tas D.; Young, Duncan A.; Grima, Cyril; Blankenship, Don D.; Siegert, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best-dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high-resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000-year-old ice at 300 m depth; (2) above 1000 m elevation; (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm years-1 IE (ice equivalent); (4) minimal surface reworking to preserve the deposited climate signal; (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change in ice at 300 m depth; (6) a strong teleconnection to midlatitude climate; and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high-resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change, and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure that a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable, and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  19. Optimal site selection for a high resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, T.; Roberts, J.; Moy, A.; Curran, M.; Tozer, C.; Gallant, A.; Abram, N.; van Ommen, T.; Young, D.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D.; Siegert, M.

    2015-11-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000 year old ice at 300 m depth, (2) above 1000 m elevation, (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm yr-1 IE, (4) minimal surface re-working to preserve the deposited climate signal, (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change of ice at 300 m depth, (6) a strong teleconnection to mid-latitude climate and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the environmental report for the Argonne National Laboratory-East for the year of 1995. Topics discussed include: general description of the site including climatology, geology, seismicity, hydrology, vegetation, endangered species, population, water and land use, and archaeology; compliance summary; environmental program information; environmental nonradiological program information; ground water protection; and radiological monitoring program.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at vicinity properties associated with the former Climax Uranium Company Uranium Mill Site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the UMTRA Project vicinity properties in Mesa County, Colorado. Vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as a building material or as fill material before the hazards associated with this material were known. It is estimated that 3585 contaminated properties remain to be formally included on the vicinity property list and thereby require remedial action. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy to perform remedial action at these properties. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulqated standards for remedial action (40 CRF Part 192). The alternatives addressed in this environmental assessment (EA) including taking no action toward remedial action at the vicinity properties, conducting remedial action at a rate of 500 properties per year, and conducting remedial action at a rate of 800 properties per year. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Ice crystal precipitation at Dome C site (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santachiara, G.; Belosi, F.; Prodi, F.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, falling ice crystals were collected on glass slides covered with a thin layer of 2% formvar in chloroform at the Dome Concordia site (Dome C), Antarctica. Samplings were performed in the framework of the 27th Italian Antarctica expedition of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica in the period 21 February-6 August 2012. Events of clear-sky precipitations and precipitations from clouds were considered and the replicas obtained were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Several shapes of ice crystals were identified, including "diamond dust" (plates, pyramids, hollow and solid columns), and crystal aggregates varying in complexity. Single events often contained both small (10 μm to 50 μm) and large (hundreds of microns) crystals, suggesting that crystals can form simultaneously near the ground (height of a few hundred metres) and at higher layers (height of thousands of metres). Images of sampled crystal replicas showed that single bullets are not produced separately, but by the disintegration of combinations of bullets. Rimed ice crystals were absent in the Dome C samples, i.e. the only mode of crystal growth was water vapour diffusion. On considering the aerosol in the sampled crystals, we reached the conclusion that inertial impaction, interception and Brownian motion were insufficient to explain the scavenged aerosol. We therefore presume that phoretic forces play a role in scavenging during the crystal growth process.

  3. Hydrogeologic setting east of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Core samples from 45 test wells and 4 borings were used to describe the glacial geology of the area east of the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Previous work has shown that shallow ground water beneath the disposal site flows east through a pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation. The pebbly sand was found in core samples from wells in an area extending northeast from the waste-disposal site to a strip-mine lake and east along the south side of the lake. Other stratigraphic units identified in the study area are correlated with units found on the disposal site. The pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member grades from a pebbly sand on site into a coarse gravel with sand and pebbles towards the lake. The Hulick Till Member, a key bed, underlies the Toulon Member throughout most of the study area. A narrow channel-like depression in the Hulick Till is filled with coarse gravelly sand of the Toulon Member. The filled depression extends eastward from near the northeast corner of the waste-disposal site to the strip-mine lake. (USGS)

  4. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices: Final environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    This volume contains Appendix F--hydrology report, and Appendix G--flood plain and wetland assessment. Contents of the hydrology report include: surface water; ground water; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-processing site; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-Cheney reservoir site; potentially affected hydrogeologic environment-Two Road site; and conclusions-ground water.

  5. Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Alai, M.

    1995-09-01

    The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel`s extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey.

  6. An age for Kajong, a Miocene fossil site east of Lake Turkana, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Leakey, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Kajong Formation in Marsabit District, northern Kenya has yielded a Miocene mammalian fauna consisting of nine taxa. It is capped by a basalt 40Ar/39Ar dated at 19.1 ± 0.1 Ma, and a volcanic clast from a conglomerate within the formation yielded an age of 20.3 Ma, only slightly older. The entire fauna from this site thus lies close to the base of the Miocene Epoch and is older than 19.2 Ma. The site has yielded some of the oldest examples of Archaeobelodon filholi, Prodeinotherium hobleyi, and Gomphotherium sp. in east Africa.

  7. 77 FR 61028 - Hasbro, Inc.; Hasbro Managerial Services, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Entegee East...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hasbro, Inc.; Hasbro Managerial Services, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers of Entegee East Longmeadow, MA Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply...

  8. Career Education at Mesa Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplett, Napoleon B.

    1974-01-01

    A national pilot school for career education, Mesa Verde High School, Sacramento, subscribes to the philosophy that every student will be provided an abundance of career choices at all times whether he is vocationally, technically, or academically bound. A variety of work opportunities on the campus makes the program possible. (AG)

  9. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  10. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  11. Carnotite resources of the Calamity group area, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stager, Harold K.

    1951-01-01

    The Calamity group area, which includes 28 unpatented Government claims and enclosed fractions of public domain, lies along the east rim of Calamity Mesa, Mesa County, Colo.  From 1915 through 1944, about 10,000 tons of carnotite ore, averaging about 1.0 percent U3O8 and 2.5 percent V2O5, was produced from mines in this group (tons in this report are short tons).  Production from this area from August 1949 to January 1, 1951, totaled 8,100 tons of ore with an average grade of 0.36 percent U3O8 and 1.66 percent V2O5, containing about 58,600 pounds of U3O8 and 268,000 pounds of V2O5.

  12. Archaeological survey of the 200 East and 200 West Areas, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1990-03-01

    Responding to a heavy demand for cultural resource reviews of excavation sites, the Westinghouse Hanford Company contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive archaeological resource review for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site, Washington. This was accomplished through literature and records review and an intensive pedestrian survey of all undisturbed portions of the 200 East Area and a stratified random sample of the 200 West Area. The survey, followed the Secretary of the Interior's guidelines for the identification of historic properties. The result of the survey is a model of cultural resource distributions that has been used to create cultural resource zones with differing degrees of sensitivity. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluation of Cesium, Strontium, and Lead Sorption, Desorption, and Diffusion in Cores from Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, based on Macroscopic and Spectroscopic Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Charalambos Papelis; Wooyong Um

    2003-03-01

    The interaction of radionuclides and other contaminants with minerals and other aquifer materials controls the rate of migration of these contaminants in groundwater. The stronger these interactions, the more a radionuclide will be retarded. Processes such as sorption and diffusion often control the migration of inorganic compounds in aquifers. These processes are often controlled by the nature of the ions of interest, the nature of the aquifer materials, and the specific geochemical conditions. Parameters describing sorption and diffusion of radionuclides and other inorganic ions on aquifer materials are used in transport codes to predict the potential for migration of these contaminants into the accessible environment. Sorption and diffusion studies can reduce the uncertainty of radionuclide transport modeling on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other nuclear testing areas.

  14. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for 1996. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL-E site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL-E effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL-E, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, is used in this report. The status of ANL-E environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations that govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.

  15. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Kolzow, R. G.

    2004-08-12

    This report discusses the accomplishments of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for calendar year 2003. The status of ANL-E environmental protection activities with respect to compliance with the various laws and regulations is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL-E site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL-E effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, ANL-E, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A U.S. Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report.

  16. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

    1999-08-26

    This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) for 1998. To evaluate the effects of ANL-E operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL-E site were analyzed and compared with applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides were measured in air, surface water, on-site groundwater, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL-E effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured, and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (i.e., natural, fallout, ANL-E, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations and the US Environmental Protection Agency's CAP-88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988) computer code, was used in preparing this report. The status of ANL-E environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations that govern waste handling and disposal is discussed, along with the progress of environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.

  17. 76 FR 13182 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; 345 North 700 East, Richfield PCE Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; 345 North 700 East, Richfield PCE Site... the United States has at this Site for Past Response Costs, as those terms are defined in the...), with regard to reimbursement of Past Response Costs. Opportunity for Comment: For thirty (30)...

  18. Phase I Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Bryant

    2008-05-01

    This document presents a summary and framework of available transport data and other information directly relevant to the development of the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99 groundwater transport model. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are briefly summarized with reference to the complete documentation.

  19. Phase I Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Bryant

    2008-05-01

    This document presents a summary and framework of the available hydrologic data and other information directly relevant to the development of the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RMSM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99 groundwater flow models. Where appropriate, data and information documented elsewhere are briefly summarized with reference to the complete documentation.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1993. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects from past activities.

  1. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

    1995-05-01

    This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1994. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK COMPUTER CODE, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects.

  2. Final Report, FY 2001 200 East Vadose Test Site Hanford Washington Electrical Resistance Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.; Binley, A.

    2001-06-30

    This report covers the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) work performed at the Hanford Reservation, 200 East Area Vadose test (Sisson and Lu) site during the period March 23 through May 5,2001. The purposes of the ERT work were to: (1) Compare and contrast the development of the highly concentrated sodium thiosulfate plume (FY 01 work) with the fresh river water plume observed during FY 00. (2) Use the resistance images to infer the dynamics of the plume during two or three of the sodium thio-sulfate releases and during the water ''chaser'' release. (3) Determine the influence of the site's steel casings on the ability to construct reliable ERT images. (4) Determine if the steel casings at the site can be used as long electrodes to provide useful images of at least one release. (5) Develop quantitative estimates of the noise in the data and its effect on reconstructed images. Eleven electrode arrays (nine electrodes arrays available for the FY00 work), each with 15 electrodes, were installed at the site. These were used to perform 3D surveys before, during, and after 3 different spills.

  3. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Kolzow, R.G.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the results of the Environmental Protection Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1992. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed.

  4. Argonne National Laboratory--East site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Moos, L.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1990. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, bottom sediment, and milk samples. In addition, chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. The results of the surveillance program are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects from past activities.

  5. Argonne National Laboratory-East site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N.W.; Duffy, T.L.; Moos, L.P.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses the results of the environmental protection program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) for 1991. To evaluate the effects of ANL operations on the environment, samples of environmental media collected on the site, at the site boundary, and off the ANL site were analyzed and compared to applicable guidelines and standards. A variety of radionuclides was measured in air, surface water, groundwater, soil, grass, and bottom sediment samples. Chemical constituents in surface water, groundwater, and ANL effluent water were analyzed. External penetrating radiation doses were measured and the potential for radiation exposure to off-site population groups was estimated. Results are interpreted in terms of the origin of the radioactive and chemical substances (natural, fallout, ANL, and other) and are compared with applicable environmental quality standards. A US Department of Energy (DOE) dose calculation methodology, based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations and the CAP-88 version of the EPA-AIRDOSE/RADRISK computer code, is used in this report. The status of ANL environmental protection activities with respect to the various laws and regulations which govern waste handling and disposal is discussed. This report also discusses progress being made on environmental corrective actions and restoration projects from past activities.

  6. A Hydrostrat Model and Alternatives for Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainer Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Sciences Group

    2007-03-01

    The three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit was completed in Fiscal Year 2006. The model extends from eastern Pahute Mesa in the north to Mid Valley in the south and centers on the former nuclear testing areas at Rainier Mesa, Aqueduct Mesa, and Shoshone Mountain. The model area also includes an overlap with the existing Underground Test Area Corrective Action Unit models for Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa. The model area is geologically diverse and includes un-extended yet highly deformed Paleozoic terrain and high volcanic mesas between the Yucca Flat extensional basin on the east and caldera complexes of the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field on the west. The area also includes a hydrologic divide between two groundwater sub-basins of the Death Valley regional flow system. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the model area. Three deep characterization wells, a magnetotelluric survey, and reprocessed gravity data were acquired specifically for this modeling initiative. These data and associated interpretive products were integrated using EarthVision{reg_sign} software to develop the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Crucial steps in the model building process included establishing a fault model, developing a hydrostratigraphic scheme, compiling a drill-hole database, and constructing detailed geologic and hydrostratigraphic cross sections and subsurface maps. The more than 100 stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 43 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the volcanic units in the model area into 35 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 12 confining units, 2 composite units (a mixture of aquifer and confining units), and 5 intrusive confining

  7. Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Gosan background site in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Choi, S.-D.; Kim, Y. P.; Ghim, Y. S.

    2012-03-01

    The seasonal intensive field measurements of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out at the Gosan international background site from November 2001 to August 2003. The annual average concentrations of gaseous and particulate PAHs are 1.4 ng m-3 and 2.9 ng m-3 (∑14PAH), respectively. Distinct seasonal variations exist with the highest concentration in winter and the lowest concentration in summer. In comparison with other places in Korea and other countries, the most distinguishing features at Gosan are the significantly low concentrations of low-molecular weight gaseous PAHs. In addition, noticeably high particulate PAH concentrations measured at urban and background areas in Korea could represent the regional characteristics of East Asia under the influence of high emission from China. The BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) at Gosan, which are based on the US EPA's toxicity equivalency factors for carcinogenic PAHs, are much higher than those at coastal or background sites in USA and Europe, and even comparable with that at urban sites in Europe. The possibility of more aged PAHs in the atmosphere associated with the long range transport of PAHs during winter period was suggested. It was found that larger fraction of non-exchangeable PAHs had strong influence to the gas/particle partitioning of PAHs at Gosan.

  8. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  9. Geophysical Survey of Proposed Construction Site with Possible Faulting, East San Francisco Bay Hills, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, J. L.; Deqiang, C.; Abimbola, A.; Shuler, S.; Hayashi, K.; Fox, J.; Craig, M. S.; Strayer, L. M.; Drumm, P.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a geophysical study at a site proposed for a new dorm building prior to trenching planned as part of a separate fault investigation study. The study area was located on the south side of the CSU East Bay campus, roughly 100 - 300 m SSE of the current dorm complex. In addition to its proximity to the Hayward Fault, several smaller faults have been previously mapped within the proposed location, including the East and West Dibblee Faults. These faults are thought to represent contacts between the Leona Rhyolite and the Knoxville Formation. Data acquisition included seismic, resistivity, and GPS data collected in an effort to develop a better understanding of the geological and structural profile of this area, including the location of lithologic contacts, faults, and the thickness of soil and fill. Geophysical profiles were collected over the locations of future trenches. The survey included geophysical lines that were located coincident with two planned trenching sites, which were chosen to intersect mapped faults. Survey positions were recorded using differential GPS. Seismic refraction and MASW (multichannel analysis of surface waves) surveys were performed over two of the planned trench sites using a 48-channel seismographic system with 4.5 Hz geophones and a 10-lb sledgehammer. For one of the lines, geophones were spaced every 3 m with a total spread length of 141 m and a shot spacing of 9 m. For the second line, geophones were spaced every 4 m with a total spread length of 188 m. Shots were taken every 12 m. Resistivity surveys were also performed along one of the line locations using both a capacitively-coupled dipole (CCD) system and 48-electrode system. Geospatial data for the survey area were compiled, including 0.3 m color orthoimagery and vector line files for geologic unit boundaries and presumed fault locations. The products of this study will include the geophysical response of geologic formations, location of unit contacts and faults

  10. ARNOLD MESA ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, Edward W.; McColly, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic geochemical, and aeromagnetic investigations and a survey of mines and prospects in the Arnold Mesa Roadless Area, Arizona, provide little evidence for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Buried Proterozoic basement rocks are possible hosts of porphyry-type copper and massive sulfide deposits but the thick cover of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and upper Cenozoic volcanic rocks precluded assessment of this possibility. Chemistry and temperature of spring and well waters suggest that a geothermal resource may exist near the eastern margin of the roadless area, but the anomaly has not been tested by drilling and this resource remains unverified. No other energy resources were identified.

  11. Phase I Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada with Errata Sheet 1, 2, 3, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Ruskauff

    2009-02-01

    As prescribed in the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 1999) and Appendix VI of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008), the ultimate goal of transport analysis is to develop stochastic predictions of a contaminant boundary at a specified level of uncertainty. However, because of the significant uncertainty of the model results, the primary goal of this report was modified through mutual agreement between the DOE and the State of Nevada to assess the primary model components that contribute to this uncertainty and to postpone defining the contaminant boundary until additional model refinement is completed. Therefore, the role of this analysis has been to understand the behavior of radionuclide migration in the Pahute Mesa (PM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) model and to define, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the sensitivity of such behavior to (flow) model conceptualization and (flow and transport) parameterization.

  12. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  13. A geophysical-geological transect of the Silent Canyon caldera complex, Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.F.; Cogbill, A.H.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-03-10

    Revision of lithological logs for boreholes penetrating the volcanic center at Pahute Mesa, Neveda, has led to a thorough review of the volcanic stratigraphy and geologic structure. The authors have combined this review with a compilation of old and newly acquired gravity and seismic travel time data, producing a unified interpretation along a northwest to southeast profile. The analysis supports a new interpretation of the Silent Canyon caldera complex. The caldera is found to be more asymmetric than previously suggested, with the southeastern boundary formed by linear, high-angle normal faults and a more gently sloping northwestern boundary. The total thickness of volcanic units within the caldera complex does not appear to exceed 5 km. The shallow structure at Pahute Mesa could have a profound effect on the seismic response for regional and teleseismic signals from this nuclear test site. The Silent Canyon caldera complex is actually a set of nested calderas first filled by thick (>1 km) postcaldera lavas and subsequently buried by outflow sheets of the Timber Mountain caldera to the south. Thick, postcaldera lavas filled a half-graben structure formed west of the West Greeley fault, dropping the tops of the youngest caldera-forming units to depths in excess of 2 km. Therefore the western boundary of the caldera complex is poorly defined. East of the West Greeley fault, two overlapping calderas are defined, and stratigraphic data suggest the presence of even older calderas. The youngest caldera, the calc-alkaline Area 20 caldera, is well defined from drill hole data. The Area 20 caldera overlaps the 13.6 Ma peralkaline Grouse Canyon caldera, which is less well defined, but apparently collapsed in trap-door style along the Almendro fault. For both these calderas, collapse continued after the main caldera-forming eruption, concurrent with the accumulation of thick (>1 km) lavas within the peripheral collapse zones. 67 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Tank Leak Experiment at the Monk Tank Site, 200 East Area: Electrical Resistance Tomography-Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.D.; Binley, A.

    2001-09-20

    This report covers the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) work performed at the Mock Tank site, 200 East Area, Hanford Reservation, during the months of July and August, 2001. The work reported herein is to be considered preliminary because it is work in progress. Some of the analyses and interpretation of results are incomplete at this time.

  15. Snow precipitation at four ice core sites in East Antarctica: provenance, seasonality and blocking factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Frezzotti, Massimo; Ruti, Paolo Michele

    2011-11-01

    Snow precipitation is the primary mass input to the Antarctic ice sheet and is one of the most direct climatic indicators, with important implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction from ice cores. Provenance of precipitation and the dynamic conditions that force these precipitation events at four deep ice core sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Talos Dome, and Taylor Dome) in East Antarctica were analysed with air mass back trajectories calculated using the Lagrangian model and the mean composite data for precipitation, geopotential height and wind speed field data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast from 1980 to 2001. On an annual basis, back trajectories showed that the Atlantic-Indian and Ross-Pacific Oceans were the main provenances of precipitation in Wilkes Land (80%) and Victoria Land (40%), respectively, whereas the greatest influence of the ice sheet was on the interior near the Vostok site (80%) and in the Southwest Ross Sea (50%), an effect that decreased towards the coast and along the Antarctic slope. Victoria Land received snowfall atypically with respect to other Antarctica areas in terms of pathway (eastern instead of western), seasonality (summer instead of winter) and velocity (old air age). Geopotential height patterns at 500 hPa at low (>10 days) and high (2-6 days) frequencies during snowfall cycles at two core sites showed large positive anomalies at low frequencies developing in the Tasman Sea-Eastern Indian Ocean at higher latitudes (60-70°S) than normal. This could be considered part of an atmospheric blocking event, with transient eddies acting to decelerate westerlies in a split region area and accelerate the flow on the flanks of the low-frequency positive anomalies.

  16. Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) affect the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere since they react with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone, and participate in ozone formation in the presence of sufficient amounts of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, BVOC oxidation products contribute to new particle formation and growth processes. While isoprene is emitted in the largest amount among BVOCs into the atmosphere, monoterpenes are also important for atmospheric chemistry. Tree species are responsible of the most BVOC emissions to the atmosphere but little is known about the contribution of shrub and long-range transport to the ambient BVOC concentrations. In the Mediterranean region monoterpene measurements are scarce and are limited in temporal and ecosystem coverage (forested areas). The present study presents long- term measurements of monoterpenes at a remote coastal site without tree vegetation under typical phrygana vegetation of Crete island in Greece. Measurements took place (35° 20' N, 25° 40' E, 250m a.s.l) on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (http://finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr). Two intensive campaigns took place, one during spring (13/03-08/04/2014) and one during summer(19/06 - 04/08/2014). During each campaign diurnal cycles were measured collecting 9 samples per day(every two hours). In addition, one diurnal cycle per week has been measured since 13/10/2014. Off-line sampling took place in adsorption tubes, using stainless steel cartridges filled with Tenax TA for one hour at 200 ml/min flow rate. Samples were stored at 40C and analyzed within two days. The samples were after desorption by a Thermal Desorber were analyzed by a GC-FID system. The most abundant monoterpenes were found to be Δ3-carene and limonene.Highest concentrations were observed during autumn when a clear diurnal cycle

  17. Powerhouse east, north and west elevations and operating machinery, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Powerhouse - east, north and west elevations and operating machinery, battery storage building, and typical span of steel service bridge - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  18. Overview from bluff east of facility. Note buildings #35 (left). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from bluff east of facility. Note buildings #35 (left). #33 (center), and #31 A (right) VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  19. Contextual view of building 84 showing east and north elevations; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 84 showing east and north elevations; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Detail of windows on first floor east elevation of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows on first floor east elevation of north wing; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Geology and Stratigraphy of the East and West Firing Areas Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Ehman, K D

    2006-05-10

    The purpose of this project is to gain a better understanding of the stratigraphy and geologic structure of the East and West Firing Areas, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (Figure 1). This analysis is designed to help better delineate hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) in order to enhance the understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface. Specific objectives of the investigation include: (1) Evaluation of the stratigraphic relationships between the units that contain tritium in ground water that originates from Pit 7 and the Building 850 area in the vicinity of Doall Ravine; (2) The correlation of these units across the Elk Ravine Fault Zone; and (3) The correlation of these units between the Building 865, Pit 1, Pit 2, and Building 812 areas. These issues were raised by regulators at the Regional Water Quality Control Board in the review of the Pit 7 RI/FS (Taffet and others, 2005). The results of this investigation will assist Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrogeologists to conduct work in a more focused and cost-effective manner. This document is submitted to fulfill contract obligations for subcontract B539658.

  2. Deep Radiostratigraphy of the East Antarctic Plateau: Connecting the Dome C and Vostok Ice Core Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavitte, Marie G. P.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Parrenin, Frederic; Lemeur, Emmanuel; Macgregor, Joseph A.; Siegert, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Several airborne radar-sounding surveys are used to trace internal reflections around the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C and Vostok ice core sites. Thirteen reflections, spanning the last two glacial cycles, are traced within 200 km of Dome C, a promising region for million-year-old ice, using the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics High-Capacity Radar Sounder. This provides a dated stratigraphy to 2318 m depth at Dome C. Reflection age uncertainties are calculated from the radar range precision and signal-to-noise ratio of the internal reflections. The radar stratigraphy matches well with the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) radar stratigraphy obtained independently. We show that radar sounding enables the extension of ice core ages through the ice sheet with an additional radar-related age uncertainty of approximately 1/3-1/2 that of the ice cores. Reflections are extended along the Byrd-Totten Glacier divide, using University of Texas/Technical University of Denmark and MCoRDS surveys. However, core-to-core connection is impeded by pervasive aeolian terranes, and Lake Vostok's influence on reflection geometry. Poor radar connection of the two ice cores is attributed to these effects and suboptimal survey design in affected areas. We demonstrate that, while ice sheet internal radar reflections are generally isochronal and can be mapped over large distances, careful survey planning is necessary to extend ice core chronologies to distant regions of the East Antarctic ice sheet.

  3. Ages of tuff beds at East African early hominid sites and sediments in the Gulf of Aden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.; Roth, P.H.; Brown, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The early hominids of East Africa were dated by determining the ages of tuff beds at the sites. Despite much research using palaeomagnetic and K/Ar-dating techniques, some of those ages are still controversial 1,2. To obtain independent age estimates for these tephra layers, we have examined cores from DSDP Sites 231 and 232 in the Gulf of Aden (Fig. 1a) which consist mainly of calcareous nannofossil ooze, but also contain rare tephra horizons3 dated by interpolation from the established nannofossil stratigraphy (Fig. 1b). Chemical analysis confirms that the identity and sequence of these horizons is the same as that at the East African sites. We conclude that the age of the Tulu Bor Tuff is <3.4 Myr and hence that the Hadar hominid specimens are also

  4. Limnology of Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs, Curecanti National Recreation area, during 1999, and a 25-year retrospective of nutrient conditions in Blue Mesa Reservoir, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Malick, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service conducted a water-quality investigation in Curecanti National Recreation Area in Colorado from April through December 1999. Current (as of 1999) limnological characteristics, including nutrients, phytoplankton, chlorophyll-a, trophic status, and the water quality of stream inflows and reservoir outflows, of Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs were assessed, and a 25-year retrospective of nutrient conditions in Blue Mesa Reservoir was conducted. The three reservoirs are in a series on the Gunnison River, with an upstream to downstream order of Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs. Physical properties and water-quality samples were collected four times during 1999 from reservoir, inflow, and outflow sites in and around the recreation area. Samples were analyzed for nutrients, phytoplankton and chlorophyll-a (reservoir sites only), and suspended sediment (stream inflows only). Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs were low; median total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were less than 0.4 and 0.06 milligram per liter, respectively. During water-column stratification, samples collected at depth had higher nutrient concentrations than photic-zone samples. Phytoplankton community and density were affected by water temperature, nutrients, and water residence time. Diatoms were the dominant phytoplankton throughout the year in Morrow Point and Crystal Reservoirs and during spring and early winter in Blue Mesa Reservoir. Blue-green algae were dominant in Blue Mesa Reservoir during summer and fall. Phytoplankton density was highest in Blue Mesa Reservoir and lowest in Crystal Reservoir. Longer residence times and warmer temperatures in Blue Mesa Reservoir were favorable for phytoplankton growth and development. Shorter residence times and cooler temperatures in the downstream reservoirs probably limited phytoplankton growth and development. Median chlorophyll-a concentrations were higher

  5. Service Integration in Colorado: Connecting Programs To Provide Better Services in Mesa and El Paso Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Mark

    Efforts to integrate the delivery of human service programs (HSP) in Colorado's El Paso County and Mesa County were examined through site visits and meetings with 34 members of HSP staff in both counties. The site visits confirmed that staff and management of HSP in both counties have implemented a series of client-centered processes to provide…

  6. Injector linac for the MESA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, R.

    2013-11-07

    In this paper we present several possible configurations of an injector linac for the upcoming Mainz Energy-recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) [1] and discuss their suitability for the project.

  7. Geology of the Calamity Mesa quadrangle, Mesa county, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Stager, Harold K.

    1953-01-01

    The Calamity Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks the range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  8. Observations of alkylamines at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Amines are reactive volatile base in the atmosphere and play a key role in new particle formation. Due to their height reactivity, concentration measurements are scare and mostly concentrated within short period of time. The present study provided the first long- term measurements of alkylamines in the Eastern Mediterranean. Measurements took place at a remote coastal site on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr; 35°20΄N, 25°40΄E, 250m a.s.l.) from January 2013 to December 2015. The samples were collected in glass fiber filters impregnated with phosphoric acid that trap gas-phase amines as salt. Samples were subsequently transported to the lab where they were stored in refrigeration until the analysis that took place in a Liquid Chromatography Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (TSQ Quantum, Thermo Finnigan). The alkylamines that were detected were ethylamine (EA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), propylamine (PA), diethylamine (DEA) and triethylamine (TEA). DMA & EA and TMA & PA were handled as pairs as they couldn't be separated. The most abundant amines were found to be DMA & EA, whereas BA and TMA were under the detection limits. The highest concentrations for DMA & EA and DEA were observed during summer, while for TMA & PA no clear annual cycle was found. The results are analyzed together with observations of new particle formation at the Finokalia station to estimate possible links of alkylamines to the formation of atmospheric particles in the area. This work has been partially supported by the European FP7 collaborative project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding).

  9. Geology of the Rainier Mesa-Aqueduct Mesa tunnel areas: U12n tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, D.L.; Magner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The U12n tunnel area is located beneath Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Stratigraphic units in the U12n area include Precambrian and Cambrian quartzite, Ordovician to Devonian dolomite and limestone, Cretaceous quartz monzonite, 25 Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rock units, and Quaternary colluvium and alluvium. Volcanic rocks in drill holes are classified into two chemical groups, four depositional processes, and four alteration types. Alteration of the volcanic rocks to predominantly zeolites, clay minerals, or silica is related to both stratigraphy and structure. Pre-volcanic structures are the CP thrust fault, a right-lateral fault zone that can be projected into the U12n area, and the Gold Meadows stock; Tertiary structures are depositional folds and predominantly normal faults. The right-lateral fault zone may have provided pre-existing planes of weakness during Tertiary deformation that resulted in west-northwest to northwest normal faults in the U12n area in contrast to north-south to north-northeast faults north and south of the U12n area. Normal faults at tunnel level have displacements that range from less than 3 to 125 ft or more. The Tertiary volcanic rocks were deposited on a pre-Tertiary, steep-sided drainage system and formed depositional folds. The Rainier Mesa depositional syncline is the major structures in the U12n area in addition to the normal faults. Drill-hole data indicate that the axis of syncline in the volcanic rocks parallels the contact between quartzite in the upper plate and dolomite and limestone in the lower plate of the CP thrust fault. 29 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Prediction of Pseudo relative velocity response spectra at Yucca Mountain for underground nuclear explosions conducted in the Pahute Mesa testing area at the Nevada testing site; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), managed by the Office of Geologic Disposal of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy, is examining the feasibility of siting a repository for commercial, high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This work, intended to extend our understanding of the ground motion at Yucca Mountain resulting from testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS, was funded by the Yucca Mountain project and the Military Applications Weapons Test Program. This report summarizes one aspect of the weapons test seismic investigations conducted in FY88. Pseudo relative velocity response spectra (PSRV) have been calculated for a large body of surface ground motions generated by underground nuclear explosions. These spectra have been analyzed and fit using multiple linear regression techniques to develop a credible prediction technique for surface PSRVs. In addition, a technique for estimating downhole PSRVs at specific stations is included. A data summary, data analysis, prediction development, prediction evaluation, software summary and FORTRAN listing of the prediction technique are included in this report.

  11. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  12. 1995 Study and evaluation of fugitive and diffuse emissions from the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-03

    The objective of this study is to evaluate Hanford`s major diffuse emission sources in the 200 East Area and evaluate the effectiveness of monitoring these sources collectively. The results from this evaluation may also be utilized to demonstrate Westinghouse`s compliance status with the applicable air emissions regulations and determine if additional studies and/or evaluations are necessary. Air sampling will be conducted downwind of the 200 East Area. This site has been chosen as being representative of most large diffuse sources located on the Hanford waste sites. A review of the 1993 ambient air data indicated that {sup 137}C was detectable in this area. This study will take place during February to August of 1995. This time period will enable the collection of sufficient data to assess diffuse radionuclide emissions from the 200 East Area waste sites. This study will use existing ambient air monitoring stations supplemented with temporary air monitoring stations. Plots of the 1993 average concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr collected from the existing stations may be found in Appendix A. Upon completion of this evaluation a recommendation will be made to perform additional sampling studies, or to discontinue further data gathering based on the evaluation`s results.

  13. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Clay A; Hershey, Ronald L; Healey, John M; Lyles, Brad F

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  14. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATION PROJECT EAST-WEST DRIFT SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    1999-06-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the design of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) East-West Cross Drift. This analysis builds upon prior ESF System Safety Analyses and incorporates TS Main Drift scenarios, where applicable, into the East-West Drift scenarios. This System Safety Analysis (SSA) focuses on the personnel safety and health hazards associated with the engineered design of the East-West Drift. The analysis also evaluates other aspects of the East-West Drift, including purchased equipment (e.g., scientific mapping platform) or Systems/Structures/Components (SSCs) and out-of-tolerance conditions. In addition to recommending design mitigation features, the analysis identifies the potential need for procedures, training, or Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). The inclusion of this information in the SSA is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., constructor, Safety and Health, design) responsible for these aspects of the East-West Drift in evaluating personnel hazards and augment the information developed by these organizations. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with East-West Drift SSCs in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into SSC designs. (2) Add safety features and capabilities to existing designs. (3) Develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, reduce exposure to hazards, and inform personnel of the

  15. Perspectives for Dark Photon physics at MESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, Achim

    2015-04-01

    At the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Mainz the new high-intensity electron accelerator MESA (Mainz Energy-Recovering Superconducting Accelerator) is currently being constructed. We report on opportunities regarding Dark Photon physics at this facility. The intensive MESA beam of 155 MeV and 1 mA of beam current in combination with an internal gas target offers a unique and clean environment for electron scattering experiments. We also report on the status of the MAGIX dual-arm spectrometer setup, which can be used for those measurements. Furthermore, we also comment on opportunities for a beam dump experiment at MESA, which would search for dark matter particles directly. This work is supported by DFG through Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044.

  16. Revised Hydrogeology for the Suprabasalt Aquifer System, 200-East Area and Vicinity, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Bruce A.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schalla, Ronald; Webber, William D.

    2000-04-20

    This study supports the Hanford Groundwater/Vadose integration project objectives to better understand the risk of groundwater contamination and potential risk to the public via groundwater flow paths. The primary objective of this study was to refine the conceptual groundwater flow model for the 200-East Area and vicinity.

  17. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Njuguna, Elijah; Gathara, Mary; Nadir, Stanley; Mwalusepo, Sizah; Williamson, David; Mathé, Pierre-Etienne; Kimani, Jackson; Landmann, Tobias; Juma, Gerald; Ong’amo, George; Gatebe, Erastus; Ru, Bruno Le; Calatayud, Paul-andré

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P) and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]). Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro) characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC) increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research. PMID:26509187

  18. 9. Tempe Canal, Section 17 (TIN, R5E), looking east towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tempe Canal, Section 17 (TIN, R5E), looking east towards the mesa. This is the oldest part of the canal still in use. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Storm Flow and Sediment Losses From Site-Prepared Forestland in East Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, W. H.; Wood, J. C.; Dehaven, M. G.

