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Sample records for east strelley belt

  1. Stromatolites in the approximately 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia: examining biogenicity from the macro- to the nano-scale.

    PubMed

    Wacey, David

    2010-05-01

    The 3426-3350 Ma Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is a silicified, dominantly sedimentary unit within the Pilbara Supergroup, Western Australia. It is found widely across the East Pilbara Terrane, and it forms a prominent marker horizon and separates the largely volcanic 3520-3427 Ma Warrawoona and 3350-3315 Ma Kelly groups. It has become one of the key formations for study by astrobiologists, following reports of some of the world's oldest stromatolites. Abundant contextural and morphological evidence has been presented over the last decade in support of a biological role in SPF stromatolite formation. This evidence is reviewed here, and additional data are presented from recent fieldwork carried out across the approximately 25 km of SPF outcrops in the East Strelley greenstone belt of the East Pilbara Terrane. In addition to contextural and morphological evidence, a compelling claim for early life requires geochemical evidence for biological cycling. A potential avenue of approach to obtain such evidence for the SPF stromatolites (and other ancient examples) is discussed in the context of a pilot study in which nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used.

  2. Arctic-Asian Mobile Belt - Global Structure in the North, Central, and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokalsky, Sergey; Petrov, Oleg; Pospelov, Igor; Kashubin, Sergey; Sobolev, Nikolay; Petrov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade under the international project of five countries, the geological surveys of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea, with the participation of national academies of sciences in these countries compiled a set of digital maps at 1:2.5 M scale. It includes geological, tectonic, metallogenic maps and map of energy resources with databases for North, Central, and East Asia, area of more than 30 million km2. Map compilation was supervised by the Subcommission for Northern Eurasia and Subcommission for Tectonic Maps of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World under the auspices of UNESCO (CGMW). The set of maps was displayed at the 33rd IGC (Oslo, 2008) and 34th IGC (Brisbane, 2012). One of the largest accretion collages of orogenic belts of different ages on the planet (from the Neoproterozoic to Early Mesozoic) is clearly shown in the tectonic map compiled under the joint project. Extended polychronous mobile belt is bounded in the west by the East European Craton, in the east, by the Siberian Craton, in the south, by a chain of Gondwana cratonic blocks - North China, Tarim, Tajik. In the north it can be traced as a broad band within the Circumpolar Region, where it is limited by the North American Craton. The central part of the accretionary belt is hidden under the Meso-Cenozoic sediments of Western Siberia. Analysis of vast geological material shows that the Arctic-Asian mobile belt was formed on place of an extensive paleo-ocean, which closed with a successive rejuvenation of suture ophiolite zones from the marginal to axial zone and along strike to the north and east of the South Siberian segment towards Paleopacific. Arctic-Asian mobile belt is characterized by a complex combination of accretionary and riftogenic tectonic-magmatic processes. At its early stages, accretionary tectonics with a wide development of volcanic belts dominated; at the late ones (in the Late Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic

  3. Biogenicity of morphologically diverse carbonaceous microstructures from the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley pool formation, in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Kenichiro; Lepot, Kevin; Nagaoka, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koichi; Van Kranendonk, Martin; Oehler, Dorothy Z; Walter, Malcolm R

    2010-11-01

    Morphologically diverse structures that may constitute organic microfossils are reported from three remote and widely separated localities assigned to the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These localities include the Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. From the Panorama greenstone belt, large (> 40 μm) lenticular to spindle-like structures, spheroidal structures, and mat-forming thread-like structures are found. Similar assemblages of carbonaceous structures have been identified from the Warralong and Goldsworthy greenstone belts, though these assemblages lack the thread-like structures but contain film-like structures. All structures are syngenetic with their host sedimentary black chert, which is associated with stromatolites and evaporites. The host chert is considered to have been deposited in a shallow water environment. Rigorous assessment of biogenicity (considering composition, size range, abundance, taphonomic features, and spatial distributions) suggests that cluster-forming small (<15 μm) spheroids, lenticular to spindle-like structures, and film-like structures with small spheroids are probable microfossils. Thread-like structures are more likely fossilized fibrils of biofilm, rather than microfossils. The biogenicity of solitary large (>15 μm) spheroids and simple film-like structures is less certain. Although further investigations are required to confirm the biogenicity of carbonaceous structures from the Strelley Pool Formation, this study presents evidence for the existence of morphologically complex and large microfossils at 3400 Ma in the Pilbara Craton, which can be correlated to the contemporaneous, possible microfossils reported from South Africa. Although there is still much to be learned, they should provide us with new insights into the early evolution of life and shallow water ecosystems.