    1986-05-01

    Nine small (2.57 to 2.79 ha) forested watersheds in East Texas were instrumented in December 1979 to determine the effect of harvesting and site preparation on storm flow and sediment loss. Three replications of three treatments were used: (1) clearcutting, followed by shearing, windrowing, and burning, (2) clearcutting, followed by roller chopping and burning, and (3) undisturbed control. Prior to treatment, mineral soil was exposed on 3% of the watersheds. Following treatment in June 1981, 57% of the mineral soil was exposed on the sheared and windrowed watersheds compared to 16% on the chopped watersheds. At the end of the second, third, and fourth years' growing season, mineral soil was exposed on 20, 9, and 10% of the sheared and 4, 4, and 3% of the chopped watersheds, respectively. The first year following treatment, mean storm flow was greater from the sheared watersheds (14.6 cm) than from the chopped (8.3 cm) watersheds, with the storm flow from the latter greater than from the undisturbed (2.6 cm) watersheds. Mean storm flow was less from all watersheds the second year after treatment; however, storm flow from the sheared watersheds (5.0 cm) was similar to that from the chopped (3.6 cm) water-sheds, and both were greater than that from the undisturbed (1.2 cm) watersheds. During the third posttreatment year there was no significant difference in mean storm flow from the sheared and chopped watersheds or from chopped and undisturbed watersheds. Storm flow during the fourth posttreatment year was greater from the sheared watersheds (6.1 cm) than from the chopped (3.5 cm) watersheds, which had greater stormflow than the undisturbed (1.4 cm) watersheds. First-year sediment losses were greater from the sheared (2937 kg/ha) than from the chopped (25 kg/ha) or undisturbed (33 kg/ha) watersheds. Although second-year sediment losses were greatly reduced from the sheared watersheds (79.9 kg/ha), they remained greater than losses from chopped (5.5 kg/ha) or

  20. Geoacoustic model at the DH-1 long-core site in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kim, Seong Pil

    2014-05-01

    A long core of 23.6 m was acquired at the DH-1 site (37°36.651'N and 129°19.709'E) in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. The core site is located near the Donghae City and the water depth is 357.8 m deep. The long-core sediment was recovered using the Portable Remotely Operated Drill (PROD), a fully contained drilling system, remotely operated at the seafloor. The recovered core sediments were analyzed for physical, sedimentological, and geoacoustic properties mostly at 10~30 cm intervals. Based on the long-core data with subbottom and air-gun profiles at the DH-1 core site, a geoacoustic model was firstly reconstructed including water mass. The geoacoustic model comprises 7 geoacoustic units of the core sediments, based on the measurements of 125 P-wave velocities and 121 attenuations. The P-wave speed was compensated to in situ depth below the sea floor using the Hamilton method. The geoacoustic model DH-1 probably contributes for reconstruction of geoacoustic models reflecting vertical and lateral variability of acoustic properties in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. Keywords: long core, geoacoustic model, East Sea, continental margin, P-wave speed Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy through the grant of Marine Geology and Geophysical Mapping Project (GP2010-013).

  1. "Where to Put it? The East-West Split over the site for the 200-inch telescope"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, D. H.

    1998-05-01

    Hale obtained the funding for his 200-inch telescope at a time when the sciences in America were trying to develop a National Research Fund through the National Academy of Sciences. His successes, and the failure of the Fund, created tensions, especially among prominent East Coast astronomers who themselves had been courting the Rockefeller International Education Board to support the development of southern hemisphere sites. This paper will explore facets of the controversy that will illuminate how Hale's plan was regarded by other astronomers, and how the dispute was finally settled by Henry Norris Russell.

  2. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  3. Source identification and apportionment of halogenated compounds observed at a remote site in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanlan; Kim, Jooil; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Park, Mi-Kyung; Mühle, Jens; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Jo, Chun Ok; Kim, Kyung-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    The sources of halogenated compounds in East Asia associated with stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change are relatively poorly understood. High-precision in situ measurements of 18 halogenated compounds and carbonyl sulfide (COS) made at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, from November 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed by a positive matrix factorization (PMF). Seven major industrial sources were identified from the enhanced concentrations of halogenated compounds observed at Gosan and corresponding concentration-based source contributions were also suggested: primary aluminum production explaining 37% of total concentration enhancements, solvent usage of which source apportionment is 25%, fugitive emissions from HCFC/HFC production with 11%, refrigerant replacements (9%), semiconductor/electronics industry (9%), foam blowing agents (6%), and fumigation (3%). Statistical trajectory analysis was applied to specify the potential emission regions for seven sources using back trajectories. Primary aluminum production, solvent usage and fugitive emission sources were mainly contributed by China. Semiconductor/electronics sources were dominantly located in Korea. Refrigerant replacement, fumigation and foam blowing agent sources were spread throughout East Asian countries. The specified potential source regions are consistent with country-based consumptions and emission patterns, verifying the PMF analysis results. The industry-based emission sources of halogenated compounds identified in this study help improve our understanding of the East Asian countries' industrial contributions to halogenated compound emissions. PMID:24298975

  4. [Influence of atmospheric transport on air pollutant levels at a mountain background site of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Xu, Ju-Yang; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Ji, Xian-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Transport characteristics of air pollutants transported to the background atmosphere of East China were investigated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) 4.8 model driven by NCEP reanalysis data during June 2011 to May 2012. Based on the air pollutants monitoring data collected at the National atmospheric background monitoring station (Wuyishan station) in Fujian Province, characteristics of different clustered air masses as well as the origins of highly polluted air masses were further examined. The results showed that 65% of all the trajectories, in which air masses mainly passed over highly polluted area of East China, Jiangxi province and upper air in desert areas of Northwest China, carried polluted air to the station, while the rest of trajectories (35%) with air masses originated from ocean could effectively remove air pollutants at the Wuyishan station. However, the impact on the air pollutants for each air mass group varied with seasons. Elevated SO2 concentrations observed at the background station were mainly influenced by coal burning activities in Northern China during heating season. The high CO concentrations were likely associated with the pollutants emission in the process of coal production and consumption in Anhui province. The elevated NO(x), O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mostly impacted by East China with high levels of air pollutants.

  5. Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project

    SciTech Connect

    Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

  6. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearly bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.

  7. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    DOE PAGES

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearlymore » bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.« less

  8. Firn density profile at Megadunes, East Antarctica, calls for an improved densification model for low accumulation sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, M.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    We report a density profile of the firn at Megadunes, East Antarctica (80o78'S; 124o50'E). The Megadunes site is characterized by a low mass accumulation rate (2.9 g/cm2/yr) and cold temperature (mean annual = -49.5oC). Validating existing firn densification models using a density profile of such a site is important because such models, either purely empirical or mechanistic, have been calibrated with few sites that are analogous to a glacial condition (ultralow accumulation and temperature). We make use of CO2 concentrations in the lock-in (or non-diffusive) zone to obtain the accumulation rate, assuming that the gas in the lock-in zone ages at the same rate as the surrounding ice [Battle et al., 1996], and assuming that the gas enclosure rate must equal the long-term mean accumulation rate. This estimate is preliminary and may change when results from beta analysis of cores become available. Our density profile shows that the widely used pure empirical model by Herron and Langway [1980] overestimates the close-off depth by 16 %, and the semi-mechanistic model by Pimienta and Barnola [Barnola et al., 1991] also overestimates the close-off depth by 26 %. Our study at the Megadunes site indicates that the δ 15N of N2 paradox for glacial ice from East Antarctica would have partly resulted from a poorly calibrated densification model for a `glacial-like' condition and a thick convective zone as we observed at the Megadunes site [Severinghaus et al., in prep].

  9. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  10. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  11. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  12. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  13. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  14. Career Spanish at Mesa State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkenton, David

    The development and results of Career Spanish instruction at Mesa State College in Colorado from 1975 to 1991 are described. The class is an individualized, career-oriented class for students who have only 3 to 6 semester hours available for foreign language study and an interest in particular vocational applications of Spanish. With no…

  15. 13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN TEMPE, SHOWING DROP STRUCTURE AND GROUNDWATER PUMP. THIS IS THE LAST OF FOUR PUMPS WHICH FEED DIRECTLY INTO THE CANAL BETWEEN ALMA SCHOOL ROAD AND PRICE ROAD. ON THIS DAY, ALL FOUR PUMPS, OPERATING AT FULL OUTPUT, HAVE CONSIDERABLY SWELLED THE FLOW TO THE CANAL. NOTE THE OLD FASHIONED BRICKWORK ON THE NORTH BANK. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-12 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-EC-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters for volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from historic underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  17. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-15 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-15 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October and November 2010, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters of volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  18. In-Situ Air Permeability Measurements Using the Cone Permeameter at the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    TROYER, G.L.

    1999-03-31

    This report documents the field demonstration of the Cone Permeameter{trademark} (CPer) conducted at the Immobilization Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) site in the 200 East area of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford facility. The demonstration was conducted using the Hanford Site Cone Penetration Platform (CPP) shown in Figure 1.1. The purpose of the technology demonstration was to (1) gather baseline data and evaluate the CPer's ability to measure air permeability in arid sands, silts and gravels; and (2) to determine the system's ability to replicate permeability profiles with multiple pushes in close proximity. The demonstration was jointly conducted by Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) and Science and Engineering Associates (SEA). This report satisfies the requirements of ARA's contract No.2075 to Lockheed Martin Hanford Company. The report is organized into six major sections. This first section presents an introduction and outline to the report. Section 2 contains a discussion of the technologies used for the demonstration. Section 3 contains a brief description of the site where the demonstration was conducted. Section 4 describes the testing methodology and chronology. Section 5 presents the results obtained during the field test program. Comparisons between these results and existing site data are developed and discussed in Section 5. A conclusion and recommendation section is presented in Section 6 of the report.

  19. Addendum to the East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    SAIC

    2011-04-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park Site-Wide Residual Contamination Remedial Investigation Work Plan (DOE 2004) describes the planned fieldwork to support the remedial investigation (RI) for residual contamination at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) not addressed in previous Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) decisions. This Addendum describes activities that will be conducted to gather additional information in Zone 1 of the ETTP for groundwater, surface water, and sediments. This Addendum has been developed from agreements reached in meetings held on June 23, 2010, August 25, 2010, October 13, 2010, November 13, 2010, December 1, 2010, and January 13, 2011, with representatives of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Based on historical to recent groundwater data for ETTP and the previously completed Sitewide Remedial Investigation for the ETTP (DOE 2007a), the following six areas of concern have been identified that exhibit groundwater contamination downgradient of these areas above state of Tennessee and EPA drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs): (1) K-720 Fly Ash Pile, (2) K-770 Scrap Yard, (3) Duct Island, (4) K-1085 Firehouse Burn/J.A. Jones Maintenance Area, (5) Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA), and (6) Former K-1070-A Burial Ground. The paper presents a brief summary of the history of the areas, the general conceptual models for the observed groundwater contamination, and the data gaps identified.

  20. Characteristics and potential sources of atmospheric mercury at a subtropical near-coastal site in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ben; Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Fu, Xuewu; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of regional mercury (Hg) emissions and understand possible source regions of atmospheric Hg in Eastern China, 2 year observation for speciated atmospheric Hg was conducted at the Dameishan Atmospheric Observatory, a mountain site near the east coast of China. The observed concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) was 3.3 ± 1.4 ng m-3. During the sampling period, gaseous oxidized Hg and particulate bound Hg were 6.7 ± 4.3 pg m-3 and 180 ± 110 pg m-3 in winter and 5.9 ± 3.4 pg m-3 and 130 ± 100 pg m-3 in spring, respectively. The relatively high mean concentration of TGM was mainly caused by regional anthropogenic emissions and occasional long-range transport from domestic source regions. Seasonal variation in the TGM concentration was observed with lower values in the wet monsoon season (from May to September) and higher values in the dry monsoon season (from October to April). Backward trajectories and potential source contribution function analysis suggested that anthropogenic Hg emission from coal combustion in the Yangtze River Delta region was the most likely cause for the elevated TGM concentrations. Relatively clean air originating from the East China Sea was the most possible cause for the observed low TGM concentrations. Positive correlation between TGM concentration and air quality index suggests that emissions that influenced regional air quality contributed to the elevated TGM concentrations.

  1. Foam frac in the Mesa Verde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Bittercreek Fed 1-3 is a gas well tapping the Mesaverde in the Asphalt Creek area south of Vernal, Utah, in the Uinta basin. The job was to pump 216,000 lb of 20/40 sand in 123,360 gal foam through 4 sets of perforations between 6030 ft and 6293 ft. In January 1981, Ensearch Exploration set in motion the first foam fracture done by the company in the Mesa Verde - possibly the first foam frac ever done in the Mesa Verde. Smith Energy Services performed the stimulation, delivering the highest concentration of proppant ever pumped in the Rocky Mt. - 4 ppg 20/40 sand/gal of foam at the formation. The Bittercreek Fed 1-3 had been treated conventionally on 3 previous occasions. In turning to foam fracture treatment, Ensearch hoped to minimize formation damage and maximize production in the fluid sensitive formation.

  2. The Mesa Arizona Pupil Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A computer-based Pupil Tracking/Teacher Monitoring System was designed for Mesa Public Schools, Mesa, Arizona. The established objectives of the system were to: (1) facilitate the economical collection and storage of student performance data necessary to objectively evaluate the relative effectiveness of teachers, instructional methods, materials, and applied concepts; and (2) identify, on a daily basis, those students requiring special attention in specific subject areas. The system encompasses computer hardware/software and integrated curricula progression/administration devices. It provides daily evaluation and monitoring of performance as students progress at class or individualized rates. In the process, it notifies the student and collects information necessary to validate or invalidate subject presentation devices, methods, materials, and measurement devices in terms of direct benefit to the students. The system utilizes a small-scale computer (e.g., IBM 1130) to assure low-cost replicability, and may be used for many subjects of instruction.

  3. The MESA accelerometer for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, William G.; Dietrich, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    An electrostatically suspended proof mass in the Miniature Electrostatic Accelerometer (MESA) is used to measure acceleration in the submicro-g range. Since no fixed mechanical suspension (such as springs or strings) is used, the constrainment scaling can be changed electrically after being placed in orbit. A single proof mass can sense accelerations in three axes simultaneously. It can survive high-g pyrotechnic-generated shocks and launch environments while unpowered.

  4. High Temperature Superconducting Terahertz Emitters with Various Mesa Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfanazari, Kaveh; Tsujimoto, M.; Kashiwagi, T.; Asai, H.; Kitamura, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Sawamura, M.; Ishida, K.; Watanabe, C.; Sekimoto, S.; Minami, H.; Tachiki, M.; Hattori, T.; Klemm, R. A.; Kadowaki, K.

    2013-03-01

    In 2007, the first observation of the coherent terahertz (THz) electromagnetic (EM) waves from a mesa structures of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) in high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) is reported. The ac-Josephson effect as well as the cavity resonance conditions is considered as the principle mechanism of the THz radiation. In order to understand the cavity effect in THz radiation from IJJ mesas more clearly, we studied mesas with various geometries; various kinds of triangles, and pentagonal mesas with various sizes and thicknesses. The focused ion beam (FIB) milling technique is used in all mesa fabrications. In this talk, we discuss our recent progress in THz emission observation in pentagonal mesas. This work has been supported in part by CREST-JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), WPI-MANA project (NIMS).

  5. Tephrochronology of the East African Baringo-Tugen Hills Cores: Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garello, D.; Deino, A. L.; Campisano, C. J.; Kingston, J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Hill, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Baringo/Tugen Hills basin (BTB) in central Kenya is one of five Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) localities targeting lacustrine sediments associated with key fossil hominin sites. The fossiliferous Plio-Pliestocene Chemeron Formation, within the BTB, contains geochemically analyzed outcrop tephras, 8 of which have 40Ar/39Ar dates of 3.2-2.35Ma. Tephras have been crucial in developing chronologies in human evolution, paleontology, archaeology, and rift basin development. The HSPDP paleo-lake cores provide a high resolution and continuous record of sedimentation, as well as additional tephras not found in outcrop. For BTB, approximately 20 vitric tephras have been logged in the cores, including several previously unobserved tephras, providing a more complete record of volcanic activity. Major element geochemical analyses of the BTB tephras collected from the cores are critical for establishing chronostratigraphic links to the outcrop stratigraphy of the Chemeron Formation, as well as correlations outside of BTB. The Chemeron Formation, composed of alternating fluvial and lacustrine sediments, is associated with the onset and intensification of the Cenozoic Northern Hemisphere glaciation and encompasses the period of great hominin diversification of Paranthropus and Homo, as well as the earliest evidence for stone toolmaking. Within the Chemeron stratigraphy, there are sequences of diatomites that record a 23kyr-processional periodicity indicating a dominant climatic forcing. By correlating the BTB tephras, and thereby the BTB climate-forced lacustrine cycles, with other East African rift basins' stratigraphy, we can determine if this climatic wet/dry pattern observed at BTB had occurred in other East African rift basins. This knowledge can help in understanding the influence of climate and tectonics on the evolution of hominins during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  6. Carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed mine sites in seven east-central states.

    PubMed

    Sperow, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial systems represent a significant potential carbon (C) sink to help mitigate or offset greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 3.2 Mha are permitted for mining activities in the United States, which are required to be reclaimed with vegetative cover. While site-specific studies have assessed C accumulation on reclaimed mine sites, regional analyses to estimate potential C increases have not been conducted. For this analysis, potential C sequestration is analyzed on 567,000 ha of mine land in a seven-state region reclaimed to cropland, pasture, or forest. Carbon accumulation is estimated for cropland, pasture, and forest soils, forest litter layer, and aboveground biomass by estimating average annual rates of C accumulation from site-specific and general C sequestration studies. The average annual rate of C storage is highest when mine land is reclaimed to forest, where the potential sequestration is 0.7 to 2.2 Tg yr(-1). The C from soils, litter layer, and biomass from mine lands reclaimed to forest represents 0.3 to 1.0% of the 1990 CO2 emissions from the study region (919 Tg CO2). To achieve the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goal of 7% below the 1990 level as proposed by the Kyoto Treaty requires CO2 emissions in the study area to be reduced by just over 64 Tg CO2. The potential carbon storage in mine sites reclaimed to forest could account for 4 to 12.5% of these required reductions.

  7. Changes in nematode communities in different physiographic sites of the condor seamount (north-East atlantic ocean) and adjacent sediments.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as 'oases' of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  8. The Apame Project: Archeo-Paleoseismology for the Protection of Archeological Sites and Cultural Heritage in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    APAME Working Group

    2007-12-01

    The APAME EC project (Contract ICA3-CT-2002-10024) consists of multidisciplinary studies of seismically active regions along the Dead Sea Fault. Several medieval cities, citadels, fortresses and known archeological sites of the Middle East suffered of severe earthquake damage in the past. A repetition of similar seismic events nowadays will cause tremendous damage and destruction mainly due to the last century increase in population and modern constructions. In the APAME project, we combine historical, archeo-paleoseismological and earthquake hazard studies and provide an integrated analysis of their consequent seismic hazard. The results are: 1) An inventory with maps of archeological and cultural sites affected by past earthquakes and detailed archeoseismological and paleoseismological studies of some specific sites using precise dating techniques. 2) An analysis of damage distribution based on the historical archives, new documents and field investigations and preparation of updated sesimicity catalogue of past earthquakes. 3) Investigations of man-made constructions and building practices for each site with a comparison between heavily damaged and undamaged buildings. Striking results are ~ 40 m fault offset of a Tell site in the Amik Basin (Turkey), the severe earthquake damage in the remaining "lost villages" and ~ 13.6 m offset of a Roman Aqueduct in northern Syria, the trace of the 1837 and 1759 earthquake fault ruptures in southern Lebanon, and the constraint of fault slip rate using offset streams and paleoclimatic reconstructions along the Jordan Valley Fault. A fault segmentation is obtained from the compiled instrumental and historical earthquake catalogue and related damage distribution. The rich historical seismicity catalogue and fault segmentation combined with the tectonic and geodetic strain pattern along the DSF contribute to the characterization of rupture zones with a potential for a future large earthquake.

  9. Changes in nematode communities in different physiographic sites of the condor seamount (north-East atlantic ocean) and adjacent sediments.

    PubMed

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as 'oases' of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  10. Changes in Nematode Communities in Different Physiographic Sites of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Adjacent Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as ‘oases’ of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  11. Kinetics of mesa overlayer growth: Climbing of adatoms onto the mesa top

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yong; Liu, Feng; Li, Shao-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng; Xue, Qi-Kun; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2008-01-17

    We have calculated the energy barriers for an adatom climbing up onto a Pb mesa top either over a facet-facet edge or through a facet-step joint, using a modified embedded atom method. We found that the second process is not only thermodynamically more favorable than the first one but also much faster with a diminishing barrier. Our results provide a plausible explanation for the experimentally observed intriguing growth behavior of a Pb mesa. The underlying mechanisms can be generally applicable to other systems.

  12. Carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed mine sites in seven east-central states

    SciTech Connect

    Sperow, M.

    2006-07-15

    Terrestrial systems represent a significant potential carbon (C) sink to help mitigate or offset greenhouse gas emissions. Nearly 3.2 Mha are permitted for mining activities in the United States, which are required to be reclaimed with vegetative cover. While site-specific studies have assessed C accumulation on reclaimed mine sites, regional analyses to estimate potential C increases have not been conducted. For this analysis, potential C sequestration is analyzed on 567000 ha of mine land in a seven-state region reclaimed to cropland, pasture, or forest. Carbon accumulation is estimated for cropland, pasture, and forest soils, forest litter layer, and aboveground biomass by estimating average annual rates of C accumulation from site-specific and general C sequestration studies. The average annual rate of C storage is highest when mine land is reclaimed to forest, where the potential sequestration is 0.7 to 2.2 Tg yr{sup -1}. The C from soils, litter layer, and biomass from mine lands reclaimed to forest represents 0.3 to 1.0% of the 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions from the study region (919 Tg CO{sub 2}). To achieve the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goal of 7% below the 1990 level as proposed by the Kyoto Treaty requires CO{sub 2} emissions in the study area to be reduced by just over 64 Tg CO{sub 2}. The potential carbon storage in mine sites reclaimed to forest could account for 4 to 12.5% of these required reductions.

  13. Inter-annual variability of surface ozone at coastal (Dumont d'Urville, 2004-2014) and inland (Concordia, 2007-2014) sites in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Susanne; Savarino, Joël; Frey, Markus M.; Kukui, Alexandre; Helmig, Detlev; Jourdain, Bruno; Jones, Anna E.; Weller, Rolf; Brough, Neil; Gallée, Hubert

    2016-07-01

    Surface ozone has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d'Urville (DDU), and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. This paper discusses long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites. At Concordia, near-surface ozone data were complemented by balloon soundings and compared to similar measurements done at the South Pole. The DDU record is compared to those obtained at the coastal site of Syowa, also located in East Antarctica, as well as the coastal sites of Neumayer and Halley, both located on the coast of the Weddell Sea in West Antarctica. Surface ozone mixing ratios exhibit very similar seasonal cycles at Concordia and the South Pole. However, in summer the diurnal cycle of ozone is different at the two sites with a drop of ozone in the afternoon at Concordia but not at the South Pole. The vertical distribution of ozone above the snow surface also differs. When present, the ozone-rich layer located near the ground is better mixed and deeper at Concordia (up to 400 m) than at the South Pole during sunlight hours. These differences are related to different solar radiation and wind regimes encountered at these two inland sites. DDU appears to be the coastal site where the impact of the late winter/spring bromine chemistry is the weakest, but where the impact of elevated ozone levels caused by NOx snow emissions from the high Antarctic plateau is the highest. The highest impact of the bromine chemistry is seen at Halley and Neumayer, and to a lesser extent at Syowa. These three sites are only weakly impacted by the NOx chemistry and the net ozone production occurring on the high Antarctic plateau. The differences in late winter/spring are attributed to the abundance of sea ice offshore from the sites, whereas those in summer are related to the topography of East Antarctica that promotes the katabatic flow

  14. A Wood-Waste Cover Prevents Sulphide Oxidation and Treats Acid Effluents at the East-Sullivan Mine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germain, D.; Tassé, N.; Cyr, J.

    2004-05-01

    At the East Sullivan site, wood wastes covering the abandoned mine tailings impoundment prevent sulphide oxidation by creating an anoxic environment. The addition of coarse ligneous wastes favours infiltration, resulting in a water table rise. This maintains most tailings saturated and thus provides an additional protection against sulphide oxidation. Moreover, high infiltration allows a more rapid flushing of acid prone groundwater generated prior to the cover placement. Finally, the pore-waters under the cover are characterized by a strong reducing potential and high alkalinity. These conditions favour sulphate reduction and base metal precipitation as sulphides and carbonates. The restoration strategy capitalized on the alkaline and reductive properties of the waters underlying the wood-waste cover. An original treatment of acid effluents, based on the recirculation of water discharging around the impoundment through the organic cover, was implemented in 1998. In 2003, the total volume of water treated was 725 000 m3. Data gathered near the dispersal zone show that despite dispersing acid water, the groundwater pH decreases by only one unit from 7 to 6, during the recirculation period: May to October. However, alkalinity decreases from 800 to 100 mg/L-CaCO3. But it is back up to 800 mg/L the following spring, thanks to sulphate reduction. Fe2+ concentrations near the dispersal zone are maintained below 2 mg/L. Evolution of the iron mass in the surface waters suggests that the contaminated groundwater flush is completed in the north and west sectors of the impoundment; the east and south ones are expected to be recovered within 3 to 4 years. A wood-waste cover, besides limiting sulphide oxidation, can fill the role of alkaline reducing barrier for the treatment of these acidogenic waters, until a balance between acidity and alkalinity in the effluent is reached.

  15. Perchlorate in fish from a contaminated site in east-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Theodorakis, Christopher; Rinchard, Jacques; Anderson, Todd; Liu, Fujun; Park, June-Woo; Costa, Filipe; McDaniel, Leslie; Kendall, Ronald; Waters, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate, a known thyroid endocrine disruptor, contaminates surface waters near military instillations where solid fuel rocket motors are manufactured or assembled. To assess potential perchlorate exposure to fish and the human population which may feed on them, fish were collected around the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant in McLennan County, TX, and analyzed for the presence of the perchlorate anion. The sampling sites included Lake Waco and Belton Lake, and several streams and rivers within their watersheds. The general tendency was that perchlorate was only found in a few species sampled, and perchlorate was not detected in every individual within these species. When detected in the fish, perchlorate tissue concentrations were greater than that in the water. This may be due to highly variable perchlorate concentrations in the water coupled with individual-level variation in elimination from the body, or to routes of exposure other than water. PMID:15993996

  16. Prominent features in isotopic, chemical and dust stratigraphies from GV7, a drilling site in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the new project "The IPICS 2k Array: a network of ice core climate and climate forcing records for the last two millennia", which represents a thematic research line of International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS), a 250 m deep ice core was retrieved (spanning roughly the last millennium) at GV7 site, together with several shallow firn cores and snow pits. The PNRA (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide) project "IPICS-2kyr-It" represents the Italian contribution to IPICS "The 2k Array" and it is being accomplished in collaboration with KOPRI (Korean Polar Reasearch Institute). The availability of various records from the same site all spanning a temporal period ranging from the last decades to the last centuries will allow achieving a stacked record of chemical and isotopic markers and accumulation rate that is basic for a reliable climatic reconstruction. Previous surveys in the area of GV7 (70°41' S - 158°51' E, 1950 m a.s.l., East Antarctica) showed that this site is characterized by a relatively high snow accumulation (about 240 mm water eq./year), allowing a high resolution study of the climatic variability in the last millennium. Here we present the isotopic, chemical and dust stratigraphies of the snow pits sampled at GV7 during the 2013/14 field season and analysed in Italy and in Korea. Reversibly deposited components such as nitrate and methansulphonic acid (MSA) appear to be well preserved and show a clear seasonal profiles, as one can observe from the records achieved both by Italian and Korean labs. Such a feature, together with the high accumulation rate, allowed obtaining an accurate dating of the snow pits, based on the counting of annual layers. At this purpose, a multi-parametric approach was chosen by using MSA, non-sea-salt sulphate, and d18O as seasonal markers. The dating confirmed the value of the accumulation rate found during previous samplings.

  17. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  18. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  19. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  20. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  1. Mathematics, Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Growing Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) talent Washington MESA--Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement--helps under-represented community college students excel in school and ultimately earn STEM bachelor's degrees. MESA has two key programs: one for K-12 students, and the other for community and technical college…

  2. How To Start a MESA Center at a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claire, Susan

    Between September 1990 and December 1991, Cabrillo College implemented the Math, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program to increase the number of underrepresented minority students enrolling in scientific disciplines at Cabrillo and subsequently transferring to four-year colleges. The initial program was targeted to 200 MESA members…

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7.39 Section 7.39 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting...

  4. Argonne National Laboratory-East summary site environmental report for calendar year 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Kolzow, R. G.

    2003-02-20

    This report is a summary of the actions taken by Argonne National Laboratory in 2001 to keep the public and environment safe. Over the last year, Argonne has monitored, evaluated, and taken steps to control problems or potential problems on its DuPage County site. The problems that have or might occur are things like spilled or leaked radiological waste, non-radiological wastes or hazardous materials. Argonne is keeping its promise to be a good neighbor, and this report confirms its commitment to its neighbors, both human and environmental. Argonne's commitment to have minimal effect on the environment was tested vigorously over 2001. Argonne's first priority is keeping the people around it safe. This was verified through tests done on the air. The air can be the most damaging way to pollute an area. This is why Argonne was so extensive in its testing. They followed guidelines of the Clean Air Act, which covers radioactive emissions, asbestos, and conventional air pollutants. Air was tested, and after all calculations were finished, the effect on the public was found to be so minimal that it almost didn't register. The sources of pollutants from Argonne are exhausts from laboratories and other facilities, the steam plant that provides space heating for Argonne's buildings, and emissions from emergency generators when they are operating. The traces that were found were evaluated and reduced, even though they were originally well within regulatory limits. The same trends--further reduction of concentrations that were already safe--were found in the water analysis, as well. Water was sampled and evaluated many times over the course of the year, and what was found was good news. The radiological elements were very minimal, and most of the trace amounts were due to naturally occurring radiological sources. The only measurements that exceeded standards a few times were of total dissolved solids (TDS), essentially road salts dissolved in rainwater runoff. These problems

  5. Argonne National Laboratory-East summary site environmental report for calendar year 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, N. W.; Kolzow, R. G.

    2004-03-08

    Argonne performs research and development in many areas of science and technology. General fields of research at Argonne include, but are not limited to, biosciences, biotechnology, chemical engineering, chemistry, decision and information sciences, energy systems and technology, high energy physics, materials science, math and computer science, nuclear reactors, physics, and environmental science. Argonne is not, and never has been, a weapons laboratory. Several missions provide focus for Argonne scientists. Basic research helps better understand the world, and applied research helps protect and improve it. For example, the prairies of Argonne provide sites for environmental studies that provide valuable information about invader species and the food webs within ecosystems. Argonne also operates world-class research facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), which is a national research facility funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Scientists use high brilliance X-rays from the APS for basic and applied research in many fields. Argonne also seeks to ensure our energy future. Currently, scientists and engineers are developing cleaner and more efficient energy sources, such as fuel cells and advanced electric power generation. Argonne has spent much of its history on developing nuclear reactor technology. That research is now being applied to American and Soviet nuclear reactors to improve the safety and life of the reactors. Other Argonne research seeks to improve the way we manage our environment. For example, Argonne scientists created a new catalyst that could help carmakers eliminate 95 percent of nitrogen-oxide emitted by diesel engines by the year 2007. Research and development solutions such as these will help protect our ecosystems.

  6. Analysis of Focal Mechanism and Microseismicity around the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Karyono; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Abdurrokhim, Abdurrokhim; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of May 2006 numerous eruption sites started in northeast Java, Indonesia following to a M6.3 earthquake striking the island.Within a few weeks an area or nearly 2 km2 was covered by boiling mud and rock fragments and a prominent central crater (named Lusi) has been erupting for the last 9.5 years. The M.6.3 seismic event also triggered the activation of the Watukosek strike slip fault system that originates from the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex and extends to the northeast of Java hosting Lusi and other mud volcanoes. Since 2006 this fault system has been reactivated in numerous instances mostly following to regional seismic and volcanic activity. However the mechanism controlling this activity have never been investigated and remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the relationship existing between seismicity, volcanism, faulting and Lusi activity, we have deployed a network of 31 seismometers in the framework of the ERC-Lusi Lab project. This network covers a large region that monitors the Lusi activity, the Watukosek fault system and the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex. In particular, to understand the consistent pattern of the source mechanism, relative to the general tectonic stress in the study area, a detailed analysis has been carried out by performing the moment tensor inversion for the near field data collected from the network stations. Furthermore these data have been combined with the near field data from the regional network of the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia that covers the whole country on a broader scale. Keywords: Lusi, microseismic event, focal mechanism

  7. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  8. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    SciTech Connect

    Drollinger, Harold; Jones, Robert C.; Thomas F. Bullard; Ashbaugh, Laurence J.; Wayne R. Griffin

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  9. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  10. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 5 of 6

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  11. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 2 of 6

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  12. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 4 of 6

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  13. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 3 of 6

    SciTech Connect

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  14. Source apportionment of fine carbonaceous particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Moon, K J; Han, J S; Ghim, Y S; Kim, Y J

    2008-07-01

    Fine particle (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) samples were collected during six intensive measurement periods from November 2001 to August 2003 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. Chemical composition of these aerosol samples including major ion components, trace elements, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to study the impact of long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosol. Aerosol chemical composition data were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify the possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Fourteen sources were then resolved including soil dust, fresh sea salt, transformed natural source, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, secondary organic carbon, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, coal combustion, municipal incineration, metallurgical emission source, and volcanic emission. The PMF analysis results of source contributions showed that the natural sources including soil dust, fresh and aged sea salt, and volcanic emission contributed to about 20% of the measured PM(2.5) mass. Other primary anthropogenic sources such as diesel and gasoline vehicle, coal and fuel oil combustion, biomass burning, municipal incineration, metallurgical source contributed about 34% of PM(2.5) mass. Especially, the secondary aerosol mainly involved with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organic carbon contributed to about 39% of the PM(2.5) mass.

  15. Chemical composition and mass size distribution of PM1.0 at an elevated site in central east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Hu, G. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, D. Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions were measured continuously for one and half years with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to characterize the mass and size distributions (MSDs) of each component in bulk, fresh and aged submicron particles (approximately PM1.0) at Mountain Tai, an elevated site in Central East China (CEC) from June 2010 to January 2012. The majority of the regionally-dispersed aerosols were found to be contributed from short distance mixed aerosol, mostly from its south with organics and sulfate as the major components. The annual mean mass concentrations of organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride were 11.2, 9.2, 7.2, 5.8 and 0.95 μg m-3, respectively, which are much lower for organics and sulfate, and slightly lower for nitrate, ammonium and chloride than those at the nearby surface rural sites. High organics were observed for all four seasons, and the relatively fresh organic aerosol (OA) containing high proportion of less-photo chemically OA, were found from long-range transported aerosol from northwest. Semi-volatile and low-volatile oxidized OAs together contributed approximately 49%, 55% in spring and 72% and 51% in winter of total OA, showing at least 50% of OA can be attributable to SOA. Seasonally, the chemical components at the elevated site showed a "winter high and autumn low" pattern, with organics, sulfate and ammonium peaking in summer. Though no obvious differences of MSDs were seen for various chemical components in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free troposphere (FT), the concentrations were a factor of 5-7 higher in PBL than in FT. The averaged MSDs of particles between 30-1000 nm for organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium are approximately log-normal with similar mass median diameters (MMDs) of 539, 585, 542, and 545 nm, respectively, which were slightly larger than those in ground sites within North China Plain (NCP). Obvious differences in MMDs were found between fresh and aged aerosols for

  16. Geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a brownfield redevelopment site in East Moline, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the geology, hydrology, and water quality in the vicinity of a Brownfield redevelopment site in East Moline, Illinois, was designed to determine if metals and organic compounds detected in the fill deposits in this area posed a threat to the water resources. The hydrologic features of concern at the site are surface water at a pond and surrounding wetland, the Mississippi River, and an unnamed stream and ground water in the shallow aquifer. The shallow aquifer is composed of saturated fill, sand and gravel, and weathered bedrock. The overall direction of surface- and ground-water flow in the study area is toward the Mississippi River. In the eastern part of the pond and wetland, ground water discharges to surface water. In the western part of the pond and wetland, surface water recharges to ground water. Everyday during the period for which water-level data were available, between 4.7 ' 10-4 and 1.4 ' 10-1 cubic feet of water flowed across a 1 square foot area of aquifer. Variations in values for oxidation-reduction potential and specific conductance may be affected by heterogeneity in the chemical composition of the fill and unconsolidated deposits and the bedrock units. Chemical and biological processes are altering the chemistry of the water in the pond relative to its ground-water source. Concentrations of iron and manganese in water samples appear to be affected by the local geochemical environment in the aquifer. The data do not indicate that contaminants in the fill material are having a substantial adverse affect on surface- or ground-water quality in the study area.