  4. The thrust belt in Southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward T.; Lopez, David A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading edge of the Cordilleran fold and thrust in southwest Montana appears to be a continuation of the edge of the Wyoming thrust belt, projected northward beneath the Snake River Plain. Trces of the thrust faults that form the leading edge of the thrust belts are mostly concealed, but stratigraphic and structural evidence suggests that the belt enters Montana near the middle of the Centennial Mountains, continues west along the Red Rock River valley, and swings north into the Highland Mountains near Butte. The thrust belt in southwest Montana and east-central Idaho includes at least two major plates -- the Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates -- each of which contains a distinctive sequence of rocks, different in facies and structural style from those of the cratonic region east of the thrust belt. The thrust plates are characterized by persuasive, open to tight and locally overturned folds, and imbricate thrust faults, structural styles unusual in Phanerozoic cratonic rocks. The basal decollement zones of the plates are composed of intensely sheared, crushed, brecciated, and mylonitized rocks, the decollement at the base of the Medicine Lodge plate is as much as 300 meters thick. The Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates are fringed on the east by a 10- to 50-kilometer-wide zone of tightly folded rocks cut by imbricate thrust fauls, a zone that forms the eastern margin of the thrust belt in southwest Montana. The frontal fold and thrust zone includes rocks that are similar to those of the craton, even though they differ in details of thickness, composition, or stratigraphic sequence. The zone is interpreted to be one of terminal folding and thrusting in cratonic rocks overridden by the major thrust plates from farther west. The cratonic rocks were drape-folded over rising basement blocks that formed a foreland bulge in front of the thrust belt. The basement blocks are bounded by steep faults of Proterozoic ancestry, which also moved as tear

  5. Possible influence of Arctic oscillation on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Jingxuan; Gong, Daoyi; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Li, Sang

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the possible influence of the springtime Arctic oscillation (AO) on precipitation along the East Asian rain belt has been studied for the period of 1979 to 2014. To capture the features of the large-scale variability of the atmospheric circulation and precipitation, singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was performed. The domain for precipitation is from 21.25 to 33.75° N and 111.25 to 133.25° E, and the 1000 hPa heights are from 20° N northward. Prior to analysis, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals were linearly fitted and subtracted from the variables of interest. The first paired modes explain 51.1 % of the total squared covariance. The spatial feature of the pressure mode is almost identical to that of the positive AO pattern, while the precipitation mode displays an overall less-than-normal anomaly along the rain belt. The AO indices are highly correlated with the time coefficients of the pressure mode at a value of 0.91, and for the time coefficients of the precipitation mode, the correlation is -0.44, both of which are significant at the 99 % level. The regional atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with the negative phase AO mode display consistent changes, including the anomalous southerly winds and vapor flux convergence in the lower troposphere over East Asia, the stronger East Asian westerly jet stream, and the enhanced ascending air motion between 20 and 30° N. There are two possible mechanisms linking the AO and East Asian circulation and precipitation, i.e., the wave-trains along the westerly jet stream from North Africa to the Middle East and East Asia and the dipole of an anti-cyclone and a cyclone over the North Pacific.