  17. Earthquake Monitoring at 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise RIDGE 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Kim, W.

    2004-12-01

    In the fall of 2003 nine ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed from the R/V Keldysh within the `bull's-eye' region of the R2K ISS at 9° 49'N - 9° 51'N on the East Pacific Rise as part of the Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site. These instruments were recovered using the R/V Atlantis in April 2004, and twelve more were deployed to take their place for a second year of monitoring (with three years total planned). During the turn-around cruise, two short temporary deployments (~4-8 days), of an additional 3 OBSs each, were accomplished to provide very dense instrument spacing (a few 100 m) around specific vents where in situ chemical monitoring was taking place (Luther et al.). Good data were collected on seven of the nine long deployment and six short deployment OBSs. We will present early results from analysis of these data including an estimate of the level of activity observed through-out the seven month period of the first deployment, and preliminary epicenters. Data will also be shown from the short temporary deployments. Early analysis of these data indicates an event rate of ~8 events per day for events where arrivals are apparent on at least three instruments, and may therefore expect to be located. Also notable in these data are pulses and prolonged periods of what appear to be tremor. This tremor is not generally coherent or synchronous from station to station and is therefore likely a very localized phenomena associated with hydrothermal fluid flow. The exceptionally well characterized and monitored seafloor at this site will allow for unprecedented correlation of observed seismic activity with local biology, geology, geochemical and hydrothermal monitoring. In addition, past and future detailed geophysical imaging of this area will provide an excellent context for observed faulting and fracturing.

  18. Characterization of Mesa Verde black-on-white ceramics from southwest Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Glowacki, D.M.; Glascock, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The chemical characterization of ceramics using neutron activation analysis (NAA) is rapidly becoming an important means of obtaining information about the nature of ceramic production and exchange in the Southwest. However, until now, NAA has never been applied to Pueblo III (A.D. 1150-1300) ceramics from the Mesa Verde region. This study involves the characterization of Mesa Verde black-on-white bowls from the Castle Rock and Sand Canyon Pueblo sites in southwestern Colorado. As the distinctions in the different clay sources are potentially very subtle, the precision and multielement analysis provided by NAA are considered essential for this project. The purpose of the analysis is to link ceramic compositional groups to raw clay sources in order to address issues of production and exchange.

  19. Geohydrologic data and models of Rainier Mesa and their implications to Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Cook, N.G.W.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Carnahan, C.L.; Javandel, I.; Tsang, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The geohydrologic data collected at Rainier Mesa provide the only extensive observations in tunnels presently available on flow and transport in tuff units similar to those of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This information can, therefore, be of great value in planning the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) testing in underground drifts at Yucca Mountain. In this paper, we compare the geohydrologic characteristics of tuff units of these two sites and summarize the hydrochemical data indicating the presence of nearly meteoric water in Rainier Mesa tunnels. A simple analytic model is used to evaluate the possibility of propagating transient pulses of water along fractures or faults through the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff unit to reach the tunnel beds below. The results suggest that fast flow could occur without significant mixing between meteoric fracture water and matrix pore water. The implications of these findings on planning for the ESF Calico Hills study at Yucca Mountain are discussed.

  20. Self-replication of mesa patterns in reaction diffusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolnikov, T.; Ward, M. J.; Wei, J.

    2007-12-01

    Certain two-component reaction-diffusion systems on a finite interval are known to possess mesa (box-like) steady-state patterns in the singularly perturbed limit of small diffusivity for one of the two solution components. As the diffusivity D of the second component is decreased below some critical value Dc, with Dc=O(1), the existence of a steady-state mesa pattern is lost, triggering the onset of a mesa self-replication event that ultimately leads to the creation of additional mesas. The initiation of this phenomena is studied in detail for a particular scaling limit of the Brusselator model. Near the existence threshold Dc of a single steady-state mesa, it is shown that an internal layer forms in the centre of the mesa. The structure of the solution within this internal layer is shown to be governed by a certain core problem, comprised of a single nonautonomous second-order ODE. By analysing this core problem using rigorous and formal asymptotic methods, and by using the Singular Limit Eigenvalue Problem (SLEP) method to asymptotically calculate small eigenvalues, an analytical verification of the conditions of Nishiura and Ueyama [Y. Nishiura, D. Ueyama, A skeleton structure of self-replicating dynamics, Physica D 130 (1) (1999) 73-104], believed to be responsible for self-replication, is given. These conditions include: (1) The existence of a saddle-node threshold at which the steady-state mesa pattern disappears; (2) the dimple-shaped eigenfunction at the threshold, believed to be responsible for the initiation of the replication process; and (3) the stability of the mesa pattern above the existence threshold. Finally, we show that the core problem is universal in the sense that it pertains to a class of reaction-diffusion systems, including the Gierer-Meinhardt model with saturation, where mesa self-replication also occurs.

  1. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  2. MESA: A 3-D Eulerian hydrocode for penetration mechanics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, D.A.; Holian, K.S.; Henninger, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe an explicit, finite-difference hydrocode, called MESA, and compare calculations to metal and ceramic plate impacts with spall and to Taylor cylinder tests. The MESA code was developed with support from DARPA, the Army and the Marine Corps for use in armor/anti-armor problems primarily, but the code has been used for a number of other applications. MESA includes 2-D and 3-D Eulerian hydrodynamics, a number of material strength and fracture models, and a programmed burn high explosives model. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of snow chemical composition and accumulation rate at Talos Dome site (East Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Laura; Becagli, Silvia; Frosini, Daniele; Giardi, Fabio; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2016-04-15

    Five snow pits and five firn cores were sampled during the 2003-2004 Italian Antarctic Campaign at Talos Dome (East Antarctica), where a deep ice core (TALDICE, TALos Dome Ice CorE, 1650m depth) was drilled in 2005-2008 and analyzed for ionic content. Particular attention is spent in applying decontamination procedures to the firn cores, as core sections were stored for approximately 10years before analysis. By considering the snow pit samples to be unperturbed, the comparison with firn core samples from the same location shows that ammonium, nitrate and MSA are affected by storage post-depositional losses. All the other measured ions are confirmed to be irreversibly deposited in the snow layer. The removal of the most external layers (few centimeters) from the firn core sections is proved to be an effective decontamination procedure. High-resolution profiles of seasonal markers (nitrate, sulfate and MSA) allow a reliable stratigraphic dating and a seasonal characterization of the samples. The calculated mean accumulation-rate values range from 70 to 85mmw.e.year(-1), in the period 2003-1973 with small differences between two sectors: 70-74mmw.e.year(-1) in the NNE sector (spanning 2003-1996years) and 81-92mmw.e.year(-1) in the SSW sector (spanning 2003-1980years). This evidence is interpreted as a coupled effect of wind-driven redistribution processes in accumulation/ablation areas. Statistical treatment applied to the concentration values of the snow pits and firn cores samples collected in different points reveals a larger temporal variability than spatial one both in terms of concentration of chemical markers and annual accumulation. The low spatial variability of the accumulation rate and chemical composition measured in the five sites demonstrates that the TALDICE ice core paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic stratigraphies can be considered as reliably representative for the Talos Dome area.

  4. Magnesium isotopic compositions of altered oceanic basalts and gabbros from IODP site 1256 at the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Ke, Shan; Gao, Yongjun; Xiao, Yilin; Li, Shuguang

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the behaviour of Mg isotopes during alteration of oceanic crust and constrain the Mg isotopic compositions of the altered oceanic crust (AOC), high-precision Mg isotope analyses have been conducted on forty-four altered basalts and gabbros recovered from IODP site 1256, which represent the carbonate-barren AOC formed at the East Pacific Rise (EPR). These samples were altered by interaction of seawater-derived fluids with oceanic crust at different temperatures and water/rock ratios. With the exception of one sample that has a slightly heavier Mg isotopic composition (δ26Mg = 0.01 ± 0.08‰), all the other samples have relatively homogenous and mantle-like Mg isotopic compositions, with δ26Mg ranging from - 0.36 to - 0.14‰ (an average value of - 0.25 ± 0.11‰, 2SD, n = 43). This suggests that limited Mg isotope fractionation occurred during alteration of oceanic crust at the EPR at bulk rock scale, irrespective of highly variable alteration temperatures and variable water/rock ratios. Thus, our study suggests that the offset of δ26Mg values between seawater and global runoff dominantly results from the formation of marine dolomite as a sink for Mg. The mantle-like Mg isotopic composition further indicates that recycling of carbonate-barren AOC would not result in Mg isotope heterogeneity of the mantle at global scale. Consequently, the light Mg isotopic compositions of the mantle at local scale must result from incorporation of recycled Mg isotopically light carbonates.

  5. Tank Leak Experiment at the Mock Tank Site, 200 East Area: Electrical Resistance Tomography-Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A; Daily, W; Binley, A

    2002-01-18

    Electrical resistance measurements were used to monitor several releases of brine from the Mock Tank Test site at the 200 East Area. Three different methods were used to analyze the data: (1) a simple average of the raw data was used as an indicator of the presence/absence of a leak, (2) tomography of the region beneath the tank using data from steel-cased borehole, and (3) tomography of the region beneath the tank using data from vertical electrode arrays. Each of these methods was able to detect the presence of what appeared to be conductive plumes forming beneath the tank. The results suggest the following: (1) The minimum detectable leak volume is of the Order of a few hundred gallons. (2) procedure involving the use of reciprocal data can be used to evaluate the reliability of the results and minimize the potential for false-positive and false-negative conclusions; (3) The dry wells may be used as long electrodes to obtain 2D images of the plume under the tank. (4) 3D electrical resistance tomography (ERT) images provide information that can be used to determine the released volume, the speed and direction of plume movement, the regions of the soil that are being contaminated, and the approximate location of the hole in the tank. (5) It may be possible to map pre-existing plumes when no pre-spill data exists. (6) A ''quick look'' calculation can be used in the field can reliably detect the occurrence of a leak.

  6. Completion Report for Well ER-12-4, Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain (includes Errata Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in May 2005, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit in the north-central portion of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located on Rainier/Aqueduct Mesa, northwest of Yucca Flat, within Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The well provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in U12t Tunnel, information on the pre-Tertiary rocks in the area, and depth to the regional water table.

  7. Geohydrology of Pahute Mesa-3 test well, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kilroy, K.C.; Savard, C.S.

    1997-02-01

    The Pahute Mesa-3 test well is on Pahute Mesa about 3 miles west of the Nevada Test Site and 20 miles northeast of Oasis Valley near Beatty, Nevada. The well was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy Radionuclide Migration Program to monitor conditions near the western edge of the Nevada Test Site. The well was drilled with conventional rotary methods and an air-foam drilling fluid to a depth of 3,019 feet. A 10.75-inch diameter steel casing was installed to a depth of 1,473 feet. The test well penetrates thick units of non-welded to partly welded ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age with several thin layers of densely welded tuff, rhyolite and basalt flows, and breccia. Geophysical logs indicate that fractures are significant in the Tiva Canyon Tuff of the Paintbrush Group and this was confirmed by high flow in this unit during a borehole-flow survey. The geophysical logs also show that the effective porosity in tuffaceous units ranges from 19 to 38 percent and averages 30 percent, and the total porosity ranges from 33 to 55 percent and averages 42 percent. The measured temperature gradient of 1.00 degree Celsius per 100 feet is steep, but is similar to that of other nearby wells, one of which penetrates a buried granite intrusion. Injection tests for six intervals of the well yielded transmissivities that ranged from 3.1 x 10{sup -3} to 25 feet squared per day and hydraulic conductivities that ranged from 6 x 10{sup -5} to 0.12 foot per day. The sum of the transmissivities is 28 feet squared per day and the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity is 1.7 x 10{sup -3} foot per day. Estimates of storage coefficient range from 2.1 x 10{sup -5} to 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, indicating that the aquifer responded to the injection tests in a confined manner. An aquifer test produced a drawdown of 78 feet during 31 hours of testing at 169 gallons per minute.

  8. Chemical composition and mass size distribution of PM1 at an elevated site in central east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Hu, G. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, D. Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions were measured continuously for 1.5 years from June 2010 to January 2012 with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to characterize the mass and size distributions (MSDs) of major chemical components in submicron particles (approximately PM1) at Mountain Tai (Mt. Tai), an elevated site in central east China. The annual mean mass concentrations of organic, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride were 11.2, 9.2, 7.2, 5.8, and 0.95 μg m-3, respectively, which are much higher than those at most mountain sites in the USA and Europe, but lower than those at the nearby surface rural sites in China. A clear seasonality was observed for all major components throughout the study, with low concentration in fall and high in summer, and is believed to be caused by seasonal variations in planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, near surface pollutant concentrations and regional transport processes. Air masses were classified into categories impacted by PBL, lower free troposphere (LFT), new particle formation (NPF), in-cloud processes, and polluted aerosols. Organics dominated the PM1 mass during the NPF episodes, while sulfate contributed most to PM1 in cloud events. The average MSDs of particles between 30 and 1000 nm during the entire study for organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were approximately log-normal with mass median diameters (MMDs) of 539, 585, 542, and 545 nm, respectively. These values are slightly larger than those observed at ground sites within the North China Plain (NCP), likely due to the relative aged and well-mixed aerosol masses at Mt. Tai. There were no obvious differences in MMDs during the PBL, LFT, in-cloud and polluted episodes, but smaller MMDs, especially for organics, were observed during the NPF events. During the PBL, NPF, and polluted episodes, organics accounted for major proportions at smaller modes, and reached 70% at 100-200 nm particles in the polluted events. In cloud episodes, inorganics

  9. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a coastal/rural site downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2011-05-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a coastal/rural site of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling site from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.

  10. Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Grand Junction Office from Bluff east of facility. Note Buildings #35. #33 and #31A in lower left of photograph. VIEW WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  11. MESA: A Model Program for Employer-Student Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, James R.; Wilder, Jerry R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a computerized job-matching program (MESA) that assists students and alumni in securing positions. Results indicate this system has introduced students to a large number of otherwise unconsidered career opportunities. (RC)

  12. Relations between groundwater levels and anthropogenic and meteorological stressors at selected sites in east-central Florida, 1995-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Louis C.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to define the relations of water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and surficial aquifer system (SAS) to anthropogenic and meteorological stressors between 1995 and 2007 at two monitoring well sites (Charlotte Street and Lake Oliver) in east-central Florida. Anthropogenic stressors of interest included municipal and agricultural groundwater withdrawals, and application of reclaimed-water to rapid-infiltration basins (source of aquifer recharge). Meteorological stressors included precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Overall, anthropogenic and meteorological stressors accounted for about 40 to 89 percent of the variance in UFA and SAS groundwater levels and water-level changes. While mean monthly water levels were better correlated with monthly stressor values, changes in UFA and SAS water levels were better correlated with changes in stressor values. Water levels and water-level changes were influenced by system persistence as the moving-averaged values of both stressor types, which accounted for the influence of the previous month(s) conditions, consistently yielded higher adjusted coefficients of determination (R2 adj) values than did single monthly values. While monthly water-level changes tend to be influenced equally with both stressors across the hydrologically averaged 13-year period, changes were more influenced by one stressor or the other seasonally and during extended wet and dry periods. Seasonally, UFA water-level changes tended to be more influenced by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS water levels tended to be more influenced by meteorological stressors. During extended dry periods (12 months or greater), changes in UFA water levels at Charlotte Street were more affected by anthropogenic stressors than by meteorological stressors, while changes in SAS levels were more affected by meteorological stressors. At Lake Oliver, changes in both

  13. Paleocene Sepultura Formation: submarine canyon at La Mesa, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez-Duarte, M.A.; Navarro-Fuentes, J.C.; Valdez-Noriega, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    The Paleocene Sepultura Formation has been interpreted as the result of both deposition in a basin that varied in depth from strandline to at least 30-40 fathoms, and to widely distributed fluvial deposition. At La Mesa, east of Puerto Santa Catarina, Baja California, an excellent exposure exhibits canyon-fed sediments not reported in other places for this formation. The sediments at La Mesa consist of a sequence of alternating clastics and resedimented carbonate materials. The sequence begins with fine sandstone cut by channels, which indicates gravity-induced catastrophic sedimentation, such as debris flows. The channels are filled with massive nodular algal limestone with rip-up clasts of sandstone, some of them 1 m wide, with abundant Turritella pachecoensis and Venericardia sp. The massive limestone is overlain by clastic sediments that, in places, exhibit slumping and laminar bedding with limestone rip-ups. Apparently this unit is an upper-fan deposit. The nodular limestone grades laterally into thin-bedded calcarenites. These allodapic limestones exhibit A and B divisions of the Bouma sequence, similar to overbank levee deposits.

  14. Autumn daily characteristics of land surface heat and water exchange over the Loess Plateau mesa in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun; Wei, Zhigang; Lü, Shihua; Chen, Shiqiang; Ao, Yinhuan; Liang, Ling

    2007-03-01

    The Loess Plateau, located in northern China, has a significant impact on the climate and ecosystem evolvement over the East Asian continent. In this paper, the preliminary autumn daily characteristics of land surface energy and water exchange over the Chinese Loess Plateau mesa region are evaluated by using data collected during the Loess Plateau land-atmosphere interaction pilot experiment (LOPEX04), which was conducted from 25 August to 12 September 2004 near Pingliang city, Gansu Province of China. The experiment was carried out in a region with a typical landscape of the Chinese Loess Plateau, known as “loess mesa”. The experiment’s field land utilizations were cornfield and fallow farmland, with the fallow field later used for rotating winter wheat. The autumn daily characteristics of heat and water exchange evidently differed between the mesa cornfield and fallow, and the imbalance term of the surface energy was large. This is discussed in terms of sampling errors in the flux observations-footprint; energy storage terms of soil and vegetation layers; contribution from air advections; and low and high frequency loss of turbulent fluxes and instruments bias. Comparison of energy components between the mesa cornfield and the lowland cornfield did not reveal any obvious difference. Inadequacies of the field observation equipment and experimental design emerged during the study, and some new research topics have emerged from this pilot experiment for future investigation.

  15. National uranium resource evaluation: Mesa quaddrangle, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Luning, R.H.; Thiede, D.S.; O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; White, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mesa Quadrangle (2/sup 0/), Arizona, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 meters to identify geologic environments and delineate surface and subsurface areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The criteria used to define uranium favorability were developed during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaisance studies. The results of the investigations identified three favorable areas: older Precambrian quartz monzonite near Horseshoe Dam; the gray unit of the Dripping Spring quartzite of Precambrian age in the Sierra Ancha, Salt River Canyon, and Mescal Mountain regions; and Tertiary lake beds near Cave Creek, Horseshoe Dam, and northeastern Tonto Basin. Unfavorable environments include nearly all older Precambrian crystalline and metamorphic rocks, most younger Precambrian igneous and sedimentary rocks, parts of the Paleozoic section, igneous intrusives of Laramide age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, and late Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The eastern third of the quadrangle remains unevaluated because access was prohibited or could not be obtained in time. Environments were unevaluated in older Precambrian volcanic, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; the Naco and Supai Formations; Cretaceous sedimentary rocks; and many Tertiary sedimentary rocks in intermontane basins and within the southwestern portion of the quadrangle because of time constraints, land access restrictions, and sparsity of subsurface data.

  16. Extracting the MESA SR4000 calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charleston, Sean A.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Streeter, Lee; Cree, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    Time-of-flight range imaging cameras are capable of acquiring depth images of a scene. Some algorithms require these cameras to be run in `raw mode', where any calibrations from the off-the-shelf manufacturers are lost. The calibration of the MESA SR4000 is herein investigated, with an attempt to reconstruct the full calibration. Possession of the factory calibration enables calibrated data to be acquired and manipulated even in "raw mode." This work is motivated by the problem of motion correction, in which the calibration must be separated into component parts to be applied at different stages in the algorithm. There are also other applications, in which multiple frequencies are required, such as multipath interference correction. The other frequencies can be calibrated in a similar way, using the factory calibration as a base. A novel technique for capturing the calibration data is described; a retro-reflector is used on a moving platform, which acts as a point source at a distance, resulting in planar waves on the sensor. A number of calibrations are retrieved from the camera, and are then modelled and compared to the factory calibration. When comparing the factory calibration to both the "raw mode" data, and the calibration described herein, a root mean squared error improvement of 51:3mm was seen, with a standard deviation improvement of 34:9mm.

  17. MESA: Mercator scheduler and archive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, Florian; Prins, Saskia; Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Perez Padilla, Jesus; Van Winckel, Hans; Aerts, Conny

    2012-09-01

    We have developed an observing scheduling and archive system for the 1.2 meter Mercator Telescope. The goal was to optimize the specific niche of this modern small telescope in observational astrophysics: the building-up of long-term time series of photometric or high-resolution spectroscopic data with appropriate sampling for any given scientific program. This system allows PIs to easily submit their technical requirements and keep track of the progress of the observing programmes. The scheduling system provides the observer with an optimal schedule for the night which takes into account the current observing conditions as well as the priorities and requirements of the programmes in the queue. The observer can conveniently plan an observing night but also quickly adapt it to changing conditions. The archiving system automatically processes new files as they are created, including reduced data. It extracts the metadata and performs the normalization. A user can query, inspect and retrieve observing data. The progress of individual programmes, including timeline and reduced data plots can be seen at any time. Our MESA project is based on free and open source software (FOSS) using the Python programming language. The system is fully integrated with the Mercator Observing Control System1 (MOCS).

  18. Geology of the Anderson Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Anderson Mesa quadrangle is one of the eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteenth quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quarternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-tending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive slat and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists of largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  19. Geology of the Davis Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Bryner, Leonid

    1953-01-01

    The Davis Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  20. A computationally efficient Multicomponent Equilibrium Solver for Aerosols (MESA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Peters, Leonard K.

    2005-12-01

    Development and application of a new Multicomponent Equilibrium Solver for Aerosols (MESA) is described for systems containing H+, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, SO42-, HSO4-, NO3-, and Cl- ions. The equilibrium solution is obtained by integrating a set of pseudo-transient ordinary differential equations describing the precipitation and dissolution reactions for all the possible salts to steady state. A comprehensive temperature dependent mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) parameterization is developed for all the possible salt mixtures, thereby eliminating the need for a rigorous numerical solution when ambient RH is less than MDRH(T). The solver is unconditionally stable, mass conserving, and shows robust convergence. Performance of MESA was evaluated against the Web-based AIM Model III, which served as a benchmark for accuracy, and the EQUISOLV II solver for speed. Important differences in the convergence and thermodynamic errors in MESA and EQUISOLV II are discussed. The average ratios of speeds of MESA over EQUISOLV II ranged between 1.4 and 5.8, with minimum and maximum ratios of 0.6 and 17, respectively. Because MESA directly diagnoses MDRH, it is significantly more efficient when RH < MDRH. MESA's superior performance is partially due to its "hard-wired" code for the present system as opposed to EQUISOLV II, which has a more generalized structure for solving any number and type of reactions at temperatures down to 190 K. These considerations suggest that MESA is highly attractive for use in 3-D aerosol/air-quality models for lower tropospheric applications (T > 240 K) in which both accuracy and computational efficiency are critical.

  1. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  2. Aeromagnetic map of the Arnold Mesa Roadless Area, Yavapai County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Willard E.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    1983-01-01

    The Arnold Mesa Roadless Area is within the transition zone between the Colorado Plateaus to the northeast and the Basin and Range province to the southwest. The transition zone is a belt about 701 miles (120 km) wide that extends diagonally from northwest to south east across central Arizona and parallels the topographic margin of the plateaus. The study area is underlain by Precambrian rocks and gently dipping Paleozoic strata that are largely covered by basaltic lavas and pyroclastic deposits of Miocene age ( McKee and Anderson, 1971). Dacite breccia and tuff are locally interbedded with the basaltic rocks. Sedimentary deposits of late Cenozoic age are dominant in the Verde Valley from about Chasm Creek north; they accumulated in a depositional basin bounded on the west by the Verde fault.

  3. A Computationally Efficient Multicomponent Equilibrium Solver for Aerosols (MESA)

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Peters, Len K.

    2005-12-23

    This paper describes the development and application of a new multicomponent equilibrium solver for aerosol-phase (MESA) to predict the complex solid-liquid partitioning in atmospheric particles containing H+, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, SO4=, HSO4-, NO3-, and Cl- ions. The algorithm of MESA involves integrating the set of ordinary differential equations describing the transient precipitation and dissolution reactions for each salt until the system satisfies the equilibrium or mass convergence criteria. Arbitrary values are chosen for the dissolution and precipitation rate constants such that their ratio is equal to the equilibrium constant. Numerically, this approach is equivalent to iterating all the equilibrium reactions simultaneously with a single iteration loop. Because CaSO4 is sparingly soluble, it is assumed to exist as a solid over the entire RH range to simplify the algorithm for calcium containing particles. Temperature-dependent mutual deliquescence relative humidity polynomials (valid from 240 to 310 K) for all the possible salt mixtures were constructed using the comprehensive Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg (PSC) activity coefficient model at 298.15 K and temperature-dependent equilibrium constants in MESA. Performance of MESA is evaluated for 16 representative mixed-electrolyte systems commonly found in tropospheric aerosols using PSC and two other multicomponent activity coefficient methods – Multicomponent Taylor Expansion Method (MTEM) of Zaveri et al. [2004], and the widely-used Kusik and Meissner method (KM), and the results are compared against the predictions of the Web-based AIM Model III or available experimental data. Excellent agreement was found between AIM, MESA-PSC, and MESA-MTEM predictions of the multistage deliquescence growth as a function of RH. On the other hand, MESA-KM displayed up to 20% deviations in the mass growth factors for common salt mixtures in the sulfate-poor cases while significant discrepancies were found in the predicted multistage

  4. Dependence of aerosol scattering coefficients on relative humidity observed at two coastal sites on the East China Sea: Comparison to remote observations and influence of chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Taketani, F.; Irie, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Xiaole, P.; Takami, A.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We employed an integrating nephelometer equipped with a humidifier (where the relative humidity (RH) was scanned between 40 and 90%) to measure the aerosol scattering coefficients and their dependence on RH at Fukue Island (32.75N, 128.68E), west of Japan, in May 2009 and at Rudong, Jiangsu, China (32.26N, 121.37E) in May/June 2010, aiming at better characterization of optical properties of the regional-scale aerosol pollution over East Asia. The two coastal sites are located east and west of the East China Sea and are separated by about 700 km. The observed scattering coefficients are normalized by the concurrently measured PM2.5 mass concentrations and thereby behaviors of the mass scattering coefficients are discussed. At Fukue, the mass scattering coefficients under the ambient RH conditions were >1.5 times higher than those observed under the dry condition (RH = 40%), suggesting that the RH effect was crucial in determining optical properties under ambient conditions. The coefficients under the ambient RH conditions, rather than the dry values, agreed better with the extinction coefficients determined by MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique based on remote measurements of O4 optical depths. The single-scattering albedo (SSA), estimated in combination to the absorption coefficients determined by a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) instrument, had similar average values (~0.95) at the two sites. The SSA values at the two sites were commonly lowered (to below 0.90) when the air traveled from the North China Plain region. At Fukue, the RH dependence was found to be weakened when the organics/sulfate ratio increased (as observed by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer), while such influence of chemical composition was less clear at Rudong, possibly masked by large temporal variations in the particle size distributions.

  5. Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill to the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation and surrounding areas, southeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    collected from Entrance Spring also contained elevated concentrations of selenium and vanadium. Sediment samples collected from three ephemeral drainages east of the uranium mill site (including Entrance Spring) contained uranium concentrations exceeding background values downwind of the predominant wind directions at the site. Sediment samples collected from ephemeral drainages on the south and west boundaries of the uranium mill site generally did not exceed background-uranium concentrations. Elevated concentrations of uranium and vanadium, indicating offsite transport, were found in plant tissue samples collected north-northeast, east, and south of the mill site, downwind of 2 Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill the predominant wind directions at the site. The uranium and vanadium concentrations in plant tissue samples collected west of the uranium mill site were low. On the basis of the study results, consideration should be given to future monitoring programs in areas surrounding the uranium mill site to address current and future environmental concerns. These potential monitoring programs should consider (1) quarterly monitoring of major- and trace-element concentrations in selected springs and wells; (2) annual monitoring of Entrance Spring for uranium isotopes, delta sulfur-34sulfate, delta oxygen-18, and delta deuterium; (3) annual monitoring of background water quality at selected spring and monitoring well sites; (4) periodic sampling and chemical analyses of sagebrush in areas east of the uranium mill site coupled with off-site fugitive dust monitoring; (5) installation of a new monitoring well upgradient from the East and West wells; (6) the addition of non-routine chemical constituents to ongoing monitoring programs within the uranium mill site that could provide additional insight(s) into potential contaminant sources and processes; and (7) archiving future monitoring data into a maintained

  6. National Wind Technology Center Site Environmental Assessment: Bird and Bat Use and Fatalities -- Final Report; Period of Performance: April 23, 2001 -- December 31, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.; Piaggio, A. J.; Bock, C. E.; Armstrong, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain actual and potential impacts of wind turbines on populations of birds and bats at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in northern Jefferson County, Colorado. The NWTC, which is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is located on a mesa dominated by ungrazed grassland with isolated patches of ponderosa pine. Similar lands to the north and west are part of the city of Boulders open space system. Areas to the east and south are part of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

  7. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Microcomputer Evaluation Screening and Assessment (MESA) Interest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janikowski, Timothy P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined construct validity of Microcomputer Evaluation Screening and Assessment (MESA) Interest Survey. Administered MESA and United States Employment Service (USES) Interest Inventory to 74 volunteer rehabilitation clients. Evidence supported convergent and discriminant validity of MESA. Found fewer significant intercorrelations among MESA…

  8. Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  9. Modeling edge effects of mesa diodes for silicon photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Jesse S.

    A mesa diode has been modeled and its performance under dark and illuminated conditions has been simulated using a commercial finite element software package. These simulations have led to a determination of the self-consistent solution to the continuity equations for electrons and holes using the steady-state drift-diffusion model for carrier dynamics coupled with electric potential determined from Poisson's equation. The purpose of these simulations has been to determine the influence of edge conditions on the overall performance of mesa diodes under dark and illuminated conditions. Mesa diode arrays are fabricated on crystalline silicon solar cells. They are an array of small area solar cells that are electrically isolated from one another. They can be probed to spatially measure the current density vs. voltage curves under dark and illuminated conditions. The underlying models of bulk and surface recombination mechanisms have been well established for crystalline silicon based semiconductor devices such as the mesa diode. However, the combination of these phenomena that occur during the simulation of the operation of the mesa diode results in a unique edge effect that can significantly change the overall performance of the mesa diode. In particular, the simulations performed show that the space charge region becomes extended along the vertical edge of the mesa diode due to the fixed positive surface charge. At the intersection of the vertical edge and step, a strong electric field is produced because it has a small convex radius of curvature. Depending on the sharpness of this intersection, the entire device can become significantly shunted. Simulations have been performed with a sharp corner and a smooth curve at the intersection of the vertical edge and the step. The use of a smooth curved transition results in significantly lower dark current density vs. voltage and a greater open circuit voltage and fill factor under illumination. Yet, even with a curved

  10. Two-dimensional velocity models for paths from Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, M.C.; Phillips, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    Vertical acceleration recordings of 21 underground nuclear explosions recorded at stations at Yucca Mountain provide the data for development of three two-dimensional crystal velocity profiles for portions of the Nevada Test Site. Paths from Area 19, Area 20 (both Pahute Mesa), and Yucca Flat to Yucca Mountain have been modeled using asymptotic ray theory travel time and synthetic seismogram techniques. Significant travel time differences exist between the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa source areas; relative amplitude patterns at Yucca Mountain also shift with changing source azimuth. The three models, UNEPM1, UNEPM2, and UNEYF1, successfully predict the travel time and amplitude data for all three paths. 24 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. Varying depositional environments across the Oligocene-Miocene boundary and their relevance for East Antarctic ice sheet history: IODP Site U1356, Wilkes Land margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabarnada, Ariadna; Escutia, Carlota; Nelson, Hans; Damuth, John E.; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    IODP Expedition 318 drilled seven sites in two transects across the Wilkes Land (WL) margin of Antarctica. The objective was to obtain a long-term record of the Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation in response to climatic changes, including major transitions. Our work focuses on the study of nearly 300 meters of Oligocene-early Miocene sediments from Site 1356 (cores 42R to 72R) located on a channel levee in the lower continental rise. Shipboard core descriptions reported these sediments to consist of strongly bioturbated claystone and calcareous claystone with Zoophycos or Nereites ichnofacies. Subordinate lithofacies include: 1) laminated silty claystones, 2) convoluted claystones, sandstones and conglomerates; 3) mudstones and sandstones, with a few dispersed to common clasts; and 4) graded or cross-laminated siltstones and sandstones. Based on our study of facies associations in the cores, we differentiate 3 major sedimentary phases, representing important changes in the depositional environments off the WL margin. During the early-late Oligocene, sediments record deposition in a deep-water setting, with bottom currents reworking hemipelagic sediments. Late Oligocene sedimentary processes are dominated by successive fine- to coarse-grained debris-flow mass transport deposits. In the early Miocene, turbidites and hemipelagic sedimentation, characteristic of levee deposition, dominate. With this interpretation of sedimentary environments, plus the correlation between Site U1356 and seismic reflection profiles at the site and vicinity, we can begin to link the relation between along-slope and down-slope processes to the evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  13. 76 FR 51461 - Notice of Release From Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant Assurance Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Obligations for Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport, Mesa, AZ AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION... airport property at Phoenix-Mesa Gateway, Mesa, Arizona, from all conditions contained in the Quitclaim... FAA must be mailed or delivered to Mr. Walter Fix, Phoenix-Gateway Airport Authority, 5835 S....

  14. Black Mesa Community School: Ten Years Later. A Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Mesa Community School Board, Inc., Chinle, AZ.

    The Black Mesa Community School, serving elementary school children in an isolated district of the Arizona Navajo reservation, represents the first step in Indian self-determination for area Navajos. The school is the result of community efforts begun in 1972 with a petition to operate a full-time school program for grades K-4 at Kitsilee.…

  15. A Very High Order, Adaptable MESA Implementation for Aeroacoustic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dydson, Roger W.; Goodrich, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Since computational efficiency and wave resolution scale with accuracy, the ideal would be infinitely high accuracy for problems with widely varying wavelength scales. Currently, many of the computational aeroacoustics methods are limited to 4th order accurate Runge-Kutta methods in time which limits their resolution and efficiency. However, a new procedure for implementing the Modified Expansion Solution Approximation (MESA) schemes, based upon Hermitian divided differences, is presented which extends the effective accuracy of the MESA schemes to 57th order in space and time when using 128 bit floating point precision. This new approach has the advantages of reducing round-off error, being easy to program. and is more computationally efficient when compared to previous approaches. Its accuracy is limited only by the floating point hardware. The advantages of this new approach are demonstrated by solving the linearized Euler equations in an open bi-periodic domain. A 500th order MESA scheme can now be created in seconds, making these schemes ideally suited for the next generation of high performance 256-bit (double quadruple) or higher precision computers. This ease of creation makes it possible to adapt the algorithm to the mesh in time instead of its converse: this is ideal for resolving varying wavelength scales which occur in noise generation simulations. And finally, the sources of round-off error which effect the very high order methods are examined and remedies provided that effectively increase the accuracy of the MESA schemes while using current computer technology.

  16. M.A.P.S.: Mesa Action Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Elizabeth J. Hunt

    This report describes implementation of a districtwide planning model in the Mesa, Arizona, Public Schools. Figures illustrate planning processes throughout the report. Intended as an implementive framework, the planning system's purposes are to assist decision making about resource allocation, program direction, progress measurement, and district…

  17. Delivering Education for Sustainable Development through the MESA Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuigwe, Akpezi

    2008-01-01

    Mainstreaming Environment and Sustainability in African Universities Partnership (MESA) is a programme which grew out of the coming together, in 2004, of a number of African universities met with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UNESCO and several African regional environment and education projects to assess the status of…

  18. Groundwater, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.

    2009-01-01

    .2 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at two springs in 2008. Flow decreased at both Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring from previous years. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2007), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2007), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2007), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (August 2004 to 2007). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater. The period of record is too short to determine if there is a trend at Pasture Canyon Spring. In 2008, water samples collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents and the results compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 6 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no trend in those data.

  19. Assessment of the governance system for the management of the East Sea-Jung dumping site, Korea through analysis of heavy metal concentrations in bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ki-Hoon; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Chang-Joon; Kim, Young-Il; Chung, Chang-Soo

    2015-12-01

    As with many countries, the Korea government has made a variety of efforts to meet the precautionary principle under the London Convention and Protocol acceded in 1994 and 2009. However, new strategies for the suitable marine dumping of waste materials have since been developed. In this study, the distribution and contamination of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Li, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb and Hg in bottom sediments were analyzed and compared to various criteria in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the management of the East Sea-Jung (ES-Jung) dumping site by the Korea government. The results indicate that the average metal concentrations were significantly lower than Effects Range Low (ERL) values, and generally similar to or lower than the Threshold Effect Levels (TEL) from the Sediment Quality Guidelinces (SQGs). According to analyses of various metal contamination indexes (Enrichment Factor: EF, Pollution Load Index: PLI and the Index of Geoaccumulation: Igeo), most areas were found to be uncontaminated by heavy metals with the exception of several moderately contaminated stations (ESJ 33, 54, 64 and ESJR 20). Heavy metal concentrations in areas grouped as G1, G2, DMDA, N-Ref and S-Ref which showed similar characteristics between 2007-2013 and 2014, were compared. Unexpectedly, most concentrations in the northern reference area (N-Ref) were much higher than those in the actual dumping areas (G1 and G2), may be due to the influences from nearby cities to the west of the ES-Jung site, rather than from the dumping site itself. Additionally, heavy metal concentrations in the dredged material dumping area (DMDA) were found to be low although they have slightly increased over time and those in the southern reference area (S-Ref) were found to have gradually decreased with year. The concentrations of most metals in the East Sea-Jung dumping site were similar to or less than those in the Earth's crust and approximately the same as those in continental

  20. Paleomagnetism on the Quaternary marine sediment at the DH-1 long-core site in the Korean continental margin of the East Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Lee, Byungju

    2014-05-01

    A long core of 23.6 m was acquired in the Korean continental margin of the western East Sea. The core site of the DH-1 is located in the offshore of the Donghae City and the water depth is 357.8 m deep. In this area, the paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy were firstly reported using 420 samples collected from the long-core sediments. Based on the inclination distribution of the depositional remanent magnetization, the DH-1 core could be divided into two upper and lower units at the boundary of 1750 cm below seafloor. The upper unit is characterized by a positive polarity, whereas the lower unit by a negative polarity. The boundary of the upper and lower units was interpreted as the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (778 ka). The chemical components of tephra layer at 2014 cm below seafloor belong to alkaline series, plotted between the tephra components of the Mount Baekdu and Ulleung Island. Key words: magnetostratigraphy, Brunhes-Matuyama boundary, tephra, East Sea Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0025733) and by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy through the grant of Marine Geology and Geophysical Mapping Project (GP2010-013).

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J. W.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  2. Using Bayesian optimization method and FLEXPART dispersion model to evaluate CO emission in East China based on three-year measurements at high altitude mountain site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaole, P.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid economic growth and energy consumption in East China has resulted in serious regional-scale and trans-boundary air pollutions. Variation of carbon monoxide (CO) is of great interest as a restriction factor for pollutants related with incomplete combustion processes. This study attempted to evaluate CO emission in East China using analytical inverse modeling and nearly three-year measurements (2005-2007) at Mt. Huashan (34°28'52"N, 110°04'36"E, a.s.l.1577 m). Inversion methodology combined FLEXPART_WRF (Version 6.2) with Bayesian optimization iterative algorithm. Regarding calculations, five days backward simulations of air mass movement were used to determine the Source-Receptor Relationship (SRR) between emissions at the source regions and observation at receptor. And then SRR, a priori CO emission (INTEX-B) and corresponding uncertainties (70%) were fed into inversion algorithm to optimize the CO emission by minimizing the mismatch between simulated and observed CO concentrations. To reduce the number of unknowns (a posterior), we used variable-resolution grid setting with high spatial resolution in the vicinity of observation site and coarse resolution for the regions some distance away due to decrease of SRR values. Inversion result showed that simulation of CO mixing ratio with the a posterior information was evidently improved, reducing root-mean square (RMS) of differences between observation and simulation by 30%. A posterior indicated that CO emission in East China was probably 10%, 25% and 6% of underestimated by emission inventory for spring, autumn and winter time. Spatial distribution of a posterior indicated that North China Plain (30°N-40°N, 110°E-120°E) significantly accounted for the total increase of CO emission in the East China; Nevertheless, the CO emission from South China region (20°N-30°N, 100°E-120°E) might be overestimated ~10% annually. Uncertainties analysis with repeated random samplings approach demonstrated that

  3. A Hydrostratigraphic Model of the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley Area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Drellack, Jr.; L. B. Prothro; J. L. Gonzales

    2001-12-01

    A 3-D hydrostratigraphic framework model has been built for the use of hydrologic modelers who are tasked with developing a model to determine how contaminants are transported by groundwater flow in an area of complex geology. The area of interest includes Pahute Mesa, a former nuclear testing area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and Oasis Valley, a groundwater discharge area down-gradient from contaminant source areas on Pahute Mesa. To build the framework model, the NTS hydrogeologic framework was integrated with an extensive collection of drill-hole data (stratigraphic, lithologic, and alteration data); a structural model; and several recent geophysical, geological, and hydrological studies to formulate a hydrostratigraphic system. The authors organized the Tertiary volcanic units in the study area into 40 hydrostratigraphic units that include 16 aquifers, 13 confining units, and 11 composite units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks were divided into six hydrostratigraphic units, including two aquifers and four confining units. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with all the major structural features that control them, including calderas and faults. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to address alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Six of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model.

  4. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona - 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    once in 2006 and once in 2007 at Moenkopi School Spring. Flow decreased by 18.9 percent at Moenkopi School Spring. During the period of record, flow fluctuated, and a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi (1976 to 2006), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs (1993 to 2006), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa (1994 to 2006), and Pasture Canyon Springs (August 2004 to December 2006). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained even, showing neither a significant increase nor decrease in flows. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring for a trend to be apparent. In 2007, water samples were collected from 1 well and 1 spring in the Black Mesa area and were analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at Peabody well 5 for the period of record, and there is an apparent increasing trend. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record.

  5. Near-surface characterization of a geotechnical site in north-east Missouri using shear-wave velocity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ismail, A.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) as a function of soil stiffness is an essential parameter in geotechnical characterization of the subsurface. In this study, multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and downhole methods were used to map the shear-wave velocity-structure and depth to the bed-rock surface at a 125m ?? 125m geotechnical site in Missouri. The main objective was to assess the suitability of the site for constructing a large, heavy building. The acquired multichannel surface wave data were inverted to provide 1D shear-wave velocity profile corresponding to each shot gather. These 1D velocity profiles were interpolated and contoured to generate a suite of 2D shear-wave velocity sections. Integrating the shear-wave velocity data from the MASW method with the downhole velocity data and the available borehole lithologic information enabled us to map shear-wave velocity-structure to a depth on the order of 20m. The bedrock surface, which is dissected by a significant cut-and-fill valley, was imaged. The results suggest that the study site will require special consideration prior to construction. The results also demonstrate the successful use of MASW methods, when integrated with downhole velocity measurements and borehole lithologic information, in the characterization of the near surface at the geotechnical sites. ?? 2007 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  6. Selection of astrophysical/astronomical/solar sites at the Argentina East Andes range taking into account atmospheric components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, R. D.; García, B.; Micheletti, M. I.; Salum, G.; Freire, M.; Maya, J.; Mancilla, A.; Crinó, E.; Mandat, D.; Pech, M.; Bulik, T.

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we analyze sites in the Argentinian high Andes mountains as possible places for astrophysical/astronomical/solar observatories. They are located at: San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) and El Leoncito/CASLEO region: sites 1 and 2. We consider the following atmospheric components that affect, in different and specific wavelength ranges, the detection of photons of astronomical/astrophysical/solar origin: ozone, microscopic particles, precipitable water and clouds. We also determined the atmospheric radiative transmittance in a day near the summer solstice at noon, in order to confirm the clearness of the sky in the proposed sites at SAC and El Leoncito. Consequently, all the collected and analyzed data in the present work, indicate that the proposed sites are very promising to host astrophysical/astronomical/solar observatories. Some atmospheric components, like aerosols, play a significant role in the attenuation of light (Cherencov and/or fluorescence) detected in cosmic rays (particles or gamma photons) astrophysical observatories, while others, like ozone have to be considered in astronomical/solar light detection.

  7. Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: New evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, U. S. east coast

    SciTech Connect

    Poag, C.W.; Poppe, L.J.; Folger, D.W. ); Powars, D.S.; Mixon, R.B.; Edwards, L.E. ); Bruce, S. )

    1992-09-01

    A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15,000 km[sup 2] beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils from the same seven stratigraphic units, along with trace quantities of impact ejecta (tektite glass and shocked quartz). The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalence to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612 (New Jersey continental slope), the authors postulate that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. The most promising candidate for the bolide impact site (identified on seismic reflection profiles) is 40 km north-northwest of DSDP Site 612 on the New Jersey outer continental shelf.

  8. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site.

  9. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  10. Impacts of sea-level change on human activity at the early Neolithic forager/cultivator site, Kuahuqiao on the east coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Yongqiang; Innes, James; Chen, Zhongyuan; Chen, Chun; Wang, Zhanghua; Wang, Hui

    2010-05-01

    The date and location of the adoption of rice cultivation by foraging cultures in China is of considerable current interest but its understanding is hampered by a lack of information regarding its palaeoenvironmental context. We present detailed multi-proxy palaeoecological research at the earliest-dated site of rice cultivation in the coastal area of east China which has revealed the precise environmental setting of this early Neolithic settlement and its incipient cultivation at c. 7750 cal. BP. Regional and local environmental changes governed the character of the site and the duration of human activity. The rise in relative sea level up to 8000 cal. BP prompted the development of coastal wetland environments at the head of the Hangzhou Bay. A short period of stable sea level allowed natural hydrological succession and terrestrialisation of the site changing from a brackish/freshwater lake to a freshwater marsh/alder carr, which attracted Neolithic foragers to settle and take advantage of the plentiful food resources present in the wetland, wild rice in particular. After a fire clearance of an alder scrub that prepared the ground for settlement, the Kuahuqiao people maintained a reedswamp-type wet grassland in which rice was grown. As relative sea level rose again around 7600-7500 cal. BP, artificial bunding was used to retain nutrient rich water and prevent tidal flooding to provide rice with the consistent water regime it requires. Such bunding resulted in blockage of water which promoted the growth of aquatic plants such as Cattail. Cropping of Cattail stands may have formed part of the subsistence base. Thesite was overwhelmed by marine inundation around 7400-7200 cal. BP as relative sea level rose rapidly for a couple of meters, after which rice cultivation spread to Neolithic sites of Hemudu type elsewhere in the coastal lowlands.

  11. Water resources of the Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freckleton, John R.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Ysabel (consisting of three tracts) and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations are in north-central San Diego County, Calif. On both reservations fractured and weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks and alluvium are water bearing; however, no wells are known to derive their water entirely from alluvium. Well yields range from 2.5 to 250 gallons per minute. Springs occur where saturated fractured or weathered material intersects the land surface. Spring discharge ranged from 0 gallon per minute (November 1979) to 9.4 gallons per minute (November 1979). Few data are available for the surface water characteristics of the study area. One-time measurements of discharge at selected stream sites were made in late November 1979 and late May 1980; discharges ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to an estimated 3 cubic feet per second. Further study of the surface-water systems would provide a basis for estimating their development potential. The existing water-supply development on the Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation is adequate for the present residents. The Mesa Grande reservation was unoccupied in 1952, was reportedly unoccupied in November 1979, and has no developed water supply. Additional water can be developed for both reservations from the igneous and metamorphic rock, from presently undeveloped springs, and from perennial reaches of the larger streams. Except for excessive iron and sodium at some ground-water sites and excessive sodium at a few surface-water sites, the water is of suitable quality for domestic and agricultural use. (USGS)

  12. Temporary camps at drill hole U19aq on Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.; Reno, R.L.; Henton, G.H.; Hemphill, M.; Lockett, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office, has proposed a nuclear test at drill hole U19aq (902100N/585000E, Nevada Coordinate System, Central Zone) on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, the DOE/NV had the Quatenary Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, identify and evaluate the potential effects of this activity on cultural resources. To determine the nature of cultural resources in the area, DRI conducted a Class III intensive archaeological survey of an approximately 1-km[sup 2] area around the drill hole. That survey, conducted in June 1985, located and recorded 20 archaeological sites. Two of those sites, interpreted as temporary camps of ancient hunters and gatherers, covered an extensive portion of the area proposed for nuclear testing. Half the sites were small concentrations of artifacts or isolated artifacts and were collected at the time of their discovery and 10 sites were left in place. Those sites were in danger of being adversely affected by the land-disturbing activities proposed at the drill hole. In August and September 1985, DRI conducted limited test excavations (15 test units) at those sites to further evaluate their scientific significance and to provide information that could be used in designing a plan for data recovery.

  13. Temporary camps at drill hole U19aq on Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.; Reno, R.L.; Henton, G.H.; Hemphill, M.; Lockett, C.L.

    1992-12-31

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office, has proposed a nuclear test at drill hole U19aq (902100N/585000E, Nevada Coordinate System, Central Zone) on Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. In compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, the DOE/NV had the Quatenary Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, identify and evaluate the potential effects of this activity on cultural resources. To determine the nature of cultural resources in the area, DRI conducted a Class III intensive archaeological survey of an approximately 1-km{sup 2} area around the drill hole. That survey, conducted in June 1985, located and recorded 20 archaeological sites. Two of those sites, interpreted as temporary camps of ancient hunters and gatherers, covered an extensive portion of the area proposed for nuclear testing. Half the sites were small concentrations of artifacts or isolated artifacts and were collected at the time of their discovery and 10 sites were left in place. Those sites were in danger of being adversely affected by the land-disturbing activities proposed at the drill hole. In August and September 1985, DRI conducted limited test excavations (15 test units) at those sites to further evaluate their scientific significance and to provide information that could be used in designing a plan for data recovery.

  14. Ambient resonance of Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Alison M.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Thorne, Michael S.

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the resonance characteristics of a prominent natural arch in Canyonlands National Park, Mesa Arch, as measured from ambient seismic data. Evaluating spectral and polarization attributes, we distinguished the first four resonant frequencies of the arch, 2.9, 6.0, 6.9, and 8.5 Hz, as well as basic properties of the associated mode shapes. We then affirmed experimental data using 3-D numerical modal analysis, providing estimates of material properties and clarifying vibrational mode shapes. Monitoring resonant frequencies over time, we searched for shifts associated with changing environmental conditions and long-term progressive damage. We measured ~3% direct daily variation in resonant frequency associated with changing rock temperature, thermal stress, and stiffening of the rock matrix. Independent tilt data showed similar diurnal cycles associated with thermoelastic stresses and deformation of the arch. We observed no permanent resonant frequency shifts related to irreversible damage of Mesa Arch during our study period.

  15. Temporal trajectories of wet deposition across hydro-climatic regimes: Role of urbanization and regulations at U.S. and East Asia sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeryang; Gall, Heather E.; Niyogi, Dev; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2013-05-01

    Dominant global patterns of urbanization and industrialization contribute to large-scale modification of the drivers for hydrologic and biogeochemical processes, as evident in Asia, Africa, and South America which are experiencing rapid population and economic growth. One manifestation of urbanization and economic development is decreases in air quality, increases in dry/wet deposition fluxes, and growing adverse impacts on public health and ecosystem integrity. We examined available long-term (1980-2010) observational data, gathered at weekly intervals, for wet deposition at 19 urban sites in the U.S., and monitoring data (2000-2009) available for 17 urban sites at a monthly scale in East Asia. Our analyses are based on data for four constituents (SO42-, NO3-, Ca2+, and Mg2+); differences in atmospheric chemistry and terrestrial sources of these constituents enabled a robust comparative analysis. We examined intra-annual variability and the long-term temporal trajectories of wet deposition fluxes to discern the relative role of anthropogenic and stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. Here, we show that: (1) temporal variability in wet deposition fluxes follows an exponential probability density function at all sites, evidence that stochasticity of rainfall is the dominant control of wet deposition variability; (2) the mean wet deposition flux, μΩ (ML-2T-1), has decreased in the U.S. over time since enactment of the Clean Air Act, with μΩ having become homogenized across varying hydro-climatic regimes; and (3) in contrast, μΩ values for East Asian cities are 3-10 times higher than U.S. cities, attributed to lax regulatory enforcement. Based on the observed patterns, we suggest a stochastic model that generates ellipses within which the μΩ temporal trajectories are inscribed. In the U.S., anthropogenic forcing (regulations) is dominant in the humid regions, while variability in hydro-climatic forcing explains inter-annual variability in arid regions. Our

  16. 37. PRATER CANYON AND CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP SITE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PRATER CANYON AND CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP SITE FROM PRATER GRADE, FACING E. SAME CAMERA LOCATION AS No. 35 AND No. 36. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  17. Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 612 bolide event: new evidence of a late Eocene impact-wave deposit and a possible impact site, US east coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    A remarkable >60-m-thick, upward-fining, polymictic, marine boulder bed is distributed over >15 000 km2 beneath Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf. The wide varieties of clast lithologies and microfossil assemblages were derived from at least seven known Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic units. The supporting pebbly matrix contains variably mixed assemblages of microfossils along with trace quantities of impact ejecta. The youngest microfossils in the boulder bed are of early-late Eocene age. On the basis of its unusual characteristics and its stratigraphic equivalent to a layer of impact ejecta at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 612. It is postulated that this boulder bed was formed by a powerful bolide-generated wave train that scoured the ancient inner shelf and coastal plain of southeastern Virginia. -from Authors

  18. Initiation and growth of mesa corrosion attack during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nyborg, R.

    1998-12-31

    The initiation and development of mesa corrosion attack during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel has been studied in flow loop experiments performed at 80 C and pH 5.8. Video recordings of growing mesa attacks have been performed in a test section with a glass window in the corrosion loop. These observations have shown that the mesa attack can grow both laterally and in depth below a lid of original corrosion film before the film is torn away stepwise by the flow. Possible mechanisms for initiation of mesa corrosion attack are discussed based on the observations from the video recordings. Mesa attacks can result from several small local attacks growing together into one large mesa attack.

  19. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation.

  20. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation. PMID:25939758

  1. Completion Report for Well ER-12-3. Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in March and April 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of central Rainier Mesa, especially in the older Tertiary volcanic rocks and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The main 47.0-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 799.2 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 743.1 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to a total depth of 1,496.0 meters. The completion string consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless steel casing, with two slotted intervals open to the lower carbonate aquifer, suspended from 19.37-centimeter carbon steel casing. A piezometer string was installed outside the 33.97-centimeter casing to a depth of 467.1 meters to monitor a zone of perched water within the Tertiary volcanic section. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 35 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 674.2 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 821.7 meters of Paleozoic dolomite and limestone. Forty-nine days after the well was completed, but prior to well development and testing, the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 949.1 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 379.9 meters.

  2. 40Ar 39Ar age constraints on neogene sedimentary beds, Upper Ramparts, half-way Pillar and Canyon village sites, Porcupine river, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, M.J.; Rieck, H.; Fouch, T.D.; Carter, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    40Ar 39Ar ages of volcanic rocks are used to provide numerical constraints on the age of middle and upper Miocene sedimentary strata collected along the Porcupine River. Intercalated sedimentary rocks north of latitude 67??10???N in the Porcupine terrane of east-central Alaska contain a rich record of plant fossils. The fossils are valuable indicators of this interior region's paleoclimate during the time of their deposition. Integration of the 40Ar 39Ar results with paleomagnetic and sedimentological data allows for refinements in estimating the timing of deposition and duration of selected sedimentary intervals. 40Ar 39Ar plateau age spectra, from whole rock basalt samples, collected along the Upper Ramparts and near Half-way Pillar on the Porcupine River, range from 15.7 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-6 to 14.4 ?? 0.1 Ma at site 90-2. With exception of the youngest basalt flow at site 90-2, all of the samples are of reversed magnetic polarity, and all 40Ar 39Ar age spectrum results are consistent with the deposition of the entire stratigraphic section during a single interval of reversed magnetic polarity. The youngest flow at site 90-2 was emplaced during an interval of normal polarity. With age, paleomagnetic and sedimentological data, the ages of the Middle Miocene sedimentary rocks between the basalt flows at sites 90-1 and 90-2 can be assigned to an interval within the limits of analytical precision of 15.2 ?? 0.1 Ma; thus, the sediments were deposited during the peak of the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. Sediments in the upper parts of sites 90-1 and 90-2 were probably deposited during cooling from the Middle Miocene thermal maximum. 40Ar 39Ar results of plagioclase and biotite from a single tephra, collected at sites 90-7 and 90-8 along the Canyon Village section of the Porcupine River, indicate an age of 6.57 ?? 0.02 Ma for its time of eruption and deposition. These results, together with sedimentological and paleomagnetic data, suggest that all of the Upper

  3. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  4. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, S.; Nakayama, T.; Taketani, F.; Adachi, K.; Matsuki, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sadanaga, Y.; Matsumi, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory-BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a heater maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the heater and was found to be 22-23 %. The largest enhancements (> 30 %) were observed under high absorption coefficient conditions when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption coefficient events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with spherical sulfate or as clusters of sulfate spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 30 %) of BC light absorption, TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be embedded into the sulfate. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly-coated soot was

  5. Light absorption and morphological properties of soot-containing aerosols observed at an East Asian outflow site, Noto Peninsula, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Sayako; Nakayama, Tomoki; Taketani, Fumikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Yoko; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Matsumi, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    The coating of black carbon (BC) with inorganic salts and organic compounds can enhance the magnitude of light absorption by BC. To elucidate the enhancement of light absorption of aged BC particles and its relation to the mixing state and morphology of individual particles, we conducted observations of particles at an Asian outflow site in Noto Peninsula, Japan, in the spring of 2013. Absorption and scattering coefficients at 405, 532, and 781 nm and mass concentrations/mixing states of refractory BC in PM2.5 were measured using a three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), respectively, after passage through a thermodenuder (TD) maintained at 300 or 400 °C or a bypass line maintained at room temperature (25 °C). The average enhancement factor of BC light absorption due to coating was estimated by comparing absorption coefficients at 781 nm for particles that with and without passing through the TD at 300 °C and was found to be 1.22. The largest enhancements (> 1.30) were observed under high absorption coefficient periods when the air mass was long-range transported from urban areas in China. Aerosol samples were also analyzed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. The morphological features and mixing states of soot-containing particles of four samples collected during the high absorption events were analyzed by comparing microphotographs before and after the evaporation of beam-sensitive materials by irradiation with a high-density electron beam. The majority of the soot in all samples was found as mixed particles with sulfate-containing spherules or as clusters of such spherules. For samples showing high enhancement (> 1.30) of BC light absorption, the TEM showed that the internally mixed soot-containing particles tended to have a more spherical shape and to be thickly coated. The SP2 measurements also suggested that the proportion of thickly coated

  6. Magnetic Fabric Investigations of the Sapinero Mesa and Fish Canyon Tuffs, Northern Part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, C.; Martin, M.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Exposures of two laterally extensive ignimbrites in the northern part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) allow examination of the emplacement mechanisms of these pyroclastic deposits as a function of deposition on irregular preexisting topography using magnetic fabric techniques. The Sapinero Mesa Tuff (28.19 × 0.03 Ma) was erupted from the San Juan/Uncompahgre Caldera Complex and the Fish Canyon tuff (ca. 28.02 × 0.16 Ma) was erupted from the La Garita caldera. These ignimbrites are major components of the SRMVF and were emplaced on highly irregular paleotopography. The Sapinero Mesa Tuff was emplaced directly on the late Eocene West Elk Breccia near and west of the Blue Mesa reservoir and directly on Precambrian crystalline rocks south of the Blue Mesa reservoir. The Fish Canyon Tuff was emplaced directly on Precambrian crystalline rocks south and southwest of Gunnison. Our study of these two ignimbrites is concentrated in the northern part of the SRMVF and examines how these deposits were emplaced on different topographic features. To date, a total of 16 sites in the Fish Canyon and Sapinero Mesa tuffs have been collected and analyzed for determination of magnetic fabrics through measurements of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). These samples are currently being analyzed for measurements of anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Initial analyses indicate transport directions that generally coincide with the inferred regional north-northwest transport direction. Additional sampling includes a greater spatial extent and a more focused method of collection with an emphasis on localities chosen with careful consideration of relationships to paleotopographic features present during emplacement of the ignimbrites. Specifically, we have selected linear features of varying scales with strikes that vary significantly from the regional, inferred transport directions. Our work provides a means to compare regional inferred

  7. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Mesa Verde National Park were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Park. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Foliage sulfur concentrations differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and among trees within sites; however, needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, 17% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N, S, E, W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected.

  8. Final report of the Oak Ridge Task Force concerning public health impacts of the off-site contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek and other area streams

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.; Blaylock, B.G.; Daniels, K.L.; Gist, C.S.; Hoffman, F.O.; McElhaney, R.J.; Weber, C.W.

    1989-08-01

    As a result of operations associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a nearby creek, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), became contaminated with mercury and trace levels of other metals, organics and radionuclides. An interagency task force, identified as the Oak Ridge Task Force (ORTF) was organized to investigate the extent of off-site environmental contamination of EFPC and other area streams related to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and to determine if any immediate public health impacts might result from such contamination. Four study groups were established by the ORTF to supervise investigations of fisheries, groundwater, soils, surface water, sediment, and floodplains. A fifth study group was established to perform an evaluation of possible public health impacts. The DOE also authorized several organizations to collect and analyze samples and make field measurements needed by the Task Force. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was authorized to perform an instream contaminant study to determine the extent of contamination of surface water, sediment, fish, and floodplains. The US Geological Survey (USGS) was authorized to determine the extent of groundwater contaminant. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) was charged with determining the extent of contamination of the terrestrial foodchain which might be consumed by humans. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested to provide assistance in health impact assessments. 19 refs., 12 tabs.

  9. Revised Livermore seismic hazard estimates for sixty-nine nuclear power plant sites east of the Rocky Mountains. Final report, July 1993--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sobel, P.

    1994-04-01

    The draft version of this report presented updated Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis estimates for 69 nuclear power plant sites in the region of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. LLNL performed a re-elicitation of seismicity and ground motion experts to improve their estimates of uncertainty in seismicity parameters and ground motion models. Using these revised inputs, LLNL updated the seismic hazard estimates documented in NUREG/CR-5250 (1989). These updated hazard estimates will be used in future NRC actions. The draft was issued for public comment in October 1993. By the end of the public comment period, February 28, 1994, comments had been received from two nuclear industry companies. The comments from these companies neither contested nor suggested amendments to the technical data conveyed in the report. Rather, they both suggest changes in the Individual Plant External Event Examination (IPEEE) program scope. This report is not the forum for discussion of the IPEEE program. Possible modification to the scope of the IPEEE will be examined in its own setting. Therefore, there are no technical differences between the draft report and this final report. Any information as to modifications to the IPEEE program will be provided to the public via an NRC general communication.

  10. Shrinking and swelling clays under droughts: measurements at the Mormoiron test-site and first analyses (Vaucluse, South-East of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdier, Sébastien; Vandromme, Rosalie; Grandjean, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    In France, exceptional periods of rainfall deficit (1976, 1989 to 1991 and 1996 to 1997) have caused damages to houses due to their vulnerability to shrinking and swelling clays phenomenon. Between 1998 and 2010, BRGM has been producing a national hazard map related to shrinking and swelling clays, built by crossing geological data and information on density of damages for each geological formation (methodology developed since 1995). The intense drought of summer 2003 has pointed out the necessity of a better understanding of this phenomenon. At the request of the French Ministry of Environment, BRGM has developed a new method for measuring the moisture evolution with depth in order to study its impact on the swelling capacity of clayed soil. The site of Mormoiron (Vaucluse, South-East of France) has then been instrumented for that purpose, with moisture sensors (since December 2004) and extensometers (since March 2009) at different depths. These data have been used to test and improve existing empirical models which are supposed to assess settlements and swellings, depending on the soil water content. Compilations of different measurements have shown, after basic processing made on the data (filtering, resampling, etc.), evident correlations between rain and surface displacements. The model finally obtained gives quite good dependence between these two quantities for the uppermost soil layers (0.2m and 0.5m). More research are being undertaken to physically explain this relationship, particularly for deeper layers. These results should lead to propose a calibrated model for predicting soil deformations from climatic data.

  11. The Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP): a high-resolution drill core record from a hominin site in the East African Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommain, R.; Potts, R.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The East African rift valley contains an outstanding record of hominin fossils that document human evolution over the Plio-Pleistocene when the global and regional climate and the rift valley itself changed markedly. The sediments of fossil localities typically provide, however, only short time windows into past climatic and environmental conditions. Continuous, long-term terrestrial records are now becoming available through core drilling to help elucidate the paleoenvironmental context of human evolution. Here we present a 500,000 year long high-resolution drill core record obtained from a key fossil and archeological site - the Olorgesailie Basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, well known for its sequence of archeological and faunal sites for the past 1.2 million years. In 2012 two drill cores (54 and 166 m long) were collected in the Koora Plain just south of Mt. Olorgesailie as part of the Olorgesailie Drilling Project (ODP) to establish a detailed climate and ecological record associated with the last evidence of Homo erectus in Africa, the oldest transition of Acheulean to Middle Stone Age technology, and large mammal species turnover, all of which are documented in the Olorgesailie excavations. The cores were sampled at the National Lacustrine Core Facility. More than 140 samples of tephra and trachytic basement lavas have led to high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating. The cores are being analyzed for a suite of paleoclimatic and paleoecological proxies such as diatoms, pollen, fungal spores, phytoliths, ostracodes, carbonate isotopes, leaf wax biomarkers, charcoal, and clay mineralogy. Sedimentological analyses, including lithological descriptions, microscopic smear slide analysis (242 samples), and grain-size analysis, reveal a highly variable sedimentary sequence of deep lake phases with laminated sediments, diatomites, shallow lake and near shore phases, fluvial deposits, paleosols, interspersed carbonate layers, and abundant volcanic ash deposits. Magnetic

  12. TYBO/BENHAM: Model Analysis of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration from Underground Nuclear Tests in Southwestern Pahute Mesa, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Wolfsberg; Lee Glascoe; Guoping Lu; Alyssa Olson; Peter Lichtner; Maureen McGraw; Terry Cherry; Guy Roemer

    2002-09-01

    Recent field studies have led to the discovery of trace quantities of plutonium originating from the BENHAM underground nuclear test in two groundwater observation wells on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. These observation wells are located 1.3 km from the BENHAM underground nuclear test and approximately 300 m from the TYBO underground nuclear test. In addition to plutonium, several other conservative (e.g. tritium) and reactive (e.g. cesium) radionuclides were found in both observation wells. The highest radionuclide concentrations were found in a well sampling a welded tuff aquifer more than 500m above the BENHAM emplacement depth. These measurements have prompted additional investigations to ascertain the mechanisms, processes, and conditions affecting subsurface radionuclide transport in Pahute Mesa groundwater. This report describes an integrated modeling approach used to simulate groundwater flow, radionuclide source release, and radionuclide transport near the BENHAM and TYBO underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. The components of the model include a flow model at a scale large enough to encompass many wells for calibration, a source-term model capable of predicting radionuclide releases to aquifers following complex processes associated with nonisothermal flow and glass dissolution, and site-scale transport models that consider migration of solutes and colloids in fractured volcanic rock. Although multiple modeling components contribute to the methodology presented in this report, they are coupled and yield results consistent with laboratory and field observations. Additionally, sensitivity analyses are conducted to provide insight into the relative importance of uncertainty ranges in the transport parameters.

  13. Map showing ground-water conditions in the Bodaway Mesa area, Coconino County, Arizona; 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Bodaway Mesa area includes about 800 square miles in north-central Arizona, and most of the area is in the Navajo Indian Reservation. Ground-water development has been slight; in 1977 the estimated ground-water withdrawal was less than 5 acre-feet. The Chinle Formation is the principal aquifer tapped by wells, and in places the Moenkopi Formation and the Redwall and Muav Limestones yield water to wells and springs. Water levels in the Chinle Formation are 15 to 200 feet below the land surface. The water from one well completed in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation contained 1,210 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids; the dissolved-solids concentrations from two wells in the Shinarump Member of the Chinle were 1,000 and 1,110 milligrams per liter. Three wells penetrate the Moenkopi Formation, but only one yields water. One well obtains its water from the Redwall Limestone, and the water level is 2,200 feet below the land surface. About 60 cubic feet per second of water is discharged by springs that issue from the Redwall and Muav Limestones along the east wall of the canyon of the Little Colorado River. Information on the map includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, specific conductance, and fluoride concentrations. Scale 1:125,000. (Kosco-USGS)

  14. Geologic map of the Palisade quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2000-01-01

    The Palisade 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 22 different Quaternary units. Two prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains many mass movement deposits. Extensive landslide deposits are present along the eastern part of the quadrangle. These massive landslides originate on the flanks of Grand Mesa, in the Green River and Wasatch Formations, and flow west onto the Palisade quadrangle. In addition, large areas of the eastern and southern parts of the map are covered by extensive pediment surfaces. These pediment surfaces are underlain by debris flow deposits also originating from Grand Mesa. Material in these deposits consists of mainly subangular basalt cobbles and boulders and indicate that these debris flow deposits have traveled as much as 10 km from their source area. The pediment surfaces have been divided into 5 age classes based on their height above surrounding drainages. Two common bedrock units in the map area are the Mancos Shale and the Mesaverde Group both of Upper Cretaceous age. The Mancos shale is common in low lying areas near the western map border. The Mesaverde Group forms prominent sandstone cliffs in the north-central map area. The map is accompanied by a separate pamphlet containing unit descriptions, a section on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and a section on economic geology (including sand and gravel, and coal). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately twenty references are cited at the end of the report.

  15. Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park Area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park area (see map sheet) at a compilation scale of 1:50,000. Landslide is a general term for landforms produced by a wide variety of gravity-driven mass movements, including various types of flows, slides, topples and falls, and combinations thereof produced by the slow to rapid downslope transport of surficial materials or bedrock. The map depicts more than 200 landslides ranging in size from small (0.01 square miles) earthflows and rock slumps to large (greater than 0.50 square miles) translational slides and complex landslides (Varnes, 1978). This map has been prepared to provide a regional overview of the distribution of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde area, and as such constitutes an inventory of landslides in the area. The map is suitable for regional planning to identify broad areas where landslide deposits and processes are concentrated. It should not be used as a substitute for detailed site investigations. Specific areas thought to be subject to landslide hazards should be carefully studied before development. Many of the landslides depicted on this map are probably stable as they date to the Pleistocene (approximately 1.8-0.011 Ma) and hence formed under a different climate regime. However, the recognition of these landslides is important because natural and human-induced factors can alter stability. Reduction of lateral support (by excavations or roadcuts), removal of vegetation (by fire or development), or an increase in pore pressure (by heavy rains) may result in the reactivation of landslides or parts of landslides.

  16. MESAFace, a graphical interface to analyze the MESA output

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, M.; Wise, M.; Mohammed, A.