  6. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  7. Suprasubduction volcanic rocks of the Char ophiolite belt, East Kazakhstan: new geochemical and first geochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-04-01

    The Char ophiolite belt is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a world largest accretionary orogen, which has evolved during more than 800 Ma. The Char belt formed during Kazakhstan - Siberia collision. It has been known for hosting fragments of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust, MORB, OPB and OIB, of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Safonova et al., 2012). The Char is surrounded by two Paleozoic island-arc terranes: Zharma-Saur in the west and Rudny Altai in the east, however, until recent times, no island-arc units have been found within it. We were the first to find island-arc units as tectonic sheets occurring adjacent to those consisting of oceanic rocks. In places, island-arc andesites cut oceanic basalts. The Char volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of a probable suprasubduction origin are basalt, microgabbro, dolerite, andesite, tonalite and dacite. The mafic to andesitic volcanics possessing low TiO2 (0.85 wt.%av.) and show MgO vs. major elements crystallization trends suggesting two magma series: tholeiitic and calc-alkaline. The tholeiitic varieties are less enriched in incompatible elements then the calc-alkaline ones. Two samples are high-Mg and low-Ti andesibasalts similar to boninites. The rocks possess moderately LREE enriched rare-earth element patterns and are characterized by negative Nb anomalies present on the multi-element spectra (Nb/Lapm = 0.14-0.47; Nb/Thpm = 0.7-1.6).The distribution of rare-earth elements (La/Smn = 0.8-2.3, Gd/Ybn = 0.7-1.9) and the results of geochemical modeling in the Nb-Yb system suggest high degrees of melting of a depleted harzburgite-bearing mantle source at spinel facies depths. Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and opaque minerals also affected the final composition of the volcanic rocks. Clinopyroxene monomineral thermometry indicates crystallization of melts at 1020-1180°C. Melt inclusion composition based numerical calculations show that primary melts were derived at 1350

  8. Strong Lg-wave attenuation in the Middle East continental collision orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    2016-04-01

    Using Lg-wave Q tomography, we construct a broadband crustal attenuation model for the Middle East. The QLg images reveal a relationship between attenuation and geological structures. Strong attenuation is found in the continental collision orogenic belt that extends from the Turkish and Iranian plateau to the Pamir plateau. We investigate the frequency dependence of QLg in different geologic formations. The results illustrate that QLg values generally increase with increasing frequency but exhibit complex relationships both with frequency and between regions. An average QLg value between 0.2 and 2.0 Hz, QLg (0.2-2.0 Hz), may be a critical index for crustal attenuation and is used to infer the regional geology. Low-QLg anomalies are present in the eastern Turkish plateau and correlate well with low Pn-velocities and Cenozoic volcanic activity, thus indicating possible partial melting within the crust in this region. Very strong attenuation is also observed in central Iran, the Afghanistan block, and the southern Caspian Sea. This in line with the previously observed high crustal temperature, high-conductivity layers, and thick marine sediments in these areas, suggests the high Lg attenuation is caused by abnormally high tectonic and thermal activities.

  9. Geometry and Kinematics of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Thrust Belt (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchi, Massimiliano R.; Cruciani, Francesco; Porreca, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Even if most thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt are generated at convergent plate boundaries, in the last decades advances in seismic exploration and acquisition of large datasets have shown that they are also notably widespread along continental passive margins, driven by gravity processes in deep-water areas. In this study a composite set of modern and vintage reprocessed seismic reflection profiles is used to investigate the internal structure and kinematic evolution of the Lamu Basin Deep-Water Fold-and-Trust Belt (DW-FTB). The Lamu Basin is an example of giant-scale, gravity driven compressional belt developed in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary along a still poorly explored sector of the East-African continental margin, at the Kenya-Somalia border. The compressional domain extends longitudinally for more than 450 km, is up to 180 km wide and shows remarkable structural complexity both along strike and along dip. The external part is dominated by ocean-verging imbricate thrusts, above a gently landward-dipping basal detachment. The internal part is characterised by almost symmetrical detachment folds and double verging structures, sustaining bowl-shaped syn-tectonic basins. Here the basal detachment surface is almost flat. The mean fold wavelength displays a progressive landward increase, from 2.5 km, at the toe of the belt, to about 10 km. This structural variability is thought to be related to the lateral variation of the section under shortening and particularly to the different thickness of the Early Cretaceous shaly unit involved in the deformations, increasing landward from about 400 m to more than 1 km. Through the sequential restoration of regional cross-sections, we evaluated that the northern portion of the thrust belt experienced a shortening of almost 50 km (corresponding to 20%), with a shortening rate (during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene main event) of about 3.5 mm/yr. Under many respects, the dimensions and internal structure of this thrust belt