    2014-01-01

    MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) has become very popular among astrophysicists as a powerful and reliable code to simulate stellar evolution. Analyzing the output data thoroughly may, however, present some challenges and be rather time-consuming. Here we describe MESAFace, a graphical and dynamical interface which provides an intuitive, efficient and quick way to analyze the MESA output. Nature of problem: Find a way to quickly and thoroughly analyze the output of a MESA run, including all the profiles, and have an efficient method to produce graphical representations of the data. Solution method: We created two scripts (to be run consecutively). The first one downloads all the data from a MESA run and organizes the profiles in order of age. All the files are saved as tables or arrays of tables which can then be accessed very quickly by Mathematica. The second script uses the Manipulate function to create a graphical interface which allows the user to choose what to plot from a set of menus and buttons. The information shown is updated in real time. The user can access very quickly all the data from the run under examination and visualize it with plots and tables. Unusual features: Moving the slides in certain regions may cause an error message. This happens when Mathematica is asked to read nonexistent data. The error message, however, disappears when the slides are moved back. This issue does not preclude the good functioning of the interface. Additional comments: The program uses the dynamical capabilities of Mathematica. When the program is opened, Mathematica prompts the user to ”Enable Dynamics”. It is necessary to accept before proceeding. Running time: Depends on the size of the data downloaded, on where the data are stored (hard-drive or web), and on the speed of the computer or network connection. In general, downloading the data may take from a minute to several minutes. Loading directly from the web is slower. For example

  17. MESA: Making Excellent Science Requires More Than Just Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R.

    2014-05-01

    Supporting successful astronomical missions requires more than brighter minds with a vision. It requires a strong team from a wide variety of disciplines working together towards a common goal: support the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) missions and excel while doing it. Here I present the main steps we have taken to meet the challenges ahead, with special attention to the combined effort between scientists and developers, along with an overview of the projects currently under the purview of the Mission Engineering and Science Analysis (MESA) group at the STScI.

  18. The Evolution of ONeMg Cores with MESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Josiah; Quataert, Eliot; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the evolution of degenerate cores composed primarily of oxygen, neon, and magnesium which are undergoing compression. We make use of the state-of-the-art MESA stellar evolution code, with updated weak reaction rates from Martinez-Pinedo et al. (2014). We perform a detailed parameter study of the effects a number of quantities, including the accretion rate, magnesium mass fraction, and initial core temperature. We discuss the final fate of these ONeMg cores, focusing on cores formed as a result of the merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs.

  19. Mesa Verde--A Year-Round High School. A Descriptive Report of 1980-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housden, Terry; Holmes, Lynda

    Mesa Verde High School was constructed in 1974 and is the last high school built in the San Juan (California) Unified District. It serves students in grades 9 through 12 and has an open enrollment policy. Mesa Verde operates on a year-round schedule with students divided into three tracks. Basically, each track is in session for 9 weeks and then…

  20. MESA/MEP at American River College: Year One Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Beth S.; And Others

    In 1989, the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA)/Minority Engineering Program (MEP) was initiated at American River College. The MESA/MEP program recruits Black, Hispanic, and Native American students and provides assistance, encouragement, and enrichment programs to help them succeed in the fields of mathematics, engineering,…

  1. Ethnographic Evaluation of the MESA Program at a South-Central Phoenix High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    MESA (Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement) is a program designed to increase the number of underrepresented ethnic groups in professions related to mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences. This paper describes and evaluates the MESA program at Jarama High School, Phoenix (Arizona), using informal interviews and…

  2. The MESA Way: A Success Story of Nurturing Minorities for Math/Science-Based Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerton, Wilbur H.; And Others

    Significant steps have been taken by the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) project since its formation in 1970. The founders of MESA began a campaign, first in high schools, and later in middle and elementary schools, to convince educators, parents, and students of the importance of raising standards for the minority children…

  3. Rotarians Respond to the Recreation Rights of Disabled Individuals in Mesa, Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, George, II; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents Rotary Park in Mesa (Arizona), designed to be accessible to the disabled and developed by the Mesa Rotary Club, the city parks and recreation department, and county and federal agencies. Describes the park's origins, development, and special recreational equipment, including a physical fitness trail and multipurpose playing areas. (RW)

  4. Remotely sensed limonite anomaly on Lordsburg Mesa, New Mexico: possible implications for uranium deposits ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.; Erdman, J.A.; McCarthy, J.H.; Reimer, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    We have identified a large, anomalously limonitic area in Cenozoic gravels on Lordsburg Mesa near Lordsburg, New Mexico, using Landsat images. Our interpretation of the geophysical and geochemical data suggests the exploration hypothesis that the Lordsburg Mesa limonite anomaly is the surface expression of a chemical trap that may contain concentrations of uranium similar to calcrete-uranium deposits. -from Authors

  5. MESA: Supporting Teaching and Learning about the Marine Environment--Primary Science Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The Marine Education Society of Australasia (MESA) Inc. is a national organisation of marine educators that aims to bring together people interested in the study and enjoyment of coastal and marine environments. MESA representatives and members organise education and interpretation activities in support of schools and communities during a number…

  6. 76 FR 22075 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; CO; Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... Mesa Vegetation Management Project Public Comment. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Diana McGinn at 719... for Action The purpose and need for the Black Mesa Vegetation Management Project is move...

  7. Stable isotope-based Plio-Pleistocene ecosystem reconstruction of some of the earliest hominid fossil sites in the East African Rift System (Chiwondo Beds, N Malawi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdecke, Tina; Thiemeyer, Heinrich; Schrenk, Friedemann; Mulch, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The isotope geochemistry of pedogenic carbonate and fossil herbivore enamel is a powerful tool to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in particular when climate change plays a key role in the evolution of ecosystems. Here, we present the first Plio-Pleistocene long-term carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) and clumped isotope (Δ47) records from pedogenic carbonate and herbivore teeth in the Malawi Rift. These data represent an important southern hemisphere record in the East African Rift System (EARS), a key region for reconstructing vegetation patterns in today's Zambezian Savanna and correlation with data on the evolution and migration of early hominids across the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. As our study site is situated between the well-known hominid-bearing sites of eastern and southern Africa in the Somali-Masai Endemic Zone and Highveld Grassland it fills an important geographical gap for early hominid research. 5.0 to 0.6 Ma fluviatile and lacustrine deposits of the Chiwondo Beds (NE shore of Lake Malawi) comprise abundant pedogenic carbonate and remains of a diverse fauna dominated by large terrestrial mammals. These sediments are also home to two hominid fossil remains, a mandible of Homo rudolfensis and a maxillary fragment of Paranthropus boisei, both dated around 2.4 Ma. The Chiwondo Beds therefore document early co-existence of these two species. We evaluate δ13C data from fossil enamel of different suid, bovid, and equid species and contrast these with δ13C and δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate. We complement the latter with clumped isotope soil temperature data. Results of almost 800 pedogenic carbonate samples from over 20 sections consistently average δ13C = -8.5 ‰ over the past 5 Ma with no significant short-term δ13C excursions or long-term trends. The data from molar tooth enamel of nine individual suids of the genera Metridiochoerus, Notochoerus and Nyanzachoerus support these findings with average δ13C = -10.0 ‰. The absence

  8. The Pleistocene evolution of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Prydz bay region: Stable isotopic evidence from ODP Site 1167

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theissen, K.M.; Dunbar, R.B.; Cooper, A. K.; Mucciarone, D.A.; Hoffmann, D.

    2003-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 188, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica is part of a larger initiative to explore the Cenozoic history of the Antarctic Ice Sheet through direct drilling and sampling of the continental margins. In this paper, we present stable isotopic results from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1167 located on the Prydz Channel Trough Mouth Fan (TMF), the first Antarctic TMF to be drilled. The foraminifer-based ??18O record is interpreted along with sedimentary and downhole logging evidence to reconstruct the Quaternary glacial history of Prydz Bay and the adjacent Lambert Glacier Amery Ice Shelf System (LGAISS). We report an electron spin resonance age date of 36. 9 ?? 3.3 ka at 0.45 m below sea floor and correlate suspected glacial-interglacial cycles with the global isotopic stratigraphy to improve the chronology for Site 1167. The ??18O record based on planktonic (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s.)) and limited benthic results (Globocassidulina crassa), indicates a trend of ice sheet expansion that was interrupted by a period of reduced ice volume and possibly warmer conditions during the early-mid-Pleistocene (0.9-1.38 Ma). An increase in ?? 18O values after ??? 900 ka appears to coincide with the mid-Pleistocene climate transition and the expansion of the northern hemisphere ice sheet. The ??18O record in the upper 50 m of the stratigraphic section indicates as few as three glacial-interglacial cycles, tentatively assigned as marine isotopic stages (MIS) 16-21, are preserved since the Brunhes/Matuyama paleomagnetic reversal (780 ka). This suggests that there is a large unconformity near the top of the section and/or that there may have been few extreme advances of the ice sheet since the mid-Pleistocene climate transition resulting in lowered sedimentation rates on the Prydz Channel TMF. The stable isotopic record from Site 1167 is one of the few available from the area south of the Antarctic Polar Front that has been linked with the global isotopic

  9. Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Palaeocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-07-01

    Reconstructing the early Palaeogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Palaeogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Palaeocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Palaeocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Palaeocene (excluding the middle/late Palaeocene transition); (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians that transiently prevailed across the middle/late Palaeocene transition interval (~ 59.5 to ~ 59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e. palms and cycads) across the middle/late Palaeocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the

  10. Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the early Paleogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Paleogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Paleocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Paleocene; (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval (~59.5 to ~59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e., palms and cycads) across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph assemblages from ODP

  11. Water-Quality Characteristics of Urban Storm Runoff at Selected Sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Lousiana, Frebruary 1998 Through April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2003-01-01

    Water was sampled at four watersheds for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 1998 through April 2002. Eighteen samples were collected from four watersheds representing land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, new commercial, and residential. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform and enterococci bacteria, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. The residential land-use is the largest of the watersheds (550 acres), which resulted in high estimated annual contaminant loads compared to other watersheds for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents. This may indicate that the size of the watershed and runoff from residences with their associated contaminants had substantial effects on annual loads within this land use. The industrial land-use area had the highest estimated annual contaminant loads for metals, followed by the residential landuse area. However, when comparing yields among the watersheds, the industrial watershed had the highest yield for 9 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the residential watershed had the lowest yield for 7 of the 12. The industrial watershed yielded more metals per acre per year than any other watershed. Zinc yields were 2.71 pounds per acre per year from the industrial watershed, compared to 0.35 pounds per acre per year from the residential watershed, which was the lowest of all the watersheds. Lead concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 10 of 18 samples. Low

  12. 2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST UP WASH TOWARD ORE BIN, OVERBURDEN, ADITS, AND ROAD SHOWN IN CA-290-1. MILL SITE IS UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. STANDARD FIFTY-GALLON DRUM IN FOREGROUND GIVES SCALE OF WALL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Gravity and magnetic study of the Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley region, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, G.L.; Fridrich, C.J.; Hildenbrand, T.G.; Laczniak, R.J.; Mankinen, E.A.; McKee, E.H.

    1999-08-31

    Regional gravity and aeromagnetic maps reveal the existence of deep basins underlying much of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, approximately 150 km northwest of Las Vegas. These maps also indicate the presence of prominent features (geophysical lineaments) within and beneath the basin fill. Detailed gravity surveys were conducted in order to characterize the nature of the basin boundaries, delineate additional subsurface features, and evaluate their possible influence on the movement of ground water. Geophysical modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data indicates that many of the features may be related to processes of caldera formation. Collapse of the various calderas within the volcanic field resulted in dense basement rocks occurring at greater depths within caldera boundaries. Modeling indicates that collapse occurred along faults that are arcuate and steeply dipping. There are indications that the basement in the western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region consists predominantly of granitic and/or fine-grained siliceous sedimentary rocks that may be less permeable to ground-water flow than the predominantly fractured carbonate rock basement to the east and southeast of the study area. The northeast-trending Thirsty Canyon lineament, expressed on gravity and basin thickness maps, separates dense volcanic rocks on the northwest from less dense intracaldera accumulations in the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes. The sources of the lineament is an approximately 2-km wide ring fracture system with step-like differential displacements, perhaps localized on a pre-existing northeast-trending Basin and Range fault. Due to vertical offsets, the Thirsty Canyon faults zone probably juxtaposes rock types of different permeability and, thus, it may act as a barrier to ground-water flow and deflect flow from Pahute Mesa along its flanks toward Oasis Valley. Within the Thirsty Canyon fault zone, highly fractured rocks may serve also as a conduit

  14. Gravity and magnetic study of the Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley region, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Dixon, Gary L.; McKee, Edwin H.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    1999-01-01

    Regional gravity and aeromagnetic maps reveal the existence of deep basins underlying much of the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, approximately 150 km northwest of Las Vegas. These maps also indicate the presence of prominent features (geophysical lineaments) within and beneath the basin fill. Detailed gravity surveys were conducted in order to characterize the nature of the basin boundaries, delineate additional subsurface features, and evaluate their possible influence on the movement of ground-water. Geophysical modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data indicates that many of the features may be related to processes of caldera formation. Collapse of the various calderas within the volcanic field resulted in dense basement rocks occurring at greater depths within caldera boundaries. Modeling indicates that collapse occurred along faults that are arcuate and steeply dipping. There are indications that the basement in the western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region consists predominantly of granitic and/or fine-grained siliceous sedimentary rocks that may be less permeable to groundwater flow than the predominantly fractured carbonate rock basement to the east and southeast of the study area. The northeast-trending Thirsty Canyon lineament, expressed on gravity and basin thickness maps, separates dense volcanic rocks on the northwest from less dense intracaldera accumulations in the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes. The source of the lineament is an approximately 2-km wide ring fracture system with step-like differential displacements, perhaps localized on a pre-existing northeast-trending Basin and Range fault. Due to vertical offsets, the Thirsty Canyon fault zone probably juxtaposes rock types of different permeability and, thus, it may act as a barrier to ground-water flow and deflect flow from Pahute Mesa along its flanks toward Oasis Valley. Within the Thirsty Canyon fault zone, highly fractured rocks may serve also as a conduit

  15. Remote sensing for environmental site screening and watershed evaluation in Utah Mine lands - East Tintic mountains, Oquirrh mountains, and Tushar mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy-a powerful remote-sensing tool for mapping subtle variations in the composition of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials on the Earth's surface-was applied in support of environmental assessments and watershed evaluations in several mining districts in the State of Utah. Three areas were studied through the use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data: (1) the Tintic mining district in the East Tintic Mountains southwest of Provo, (2) the Camp Floyd mining district (including the Mercur mine) and the Stockton (or Rush Valley) mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains south of the Great Salt Lake, and (3) the Tushar Mountains and Antelope Range near Marysvale. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for initial site screening and the planning of AVIRIS surveys. The AVIRIS data were analyzed to create spectrally defined maps of surface minerals with special emphasis on locating and characterizing rocks and soils with acid-producing potential (APP) and acid-neutralizing potential (ANP). These maps were used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for three primary purposes: (1) to identify unmined and anthropogenic sources of acid generation in the form of iron sulfide and (or) ferric iron sulfate-bearing minerals such as jarosite and copiapite; (2) to seek evidence for downstream or downwind movement of minerals associated with acid generation, mine waste, and (or) tailings from mines, mill sites, and zones of unmined hydrothermally altered rocks; and (3) to identify carbonate and other acid-buffering minerals that neutralize acidic, potentially metal bearing, solutions and thus mitigate potential environmental effects of acid generation. Calibrated AVIRIS surface-reflectance data were spectrally analyzed to identify and map selected surface materials. Two maps were produced from each flightline of AVIRIS data: a map of iron-bearing minerals and water having absorption features in the

  16. MODULES FOR EXPERIMENTS IN STELLAR ASTROPHYSICS (MESA): BINARIES, PULSATIONS, AND EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Cantiello, Matteo; Marchant, Pablo; Langer, N.; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Dessart, Luc; Farmer, R.; Timmes, F. X.; Hu, H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Townsley, Dean M.

    2015-09-15

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open-source software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). MESA can now simultaneously evolve an interacting pair of differentially rotating stars undergoing transfer and loss of mass and angular momentum, greatly enhancing the prior ability to model binary evolution. New MESA capabilities in fully coupled calculation of nuclear networks with hundreds of isotopes now allow MESA to accurately simulate the advanced burning stages needed to construct supernova progenitor models. Implicit hydrodynamics with shocks can now be treated with MESA, enabling modeling of the entire massive star lifecycle, from pre-main-sequence evolution to the onset of core collapse and nucleosynthesis from the resulting explosion. Coupling of the GYRE non-adiabatic pulsation instrument with MESA allows for new explorations of the instability strips for massive stars while also accelerating the astrophysical use of asteroseismology data. We improve the treatment of mass accretion, giving more accurate and robust near-surface profiles. A new MESA capability to calculate weak reaction rates “on-the-fly” from input nuclear data allows better simulation of accretion induced collapse of massive white dwarfs and the fate of some massive stars. We discuss the ongoing challenge of chemical diffusion in the strongly coupled plasma regime, and exhibit improvements in MESA that now allow for the simulation of radiative levitation of heavy elements in hot stars. We close by noting that the MESA software infrastructure provides bit-for-bit consistency for all results across all the supported platforms, a profound enabling capability for accelerating MESA's development.

  17. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Binaries, Pulsations, and Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Bill; Marchant, Pablo; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B.; Bildsten, Lars; Cantiello, Matteo; Dessart, Luc; Farmer, R.; Hu, H.; Langer, N.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Townsley, Dean M.; Timmes, F. X.

    2015-09-01

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open-source software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). MESA can now simultaneously evolve an interacting pair of differentially rotating stars undergoing transfer and loss of mass and angular momentum, greatly enhancing the prior ability to model binary evolution. New MESA capabilities in fully coupled calculation of nuclear networks with hundreds of isotopes now allow MESA to accurately simulate the advanced burning stages needed to construct supernova progenitor models. Implicit hydrodynamics with shocks can now be treated with MESA, enabling modeling of the entire massive star lifecycle, from pre-main-sequence evolution to the onset of core collapse and nucleosynthesis from the resulting explosion. Coupling of the GYRE non-adiabatic pulsation instrument with MESA allows for new explorations of the instability strips for massive stars while also accelerating the astrophysical use of asteroseismology data. We improve the treatment of mass accretion, giving more accurate and robust near-surface profiles. A new MESA capability to calculate weak reaction rates “on-the-fly” from input nuclear data allows better simulation of accretion induced collapse of massive white dwarfs and the fate of some massive stars. We discuss the ongoing challenge of chemical diffusion in the strongly coupled plasma regime, and exhibit improvements in MESA that now allow for the simulation of radiative levitation of heavy elements in hot stars. We close by noting that the MESA software infrastructure provides bit-for-bit consistency for all results across all the supported platforms, a profound enabling capability for accelerating MESA's development.

  18. Completion Report for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-02-28

    Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-8#2 were drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The holes were drilled in July and August 2009, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of these wells was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. They may also be used as long-term monitoring wells.

  19. The Mesa Verde outcrop: Seismic modeling, processing, and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, A.; Dequirez, P.Y.; Etienne, G.; Mace, D.; Richard, V.

    1994-12-31

    For a realistic geological model a 2D numerical elastic modeling is carried out. The objectives is, first, a better understanding of the information content of reflection seismic data and, second, to provide synthetic data for testing and evaluating the efficiency of processing and inversion techniques under known conditions. Of particular interest are the small-scale heterogeneities in view of reservoir delineation and characterization. The geologic model is constructed from the Campanian cross-section of the Mesa Verde outcrop (Colorado, USA). A subsurface seismic model buried in a 1D background medium is defined from the 2D Mesa Verde geologic model by assigning P-wave and S-wave velocities and densities to each geologic facies. This seismic model is used as input for a fully elastic seismic simulating a realistic marine survey of 280 shots. The synthetic seismograms are calculated by a finite-difference method. The data are processed in a conventional way; then a target-related post-processing is performed including stratigraphic inversion. Finally, a geologic significance is given to waveform and amplitude variations in the estimated P-impedances.

  20. MTF comparisons between mesa and planar focal plane detector structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Mitchell; Wehner, Justin; Buell, Dave; Micali, Jason; McCorkle, Joe; Rehfield, Mark; Williams, Dave; Dixon, Andrew; Malone, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed scanning, high-speed (<3klps), all digital, with on-chip Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), mid-wave infrared (MWIR 3-5mm) focal plane arrays (FPA) with excellent modulation transfer function (MTF) performance. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data and detailed models of the mesa geometry, RVS modeled the predicted detector MTF performance of detectors. These detectors have a mesa structure and geometry for improved MTF performance compared to planar HgCdTe and InSb detector structures and other similar detector structures such as nBn. The modeled data is compared to measured MTF data obtained from edge spread measurements and shows good agreement, Figure 1. The measured data was obtained using a custom advanced test set with 1µm precision alignment and automatic data acquisition for report generation in less than five minutes per FPA. The measured MTF values of 83 unique parts, Figure 2, had a standard deviation of 0.0094 and a mean absolute deviation of 0.0066 at half Nyquist frequency, showing excellent process repeatability and a design that supports high MTF with good repeatability.

  1. Progress report on Black Mesa monitoring program, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The N aquifer is an important source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations. The project is designed to monitor long-term effects on the ground-water resources of the mesa as a result of withdrawals from the aquifer by a strip-mining operation. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by the mine have increased from 95 acre-ft in 1968 to more than 4,000 acre-ft in 1984. Water levels in the confined area of the aquifer have declined as much as 75 feet in some municipal and observation wells within about a 15-mile radius of the mine well field. Part of the drawdown in municipal wells is due to local pumpage. Water levels have not declined in wells tapping the unconfined area of the aquifer. Chemical analysis indicate no significant changes in the quality of water from wells that tap the N aquifer or from springs that discharge from several stratigraphic units, including the N aquifer, since pumping began at the mine. (USGS)

  2. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-13 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-13 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite unit hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. This well may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  3. Modeling unsaturated-zone flow at Rainier Mesa as a possible analog for a future Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Rainier Mesa is structurally similar to Yucca Mountain, and receives precipitation similar to the estimated long-term average for Yucca Mountain. Tunnels through the unsaturated zone at Rainier Mesa have encountered perched water and, after the perched water was drained, flow in fractures and faults. Although flow observations have been primarily qualitative, Rainier Mesa hydrology is a potential analog for Yucca Mountain hydrology in a wetter climate. In this paper, a groundwater flow model that has been used in the performance assessment of Yucca Mountain--the weeps model--is applied to Rainier Mesa. The intent is to gain insight in both Rainier Mesa and the weeps flow model.

  4. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of basaltic flows of the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, F.; Budahn, J.R.; Peters, L.; Unruh, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions of basaltic flows erupted from the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra volcanic centres in central New Mexico indicate that each of these lavas had unique origins and that the predominant mantle involved in their production was an ocean-island basalt type. The basalts from Cat Hills (0.11 Ma) and Cat Mesa (3.0 Ma) are similar in major and trace element composition, but differences in MgO contents and Pb isotopic values are attributed to a small involvement of a lower crustal component in the genesis of the Cat Mesa rocks. The Cerro Verde rock is comparable in age (0.32 Ma) to the Cat Hills lavas, but it is more radiogenic in Sr and Nd, has higher MgO contents, and has a lower La/Yb ratio. This composition is explained by the melting of an enriched mantle source, but the involvement of another crustal component cannot be disregarded. The Wind Mesa rock is characterized by similar age (4.01 Ma) and MgO contents, but it has enriched rare-earth element contents compared with the Cat Mesa samples. These are attributed to a difference in the degree of partial melting of the Cat Mesa source. The Mesita Negra rock (8.11 Ma) has distinctive geochemical and isotopic compositions that suggest a different enriched mantle and that large amounts of a crustal component were involved in generating this magma. These data imply a temporal shift in magma source regions and crustal involvement, and have been previously proposed for Rio Grande rift lavas. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in selected sites in Pasig River and Laguna Lake in the Philippines before and after a big flood event investigated under the UNU East Asia Regional POPs monitoring project.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Evangeline C; Rivas, Fritzi

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of the 2009 United Nations University (UNU) East Asia Regional Monitoring of the Coastal Hydrosphere Project implemented in the Philippines. The monitoring activity focused on the concentrations of 16 specific congeners of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in selected sites in Pasig River and Laguna Lake for two sampling periods in August and in November, 2009. The results show that the total concentrations of PCBs detected in the sampling sites in August increased during the November sampling from 0.9-12.2 to 6.1-32 ng/L in Pasig River and from 0.1-0.9 to 2.9-10.8 ng/L in Laguna Lake. The increase in PCB concentrations on second sampling is attributed to the increase in contaminated sediments in the river sites and to the overflow of contaminated water in the lake sites; both of which could have been caused by the flooding event that occurred in September 2009.

  6. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  7. Lateral growth of GaN by liquid phase electroepitaxy using mesa-shaped substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambayashi, Daisuke; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masafumi; Iwakawa, Muneki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2016-10-01

    GaN microchannel epitaxy (MCE) was performed using a mesa-shaped substrate and liquid phase electroepitaxy. A flat and wide MCE layer was successfully obtained with a rectangular shape, which is formed by ±c-planes on both the top and bottom surfaces. MCE growth proceeded mainly in the lateral direction by the formation of these planes. Cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the laterally grown layers were almost free of dislocations, and that the dislocations in the mesa areas were confined by the vertical sides of the mesas. In the case of inclined sides, the dislocations would be expected to bend and spread into the laterally grown areas.

  8. Formation of a Mesa Shaped Phonon Pulse in Superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, K. E.; Slipko, V. A.

    2010-05-01

    We present a theory for the formation of a mesa shaped phonon pulse in superfluid 4He. Starting from the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid helium, we obtain the system of equations which describe the evolution of strongly anisotropic phonon systems. Such systems can be created experimentally. The solution of the equations are simple waves, which correspond to second sound in the moving phonon pulse. Using these exact solutions, we describe the expansion of phonon pulses in superfluid helium at zero temperature. This theory gives an explanation for the mesa shape observed in the measured phonon angular distributions. Almost all dependencies of the mesa shape on the system parameters can be qualitatively understood.

  9. MESAFace, a graphical interface to analyze the MESA output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, M.; Wise, M.; Mohammed, A.

    2013-04-01

    MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) has become very popular among astrophysicists as a powerful and reliable code to simulate stellar evolution. Analyzing the output data thoroughly may, however, present some challenges and be rather time-consuming. Here we describe MESAFace, a graphical and dynamical interface which provides an intuitive, efficient and quick way to analyze the MESA output. Catalogue identifier: AEOQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19165 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6300592 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Any computer capable of running Mathematica. Operating system: Any capable of running Mathematica. Tested on Linux, Mac, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: Recommended 2 Gigabytes or more. Supplementary material: Additional test data files are available. Classification: 1.7, 14. Nature of problem: Find a way to quickly and thoroughly analyze the output of a MESA run, including all the profiles, and have an efficient method to produce graphical representations of the data. Solution method: We created two scripts (to be run consecutively). The first one downloads all the data from a MESA run and organizes the profiles in order of age. All the files are saved as tables or arrays of tables which can then be accessed very quickly by Mathematica. The second script uses the Manipulate function to create a graphical interface which allows the user to choose what to plot from a set of menus and buttons. The information shown is updated in real time. The user can access very quickly all the data from the run under examination and visualize it with plots and tables. Unusual features: Moving the

  10. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2011-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Unema, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    the confined and unconfined areas was -13.4 feet; the median water-level changes were -2.1 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -39.1 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2012. Flow fluctuated during the period of record for Burro and Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring has remained relatively constant since it was first measured in the 1980s and discharge at Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso has fluctuated for the period of record. Trend analysis for discharge at Moenkopi and Pasture Canyon Springs yielded a slope significantly different from zero. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2010), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2010), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2010), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2010). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, and there are no significant statistical trends in groundwater discharge. In 2012, water samples collected from 10 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 10 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and

  11. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2012–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-03-02

    -level change for 34 wells in both the confined and unconfined areas was -13.5 feet; the median water-level changes were -0.8 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -51.0 feet for 16 wells measured in the confined area.Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2013; Burro, Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso, Moenkopi School, and Pasture Canyon Springs. Flow fluctuated during the period of record for Burro and Unnamed Springs near Dennehotso, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring has remained relatively constant since it was first measured in the 1980s and discharge at Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso has fluctuated for the period of record at each spring. Trend analysis for discharge at Moenkopi School and Pasture Canyon Springs showed a decreasing trend.Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2013), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2013), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2013), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2013). Median winter flows (November through February) from these sites for each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge.In 2013, water samples collected from 12 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 12 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 13 years

  12. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona - 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Brown, Christopher R.; Anderson, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    confined and unconfined areas was -15.0 feet. Also, from the prestress period to 2011, the median water-level changes were -1.2 foot for 15 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -41.2 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at three springs in 2011. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring has remained relatively constant since it was first measured in the 1980s. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2010), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2010), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2010), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2010). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge. In 2011, water samples collected from 11 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 11 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no increasing or decreasing trend in those data. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Burro Spring and Unnamed Spring near

  13. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2009–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    wells in both the confined and unconfined area was -13.9 feet. Also, from the prestress period to 2009, the median water-level changes were -0.8 foot for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -38.7 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2010. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring and Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso has remained relatively constant since they were first measured in the 1980s. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2009), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2009), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2009), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2009). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge. In 2010, water samples collected from 11 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 11 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no increasing or decreasing trend in those data. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride

  14. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2012–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-03-02

    -level change for 34 wells in both the confined and unconfined areas was -13.5 feet; the median water-level changes were -0.8 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -51.0 feet for 16 wells measured in the confined area.Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2013; Burro, Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso, Moenkopi School, and Pasture Canyon Springs. Flow fluctuated during the period of record for Burro and Unnamed Springs near Dennehotso, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring has remained relatively constant since it was first measured in the 1980s and discharge at Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso has fluctuated for the period of record at each spring. Trend analysis for discharge at Moenkopi School and Pasture Canyon Springs showed a decreasing trend.Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2013), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2013), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2013), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2013). Median winter flows (November through February) from these sites for each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge.In 2013, water samples collected from 12 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 12 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 13 years

  15. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2011-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Unema, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    the confined and unconfined areas was -13.4 feet; the median water-level changes were -2.1 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -39.1 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2012. Flow fluctuated during the period of record for Burro and Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring has remained relatively constant since it was first measured in the 1980s and discharge at Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso has fluctuated for the period of record. Trend analysis for discharge at Moenkopi and Pasture Canyon Springs yielded a slope significantly different from zero. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2010), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2010), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2010), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2010). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, and there are no significant statistical trends in groundwater discharge. In 2012, water samples collected from 10 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 10 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and

  16. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2009–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    wells in both the confined and unconfined area was -13.9 feet. Also, from the prestress period to 2009, the median water-level changes were -0.8 foot for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -38.7 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2010. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring and Unnamed Spring near Dennehotso has remained relatively constant since they were first measured in the 1980s. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2009), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2009), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2009), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2009). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge. In 2010, water samples collected from 11 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 11 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no increasing or decreasing trend in those data. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride

  17. Groundwater, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2008-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.

    2010-01-01

    .6 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -36.7 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at three springs in 2009. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro spring has remained constant since it was first measured in 1998. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2008), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2008), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2008), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (August 2004 to 2008). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge. In 2009, water samples collected from 6 wells and 3 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 6 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no trend in those data. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Burro Spring have varied for the period of record, but there is no trend in the data.

  18. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona - 2010-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Brown, Christopher R.; Anderson, Jessica R.

    2012-01-01

    confined and unconfined areas was -15.0 feet. Also, from the prestress period to 2011, the median water-level changes were -1.2 foot for 15 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -41.2 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area. Spring flow was measured at three springs in 2011. Flow fluctuated during the period of record, but a decreasing trend was apparent at Moenkopi School Spring and Pasture Canyon Spring. Discharge at Burro Spring has remained relatively constant since it was first measured in the 1980s. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area were collected from streamflow-gaging stations at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash at Moenkopi 09401260 (1976 to 2010), Dinnebito Wash near Sand Springs 09401110 (1993 to 2010), Polacca Wash near Second Mesa 09400568 (1994 to 2010), and Pasture Canyon Springs 09401265 (2004 to 2010). Median winter flows (November through February) of each water year were used as an index of the amount of groundwater discharge at the above-named sites. For the period of record of each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have generally remained constant, which suggests no change in groundwater discharge. In 2011, water samples collected from 11 wells and 4 springs in the Black Mesa area were analyzed for selected chemical constituents, and the results were compared with previous analyses. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate have varied at all 11 wells for the period of record, but neither increasing nor decreasing trends over time were found. Dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations increased at Moenkopi School Spring during the more than 12 years of record at that site. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Pasture Canyon Spring have not varied much since the early 1980s, and there is no increasing or decreasing trend in those data. Concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate at Burro Spring and Unnamed Spring near

  19. The emission mechanism of THz electromagnetic waves from Bi2212 mesa device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Takeo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    From the detailed study of the severe temperature inhomogeneity of the Bi2212 IJJ mesa structure often forming ``hot-spot'' at relatively higher bias current region, while the electromagnetic waves are emitted, multi terminal potential measurement of the mesa device has revealed that the equipotential part of the mesa can only give universal ac-Josephson relationship between the potential difference and the frequency measured by the FT-IR spectrometer, and it is violated as the potential is measured in the region where the hot-spot is formed. This means that the deviation of the emission frequency from the ac-Josephson effect comes from a gradient of the electrical potential distribution. This strongly suggests that the electromagnetic waves at THz frequency may be generated in the superconducting part of the mesa, where the static electric potential is uniform, satisfying the ac-Josephson relation universally no matter how much temperature gradient is.

  20. Mesa-type patterns in the one-dimensional Brusselator and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolnikov, T.; Erneux, T.; Wei, J.

    2006-02-01

    The Brusselator is a generic reaction-diffusion model for a tri-molecular chemical reaction. We consider the case when the input and output reactions are slow. In this limit, we show the existence of K-periodic, spatially bi-stable structures, mesas, and study their stability. Using singular perturbation techniques, we find a threshold for the stability of K mesas. This threshold occurs in the regime where the exponentially small tails of the localized structures start to interact. By comparing our results with Turing analysis, we show that, in the generic case, a Turing instability is followed by a slow coarsening process whereby logarithmically many mesas are annihilated before the system reaches a steady equilibrium state. We also study a “breather”-type instability of a mesa, which occurs due to a Hopf bifurcation. Full numerical simulations are shown to confirm the analytical results.

  1. Dislocation Reduction in HgCdTe Mesa Structures Formed on CdTe/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simingalam, Sina; Pattison, James; Chen, Yuanping; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Rao, Mulpuri V.

    2016-09-01

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) epilayers have been grown on CdTe/Si using molecular beam epitaxy and 8- μm-deep mesa structures formed using plasma etching. Following previous work done on etching mesas and subjecting material to thermal cycle annealing, we set out to determine the limits and underlying physics of dislocation reduction in mesa-etched and annealed MCT. This paper describes the dependence of dislocation reduction on anneal time, cycle annealing, temperature, and etch depth. We show dislocation density reduction below 3 × 105 cm-2 in 10- μm-wide, long-bar mesas along the [0bar{1}1] orientation with only a 5-min anneal at 400°C.

  2. Application of the MESA reactive hydrocode to space vehicle explosive ordnance devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Selma

    1993-01-01

    The construction of detailed computational models of the dynamic behavior of various explosive ordnance devices used on space vehicles is discussed. The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: numerical methods, explosives and detonations, and the MESA computer code.

  3. Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes

  4. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Spring. Discharge decreased by 3.5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring and by 15 percent at Burro Spring. During the period of record at each spring, discharges fluctuated; a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash (1976 to 2005), Dinnebito Wash (1993 to 2005), Polacca Wash (1994 to 2005), Pasture Canyon Spring (August 2004 to December 2005), and Laguna Creek (1996 to 2005). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring and Laguna Creek was discontinued at the end of December 2005. In 2006, water samples were collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 111 to 588 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 5 of the wells and both of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Trends in the chemistry of water samples from the 6 wells show the Pi?on NTUA 1 and Peabody 9 wells increasing in dissolved solids, Forest Lake NTUA 1 and Peabody 2 wells decreasing in dissolved solids, and Kykotsmovi PM2 and Keams Canyon PM2 wells show a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for the 2 springs.

  5. Continued investigations of the occurrence of water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hershey, R.L.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1995-04-01

    Periodically, water has been observed in emplacement boreholes drilled for underground testing of nuclear weapons at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, and is often at levels elevated above the predicted local water table. Water which may provide a means to transport residual radionuclides away from weapon tests may originate as fluids introduced during drilling, from naturally perched groundwater draining into the borehole, or from penetration of the local groundwater table. Lithium-bromide (Li-Br) tracer is being used to evaluate both the origin and movement of these borehole waters. The drilling fluid used to drill the final 100 meters of borehole U-19bh was chemically labeled with LiBr tracer. Lack of significant increase in borehole Br inventory over time indicates that standing water in U-9bh is not returned drilling fluid. Possible sources for the standing water are drilling fluid infiltrated above the bottom 100 in or natural water from a perched or shallower-than-expected saturated zone. The minimum detectable Darcy velocity of water passing through U-19bh is 0.3 m/yr. Borehole U-19bk has a water level approximately 50 in above the predicted pre-drilling water level. Initial water samples were collected from U-19bk to characterize the borehole water quality prior to adding the tracer. The major-ion analytical results of U-19bk along with historical water quality analyses of Water Well 20 and water well UE-19c show that all three waters are similar in character and therefore the water in U-19bk may be either residual drilling fluids originating from Water Well 20 and UE-19c or naturally occurring Pahute Mesa groundwater. LiBr tracer was added to the U-19bk borehole and samples for tracer analysis were collected one month later. For the one month period, no detectable loss of Br was observed. Over this short time period, the minimum detectable Darcy velocity is 10.6 m/yr.

  6. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 2: The Chaco Halo, Mesa Verde, Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, and Zuni Archaeological Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and nutrient analyses of 471 soil samples from 161 sites within four archaeological regions (Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, Zuni, Mesa Verde, and the Chaco Halo) were combined with historical climate data in order to evaluate the agricultural productivity of each region. In addition, maize productivity and field-life calculations were performed using organic-nitrogen (N) values from the upper 50 cm of soil in each region and a range (1-3%/year) of N-mineralization rates. The endmember values of this range were assumed representative of dry and wet climate states. With respect to precipitation and heat, the Pajarito Plateau area has excellent agricultural potential; the agricultural potentials of the Zuni and Mesa Verde regions are good; and the agricultural potential of the Chaco Halo is poor. Calculations of N mineralization and field life indicate that Morfield Valley in Mesa Verde should be able to provide 10 bu/ac of maize for decades (without the addition of N) when organic N-mineralization rates exceed 2%. Productivity and field-life potential decrease in the following order: Zuni, Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Chaco Halo. The Chaco Halo is very unproductive; e. g., 10 bushels per acre can be achieved within the Halo only from soils having the highest organic N concentration (third quartile) and which undergo the highest rate (3%) of N mineralization. ?? 2010 US Government.

  7. New Permian durhaminid cerioid corals from east-central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2009-01-01

    Permian colonial corals from Artinskian to Kungurian strata in the Conglomerate Mesa area, Inyo Mountains, east-central California, include five new species, one of which is assigned to a new genus. The new taxa are: Malpaisia maceyi n. gen. and n. sp., Pararachnastraea bellula n. sp., P. delicata n. sp., P. owensensis n. sp., and Cordillerastraea inyoensis n. sp. These species, several of which compare most closely with other Artinskian and Kungurian species from eastern Nevada and northern Mexico, represent three distinct stocks that differentiated on an isolated submarine uplift offshore from the main part of the Cordilleran carbonate shelf.

  8. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 7): Hastings Ground Water Contamination Site (east industrial park), Surface Soils Operable Unit, Hastings, NE, February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This decision document presents an amendment to the selected interim remedial action for the Surface Soils Operable Unit at the Hasting East Industrial Park, Hastings, Nebraska. This operable unit addresses the surface soils (0-10 ft. deep) of the Hastings East Industrial Park, which may serve as a source of ground water contamination and the risks associated with exposure to the contaminated soils by excavating, treating, and disposing of the contaminated soil. The amended remedy includes permanent destruction through incineration of the highly concentrated organic-contaminated soils, stabilization of metals-contaminated soils, and containment of low level TNT-contaminated soils and the stabilized metal-contaminated soil. Organic-contaminated soils include those soils containing the explosives compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (cPAHs). Soils contaminated with high concentration of cPAHs will be excavated and incinerated.

  9. Geohydrology and effects of water use in the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eychaner, James H.

    1983-01-01

    The N aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. The N aquifer consists of the Navajo Sandstone and parts of the underlying Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone of Jurassic and Triassic age. Maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 1,050 feet in the northwestern part of the area, and the aquifer thins to extinction to the southeast. Water is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 square miles of the area. To the east, north, and west of Black Mesa, the aquifer is exposed at the surface, and water is unconfined. The aquifer was in equilibrium before about 1965. Recharge of about 13,000 acre-feet per year was balanced primarily by discharge near Moenkopi Wash and Laguna Creek and by evapotranspiration. At least 180 million acre-feet of water was in storage. The estimated average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 0.65 foot per day. The confined storage coefficient is estimated to be about 0.0004 where the aquifer is thickest, and the estimated unconfined storage coefficient ranges from 0.10 to 0.15. Ground-water withdrawals that averaged 5,300 acre-feet per year from 1976 to 1979 have caused water levels to decline in wells in the confined part of the aquifer. Withdrawals include an average of 3,700 acre-feet per year to supply a coal-slurry pipeline from a coal mine on Black Mesa. Six observation wells equipped with water-level recorders have been used to monitor aquifer response. The water level in one well 32 miles south of the mine declined 17 feet from 1972 through 1979 and 3.5 feet during 1979. A mathematical model of the N aquifer was developed and calibrated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The model was used in part to improve estimates of aquifer characteristics and the water budget, and it successfully reproduced the observed response of the aquifer through 1979. The model results indicate that about 95 percent of

  10. Geologic map of the Clifton Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Clifton 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Colorado River/I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides interpretations of the Quaternary stratigraphy and geologic hazards in this area of the Grand Valley. The Clifton 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 16 different Quaternary units. Five prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains a large landslide deposit on the southern slopes of Mount Garfield. The landslide developed in the Mancos Shale and contains large blocks of the overlying Mesaverde Group. In addition, the landslide is a source of debris flows that have closed I-70 in the past. The major bedrock unit in the quadrangle is the Mancos Shale of Upper Cretaceous age. The map is accompanied by text containing unit descriptions, and sections on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and economic geology (including sand and gravel). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately 20 references are cited at the end of the report.

  11. Geology of the Horse Range Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Bush, A.L.; Bell, Henry; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Horse Range Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of the quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary strictures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  12. Resonant Frequency Monitoring at Mesa Arch, Canyonlands National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, A.; Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Culp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The national parks of southern Utah are home to a number of spectacular landmarks that draw visitors from across the world. However, there is currently no methodology in place to evaluate the structural health of these structures as they change through time or in the wake of a damaging event. Our study combines in-situ ambient vibration measurements with 3D numerical modeling to monitor the resonance characteristics of Mesa Arch, a prominent arch in Canyonlands National Park. We measure spectral and polarization attributes of ambient vibrations using two broadband seismometers: one placed on the arch and the other located at a distance of ~100 m for reference. Repeat measurements, ranging in duration from 1 hour to 3 days, are aimed at assessing short- and long-term changes in resonance characteristics, which in turn provide evidence of internal mechanical change. Numerical modal analysis, executed by inputting geometric and representative material properties of the arch into 3D modeling software, allows us to match the measured fundamental frequency as well as higher-order modes. Preliminary results suggest minor variations in resonant frequencies are predominantly controlled by thermal effects, i.e. changes in bulk material stiffness as the rock expands and contracts.

  13. Tunneling characteristics for nm-thick mesas consisting of a few intrinsic Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Ohmaki, Masayuki; Takemura, Ryota; Hamada, Kenji; Watanabe, Takao; Ota, Kensuke; Kitano, Haruhisa; Maeda, Atsutaka

    2008-10-01

    Very thin mesa structures consisting of a few intrinsic Josephson junctions have been fabricated on single crystal surfaces of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. In the fabrication procedure, annealing is conducted after the mesa structure is formed by Ar ion milling. Or, the annealing is skipped and, instead, the electrodes to the mesas have been deposited in vacuum immediately after crystals are cleaved. We have attained both uniform current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and small contact resistances, which are usually difficult to obtain at the same time in the case of nm-thick mesa structures. For the mesas thus fabricated, it is found that the Josephson critical current Jc of the top IJJ (the surface junction) is reduced significantly. The reduction of Jc is more significant when the doping level of the crystal used is lower. We argue that this is due to the proximity efiect of the surface junction, in which the top electrode is in close proximity with the Ag or Au film of a thickness of the order of 300 nm. For mesas obtained by this method, the switching probability distribution has been measured. It is found that when the mesa lateral size is larger than 2 μm the switching is unreproducible and lacking systematic temperature dependence. It is also found that escape temperature Tesc and the standard deviation σ for the switching probability distribution exhibits a large deviation from the Kramers' thermal activation theory. When the lateral size is no larger than 2 μm, the switching probability distribution results show coincidence with the theory in the temperature range from 1.3 K to 5 K. Below 0.5 K, the escape temperature tends to saturate and indicates a crossover near 0.5 K from the thermal activation to the macroscopic quantum tunneling.

  14. Eruptive vents for the Burro Mesa Rhyolite, Big Bend National Park, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, G.S.; Parker, D.F. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Detailed mapping of field relations and flow direction of the Burro Mesa Rhyolite (BMR) have identified vent localities at Burro Mesa, Kit Mountain, Cerro Castellan, Trap Mountain, and Goat Mountain, and the suggest the presence of additional, as yet unlocated, centers of eruption. This work confirms recent interpretations that BMR rocks were not erupted from the Pine Canyon caldera, but were instead erupted from isolated feeder localities in the Burro Mesa-Cerro Castellan area. At the Burro Mesa locality, the BMR contains a lower sparsely-porphyritic lava, a central porphyritic ash-flow tuff, and an upper abundantly-porphyritic lava. At all other mapped localities, only sparsely-porphyritic lava and Wasp Springs Flow Breccia (WSFB) are present. Two vents at Burro Mesa represent sources for separate BMR flows, as well as WSFB, which consists of numerous surge deposits with interbedded ash-flow tuff. Flow directional data suggests a third unlocated vent for abundantly-porphyritic lava in the SE region of Burro Mesa. Flow direction data also suggest that the SW end of Kit Mountain was a source for sparsely-porphyritic lava. A feeder dike at Cerro Castellan cuts up through the WSFB, flaring near the top into a volcanic dome of sparsely-porphyritic lava at the top of the mountain. This cross-cutting relationship was present at most vent localities. Mapping and flow direction data of BMR from vents and other localities suggest that the BMR consists of a discontinuous belt of individual domes, which trend in a southwesterly direction from Burro Mesa to Cerro Castellan.

  15. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  17. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and

  18. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  19. Homoepitaxial and Heteroepitaxial Growth on Step-Free SiC Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the initial discovery and development of new approaches to SiC homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth. These approaches are based upon the previously unanticipated ability to effectively supress two-dimensional nucleation of 3C-SiC on large basal plane terraces that form between growth steps when epitaxy is carried out on 4H- and 6H-SiC nearly on-axis substrates. After subdividing the growth surface into mesa regions, pure stepflow homoeptixay with no terrace nucleation was then used to grow all existing surface steps off the edges of screw-dislocation-free mesas, leaving behind perfectly on-axis (0001) basal plane mesa surfaces completely free of atomic-scale steps. Step-free mesa surfaces as large as 0.4 mm x 0.4 mm were experimentally realized, with the yield and size of step-free mesas being initally limited by substrate screw dislocations. Continued epitaxial growth following step-free surface formation leads to the formation of thin lateral cantilevers that extend the step-free surface area from the top edge of the mesa sidewalls. By selecting a proper pre-growth mesa shape and crystallographic orientation, the rate of cantilever growth can be greatly enhanced in a web growth process that has been used to (1) enlarge step-free surface areas and (2) overgrow and laterally relocate micropipes and screw dislocations. A new growth process, named step-free surface heteroepitaxy, has been developed to achieve 3C-SiC films on 4H- and 6H-SiC substrate mesas completely free of double positioning boundary and stacking fault defects. The process is based upon the controlled terrace nucleation and lateral expansion of a single island of 3C-SiC across a step-free mesa surface. Experimental results indicate that substrateepilayer lattice mismatch is at least partially relieved parallel to the interface without dislocations that undesirably thread through the thickness of the epilayer. These results should enable realization of improved Si

  20. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  1. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Neudeck,P.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Powell, J.; Du, H.; Skowronski, M.; Huang, X.; Dudley, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) measurements indicate non-trivial, in-plane, lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  2. View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east of top of quarry wall with forge site in foreground - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 4, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  3. Evolution of Lacustrine Environments on Mars and Their Significance: The Case for the Brazos Lakes and East Terra Meridiani Basins as Landing Sites for Surveyor 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Martian lacustrine environments must be considered as primary targets to explore on Mars. Terrestrial studies show that lakes are exceptional sites to keep the record of the evolution of climate, geology, water and life. Finding this record is also the principal objective of the Mars Surveyor Program. This record encompasses changes at local, regional and global scales. Lacustrine sediments provide critical information about all events occurring in the lake catchment area. They are also a locus of complex chemical processes, concentration for life and favorable sites for fossilization processes to take place. We proposed two candidate-sites in the Schiaparelli Crater region responding to this high-priority scientific objective at the June 1999 meeting in Buffalo, NY. The two sites are located in the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle, are well documented by MOC images, and are among the best evidence yet of a Martian past lacustrine activity. We develop their case as high-priority sites for the 01' mission.

  4. M.E.S.A, not Just a Seat at the Table: a Chicano Geology Student's Experience with Investigative Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    The MESA (math, engineering, science achievement) program in California engages educationally disadvantaged students, primarily minority groups, providing the opportunity to excel in math and science and graduate with math-based degrees. MESA at East Los Angeles Community College selected me, a returning 24 year-old Chicano student, for the SCEC (Southern California Earthquake Center) summer internship at Utah State University (USU). The project coordinators assigned me to a group with three other undergraduate geology students from across the continent and from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds to investigate geothermal systems in the Salton Trough and northern Utah. The peer-driven field work transformed student to investigator by forcing each participant to be responsible for the success of the entire group. In this environment, I rose to expectations along with my fellow interns managing a detailed field notebook, sampling, planning routes, level logger maintenance, and x-ray diffractometer analysis interpretation, among other things. Mentorship from and challenges proposed by the USU project advisor further built on this scaffolding of field experience. First hand fieldwork provides a battery of beneficial skills that many undergraduate geology students, especially at the two- year college level, rarely get an opportunity to participate in. The advantage of including non-traditional students from two- year colleges allows for a dynamic research network nationwide. Key sample collection by the East Los Angeles College (ELAC) Geology Club, a student- run club at an inner city community college, facilitated ongoing examination by collecting mud samples from gryphons and mudpots in the Salton Trough and testing temperature, pH levels, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids in the field. The samples were sent back to students at USU for further analysis. This collaborative effort is symbiotic as sharing the sampling responsibility allowed USU to

  5. The preliminary study of autophagy induction of SA and MeSA by confocal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Lijuan; Chen, Wenli

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy appears to be a highly conserved process from unicellular to multicellular eukaryotes which contributes to the equilibrium of intracelluar environment. While it would be harmful to the cells when it is excessive by inducing programmed cell death (PCD). It is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Previous studies have demonstrated autophagy can be induced during abiotic or biotic stresses. salicylic acid (SA) and methyl salicytic (MeSA) are endogenous signal molecules. We found SA and MeSA can induce autophagy in Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While autophagy was not induced by SA or MeSA in tobacco suspension cells under the same concentration and period. The differences in stuctures or physiological states may contribute to the results.

  6. Botanical prospecting for uranium on La Ventana Mesa, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starrett, Wm. H.; Cannon, Helen L.

    1954-01-01

    A botanical sampling program has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey on La Ventana Mesa, Sandoval County, N. Mex. A uranium-bearing coal in the Allison-Gibson members of the Cretaceous Mesaverde formation crops out in erosional remnants of the mesa.The coal is capped by a well-fractured 65-foot sandstone bed through which roots of a pinyon-juniper forest penetrate. Samples of several hundred branches of trees growing on top of the mesa were collected and analyzed for uranium. The assays ranged from 0.1 part per million to 2.3 ppm uranium in the wood ash. Dead branches, which were found to contain more uranium in the ash than live branches, were sampled where possible. The results have been contoured to indicated probable areas of mineralized coal. Parts of the north butte are recommended as favorable for physical exploration.

  7. 77 FR 53884 - High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission High Mesa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of High Mesa Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. 75 FR 63488 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event Surveillance SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D... Collection: Title: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event Surveillance. Type of Information... disease (CVD)-- that is, atherosclerosis and other forms of CVD that have not produced signs and...

  9. The Otay Mesa Higher Education Center: An Off-Campus Facility of the Southwestern Community College District. Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report to the California Governor and legislature reviews the proposal submitted by the Southwestern Community College District (SCCD) (California) to establish a state-approved educational center in Otay Mesa, to be known as the Southwestern Community College's Higher Education Center at Otay Mesa. The proposed state-supported center allows…

  10. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San... as the Airport Mesa/Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to...

  11. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Mesa Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate...

  12. 75 FR 76727 - Red Mesa Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Red Mesa Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Red Mesa Wind, LLC's application for market-based...

  13. Bats of Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado: composition, reproduction, and roosting habits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Snider, E. Apple; Valdez, Ernest W.; Ellison, Laura E.; Neubaum, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    We determined the bat fauna at Mesa Verde National Park (Mesa Verde) in 2006 and 2007, characterized bat elevational distribution and reproduction, and investigated roosting habits of selected species. We captured 1996 bats of 15 species in mist nets set over water during 120 nights of sampling and recorded echolocation calls of an additional species. The bat fauna at Mesa Verde included every species of bat known west of the Great Plains in Colorado, except the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). Some species showed skewed sex ratios, primarily due to a preponderance of males. Thirteen species of bats reproduced at Mesa Verde. Major differences in spring precipitation between the 2 years of our study were associated with differences in reproductive rates and, in some species, with numbers of juveniles captured. Reduced reproductive effort during spring drought will have a greater impact on bat populations with the forecasted increase in aridity in much of western North America by models of global climate change. We radiotracked 46 bats of 5 species to roosts and describe the first-known maternity colonies of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Colorado. All 5 species that we tracked to diurnal roosts relied almost exclusively on rock crevices rather than trees or snags, despite the presence of mature forests at Mesa Verde and the use of trees for roosts in similar forests elsewhere by some of these species. Comparisons with past bat surveys at Mesa Verde and in surrounding areas suggest no dramatic evidence for effects of recent stand-replacing fires on the composition of the bat community.

  14. The Silent Canyon caldera: a three-dimensional model as part of a Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Nevada, hydrogeologic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Phelps, Geoffery A.; Mankinen, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-dimensional caldera model based on gravity inversion, drill-hole data, and geologic mapping offers the framework for a hydrogeologic evaluation of the Silent Canyon caldera in the central part of Pahute Mesa, Nevada. It has been recognized for several decades that the central part of Pahute Mesa is the site of a buried caldera called the Silent Canyon caldera. Conceptually, the structural framework of the Silent Canyon caldera is based on the idea of collapse of the caldera roof over a shallow magma chamber to form a structural basin following violent volcanic eruptions. Calderas are common in certain volcanic regions of the world, and most well-exposed calderas are broadly similar to each other, particularly the arcuate or circular shape of their collapse depression. There are other reasons for modeling the Silent Canyon caldera as a circular feature in addition to knowledge that calderas throughout the world are generally circular features. The Silent Canyon caldera is the site of one of the largest gravity lows in the Western United States, indicating a thick accumulation of low-density rocks such as lavas and tuffs—a fact confirmed by drilling on Pahute Mesa. This gravity low is bowl-shaped, and the uppermost volcanic units on Pahute Mesa form a circular outcrop pattern of inward-dipping tuff interpreted to be the result of their filling the upper part of the bowl-shaped depression. Together, these features are consistent with, and indicative of, a circular collapse structural model for the Silent Canyon caldera. The collapse depression of the Silent Canyon caldera, bounded by arcuate faults, is filled with as much as 6 km (19,800 ft) of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that are considerably less dense than the underlying and surrounding basement rocks. The boundary surface between less dense caldera fill and more dense basement is modeled as the caldera ring fault. Rocks in the upper part of the caldera fill are penetrated by drilling, and the drill

  15. The Colorado MESA Program and CU-LASP: A Model for After School Program/Research Institution Collaboratives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, G.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.

    2004-12-01

    Colorado MESA is an after school program operating throughout the state with a long track record in promoting science, math and engineering education to largely underserved K-12 student populations. Currently, 81 percent of MESA students are from groups underrepresented in the math/science careers, and 85 percent of MESA students come from low- and moderate-income families. Through a combination of weekly student programs, field trips to universities and industry partners, family orientations, individual academic counseling and required curriculum, Colorado MESA offers an opportunity for students to explore STEM subjects and careers that they might not otherwise have access to - with tangible results. In the Colorado MESA Class of 2003, 97 percent of students planned on entering college this fall, with 86 percent indicating that they will enroll in math/science-based majors. In the last year, the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, a large space and earth sciences institute, has relied on the Colorado MESA program as its primary K-12 partner in Education and Public Outreach. LASP incorporates MESA into its proposal writing opportunities, from E/PO additions to individual research proposals to mission-level educational programs. In addition to funding opportunities, LASP provides scientists and engineers in a variety of contexts and content areas, while MESA works to incorporate those resources into their after school programs. The interface between the after school programs and the research institution requires ongoing communication and coordination in order to evaluate and fine-tune curriculum and activities based on feedback from MESA advisors and teachers. Currently, the MESA/LASP partnership has funded programs in astrobiology, planetary sciences and engineering.

  16. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3}(420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}).

  17. Land cover change monitoring within the east central Louisiana study site: A case for large area surveys with LANDSAT multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results established for four digital procedures developed for characterizing the radiometric changes between multidate LANDSAT spectral data sets into meaningful measures of land cover/use dynamics are documented. Each technique's performance was contrasted against digitized land use change maps, which were produced from contemporaneous, retrospective aerophoto coverage, in a cell by cell comparison over a one half by one degree area in east central Louisiana as a standard for comparison. The four techniques identify from 10.5 to 13.0% loss in area of forestland in a five year period; however, they differ more by how accurately this amount of change is distributed, the need for ancillary ground truth, and amount of usable information that is extractable. All require some method of digitally co-registering the two data sets. All are capable of providing tabular statistics as well as map products. Two are capable of detecting changes and identifying their locations. The other two, in addition to this, provide information to qualify land cover conditions at each end of the study interval.

  18. The records of terrestrial and marine biomarkers in South China Sea EXP349 Sites U1432C and U1433A, B: Implications for East Asian monsoon variability and paleoceanographic variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hyun, Sangmin; kim, Songyi

    2016-04-01

    Marine and terrestrial biomarkers, alkenones and n-alkanes compound, were investigated in sediment taken from the South China Sea (SCS) IODP Sites Exp. U1432C, U1433A and U1433B to evaluate Asian monsoon variability and paleoceanographic variations. Alkenone-based sea surface temperature (SSTalk) from the northern Site (U1432C) ranges from approximately 18.2oC to 28.3oC with an average of 24.4oC (n=65). Estimated SSTalk were slightly higher in the southern Site U1433A than at U1432C. SSTalk in Site U1433A ranges from 24.3oC to 27.4oC with an average 26.1oC (n=32), showing as much as 1.7oC higher SSTs than at U1432C. High concentrations of n-alkanes (nC21-35) are present throughout the Site SC1432C with strong fluctuations in the upper part (average = 496ug/g, n=140). The much higher records at U1433A and U1433B show long-range variations, but the concentration of n-alkanes remains constant below 244mbsf in Site 1433B (less than 200ug/g), suggesting an important change occurred at this horizon, dividing two different environmental domains. These differences in SSTalk and n-alkane concentration between two Sites might not only link with latitudinal location but also the influx of terrestrial biomarker due to the Asian monsoon variability and local oceanographic variations since the last approximately 1.5 Ma. Several indices of Average Chain Length (ACL) and Carbon Preferences Index (ICP) showed large shifts and fluctuations in both Sites. In particular, one of the paleo-plant proxy, Paq, also shows time-dependent large fluctuations in both Sites suggesting long time-scale variations in the flux of terrestrial organic compound as well as paleoclimatic changes in the East Asian area.

  19. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  20. Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This student manual contains information and guides to assist the secondary student in functioning as an archeologist. Included are fables, pictures for analysis, a time line and description of the pre-history of Mesa Verde, Colorado. The manual concludes with artifact identification word sheets. A related document is ED 001 722. (AWW)

  1. Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Library Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This collection of secondary readings contains general information about the ecology of living space, and specific information about the prehistory ecology of Mesa Verde, Colorado. There is also a section on how anthropologists use trees to date artifacts. A related document is indexed as ED 001 721. (AWW)

  2. Women's Self-Efficacy Perceptions in Mathematics and Science: Investigating USC-MESA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Rebecca C.; Jun, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions have struggled with the underrepresentation of female students in the STEM majors. The authors investigate the USC-MESA program and the role of women's self-efficacy perceptions in mathematics and science. It is crucial to understand the theory of self-efficacy in examining historically underrepresented populations in…

  3. 78 FR 34554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Blue Mesa, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...: History On March 26, 2013, the FAA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Blue Mesa, CO (78 FR 18268). Interested parties were invited to... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  4. 75 FR 46945 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event Surveillance SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of... Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis... and progression of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD)-- that is, atherosclerosis and other...

  5. Sociodemographic correlates of cognition in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to describe the methodology utilized to evaluate cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and to present preliminary results by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Cross-sectional measurements of a prospective observational cohort. Residents of 6 U.S. commun...

  6. Overview of the Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Speck, D E

    2008-04-28

    The Multiscale Epidemiologic/Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Decision Support System (DSS) is the product of investments that began in FY05 by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate and continue today with joint funding by both DHS and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The DSS consists of a coupled epidemiologic/economic model, a standalone graphical user interface (GUI) that supports both model setup and post-analysis, and a Scenario Bank archive to store all content related to foreign animal disease (FAD) studies. The MESA epi model is an object-oriented, agent-based, stochastic, spatio-temporal simulator that parametrically models FAD outbreaks and response strategies from initial disease introduction to conclusion over local, regional, and national scales. Through its output database, the epi model couples to an economic model that calculates farm-level impacts from animal infections, responsive control strategies and loss of trade. The MESA architecture contains a variety of internal models that implement the major components of the epi simulation, including disease introduction, intra-herd spread, inter-herd spread (direct and indirect), detection, and various control strategies (movement restrictions, culling, vaccination) in a highly configurable and extensible fashion. MESA development was originally focused to support investigations into the economic and agricultural industry impacts associated with Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD outbreaks). However, it has been adapted to other FADs such has Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Exotic Newcastle Disease (END). The MESA model is highly parameterized and employs an extensible architecture that permits straightforward addition of new component models (e.g., alternative disease spread approaches) when necessary. Since its inception, MESA has been developed with a requirement to enable simulation of the very large scale

  7. GeoMesa: a distributed architecture for spatio-temporal fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, James N.; Annex, Andrew; Eichelberger, Christopher N.; Fox, Anthony; Hulbert, Andrew; Ronquest, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in distributed databases and computing have transformed the landscape of spatio-temporal machine learning. This paper presents GeoMesa, a distributed spatio-temporal database built on top of Hadoop and column-family databases such as Accumulo and HBase, that includes a suite of tools for indexing, managing and analyzing both vector and raster data. The indexing techniques use space filling curves to map multi-dimensional data to the single lexicographic list managed by the underlying distributed database. In contrast to traditional non-distributed RDBMS, GeoMesa is capable of scaling horizontally by adding more resources at runtime; the index rebalances across the additional resources. In the raster domain, GeoMesa leverages Accumulo's server-side iterators and aggregators to perform raster interpolation and associative map algebra operations in parallel at query time. The paper concludes with two geo-time data fusion examples: using GeoMesa to aggregate Twitter data by keywords; and georegistration to drape full-motion video (FMV) over terrain.

  8. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa... action can meet its restoration objectives, and to assure consistency with the forest plan. Information... Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003, following regulations at 36 CFR part 218. To date,...

  9. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 08-85; RM-11427, RM-11517, RM-11518, RM-11519; DA 11- 2059] Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, First Mesa, Kachina Village, Wickenburg, and Williams, AZ, and Needles,...

  10. 77 FR 24673 - Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests; Colorado; Federal Coal Lease Modifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Forest Service Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forests; Colorado; Federal Coal Lease... decide whether or not to consent to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) modifying the Federal Coal Leases COC... federal coal lease may apply to modify a lease by adding up to 960 acres. The federal agencies...

  11. Water-quality characteristics of urban storm runoff at selected sites in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, February 2006 through November 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, C. Paul

    2011-01-01

    Water samples were collected at three watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, during February 2006 through November 2009 for continued evaluation of urban storm runoff. The watersheds represented land uses characterized predominantly as established commercial, industrial, and residential. The following water-quality data are reported: physical and chemical-related properties, fecal coliform, nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds. Results of water-quality analyses enabled calculation of event-mean concentrations and estimated annual contaminant loads and yields of storm runoff from nonpoint sources for 12 water-quality properties and constituents. Lead met or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 15 micrograms per liter for drinking water standards in 4 of 14 samples. Low level concentrations of mercury were detected in all 14 samples, and half were two to four times above the reporting limit of 0.02 micrograms per liter. The average dissolved phosphorus concentrations from each land use were two to four times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.05 milligrams per liter. Diazinon was detected in one sample at a concentration of 0.2 micrograms per liter. In the residential watershed, the largest at 216 acres, contaminant loads for 5 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents were highest, with 4 of these being nutrients. The industrial watershed, 97 acres, had the highest contaminant loads for 6 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents with 3 of these being metals, which is indicative of the type of land use. Zinc had the highest metal load (155 pounds per year) in the industrial watershed, compared to 36 pounds per year in the residential watershed, and 32 pounds per year in the established commercial watershed. The industrial watershed had the highest yields for 8 of the 12 water-quality properties and constituents, whereas the established commercial watershed had

  12. 3D multi-channel seismic imaging of melt-rich lenses beneath and off the East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Mutter, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Melt has a particularly strong effect on shear velocity, and therefore affects the amplitude versus offset behavior of P- and S-converted waves reflected off a crustal melt lens. The first 3D multi-streamer seismic reflection experiment conducted aboard R/V Langseth (Cruise MGL0812) collected a very dense dataset along and across the northern East Pacific Rise (EPR, ~9°34'N-9°58'N). In addition to P waves reflecting off the top of the axial magma chamber (AMC), this dataset contains evidence for the S-converted phase PAMCS, which allows us to qualitatively image melt-rich sections of the AMC (i.e., portions of the melt lens in which crystals are disconnected and cannot transmit shear stresses) by producing and comparing P- and S-wave partial-offset stacks. Reflection images obtained from a subset of data collected along the ridge crest between 9°42'N-9°54'N show a prominent melt-rich zone at ~9°42'N-9°44'N, ~10-12 km to the south of the southern end of the 2005-06 volcanic eruption. The preliminary images also show evidence for two other melt-rich sections where abundant hydrothermal activity has been documented: at ~9°47'N-9°48'N (southern edge of the 2005-06 eruption), and at ~9°50'N-9°52'N (near the center of the 2005-06 eruption), although data from these two areas require more analysis to confirm this finding. The melt-rich zones are ~2-4 km long and spaced every ~10-15 km along the ridge axis. We will also present results from data collected over melt lenses located several kilometers off-axis (see Canales et al., this meeting). This high resolution imaging of the distribution of crustal melt bodies and correlation with seafloor hydrothermal and biological activity will provide a key piece of information that is currently missing from our knowledge of the EPR mantle-to-microbe system.

  13. Occurrences of Orthopyroxene in the "Multi-textured" Layered Gabbros from the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise (the Site U1415P, IODP Expedition 345)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshide, T.; Machi, S.; Maeda, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Exp.345 drilled three main holes (Holes U1415 I, J & P) from the lowermost plutonic crust exposed at the Hess Deep Rift, East Pacific Rise and primitive layered gabbroic rocks were newly discovered from these holes (Gillis et al., 2014). One of the mysteries about the layered gabbros is the fact that Opx, which is considered to appear in the late stage of crystallization on the basis of crystallization experiments of MORB, occurs as a dominant phase in many of the layered gabbros. In this presentation, we report the occurrence of Opx from the Hole U1415P and consider the significance of Opx in the origin of the layered gabbros. Hole U1415P (about 100m in thickness) is divided into two units, the upper Multi-textured Layered Gabbro Series (MLGS) and lower Troctolite Series (TS). Gabbroic rocks from the MLGS contain Opx (< 4 vol%) and are macroscopically classified into Opx-bearing olivine gabbro. However, these rocks are mesoscopically (on cm scale) inhomogeneous and have a great variation of mode, grain size and texture. On the other hand, TS consists of homogeneous troctolites and Opx rarely occurs in the series. The occurrences of Opx from the MLGS are as follows: (i) coarse-grained Opx+Cpx+Pl vein parallel to the layered structure of the surrounding troctolite (ii) undeformed Opx+Pl veinlets in kinked Ol (iii) Opx in the concave of anhedral Ol (iv) Opx rimming Cr-spl crystals in contact with Ol. The occurrence of Opx like (ii) and (iii) resembles the texture which is considered to be formed by the reaction between mantle peridotite and a SiO2-saturated melt (e.g, Piccardo et al., 2007). The facts that Opx is often found in association with Cr-spl and Cr-spl lamellae occur in pyroxenes of the Opx+Cpx+Pl vein suggest that the SiO2-saturated melt which reacted with Ol was rich in chromium. In addition, Cr-spl crystals rimmed by Opx contain multiphase-solid inclusions. The inclusions should be key in understanding the chemical composition of the reacted melt.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-16-1 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-12-01

    Well ER-16-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit, Number 99. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of the Shoshone Mountain area, especially in the older Tertiary and pre-Tertiary strata. The main 46.99-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 702.9 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 663.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 1,220.7 meters. A completion string set at the depth of 1,162.4 meters consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless-steel casing, with one continuous slotted interval open to the lower carbonate aquifer. The fluid level in the borehole soon dropped, so the borehole was deepened in July 2006. To deepen the borehole, the slotted section was cemented and a 12.1-centimeter hole was drilled through the bottom of the completion string to the new total depth of 1,391.7 meters, which is 171.0 meters deeper than the original borehole. A string of 6.03-centimeter carbon-steel tubing with one continuous slotted interval at 1,361.8 to 1,381.4 meters, and open to the lower carbonate aquifer, was installed in the well with no gravel packing or cement, to serve as a monitoring string. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 37 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 646.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 744.9 meters

  15. Hunter-gatherer adaptations and environmental change in the southern Great Basin: The evidence from Pahute and Rainier mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Pippin, L.C.

    1998-06-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for fluctuations in past environments in the southern Great Basin and examines how these changes may have affected the strategies followed by past hunter and gatherers in their utilization of the resources available on a highland in this region. The evidence used to reconstruct past environments for the region include botanical remains from packrat middens, pollen spectra from lake and spring deposits, faunal remains recovered from archaeological and geologic contexts, tree-ring indices from trees located in sensitive (tree-line) environments, and eolian, alluvial and fluvial sediments deposited in a variety of contexts. Interpretations of past hunter and gatherer adaptive strategies are based on a sample of 1,311 archaeological sites recorded during preconstruction surveys on Pahute and Rainier mesas in advance of the US Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons testing program. Projectile point chronologies and available tree-ring, radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and obsidian hydration dates were used to assign these archaeological sites to specific periods of use.

  16. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  17. East Arabia Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows two small mesas, a hill, and other landforms in the highly-eroded landscape of eastern Arabia Terra.