  10. Temporal evolution of granitic magmas in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, east Qinling Orogen, central China: Implications for Mo metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Han, Jiangwei; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Cao, Huawen; Song, Yaowu

    2015-11-01

    The Luanchuan metallogenic belt, located within the eastern part of the Qinling Orogen, central China, hosts a number of world-class Mo deposits that are closely related to small late Mesozoic granitic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of distinct plutons in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded ages of 153 ± 1, 154 ± 2, 152 ± 2, and 148 ± 1 Ma. Molybdenite Re-Os isotopic compositions of Yuku ore district in the southern part of Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded an isochron age of 146 ± 1 Ma, which is consistent with the large-scale mineralization ages in the northern part of the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. A combination of previous studies and new geochronological and isotopic data show a concordant temporal and genetic link between granitic magmatism and Mo mineralization in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, suggesting that this mineralization episode formed the most extensive Mo mineralization belt in the east Qinling Orogen. Zircon grains from Mo-related granitic plutons show similar trace element distributions. High-precision Multi Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) Pb isotope analysis of K-feldspar megacrysts from mineralization-related granites suggest that they were derived from the lower crust. Similarly, the Pb isotopic compositions of pyrite coprecipitated with molybdenite also suggest that the metals were derived form the lower crust, with probably minor mantle contribution. A continuum mineralization model that describes the sourcing of Mo from an evolving granitic magma over successive differentiation events, possibly in separate but connected magma chambers, could explain the remarkable Mo enrichment in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. The volatile- and Mo-bearing granitic magmas ascended as diapirs from the deep crust, and were emplaced as dikes in the upper crust. Lithological differences between these Mo-bearing granites may relate to different stages in the evolution of individual magmas. Finally, ore

  11. Cretaceous to early Tertiary paleogeography in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, D.S.; Schmitt, J.G. )

    1990-06-01

    The Cretaceous to early Tertiary hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt in east-central Nevada underwent two periods of sedimentary basin development. The older (Early Cretaceous) episode is characterized by basins that formed coeval with deformation within a belt of contractional structures. Basins were characterized by periods of through-flowing fluvial drainage. The younger (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) episode of basin development was characterized by internally drained alluvial basins that subsequently expanded into more regional lacustrine basins. Basal alluvial detritus indicates that basin inception occurred as a result of rapid development of topographic relief. Synsedimentary tectonism was characterized by horizontal extension due to attainment of equilibrium topography in response to crustal thickening.

  12. Juxtaposition of Neoproterozoic units along the Baruda - Tulu Dimtu shear-belt in the East African Orogen of western Ethiopia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braathen, A.; Grenne, Tor; Selassie, M.G.; Worku, T.