    Location near: 30.0oN, 295.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  18. Year-round records of sea salt, gaseous, and particulate inorganic bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer at coastal (Dumont d'Urville) and central (Concordia) East Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Michel; Yang, Xin; Preunkert, Susanne; Theys, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Multiple year-round records of bulk and size-segregated compositions of aerosol were obtained at the coastal Dumont d'Urville (DDU) and inland Concordia sites located in East Antarctica. They document the sea-salt aerosol load and composition including, for the first time in Antarctica, the bromide depletion of sea-salt aerosol relative to sodium with respect to seawater. In parallel, measurements of bromide trapped in mist chambers and denuder tubes were done to investigate the concentrations of gaseous inorganic bromine species. These data are compared to simulations done with an off-line chemistry transport model, coupled with a full tropospheric bromine chemistry scheme and a process-based sea-salt production module that includes both sea-ice-sourced and open-ocean-sourced aerosol emissions. Observed and simulated sea-salt concentrations sometime differ by up to a factor of 2 to 3, particularly at DDU possibly due to local wind pattern. In spite of these discrepancies, both at coastal and inland Antarctica, the dominance of sea-ice-related processes with respect to open ocean emissions for the sea-salt aerosol load in winter is confirmed. For summer, observations and simulations point out sea salt as the main source of gaseous inorganic bromine species. Investigations of bromide in snow pit samples do not support the importance of snowpack bromine emissions over the Antarctic Plateau. To evaluate the overall importance of the bromine chemistry over East Antarctica, BrO simulations were also discussed with respect data derived from GOME-2 satellite observations over Antarctica.

  19. Completion Report for Well ER-20-7: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-04-28

    Well ER-20-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to further investigate migration of radionuclides from the nearby, up-gradient TYBO and BENHAM underground nuclear tests, which originally was discovered at Well Cluster ER-20-5. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 44.45-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 681.8 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 671.7 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.12 centimeters, and the well was drilled to total depth of 894.9 meters. The completion string, set to the depth of 890.0 meters, consists of 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.37-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The 14.13-centimeter stainless-steel casing has one continuous slotted interval open to the Topopah Spring aquifer. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 meters, sidewall core samples from 20 depth intervals, various geophysical logs, water quality (primarily tritium) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 894.9 meters of Tertiary volcanic rock, including two saturated welded-tuff aquifers. A fluid level measurement was obtained during open-hole geophysical well logging for the upper, Tiva Canyon, aquifer at the depth of 615.7 meters on June 19, 2009. The fluid level measured in the open hole on June 27, 2009,after the total depth was reached and the upper aquifer was cased off, was also at the depth of 615.7 meters. Preliminary field measurements indicated 1

  20. Stochastic source comparisons between nuclear and chemical explosions detonated at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, B.W.; Pearson, D.C.; Reinke, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    The focus of this study is the understanding of the time function effects for chemical and nuclear explosion sources detonated in a spherical geometry. Information developed here in combination with similar studies for earthquakes and mining explosions will be used to improve current discriminants, address the transportability of the discriminants to new regions and suggest new discriminants utilizing current data sources. The quantification of the seismic source time function for nuclear and chemical explosions provides the basis for identifying source differences that may develop as a function of yield as well as explosive type (chemical or nuclear). The yield effects are useful in yield determination as well as assessing detection and identification capabilities if seismic monitoring of such sources is important. Source effects attributable to yield can be used to establish new or verify existing scaling relations.

  1. 4. East elevation, facing west (Note: B/W scale on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. East elevation, facing west (Note: B/W scale on east elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. Numerical and experimental study of the mesa configuration in high-voltage 4H-SiC PiN rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Chuan; Chen, Xi-Xi; Li, Cheng-Zhan; Shen, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the mesa configuration on the reverse breakdown characteristic of a SiC PiN rectifier for high-voltage applications is analyzed in this study. Three geometrical parameters, i.e., mesa height, mesa angle and mesa bottom corner, are investigated by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that a deep mesa height, a small mesa angle and a smooth mesa bottom (without sub-trench) could contribute to a high breakdown voltage due to a smooth and uniform surface electric field distribution. Moreover, an optimized mesa structure without sub-trench (mesa height of 2.2 μm and mesa angle of 20°) is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum reverse blocking voltage of 4 kV and a forward voltage drop of 3.7 V at 100 A/cm2 are obtained from the fabricated diode with a 30-μm thick N- epi-layer, corresponding to 85% of the ideal parallel-plane value. The blocking characteristic as a function of the JTE dose is also discussed for the PiN rectifiers with and without interface charge. Project supported by the State Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61234006), the Open Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, China (Grant No. KFJJ201301), and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02305-003).

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disturbances: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Rui; Zee, Phyllis; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Javaheri, Sogol; Alcántara, Carmela; Jackson, Chandra L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited research on racial/ethnic variation in sleep disturbances. This study aimed to quantify the distributions of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB), short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and self-reported sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia) across racial/ethnic groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Six US communities. Participants: Racially/ethnically diverse men and women aged 54–93 y in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep Cohort (n = 2,230). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Information from polysomnography-measured SDB, actigraphy-measured sleep duration and quality, and self-reported daytime sleepiness were obtained between 2010 and 2013. Overall, 15.0% of individuals had severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30); 30.9% short sleep duration (< 6 h); 6.5% poor sleep quality (sleep efficiency < 85%); and 13.9% had daytime sleepiness. Compared with Whites, Blacks had higher odds of sleep apnea syndrome (AHI ≥ 5 plus sleepiness) (sex-, age-, and study site-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20, 2.63), short sleep (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 3.56, 6.90), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.48), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.60). Hispanics and Chinese had higher odds of SDB and short sleep than Whites. Among non-obese individuals, Chinese had the highest odds of SDB compared to Whites. Only 7.4% to 16.2% of individuals with an AHI ≥ 15 reported a prior diagnosis of sleep apnea. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults, and vary by race/ethnicity, sex, and obesity status. The high prevalence of sleep disturbances and undiagnosed sleep apnea among racial/ethnic minorities may contribute to health disparities. Citation: Chen X, Wang R, Zee P, Lutsey PL, Javaheri S, Alcántara C, Jackson CL, Williams MA, Redline S. Racial/ethnic differences in sleep disturbances: the Multi-Ethnic Study

  4. Analysis of Well ER-EC-1 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-1 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-1 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  5. Analysis of Well ER-EC-7 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-7 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program was documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-7 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  6. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  7. Analysis of Well ER-EC-5 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-5 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-5 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  8. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  9. Analysis of Well ER-EC-4 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-4 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-4 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  10. Analysis of Well ER-EC-8 testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-8 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-8 Data Report for development and Hydraulic Testing.

  11. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  12. Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Kalaiselvi, Marimuthu Maruthi; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2016-01-01

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars ‘IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46’ under greenhouse condition. MeSA seed treatments at 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L significantly increased seedling emergence. Effects were stronger in IR 50, and IR 64 and the effects were dose dependent, although the relationship between dose and effect was not always linear. MeSA seed treated rice plant against bacterial blight were analyzed. Bacterial blight was more effectively controlled by the seed treated with 100 mg/L than others. These results suggest that seed treatment with MeSA alters plant physiology in ways that may be useful for crop production as well as protection. PMID:27725719

  13. Counterclockwise rotations in the Late Eocene-Oligocene volcanic fields of San Luis Potosí and Sierra de Guanajuato (eastern Mesa Central, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, Louis; Gattacceca, Jerôme; Rangin, Claude; Martínez-Reyes, Juventino; Demory, François

    2014-12-01

    We used paleomagnetic and structural data to investigate the late Eocene-Oligocene tectonic evolution of the Mesa Central area in Mexico. The Mesa Central was affected by NW-trending faults (Tepehuanes-San Luis fault system) coeval with a Late Eocene-Oligocene ignimbrite flare-up and by post-27 Ma NNE-trending grabens related to the Basin and Range. We obtained reliable paleomagnetic directions from 61 sites within the Late Eocene-Oligocene volcanic series (~ 30 to ~ 27 Ma) of the San Luis Potosí volcanic field and Sierra de Guanajuato. For each site we also measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Tilt corrections were made using AMS data for 33 sites where in situ bedding measurements were not available. Paleomagnetic directions indicate counterclockwise rotations of about 10° with respect to stable North America after 30-25 Ma. Structural data suggest that the volcanic succession was mainly affected by normal faults. However, we also found evidences for oblique or horizontal striae showing a left-lateral component along NW-trending faults and a right lateral component along NE-trending faults. Both motions are consistent with a N-S extension oblique to the Tepehuanes-San Luis fault system. Previous paleomagnetic studies in northern and southern Mexico show the prevalence of minor left-lateral shear components along regional-scale transpressional and transtensional lineaments. Our paleomagnetic data may reflect thus small vertical-axis rotations related to a minor shear component coeval with the Oligocene intra-arc extension in central Mexico.

  14. Air Pollution and Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Adar, Sara D.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Lovasi, Gina S.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although research has shown that low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority communities have higher exposure to air pollution, few studies have simultaneously investigated the associations of individual and neighborhood SES with pollutants across multiple sites. Objectives: We characterized the distribution of ambient air pollution by both individual and neighborhood SES using spatial regression methods. Methods: The study population comprised 6,140 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Year 2000 annual average ambient PM2.5 and NOx concentrations were calculated for each study participant’s home address at baseline examination. We investigated individual and neighborhood (2000 U.S. Census tract level) SES measures corresponding to the domains of income, wealth, education, and occupation. We used a spatial intrinsic conditional autoregressive model for multivariable analysis and examined pooled and metropolitan area–specific models. Results: A 1-unit increase in the z-score for family income was associated with 0.03-μg/m3 lower PM2.5 (95% CI: –0.05, –0.01) and 0.93% lower NOx (95% CI: –1.33, –0.53) after adjustment for covariates. A 1-SD–unit increase in the neighborhood’s percentage of persons with at least a high school degree was associated with 0.47-μg/m3 lower mean PM2.5 (95% CI: –0.55, –0.40) and 9.61% lower NOx (95% CI: –10.85, –8.37). Metropolitan area–specific results exhibited considerable heterogeneity. For example, in New York, high-SES neighborhoods were associated with higher concentrations of pollution. Conclusions: We found statistically significant associations of SES measures with predicted air pollutant concentrations, demonstrating the importance of accounting for neighborhood- and individual-level SES in air pollution health effects research. Citation: Hajat A, Diez-Roux AV, Adar SD, Auchincloss AH, Lovasi GS, O’Neill MS, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD. 2013. Air pollution and

  15. Evaluation of Pleistocene groundwater flow through fractured tuffs using a U-series disequilibrium approach, Pahute Mesa, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paces, James B.; Nichols, Paul J.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Rajaram, Harihar

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater flow through fractured felsic tuffs and lavas at the Nevada National Security Site represents the most likely mechanism for transport of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests at Pahute Mesa. To help evaluate fracture flow and matrix–water exchange, we have determined U-series isotopic compositions on more than 40 drill core samples from 5 boreholes that represent discrete fracture surfaces, breccia zones, and interiors of unfractured core. The U-series approach relies on the disruption of radioactive secular equilibrium between isotopes in the uranium-series decay chain due to preferential mobilization of 234U relative to 238U, and U relative to Th. Samples from discrete fractures were obtained by milling fracture surfaces containing thin secondary mineral coatings of clays, silica, Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides, and zeolite. Intact core interiors and breccia fragments were sampled in bulk. In addition, profiles of rock matrix extending 15 to 44 mm away from several fractures that show evidence of recent flow were analyzed to investigate the extent of fracture/matrix water exchange. Samples of rock matrix have 234U/238U and 230Th/238U activity ratios (AR) closest to radioactive secular equilibrium indicating only small amounts of groundwater penetrated unfractured matrix. Greater U mobility was observed in welded-tuff matrix with elevated porosity and in zeolitized bedded tuff. Samples of brecciated core were also in secular equilibrium implying a lack of long-range hydraulic connectivity in these cases. Samples of discrete fracture surfaces typically, but not always, were in radioactive disequilibrium. Many fractures had isotopic compositions plotting near the 230Th-234U 1:1 line indicating a steady-state balance between U input and removal along with radioactive decay. Numerical simulations of U-series isotope evolution indicate that 0.5 to 1 million years are required to reach steady-state compositions. Once attained, disequilibrium 234U/238U

  16. Imaging of local temperature distributions in mesas of high-Tc superconducting terahertz sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, M.; Kambara, H.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshioka, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kakeya, I.

    2014-12-01

    Stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors are a promising source of intense, continuous, and monochromatic terahertz waves. In this paer, we establish a fluorescence-based temperature imaging system to directly image the surface temperature on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa sample. Intense terahertz emissions are observed in both high- and low-bias regimes, where the mesa voltage satisfies the cavity resonance condition. In the high- bias regime, the temperature distributions are shown to be inhomogeneous with a considerable temperature rise. In contrast, in the low-bias regime, the distributions are rather uniform and the local temperature is close to the bath temperature over the entire sample.

  17. Impact of boron on the step-free area formation on Si(111) mesa structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roy Chaudhuri, Ayan Osten, H. J.; Fissel, A.

    2015-12-28

    We report about the influence of boron (B) on surface morphology of Si layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) mesas. Dimension of step-free mesa areas is reduced in comparison to pristine Si and scales with the B-coverage. This can be explained by a reduced mass transport on the Si surface in the presence of B-induced √3 × √3 surface structure which is due to a reduced Si equilibrium free adatom density. We demonstrate that a suitable combination of initial B coverage and Si layer thickness results in large step free areas and B doping concentration up to 4 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}.

  18. MESA 3-D calculations of armor penetration by projectiles with combined obliquity and yaw

    SciTech Connect

    Cagliostro, D.J.; Mandell, D.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.; Adams, T.F.; Chapyak, E.J. )

    1989-01-01

    We introduce and briefly describe MESA, a new 3-D hydrodynamic code, developed specifically for simulations of armor and anti-armor systems. The code's current capabilities an its planned model improvements and additions are discussed. An Eulerian code using state-of-the-art numerical methods, MESA runs faster and is less affected by spurious numerical diffusion than older codes. It models hydrodynamic flow and the dynamic deformation of solid materials. It uses simple elastic-perfectly plastic material strength models as well as models with strain and strainrate hardening and thermal softening. Future versions will incorporate advanced fracture models. It treats detonations in explosives using a programmed burn. The code's current capabilities are illustrated with simulations of experiments on yawed rods obliquely impacting armor plates at 1.29 km/s. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  19. The composition of PM10 as collected by a conventional TEOM, a modified TEOM and a Partisol gravimetric monitor at a kerbside site in the North East of England.

    PubMed

    Bulpitt, Susan; Price, Monica

    2006-10-01

    The composition of airborne particulate matter sampled by a conventional TEOM, an experimental modified TEOM, operated at a lower temperature but fitted with a drier to remove moisture and a Partisol, installed at a kerbside site in the North East of England, has been investigated. The results indicate that there is a seasonal variation in the composition of PM(10) as sampled by the three monitors, with chloride concentration being significantly higher in the winter. The Partisol was found to sample a higher mass of chloride and nitrate, however the differences between the monitors was only significant for chloride. Both TEOM's were found to sample a greater mass of sulphate, although the variability in the data collected meant that significance of the results was not proven statistically. The range of artifacts associated with PM(10) monitors is reviewed. Difficulties in the interpretation of results due to the variable nature of airborne particulate matter and the ability of filter based systems to accurately represent the composition of atmospheric particles are considered.

  20. Investigations on the Structure Tectonics, Geophysics, Geochemistry, and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Black Mesa Basin, Northeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Colin; Carroll, Herbert; Erickson, Richard; George, Steve; Guo, Genliang; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma, Bijon; Szpakiewicz, Michael; Volk, Len

    1999-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has instituted a basin-analysis study program to encourage drilling in underexplored and unexplored areas and increase discovery rates for hydrocarbons by independent oil companies within the continental United States. The work is being performed at the DOE's National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, by the Exploration and Drilling Group within BDM-Oklahoma (BDM), the manager of the facility for DOE. Several low-activity areas in the Mid-Continent, west, and southwest were considered for the initial study area (Reeves and Carroll 1994a). The Black Mesa region in northwestern Arizona is shown on the U.S. Geological Survey 1995 oil and gas map of the United States as an undrilled area, adapted from Takahashi and Gautier 1995. This basin was selected by DOE s the site for the initial NIPER-BDM survey to develop prospects within the Lower-48 states (Reeves and Carroll 1994b).

  1. Coal and coalbed methane resources of Cretaceous rocks of the Black Mesa Basin, northeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Nations, J.D.; Haven, H.W.; Swift, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    Cretaceous rocks of the Black Mesa basin of northeastern Arizona were deposited from Late Cenomanian to Santonian time near the western depositional limit of the transgressive-regressive Greenhorn and Niobrara cyclothems. Coal-bearing rocks of the sequence (including the Dakota Formation, Toreva Formation and Wepo Formation) are preserved in the Black Mesa structural basin of Laramide age. These rocks of the Black Mesa basin are the object of an NSF-sponsored research project to evaluate their coal resources and potential for coalbed methane occurrence. Forty-five measured sections and descriptions of Cretaceous rocks around the eastern margin of the basin have been incorporated into a data base in the software program LOGGER, and have been used to construct a series of stratigraphic cross-sections across the basin using the software program MacSection. These include coal beds and carbonaceous shales that are potential sources of methane as well as reservoirs, and sandstone bodies that are potential secondary reservoirs of methane (and possibly petroleum hydrocarbons from the Mancos Shale). In order to trace the facies changes between measured sections, aerial videography and 35 mm slides have been taken along the entire eastern margin of Black Mesa, a distance of 70 miles. These were digitized to provide detailed lithofacies analyses of the stratigraphic sections along the north-trending cliff line. Trends of thickness variations within these facies are interpreted from isopach maps and known shoreline trends, in order to predict the areas of greatest probability of coalbed methane generation and accumulation. These predictions are also based on the locations of anticlinal and monoclinal fold axes where they cross the thickest coal trends, due to likely enhancement of permeability by cleat and butt fractures in the coal and shale reservoir rocks.

  2. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Mineral resources of the Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, M.I.; Patterson, C.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Schreiner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Study Area in Delta, Mesa, and Montrose counties, Colorado, contains flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Triassic to Cretaceous age underlain by Proterozoic crystalline rocks. Investigations by the US Geological Survey and US Bureau of Mines revealed that the wilderness study area has low mineral resource potential for metals, including uranium, oil and gas, coal, and geothermal energy. No identified resources are present.

  4. Variability of the Tsushima Warm Current during the Pleistocene and its relationship with the evolution of the East Asian Monsoon. Preliminary results from IODP Expedition 346 (Sites U1427 and U1428/29) based on benthic ostracod assemblages.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassetti, M. A.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Toucanne, S.; Yasuhara, M.; Holbourn, A. E.; Sagawa, T.; Tada, R.; Murray, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    The semi-enclosed marginal sea bordered by the Eurasian continent, the Korean peninsula and the Japanese Islands has an average depth of 1350 m and is connected with other marginal seas in the region by shallow and narrow straits. At present, the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC), a branch of the Kuroshio Current, is the only warm current flowing into the marginal sea west of Japan. The TWC carries both subtropical water originating from the North Pacific and fresher runoff water derived from East China Sea continental shelf. The northerly flow of the TWC through the shallow Tsushima Straits is ultimately controlled by relative sea level variations over time. IODP Expedition 346 Sites U1427 and U1428/29 are ideally located to record changes in (i) the intensity of the influx of the TWC, and (ii) the intermediate ventilation of the marginal sea over the last million years. The Japan Sea Intermediate Water (JSIW) corresponds to a vertical salinity minimum, found below the TWC, between 200 and 400-500 m water depth. The JSIW shows a relatively high oxygen concentration, related to the deep water convection in winter and linked to fresh water supply during winter monsoon intervals. Based on recent observations, it is thought during glacial and interglacial conditions, and millennial scale climate cycles the intensity of deep and intermediate water currents varied but the mechanisms of such variations are not fully known. Microfossil faunal proxies can be used for tracking bottom environmental conditions related to variability of the bottom water circulation intensity. Here, we present preliminary results obtained using ostracods (benthic microcrustaceans) that are abundant in the sedimentary sequences recovered at Sites U1427 and U1428/29, and are known to react sensitively to changes in water masses physico-chemical parameters. In particular, the variability of the genus Krithe through time is correlated with the sortable silt (carbonate-free, 10-63 µm sediment size

  5. Final phase testing and evaluation of the 500 kW direct contact pilot plant at East Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Nichols, K.; Werner, D.

    1983-12-01

    The testing performed during the last phase of the geothermal direct contact heat exchanger program utilizing the 500 kW pilot plant provided more insight into the capabilities and limits of the direct contact approach and showed that more work needs to be done to understand the inner workings of a large direct contact heat exchanger if they are to be modeled analytically. Testing of the column demonstrated that the performance was excellent and that the sizing criteria is conservative. The system operated smoothly and was readily controlled over a wide range of operating conditions. Performance evaluation showed pinch differentials of 4/sup 0/F or less and better than predicted heat transfer capability. Testing during this final phase was directed towards establishing the limits of the column to transfer heat. The working column height was shortened progressively to approximately 16 feet from a design length of 28 feet. The short column performed as well as a full length column and there are indications that the column could have been shortened even more without affecting its ability to transfer heat. The column's ability to perform as well with shortened lengths indicates that the heat transfer coefficients and criteria derived from the small scale tests are very conservative.

  6. The East Anglian Eye Bank.

    PubMed

    Knights, P

    1991-07-01

    The first Corneal Bank in East Anglia is located at the BUPA Hospital in Norwich, a joint venture between NHS, BUPA and the Lions Clubs International (District 101 EA). There was insufficient space to accommodate the Bank at the West Norwich Hospital where the Ophthalmic Department is situated and so, at the suggestion of the BUPA Hospital Manager, Mr Paul Hanke, It came to the BUPA Colney Lane site.

  7. Switching current distributions and macroscopic quantum tunneling in over-doped BSCCO mesas with nanometer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakeya, I.; Hamada, K.; Tachiki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Suzuki, M.

    2009-11-01

    The current-voltage characteristics and switching dynamics are studied in over-doped (Pb,Bi)2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (PbBi2212) and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ (Bi2223) mesa structures containing a few atomic-scale intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) along the c axis. The cleave-in-vacuum method enables us to avoid the contact problems that are always accompanied by mesa structures. The highest critical current density of the zero-voltage state as Jc1 = 3.2 kA cm-2 among our micron-scale mesa structures of BSCCO cuprates are achieved. Narrowing of the switching probability distribution (SPD) due to suppression of the thermal fluctuation tends to saturate at 5 K, which is regarded as a symptom of macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT). The crossover temperature between the MQT and the thermal escape regions is estimated as 2.2 K for the sample with the highest Jc1. In the high temperature region, another narrowing in SPD is observed that was attributed to the phase retrapping.

  8. The Confluence of Gangis and Eos Chasmas (5-12 deg S, 31-41 deg W): Geologic, Hydrologic, and Exobiologic Considerations for Landing Site at the East End of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, J. A.; Clifford, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Over its 3,500 km length, Valles Marineris exhibits an enormous range of geologic and environmental diversity. At its western end, the canyon is dominated by the tectonic complex of Noctis Labyrinthus; while in the east it grades into an extensive region of chaos where scoured channels and streamlined islands provide evidence of catastrophic floods that spilled into the northern plains. In the central portion of the system, debris derived from the massive interior layered deposits of Candor and Ophir Chasmas spills into the central trough. In other areas, 6 km-deep exposures of Hesperian and Noachian-age canyon wall stratigraphy have collapsed in massive landslides that extend many tens of kilometers across the canyon floor. Ejecta from interior craters, aeolian sediments, and possible volcanics emanating from structurally controlled vents along the base of the scarps, further contribute to the canyon's geologic complexity. Following the initial rifting that gave birth to Valles Marineris, water appears to have been a principal agent in the canyon's geomorphic development an agent whose significance is given added weight by its potential role in both sustaining and preserving evidence of past life. In this regard, the interior layered deposits of Candor, Ophir, and Hebes Chasmas, have been identified as possible lucustrine sediments that may have been laid down in long-standing ice-covered lakes. The potential survival and growth of native organisms in such an environment, or in the aquifers whose disruption gave birth to the chaotic terrain and outflow channels to the north and east of the canyon, raises the possibility that fossil indicators of life may be present in the local sediment and rock. Because of the enormous distances over which these diverse environments occur, identifying a single landing site that maximizes the opportunity for scientific return is not a simple task. However, given the fluvial history and narrow geometry of the canyon, the presence

  9. The Confluence of Gangis and Eos Chasmas (5-12 deg S, 31-41 deg W): Geologic, Hydrologic, and Exobiologic Considerations for Landing Site at the East End of Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. A.; Clifford, S. M.

    1999-06-01

    Over its 3,500 km length, Valles Marineris exhibits an enormous range of geologic and environmental diversity. At its western end, the canyon is dominated by the tectonic complex of Noctis Labyrinthus; while in the east it grades into an extensive region of chaos where scoured channels and streamlined islands provide evidence of catastrophic floods that spilled into the northern plains. In the central portion of the system, debris derived from the massive interior layered deposits of Candor and Ophir Chasmas spills into the central trough. In other areas, 6 km-deep exposures of Hesperian and Noachian-age canyon wall stratigraphy have collapsed in massive landslides that extend many tens of kilometers across the canyon floor. Ejecta from interior craters, aeolian sediments, and possible volcanics emanating from structurally controlled vents along the base of the scarps, further contribute to the canyon's geologic complexity. Following the initial rifting that gave birth to Valles Marineris, water appears to have been a principal agent in the canyon's geomorphic development an agent whose significance is given added weight by its potential role in both sustaining and preserving evidence of past life. In this regard, the interior layered deposits of Candor, Ophir, and Hebes Chasmas, have been identified as possible lucustrine sediments that may have been laid down in long-standing ice-covered lakes. The potential survival and growth of native organisms in such an environment, or in the aquifers whose disruption gave birth to the chaotic terrain and outflow channels to the north and east of the canyon, raises the possibility that fossil indicators of life may be present in the local sediment and rock. Because of the enormous distances over which these diverse environments occur, identifying a single landing site that maximizes the opportunity for scientific return is not a simple task. However, given the fluvial history and narrow geometry of the canyon, the presence

  10. Success in East Harlem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    Traces the history of the Central Park East Elementary and Secondary Schools in Manhattan (NY), discusses the educational philosophy of the schools, and pinpoints changes Central Park East teachers have made in the traditional school structure. (PS)

  11. Stratigraphic revision and depositional environments of the Upper Cretaceous Toreva Formation in the northern Black Mesa area, Navajo and Apache counties, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Franczyk, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two units previously included in the upper part of the Toreva Formation in northern Black Mesa have been assigned new stratigraphic names. One unit previously assigned to the Toreva is reassigned to the Wepo Formation. This report describes the sedimentology of the Toreva Formation and these new units and the depositional history of the Black Mesa area during middle Turonian through early Santonian time. Correlations are made among these units on Black Mesa and Cretaceous sequences in southern Utah and western New Mexico.

  12. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Gregory W; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Rice, Clifford P; Hively, W Dean; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Lang, Megan W; Whitall, David R; Bialek, Krystyna; Downey, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Over 50% of streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been rated as poor or very poor based on the index of biological integrity. The Choptank River estuary, a Bay tributary on the eastern shore, is one such waterway, where corn and soybean production in upland areas of the watershed contribute significant loads of nutrients and sediment to streams. We adopted a novel approach utilizing the relationship between the concentration of nitrate-N and the stable, water-soluble herbicide degradation product MESA {2-[2-ethyl-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-6-methylanilino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid} to distinguish between dilution and denitrification effects on the stream concentration of nitrate-N in agricultural subwatersheds. The ratio of mean nitrate-N concentration/(mean MESA concentration * 1000) for 15 subwatersheds was examined as a function of percent cropland on hydric soil. This inverse relationship (R(2)=0.65, p<0.001) takes into consideration not only dilution and denitrification of nitrate-N, but also the stream sampling bias of the croplands caused by extensive drainage ditch networks. MESA was also used to track nitrate-N concentrations within the estuary of the Choptank River. The relationship between nitrate-N and MESA concentrations in samples collected over three years was linear (0.95 ≤ R(2) ≤ 0.99) for all eight sampling dates except one where R(2)=0.90. This very strong correlation indicates that nitrate-N was conserved in much of the Choptank River estuary, that dilution alone is responsible for the changes in nitrate-N and MESA concentrations, and more importantly nitrate-N loads are not reduced in the estuary prior to entering the Chesapeake Bay. Thus, a critical need exists to minimize nutrient export from agricultural production fields and to identify specific conservation practices to address the hydrologic conditions within each subwatershed. In well drained areas, removal of residual N within the cropland is most critical, and practices such

  13. Analysis of stratigraphic barriers (caprock) between sands in the cretaceous Mesa Verde formation, US DOE Multiwell Experiment, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J.

    1984-03-01

    Pressure differences between the caprock tests performed and the in-situ reservoir pressures at the Multiwell site preclude any conclusions as to whether drawdown of one sandstone could result in production from an adjacent sand by gas breaching the stratigraphic barriers. On the other hand, the caprock tests performed at IGT do provide the following useful conclusions: (1) In-situ water permeability of the stratigraphic barrier material is extremely low. (2) There is a fairly good inverse correlation between permeability to water and threshold pressure. (3) All of the permeability and threshold pressure data was taken on these samples in a vertical direction. Because of the layered and laminated structure of these rocks, one would expect to find far different numbers in a horizontal direction. This has implications with regard to horizontal flow between adjacent sand lenses at the same depth, as opposed to vertical flow between underlying and overlying sand bodies. (4) Although a few of the barrier cores appeared marginally adequate to transmit gas between sand units based on the CTA data, whether they will do so in the ground is doubtful. (5) The material most likely to allow gas migration between sand lenses was that in the Coastal Zone. (6) It is far more likely that if gas migration occurs between sand lenses in the Multiwell, gas will move through the barrier material by way of natural or man-made fractures. Fracture permeability is probably many orders of magnitude higher than the ultra-tight shale and siltstone matrix, and threshold pressure in a fracture is quite low. The tests performed by IGT, however, were done on carefully chosen, unfractured core, and we have no information on the dynamics of gas movement through fractured stratigraphic barriers. The stratigraphic barrier material between sand lenses in the Mesa Verde at the Multiwell site would make an excellent caprock for an underground gas storage field. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Comparison of Vadose Zone Hydrology of Semiarid Mesas and Canyons on the Pajarito Plateau, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, B. D.

    2001-12-01

    Estimation of vadose zone processes such as recharge over plateau or basin scales requires an understanding how different topographic and/or geomorphic features control or influence vadose zone behavior. In this study, combinations of moisture content, anion (e.g., chloride), stable isotope (δ 18O and δ D), and contaminant depth profiles are used to compare mesa versus canyon vadose zone hydrology. Mesas and canyons are the two dominant topographic/geomorphic features of the Pajarito Plateau and the profile results suggest that they play a strong role in controlling variability in the downward fluxes of water. The data suggest that recharge through the mesas is minimal (less than a few mm/yr) or non-existent. Average volumetric moisture contents are quite low (10% or less) and commonly approach 2% in some units. Pore water anion concentrations tend to be high (e.g., 100's to 1000's of mg/L chloride) and stable isotope profiles can show evidence of strong evaporation. There are two exceptions to the low mesa fluxes however. First, where localized ponding on the mesa tops occurs (either natural or man-made), there is good evidence that downward fluxes increase substantially and depths of at least 30 m can be affected within a few decades. Second, it appears that the upslope portion of mesas adjacent to the mountain front may have significant downward fluxes as well. In contrast to the generally low downward movement in mesas, canyons show evidence of faster downward movement. Contaminant distributions (e.g., high explosives and perchlorate) with depth show recharge to deep aquifers (>100 m) in fifty years or less. Anion porewater concentrations are lower than in the mesa environments and stable isotope values are typically more negative than in the mesas. The faster downward movement of water in canyons appears to hold whether the canyon has ephemeral, perennial, or man-made contributions to flow. However, the data do suggest that even in the canyons, substantial

  15. Porosity, permeability, and pore structure of the tight Mesa Verde sandstone, Piceance Basin, CO

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J.; Randolph, P.L.

    1984-09-01

    Special core analyses on 44 tight Mesa Verde sandstone samples from the U.S. DOE Multiwell Experiment were combined with petrographic investigations in an attempt to relate the porosity and permeability of the cores to the pore structure of the rocks. Core analysis was performed on one inch (2.54 cm) diameter horizontal plug samples using a computerized steady-state flow measuring device. This equipment routinely measures flow rates with a resolution of better than 10/sup -6/ cm/sup 3//sec. All samples were selected from intervals expected to be gas productive on the basis of wireline well logs, and were taken from the portion of the interval that showed the lowest gamma ray log response. The core plugs were measured for dry permeability to gas, relative permeability at various water saturations, porosity to gas, and pore volume compressibility. Petrographic samples were taken directly off the plug ends and were analyzed with both an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The petrographic study was explicitly directed toward observing the flow paths and pore structure that had been deduced from the core analysis data. Petrographic observations revealed that the pore geometry of sandstone can be broken down into three categories: grain-supported pores, solution pores connected by narrow intergranular slots (the most common pore structure in the Mesa Verde) and matrix supported grains. Core analysis measurements correlated fairly well with pore geometry. Solution pores connected by slots varied by a factor of two in porosity and pore volume compressibility; the dry permeability values fell within the range of 0.1 to 10.0 microdarcies. Calculation of slot-like flow path dimensions from the permeability data revealed a characteristic width of only about 0.1 micron. Special core analysis of the Mesa Verde also showed trends that correlated with various depositional environments in the formation.

  16. Assessing Hydraulic Connections Across Structural Blocks, Pahute Mesa, Nevada—Detecting Distant Drawdowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C.; Fenelon, J. M.; Halford, K. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater beneath Pahute Mesa flows through a complexly layered sequence of volcanic-rock aquifers and confining units that have been faulted into distinct structural blocks. Hydraulic properties of the rocks and structures in this aquifer system control radionuclide migration away from areas of underground testing. Detecting drawdowns in observation wells that penetrate a structural block different from the structural block intersected by the pumping well provides irrefutable evidence of a hydraulic connection. However, detecting these pumping-induced changes in water-level records typical of Pahute Mesa can be problematic because environmental noise frequently exceeds the pumping signal. Therefore, inherent noise must be removed from the water-level record systematically before pumping-induced drawdown and subsequent recovery can be quantified and analyzed. Successful applications of this approach on Pahute Mesa are illustrated using water-level records acquired during selected periods of recent drilling, development, testing, and pumping. Continuous monitoring of water level and air pressure changes in two dozen wells reveal moderate and high frequency stresses such as barometric pressure and earth tides along with gradual water-level changes induced by well drilling, development, and testing. At distances of nearly 4 km from pumping stresses, drawdown and recovery responses of less than 0.02 m can be detected using a synthetic water-level analysis. Synthetic water-levels are the summation of barometric, tidal, and pumping responses and water levels from background wells that are fit to measured water levels in remote observation wells. Pumping responses are simulated by superposition of Theis solutions. Differences between synthetic and measured water levels are minimized by adjusting the amplitude and phase of non-pumping components, while the transmissivity and storage coefficient are estimated from the pumping responses.

  17. Metolachlor metabolite (MESA) reveals agricultural nitrate-N fate and transport in Choptank River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarty, Gregory W.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Rice, Clifford P.; Hively, W. Dean; McConnell, Laura L.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Lang, Megan W.; Whitall, David R.; Bialek, Krystyna; Downey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over 50% of streams in the Chesapeake Bay watershed have been rated as poor or very poor based on the index of biological integrity. The Choptank River estuary, a Bay tributary on the eastern shore, is one such waterway, where corn and soybean production in upland areas of the watershed contribute significant loads of nutrients and sediment to streams. We adopted a novel approach utilizing the relationship between the concentration of nitrate-N and the stable, water-soluble herbicide degradation product MESA {2-[2-ethyl-N-(1-methoxypropan-2-yl)-6-methylanilino]-2-oxoethanesulfonic acid} to distinguish between dilution and denitrification effects on the stream concentration of nitrate-N in agricultural subwatersheds. The ratio of mean nitrate-N concentration/(mean MESA concentration * 1000) for 15 subwatersheds was examined as a function of percent cropland on hydric soil. This inverse relationship (R2 = 0.65, p 2 ≤ 0.99) for all eight sampling dates except one where R2 = 0.90. This very strong correlation indicates that nitrate-N was conserved in much of the Choptank River estuary, that dilution alone is responsible for the changes in nitrate-N and MESA concentrations, and more importantly nitrate-N loads are not reduced in the estuary prior to entering the Chesapeake Bay. Thus, a critical need exists to minimize nutrient export from agricultural production fields and to identify specific conservation practices to address the hydrologic conditions within each subwatershed. In well drained areas, removal of residual N within the cropland is most critical, and practices such as cover crops which sequester the residual N should be strongly encouraged. In poorly drained areas where denitrification can occur, wetland restoration and controlled drained structures that minimize ditch flow should be used to maximize denitrification.

  18. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Progression of Percent Emphysema: The MESA Lung Study

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Carrie P.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Austin, John H. M.; Oelsner, Elizabeth C.; Donohue, Kathleen M.; Kalhan, Ravi; Berardi, Cecilia; Kaufman, Joel D.; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Barr, R.Graham

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 binds neutrophils and facilitates their transmigration into the lung; E-selectin facilitates leukocyte rolling. As neutrophils contribute to tissue destruction in emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, we hypothesized that soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) would be associated with longitudinal progression of emphysema and lung function decline. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) enrolled participants 45-84 years old without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. The MESA Lung Study assessed percent emphysema (<-950 Hounsfield units) on cardiac (2000-07) and full-lung CT scans (2010-12), and spirometry was assessed twice over five years. sICAM-1 and sE-selectin were measured at baseline. Mixed-effect models adjusted for demographics, anthropometry, smoking, C-reactive protein, sphingomyelin and scanner factors. Among 1,865 MESA Lung participants with measurement of sICAM-1 and percent emphysema the mean log-sICAM-1 was 5.5±0.3 ng/mL and percent emphysema increased 0.73 percentage points (95% CI: 0.34, 1.12; P<0.001) over ten years. A one SD increase in sICAM-1 was associated with an accelerated increase in percent emphysema of 0.23 percentage points over ten years (95% CI: 0.06, 0.39; P=0.007). No significant association was found for sE-selectin, or between any adhesion molecule and lung function. Higher levels of sICAM-1 were independently associated with progression of percent emphysema in a general population sample. PMID:25457724

  19. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, Gregory A.; Smith, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides.

  20. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  1. The MESA polarimetry chain and the status of its double scattering polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, K.; Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Molitor, M.; Tioukine, V.

    2013-11-07

    We plan to have two independent polarimetry systems at MESA based on totally different physical processes. A first one tries to minimize the systematic uncertainties in double polarized Mo/ller scattering, which is to be achieved by stored hydrogen atoms in an atomic trap (Hydro-Mo/ller-Polarimeter). The other one relies on the equality of polarizing and analyzing power which allows to measure the effective analyzing power of a polarimeter with very high accuracy. Since the status of Hydro-Mo/ller is presented in a separate paper we concentrate on the double scattering polarimeter in this article.

  2. Magnetotelluric study of the Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley regions, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenkel, Clifford J.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Dixon, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data delineate distinct layers and lateral variations above the pre-Tertiary basement. On Pahute Mesa, three resistivity layers associated with the volcanic rocks are defined: a moderately resistive surface layer, an underlying conductive layer, and a deep resistive layer. Considerable geologic information can be derived from the conductive layer which extents from near the water table down to a depth of approximately 2 km. The increase in conductivity is probably related to zeolite zonation observed in the volcanic rock on Pahute Mesa, which is relatively impermeable to groundwater flow unless fractured. Inferred faults within this conductive layer are modeled on several profiles crossing the Thirsty Canyon fault zone. This fault zone extends from Pahute Mesa into Oasis Valley basin. Near Colson Pond where the basement is shallow, the Thirsty Canyon fault zone is several (~2.5) kilometers wide. Due to the indicated vertical offsets associated with the Thirsty Canyon fault zone, the fault zone may act as a barrier to transverse (E-W) groundwater flow by juxtaposing rocks of different permeabilities. We propose that the Thirsty Canyon fault zone diverts water southward from Pahute Mesa to Oasis Valley. The electrically conductive nature of this fault zone indicates the presence of abundant alteration minerals or a dense network of open and interconnected fractures filled with electrically conductive groundwater. The formation of alteration minerals require the presence of water suggesting that an extensive interconnected fracture system exists or existed at one time. Thus, the fractures within the fault zone may be either a barrier or a conduit for groundwater flow, depending on the degree of alteration and the volume of open pore space. In Oasis Valley basin, a conductive surface layer, composed of alluvium and possibly altered volcanic rocks, extends to a depth of 300 to 500 m. The underlying volcanic layer, composed mostly of tuffs, fills the

  3. The MESA polarimetry chain and the status of its double scattering polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, K.; Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Molitor, M.; Tioukine, V.

    2013-11-01

    We plan to have two independent polarimetry systems at MESA based on totally different physical processes. A first one tries to minimize the systematic uncertainties in double polarized Mo/ller scattering, which is to be achieved by stored hydrogen atoms in an atomic trap (Hydro-Mo/ller-Polarimeter). The other one relies on the equality of polarizing and analyzing power which allows to measure the effective analyzing power of a polarimeter with very high accuracy. Since the status of Hydro-Mo/ller is presented in a separate paper we concentrate on the double scattering polarimeter in this article.

  4. Shuttle crew escape systems (CES) rocket test at Hurricane Mesa, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Shuttle crew escape systems (CES) tractor rocket tests conducted at Hurricane Mesa, Utah. This preliminary ground test of the tractor rocket will lead up to in-air evaluations. View shows tractor rocket as it is fired from side hatch mockup. The tractor rocket concept is one of two escape methods being studied to provide crew egress capability during Space Shuttle controlled gliding flight. In-air tests of the system, utilizing a Convair-240 aircraft, will begin 11-19-87 at the Naval Weapons Center in China Lake, California.

  5. Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale in La Ventana Mesa area, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, James D.; Bachman, George O.; Read, Charles B.; Moore, George W.

    1953-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal, carboanceous shale, and carboaceous sandstone of Upper Cretaceous age occur on and adjacent to La Ventana Mesa, Sandoval County, New Mexico.  The geologic features of the uranium deposits are described and a hypothesis for the origin and control of the uranium deposits are described and a hypothesis for the origin and control of the uranium deposits is given.  On the basis of recent sampling and analyses the uranium content in coal is found to be as much as 0.62 percent, whereas the coal ash has a uranium content that is as much as 1.34 percent.

  6. Thoughts Regarding the Dimensions of Faults at Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas, Nye County, Nevada, Based on Surface and Underground Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Drellack, S.L.; Prothro, L.B.; Townsend, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    2011-02-01

    The geologic setting and history, along with observations through 50 years of detailed geologic field work, show that large-displacement (i.e., greater than 30 meters of displacement) syn- to post-volcanic faults are rare in the Rainier Mesa area. Faults observed in tunnels and drill holes are mostly tight, with small displacements (most less than 1.5 meters) and small associated damage zones. Faults are much more abundant in the zeolitized tuffs than in the overlying vitric tuffs, and there is little evidence that faults extend downward from the tuff section through the argillic paleocolluvium into pre-Tertiary rocks. The differences in geomechanical characteristics of the various tuff lithologies at Rainier Mesa suggest that most faults on Rainer Mesa are limited to the zeolitic units sandwiched between the overlying vitric bedded tuffs and the underlying pre-Tertiary units (lower carbonate aquifer–3, lower clastic confining unit–1, and Mesozoic granite confining unit).

  7. Geologic surface effects of underground nuclear testing, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.N.

    2000-05-31

    This report presents a new Geographic Information System composite map of the geologic surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing in the Yucca Flat Physiographic Area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a continental location for testing nuclear devices (Allen and others, 1997, p.3). Originally known as the ''Nevada Proving Ground'', the NTS hosted a total of 928 nuclear detonations, of which 828 were conducted underground (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994). Three principal testing areas of the NTS were used: (1) Yucca Flat, (2) Pahute Mesa, and (3) Rainier Mesa including Aqueduct Mesa. Underground detonations at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa were typically emplaced in vertical drill holes, while others were tunnel emplacements. Of the three testing areas, Yucca Flat was the most extensively used, hosting 658 underground tests (747 detonations) located at 719 individual sites (Allen and others, 1997, p.3-4). Figure 1 shows the location of Yucca Flat and other testing areas of the NTS. Figure 2 shows the locations of underground nuclear detonation sites at Yucca Flat. Table 1 lists the number of underground nuclear detonations conducted, the number of borehole sites utilized, and the number of detonations mapped for surface effects at Yucca Flat by NTS Operational Area.

  8. 77 FR 7180 - Notice of Correction to Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Mesa County, CO Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Correction to Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Mesa County, CO Under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior... Collect Fees on Public Land in Mesa County, Colorado . The BLM inadvertently published that the fee...

  9. Attributes and characteristics of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) high school program for first-generation Latino students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Ramon

    This study used a web-based survey collected data from 28 first-generation Latino engineers who participated in the Mathematics, Engineering, Science, Achievement (MESA) program during their high school years. From the set of 28 respondents, 5 volunteered to participate in an optional telephone interview. The purpose of this study was to describe the critical attributes and characteristics of the MESA program that lead to success at both the high school and college levels for first-generation Latino students. Success at the high school level was operationally defined as successfully graduating with a high school diploma. Success at the college level was operationally defined here as college graduation with an engineering degree. Using a mixed-methods technique, the researcher attempted to secure consensus of opinion from a sample population of 28 first-generation Latino engineers. The mixed-methods technique was chosen since it allowed the researcher to draw on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative approaches. According to the findings, the typical respondent felt that mentoring was the attribute of the MESA program that most prepared him to graduate from high school. The respondents felt that the following MESA attributes most helped them transition into an undergraduate engineering program: Academic and University Advising; Enrichment Activities; Career Advising; Field Trips; Mentoring; Scholarship Incentive Awards; and Speakers. The respondents viewed study groups as the MESA attribute that best prepared them to graduate college with an engineering degree. This study was purposefully designed as a descriptive study. Future research is required to extend this work into an evaluative study. This would allow for the generalization of the critical attributes to the general student population serviced by the MESA program.

  10. The Effectiveness of the Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program's Administrative and Policy-Making Processes. A Report to the Legislature in Response to Assembly Bill 610 (1985). Commission Report 89-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) Program was established in 1970 to increase the number of minority students in college programs. This paper reports the MESA administrative operations and policy-making processes. Part 1 summarizes the background of this study. Part 2 describes MESA's administrative operations and provides…

  11. Development of ion-implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pn,Sn)Te/Pb(Te,Se) DH laser diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonstad, C. G.; Harton, A.; Jiang, Y.-N.; Appelman, H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a program to develop ion implantation confined, shallow mesa stripe (Pb,Sn)Te laser diodes are presented. The practicality of using a shallow mesa stripe to produce single mode laser output and to increase the single mode tuning range are demonstrated. The first results of p-type ion implantation in the lead-tin salts are also reported. It is shown that sodium and lithium both can be used to convert n-type Pb(Te,Se) to p-type. The implant and anneal procedures are described, and electrical characteristics of Li-implanted layers are presented.

  12. Associations between γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Ryan D.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Wake, David Herrington

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between total serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity (GGT) and biomarkers of arteriosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), including 6,783 participants from four ethnic subgroups, i.e., White, Chinese, Black and Hispanic. METHODS Associations between fasting total serum GGT activity and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were assessed. Following evaluation of linear trends between GGT and biomarkers of interest, multivariable linear regression models were serially adjusted for age, gender, site, ethnicity (M1); M1+lifestyle variables (M2); M2+traditional cardiovascular risk factors plus medications (M3); and M3+metabolic status (M4). Interactions were evaluated between GGT and age and ethnicity in all models. RESULTS Linear trends were positive and significant between GGT and oxLDL, IL-6, CRP and sICAM-1 in crude models, and trends remained significant in all ethnic subgroups for CRP (p<0.0001) and sICAM-1 (p<0.001), and for IL-6 except in the Chinese. Trends between GGT and oxLDL were significant in the entire cohort and the White subgroup (p<0.0001), but not in other ethnic subgroups. Multivariable models demonstrated continuous strong, positive associations between GGT and CRP, IL-6 and sICAM-1. Associations between GGT and oxLDL were attenuated upon adjustment for LDL-C and other traditional risk factors. All models were attenuated with adjustment for metabolic status. No age interactions were evident. CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the hypothesis that total serum GGT activity represents the impact of metabolic disease on vascular injury and atherosclerosis. PMID:24530768

  13. Observations of Screw Dislocation Driven Growth and Faceting During CVD Homoepitaxy on 4H-SiC On-Axis Mesa Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Picard, Yoosuf N.; Twigg, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of (0001) homoepitaxial growth carried out on arrays of small-area mesas etched into on-axis silicon-face 4H-SiC wafers have demonstrated that spiral growth emanating from at least one screw dislocation threading the mesa is necessary in order for a mesa to grow taller in the <0001> (c-axis vertical) direction while maintaining 4H stacking sequence [1]. However, even amongst mesas containing the screw dislocation step source necessary for vertical c-axis growth, we have observed striking differences in the height and faceting that evolve during prolonged homoepitaxial growths. This paper summarizes Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy observations of this phenomenon. These observations support our initially proposed model [2] that the observed large variation (for mesas where 3C-SiC nucleation has not occurred) is related to the lateral positioning of a screw dislocation step source within each etched mesa. When the screw dislocation step source is located close enough to the developing edge/sidewall facet of a mesa, the c-axis growth rate and facet angle are affected by the resulting interaction. In particular, the intersection (or near intersection) of the inward-sloping mesa sidewall facet with the screw dislocation appears to impede the rate at which the spiral provides new steps required for c-axis growth. Also, the inward slope of the sidewall facet during growth (relative to other sidewalls of the same mesa not near the screw dislocation) seems to be impeded by the screw dislocation. In contrast, mesas whose screw dislocations are centrally located grow vertically, but inward sloping sidewall facets shrink the area of the top (0001) growth surface almost to the point of vanishing.

  14. Numerical and experimental study of the mesa configuration in high-voltage 4H–SiC PiN rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Chuan; Chen, Xi-Xi; Li, Cheng-Zhan; Shen, Hua-Jun; Zhang, Jin-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the mesa configuration on the reverse breakdown characteristic of a SiC PiN rectifier for high-voltage applications is analyzed in this study. Three geometrical parameters, i.e., mesa height, mesa angle and mesa bottom corner, are investigated by numerical simulation. The simulation results show that a deep mesa height, a small mesa angle and a smooth mesa bottom (without sub-trench) could contribute to a high breakdown voltage due to a smooth and uniform surface electric field distribution. Moreover, an optimized mesa structure without sub-trench (mesa height of 2.2 μm and mesa angle of 20°) is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum reverse blocking voltage of 4 kV and a forward voltage drop of 3.7 V at 100 A/cm2 are obtained from the fabricated diode with a 30-μm thick N‑ epi-layer, corresponding to 85% of the ideal parallel-plane value. The blocking characteristic as a function of the JTE dose is also discussed for the PiN rectifiers with and without interface charge. Project supported by the State Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61234006), the Open Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, China (Grant No. KFJJ201301), and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02305-003).

  15. Estimation of sulfate trends at selected national park service sites: Does the wet deposition record parallel the aerosol record?

    SciTech Connect

    Shealy, R.T.; Bowersox, V.C.

    1997-12-31

    Recently temporal trends in sulfate concentration in fine-particle aerosols have been measured at a set of twelve National Park Service (NPS) sites using the Interagency Monitoring of Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. Trends were computed for each climatological season over the period 1982-1993. The distribution of trend direction was nearly symmetric; of the 48 possible site-season combinations, 11 were negative, 8 positive, and the remainder exhibited no trend. These are surprising findings in the context of nearly constant SO{sub 2} emissions in the East over this period (EPA, 1991) and generally-decreasing trends over the entire US computed from wet deposition sulfate concentrations collected by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Of particular interest are the three largest positive trends: Grand Canyon exhibited a 4.2% increase in winter, Great Smoky Mountains had an increase of 3.9% in summer, and Shenandoah had an increase of 3.7% in summer, Recently, the latter two sites have been studied over a period more recent than the original study (1982-1995) and the trends are smaller, but they remain positive. It has been suggested that these findings are a statistical artifact: that in a large set of trend tests over many sites and seasons, a few will by chance be found to have statistically significant positive trends, even under the condition of no trends.A special study was undertaken using the subset of the NPS sites with co-located IMPROVE and NADP/NTN samplers. Direct comparison of aerosol sulfur and wet deposition sulfate trends is done to determine their relationship to each other. The NPS sites that qualify as candidates in the study are: Shenandoah, Great Smoky Mountains, Glacier, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Mesa Verde, and Big Bend Parks.

  16. A preliminary guidebook for identifying stratigraphic contacts at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G.A.; McKague, H.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; McKinnis, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    Lithologic variation, regional depositional trends, and the lack of written guidelines have resulted in inconsistencies in the recognition of stratigraphic contacts in drill holes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Stratigraphic identification, based on mineralogy of discrete samples, can be augmented by geophysical logs and downhole movies to more accurately and consistently locate contacts between units. Criteria are established for locating the base of the Pahute Mesa ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks bedded tuff, and the top and the base of the Rainier Mesa Tuff.

  17. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-11 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-12-01

    Well ER-EC-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2009 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to investigate radionuclide migration down-gradient from Well Cluster ER-20-5 and Well ER-20-7 and across the northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone into the area referred to as the Bench, between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex. A secondary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the shallow- to intermediate-depth Tertiary volcanic section in the Bench area. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section to reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model (Bechtel Nevada, 2002). The main 52.1-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 507.5 meters and then opened to a diameter of 66.0 centimeters. It was cased with 50.8-centimeter casing to 504.9 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 47.0 centimeters, and drilling continued to a total depth of 979.3 meters. It was then cased with 34.0-centimeter casing set at 965.5 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 1,264.3 meters. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 1,262.5 meters, consists of 19.4-centimeter stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-centimeter carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring aquifers. Four piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-11. A string of carbon-steel 6.0-centimeter tubing with one slotted interval was inserted outside the 50.8-centimeter casing, within the 66.0-centimeter borehole

  18. Mesa Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Cantiello, Matteo; Paxton, Bill; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) project, a new comprehensive set of stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones computed using MESA, a state-of-the-art open-source 1D stellar evolution package. In this work, we present models with solar-scaled abundance ratios covering a wide range of ages (5≤slant {log}({Age}) [{year}]≤slant 10.3), masses (0.1≤slant M/{M}⊙ ≤slant 300), and metallicities (-2.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]≤slant 0.5). The models are self-consistently and continuously evolved from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of hydrogen burning, the white dwarf cooling sequence, or the end of carbon burning, depending on the initial mass. We also provide a grid of models evolved from the PMS to the end of core helium burning for -4.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]\\lt -2.0. We showcase extensive comparisons with observational constraints as well as with some of the most widely used existing models in the literature. The evolutionary tracks and isochrones can be downloaded from the project website at http://waps.cfa.harvard.edu/MIST/.

  19. Evolution of antibiotic resistance on a mesa-shaped fitness landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, Rutger; Hwa, Terence

    2010-03-01

    Rapid emergence of drug resistance is one of the biggest problems facing treatment of diseases ranging from bacterial infection to cancer. Recently it was found that, due to a novel growth-mediated positive feedback mechanism, the growth rate of bacteria exposed to sub-lethal antibiotic levels can drop abruptly when the drug level exceeds a sharp threshold (c.f. the preceding talk by Barrett Deris). This threshold level depends on the degree of expression and activity of the protein(s) providing antibiotic resistance. In environments with spatially varying antibiotic concentrations, this dependence gives rise to a mesa-shaped fitness landscape which provides a strong selective pressure for increasing the expression/activity of drug resistance near the cliff in the landscape. We have performed theoretical studies of evolution on such mesa-shaped fitness landscapes. These studies indicate a high rate of adaptation along the fitness cliff, often exceeding that of evolution on smooth fitness landscapes. The results of these studies establish a dynamic mechanism of evolution driven by a fitness cliff and environmental variability, and are conceptually distinct from the classical Darwinian notion of climbing a fitness gradient.

  20. Mesa Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST). I. Solar-scaled Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jieun; Dotter, Aaron; Conroy, Charlie; Cantiello, Matteo; Paxton, Bill; Johnson, Benjamin D.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) project, a new comprehensive set of stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones computed using MESA, a state-of-the-art open-source 1D stellar evolution package. In this work, we present models with solar-scaled abundance ratios covering a wide range of ages (5≤slant {log}({Age}) [{year}]≤slant 10.3), masses (0.1≤slant M/{M}ȯ ≤slant 300), and metallicities (-2.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]≤slant 0.5). The models are self-consistently and continuously evolved from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the end of hydrogen burning, the white dwarf cooling sequence, or the end of carbon burning, depending on the initial mass. We also provide a grid of models evolved from the PMS to the end of core helium burning for -4.0≤slant [{{Z}}/{{H}}]\\lt -2.0. We showcase extensive comparisons with observational constraints as well as with some of the most widely used existing models in the literature. The evolutionary tracks and isochrones can be downloaded from the project website at http://waps.cfa.harvard.edu/MIST/.

  1. Exploration for uranium deposits in the Atkinson Mesa area, Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, Daniel Allen

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey explored the Atkinson Mesa area for uranium- and vanadium-bearing deposits from July 2, 1951, to June 18, 1953, with 397 diamond-drill holes that totaled 261,251 feet. Sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic age are exposed in the Atkinson Mesa area. They are: the Brushy Basin member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison formation, the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon formation, and the Upper and Lower Cretaceous Dakota sandstone. All of the large uranium-vanadium deposits discovered by Geological Survey drilling are in a series of sandstone lenses in the upper part of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. The deposits are mainly tabular and blanket-like, but some elongate pod-shaped masses, locally called "rolls" may be present. The mineralized material consists of sandstone impregnated with a uranium mineral which is probably coffinite, spme carnotite, and vanadium minerals, thought to be mainly corvusite and montroseite. In addition,, some mudstone and carbonaceous material is similarly impregnated. Near masses of mineralized material the sandstone is light gray or light brown, is generally over 40 feet thick, and usually contains some carbonaceous material and abundant disseminated pyrite or limonite stain. Similarly, the mudstone in contact with the ore-bearing sandstone near bodies of mineralized rock is commonly blue gray, as compared to its dominant red color away from ore deposits. Presence and degree of these features are useful guides in exploring for new deposits.

  2. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  3. 3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION OF THE EAST AND NORTH WINGS OF THE BUILDING. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  5. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  6. 15. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING RETAINING WALL ON EAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING RETAINING WALL ON EAST SIDE OF PARK, SOUTH OF ENGINE HOUSE (4' X 5' negative) - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. The (East) Indian Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine

    The focus of this paper is on the social, cultural, and psychological problems women of East Indian origin share with other immigrant women in Canada. Also examined are problems that are unique to the East Indian woman and the ways in which she deals with the challenges, conflicting cultural values, and expectations that confront her. The…

  8. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  9. 14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of interior, north and east walls featuring sink, facing east (Note: B/W scale on wall in foreground is in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  10. Media, Democracy and Development: Learning from East Timor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, John; da Costa, Aderito Hugo; Lonsdale, Jamie; Romano, Angela; Spurgeon, Christina; Tickle, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Describes the East Timor Press Project, in which students in the School of Media Journalism at the Queensland University of Technology used the Internet to support the development of an independent press in East Timor. Assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Project and reviews the benefits of the Project to the students, site users and East…

  11. An inventory of long-lived radionuclides residual from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada test site, 1951-1992.

    PubMed

    Smith, D K; Finnegan, D L; Bowen, S M

    2003-01-01

    An inventory of long-lived radionuclides produced by 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada test site (NTS) from 1951 to 1992 includes residual tritium, fission products, actinides, and activation products. Recently, the US Department of Energy approved the declassification of the NTS radionuclide inventory by principal geographic test centers. This permits unclassified publication of radionuclide totals for the Yucca Flat, Pahute Mesa-Area 19, Pahute Mesa-Area 20, Frenchman Flat, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain testing locations. Activities are reported as of September 23, 1992, the date of the last underground nuclear test conducted at the NTS, and September 23, 2492, after 500 years of radioactive decay. The availability of these data affords an opportunity for the analysis of the radiologic source term within the boundaries of local hydrogeologic units and provides insight to where radionuclides are sited relative to potential exposure pathways. PMID:12634000

  12. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, Jamie P.; Porter, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2003, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,240 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,450 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,790 acre-feet. From 2002 to 2003, total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 4 percent, and municipal withdrawals decreased by 20 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 24 municipal wells in 2004. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.9 percent. Values ranged from -10.9 percent at Forest Lake NTUA 1 to +7.8 percent at Rough Rock NTUA 2. From 2003 to 2004, water levels declined in 6 of 12 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 7 of 11 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -2.7 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -23.2 feet. Median water-level change were -6.1 feet for 14 wells in the unconfined parts of the aquifer and and -72.1 feet for 12 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2003 and once in 2004 at four springs. Discharge stayed the same at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 9 percent at

  13. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2004-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2002, total ground-water withdrawals were 8,000 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,640 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,360 acre-feet. From 2001 to 2002, total withdrawals increased by 4 percent, industrial use increased by 2 percent, and municipal use increased by 7 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 32 municipal wells in 2003. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.0 percent. Values ranged from -13.7 percent at Hopi High School no. 2 to +12.9 percent at Shonto PM3. From 2002 to 2003, water levels declined in 5 of 13 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 13 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.1 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -8.3 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.4 foot for 13 wells in the unconfirned part of the aquifer and -60.3 feet for 13 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2002 and once in 2003 at four springs. Discharge decreased by 16 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 10 percent at Moenkopi Spring and 90 percent at an

  14. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, Northeastern Arizona: 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.; Truini, Margot

    2000-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and a precipitation of only about 6 to 12 inches per year. The monitoring program in Black Mesa has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 1999, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,110 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,210 acre-feet, and municipal use was 2,900 acre-feet. From 1998 to 1999, total withdrawals increased by 0.7 percent, industrial use increased by 4 percent, and municipal use decreased by 4 percent. From 1998 to 1999, water levels declined in 11 of 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median decline was 0.7 foot. Water levels declined in 14 of 16 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median decline was 1.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 1999, the median water-level decline in 31 wells was 10.6 feet. Median water-level changes were 0.0 foot for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and a decline of 45.5 feet in 16 wells in the confined part. From 1998 to 1999, discharges were measured annually at four springs. Discharges declined 30 percent and 3 percent at 2 springs, did not change at 1 spring, and increased by 11 percent at 1 spring. For the past 10 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend was not observed. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from July 1976 to 1999 at Moenkopi Wash, July 1996 to 1999 at Laguna Creek, June 1993 to 1999 at Dinnebito Wash, and April

  15. Ober: A Program for Objective Based Evaluation in Reading at the Newport-Mesa Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert C.

    OBER is the acronym coined by the Newport-Mesa Unified School District to describe its utilization of the System for Objective Based Evaluation-Reading (SOBE-R) developed by the Center for the Study of Evaluation at UCLA. OBER consists of three major components that are designed to facilitate the development and evaluation of the reading programs…

  16. The effect of dissolution of volcanic glass on the water chemistry in a tuffaceous aquifer, Rainier Mesa, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Art F.; Claassen, H.C.; Benson, Larry V.

    1980-01-01

    Geochemistry of ground water associated with the Tertiary tuffs within Rainier Mesa, southern Nevada, was investigated to determine the relative importance of glass dissolution in controlling water chemistry. Water samples were obtained both from interstitial pores in core sections and from free-flowing fractures. Cation com- positions showed that calcium and magnesium decreased as a function of depth in the mesa, as sodium increased. The maximum effect occurs within alteration zones containing clinoptilolite and montmorillonite, suggesting these minerals effectively remove bivalent cations from the system. Comparisons are made between compositions of ground waters found within Rainier Mesa that apparently have not reacted with secondary minerals and compositions of waters produced by experimental dissolution of vitric and crystalline tufts which comprise the principal aquifers in the area. The two tuff phases have the same bulk chemistry but produce aqueous solutions of different chemistry. Rapid parabolic dissolution of sodium and silica from, and the retention of, potassium within the vitric phase verify previous predictions concerning water compositions associated with vitric volcanic rocks. Parabolic dissolution of the crystalline phase results in solutions high in calcium and magnesium and low in silica. Extrapolation of the parabolic dissolution mechanism for the vitric tuff to long times successfully reproduces, at com- parable pH, cation ratios existing in Rainier Mesa ground water. Comparison of mass- transfer rates of the vitric and crystalline tuffs indicates that the apparent higher glass-surface to aqueous-volume ratio associated with the vitric rocks may account for dominance of the glass reaction.

  17. Mesa County Public Library District, Final Performance Report for Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) Title VI, Library Literacy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuke, Caryl

    The Adult Reading Program, a project of the Mesa County Public Library District (Grand Junction, Colorado), involved recruitment, retention, coalition building, public awareness, training, rural oriented, basic literacy, collection development, tutoring, employment oriented, intergenerational/family, and English as a Second Language (ESL)…

  18. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San.../Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to be allowed for...

  19. Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

  20. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  1. 15. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF ROOM 102, A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF ROOM 102, A MACHINE SHOP ADJACENT TO ASSEMBLY BAY NO. 1. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  2. 16. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR EAST OPERATING GALLERY. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR EAST OPERATING GALLERY. NOTE THE SERIES OF MANIPULATOR ARMS ALONG THE LEFT WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  3. 10. VIEW WITHIN THE EAST OPERATING GALLERY OF WORK STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WITHIN THE EAST OPERATING GALLERY OF WORK STATION WITH MANIPULATOR ARMS. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  4. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE EAST ELEVATION OF THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. Detail view to the east of the Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to the east of the Antenna Array - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Antenna Array, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  7. Interior view to the east of an empty computer room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to the east of an empty computer room - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  8. 2. TIP TOP MINE. NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF HOUSE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TIP TOP MINE. NORTH AND EAST SIDE OF HOUSE. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. 5. TIP TOP MINE. EAST SIDE OF STRUCTURE WITH COLLAPSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TIP TOP MINE. EAST SIDE OF STRUCTURE WITH COLLAPSED ADIT. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  10. 53. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI ON EAST WALL OF STAIRWELL INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI ON EAST WALL OF STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. View of EPA Farm Sioux silo, facing east. Radsafe trailer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm Sioux silo, facing east. Rad-safe trailer is to the left - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Silo Type, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm metal weather tower, facing east, showing thirty-acre irrigated field - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Weather Tower, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 28. ELEVATION LOOKING EAST, ORIGINAL MARCONI ANTENNA POLES WERE 300' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ELEVATION LOOKING EAST, ORIGINAL MARCONI ANTENNA POLES WERE 300' TALL (AT LEAST TWICE THE HEIGHT OF THOSE APPEARING IN PICTURE). - Marconi Radio Sites, Transmitting, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  14. View to the east of the Garage's primary elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to the east of the Garage's primary elevation - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Four Transmitter Garage, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  15. How Jurassic Folds Control the Geometry of a Tertiary Intrusion: Trachyte Mesa, Henry Mountains, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyosugi, K.; Connor, C.; Wetmore, P. H.; Roman, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    Mechanisms of igneous intrusion are important to understand for improving forecasts of volcanic activity and to interpret geophysical results gathered on volcanoes. An igneous intrusion in the Henry Mountains, Utah was mapped and found to have remarkable features: First, the magma was more dense than the surrounding host rocks and therefore injected under pressure, rather than buoyantly ascending. Second, it intruded along the axis of a syncline and in between beds of Entrada sandstone. Thus, the intrusion of dense magma was strongly controlled by pre-existing structure and magma pressure or rigidity contrasts in the host rock. We attempted to simulate the conditions of this intrusion with analog experiments in blocks of gelatin solidified in 15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm plastic tanks. Two types of gelatin block were used: The first consisted of two layers, with a more rigid upper layer and a layer boundary molded into folds. To simulate magma intrusion, air was injected into the gelatin block from a hole in the bottom of the tank with a syringe. The air crack then ascended buoyantly in the gelatin block. The second type of gelatin block had uniform rigidity but a fold was precut in the upper part of gelatin block. In this case, both air and dyed sugar water, more dense than the gelatin block, were injected into the base of the tank. Because of the lack of buoyancy, continuous injection pressure was applied to extend the water crack upward in the gelatin block. In the first experiment, the rigidity contrast worked as a barrier to upward air crack ascent, but did not simulate fluid concentration along the axis of a syncline as observed in the Trachyte Mesa intrusion. Experiments with the precut gelatin block showed two different results based on the density contrast between the injected fluid and gelatin: When air was injected into a gelatin block, the air crack arrested in the anticline after arriving at the precut fold. However, when denser sugar water was injected into

  16. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  18. Summary of Well Testing and Analysis, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of the analysis of the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. This program included the testing of eight wells: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-6, ER-18-2, ER-EC-7, ER-EC-5, ER-EC-8, ER-EC-2a, and ER-EC-4. The locations of these wells are shown in Figure 1-1. The data collection for the program was documented in individual well development and testing reports. Drilling and well construction information has been documented in individual well completion reports. This summary report is based on the individual well analysis reports.

  19. Software Requirements Specification: Multi-scale Epidemiological and Economic Simulation and Analysis (MESA) Scenario Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, T L; Hazlett, S G; Slone, D M; Smith, S G

    2006-11-08

    This document builds on the discussion notes from September 21, 2006. It provides a summary of the ideas relating to the scenario bank tables and their associated requirements. Two conceptual groupings were identified for the contents requirements of the scenario bank. The first, called ProjectTemplate, shall consist of groups. The second, ProjectArchive, shall consist of groups of . The figure below illustrates the multiplicity of the associations between the different tables, with color coding used to distinguish between current MESA (brown) and USDA (light green) requirements. Scenario bank tables are shown in black with their general contents specified within the box. The metadata associated with each table is expected to include database key information as well as relevant timestamps. Each File is expected to be a file with an arbitrary format.

  20. Micromachining of mesa and pyramidal-shaped objects in (1 0 0) InP substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliás, P.; Martaus, J.; Soltýs, J.; Kostic, I.

    2005-05-01

    Generally oriented mesas and pyramidal-shaped objects were patterned in (1 0 0) InP substrate by etching in 3HCl:1H3PO4 at (16 ± 0.05) °C through convex InGaAs mask patterns. The mesas were revealed through long (~2 mm) parallelogram-shaped mask strips whose long edges lay between [0 1 1] and [0\\,\\bar{1} \\,1] at a variable angle ω, with ω ≡ 0° at [0 1 1]. The mesas were re-entrant for ω epsi [0°, 45°) and ordinary for ω epsi (45°, 90°]. The tilt of mesa side facets α and the associated mask underetching rates were evaluated using SEM, AFM and optical microscopy. The underetching rate was zero at ω = 0° and 90°. With |(ω - 45°)| → 0° it increased asymmetrically about [0 0 1]: for |(ω1 - 45°)| = |(ω2 - 45°)| it was higher at ω1 < 45° than at ω2 > 45°. At ω = 45.5° ordinary (1 1 0)- and (1\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) -related facets, tilted at α ap 45°, were revealed at a rate of (310.1 ± 8.1) nm min-1. Likewise at ω = 45.5° off [0 1 1] to [0\\,1\\,\\bar{1}] (1 0 1)- and (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}) -related facets formed. In theory, (1 1 0), (1\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) , (1 0 1) and (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}) define a pyramidal shape with the sides tilted at 45° to (1 0 0). In practice, an object confined by facets related to (1 1 0), (1\\,\\bar{1}\\,0) , (1 0 1) and (1\\,0\\,\\bar{1}) cannot be revealed via a convex-cornered lozenge-shaped pattern with the edges at ω = 45.5° and diagonals parallel with [0 1 1] and [0\\,1\\,\\bar{1}] because the 'pyramidal' facets are suppressed by fast-etching re-entrant facets that form at the [0\\,1\\,\\bar{1}] - and [0\\,\\bar{1} \\,1] -oriented corners. If compensated with e.g. rectangular strips, the pyramidal facets can be revealed at the lozenge edges. Etch-stop (2 1 1)A-related facets were formed along the compensation strip edges and fast-etching re-entrant facets at the convex corners of the compensation strips. The angular orientation of the pyramidal facets slightly shifted with etching time: the normal vector of the