    2001-01-01

    Amalgamation of East and West Gondwanaland during the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen is recorded by several shear-belts or 'suture zones', some of which are associated with ultramafic and mafic complexes that have been interpreted as ophiolite fragments. The Baruda shear-belt is a major structure of this type that belongs to the N-S trending Barka - Tulu Dimtu zone. The significance of this zone has been studied within a transect in western Ethiopia which covers a variety of metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequences, ultramafic rocks and synkinematic intrusive complexes. All rocks participated in the regional D1 event as reflected in a penetrative steep foliation in supracrustal rocks and marginal parts of the intrusions. Highly strained rocks contain a stretching lineation that plunge to the east. The several-km thick Baruda shear-belt, comprising mylonitic supracrustal and plutonic rocks including mafic-ultramafic mega-lenses, is the most prominent expression of this event. Shear-sense indicators demonstrate top-to-the-west shear. Subsequent D2 deformation is recorded in 2-300 m wide, N-S striking, subvertical shear-zones with subhorizontal stretching lineation relatable to sinistral transcurrent movements. Our data indicate that rock units on either side of the Baruda shear-belt are related, rather than being exotic to each other as implied in suture zone models, since there is no major lithologic or metamorphic difference, geochemical data on metavolcanic rocks and pre-tectonic intrusions suggest a paleotectonic link, and style and extent of deformation is similar across the shear-belt. A tentative model for the transect suggests an arc and back-arc setting which experienced later continental collision and tectonic shortening. The initial setting was that of a shallow marine platform characterised by carbonates and sandstones, which covered extensive areas prior to break-up of a pre-existing supercontinent. Continental convergence is first recorded in high

  13. Hot granulite nappes — Tectonic styles and thermal evolution of the Proterozoic granulite belts in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Harald; Tenczer, Veronika; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Wallbrecher, Eckart; Muhongo, Sospeter

    2009-11-01

    A section through the Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt of Tanzania exposes western foreland (Archaean Tanzania Craton and Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran Belt), marginal (Western Granulites) and eastern, internal (Eastern Granulites) portions of the orogen. The assembly of granulite nappes at ca. 620 Ma displays westward emplacement along an eastward deepening basal decollement and forward propagation of thrusts, climbing from the deep crust to the surface. This goes along with eastward increase of syntectonic temperatures, derived from prevalent deformation mechanisms, and eastward decrease of the kinematic vorticity number. Distinctly different pressure - temperature paths with a branch of isothermal decompression (ITD) in Western Granulites and isobaric cooling (IBC) in Eastern Granulites reflect residence times of rocks within lower crustal levels. Western Granulites, exhumed rapidly at the orogen margin, display ITD and non-coaxial fabrics. Eastern Granulites in the internal orogen portions escaped from rapid exhumation and show IBC and co-axial flow fabrics. The vertical variation of structural elements, i.e. basement — cover relations within the Eastern Granulites, shows decoupling between lower and middle crust with horizontal west — east stretching in the basement and horizontal west — east shortening in the cover. A model of hot fold nappes [Beaumont, C., Nguyen, M.H., Jamieson, R.A., Ellis, S., 2006. Crustal flow modes in large hot orogens. In: Law, R.D., Searle, M.P., Godin, L., (eds). Channel Flow, Ductile Extrusion and Exhumation in Continental Collision Zones. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. vol. 268, 91-145] is adopted to explain flow diversity in the deep crust. The lower crust represented by Eastern Granulite basement flowed coaxially outwards (westward) in response to thickened crust and elevated gravitational forces, supported by a melt-weakened, viscous channel at the crustal base. Horizontal flow with rates faster than thermal

  14. HALO aircraft measurements of East Asian anthropogenic SO2 import into the lower stratosphere by a warm conveyor belt uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Baumann, R.; Pirjola, L.; Roiger, A.; Sailer, T.; Wirth, M.; Schumann, U.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a case study of anthropogenic SO2 pollution transport into the lower stratosphere from East Asian source regions. The pollution layer was observed over Central Europe by measurements from the new German research aircraft HALO. The layer contained enhanced SO2, HNO3 and water vapor and caused increased Lidar backscatter radiation. Meteorological analysis and air mass transport and dispersion model simulations reveal that the detected pollutants were released from ground-based sources in East-China, South-Korea, and Japan. The pollution plume was uplifted by a warm conveyor belt associated with a West-Pacific cyclone and finally injected into the lower stratosphere. Our HALO measurements were performed 5 days after the air mass uplift event, when significant parts of the Northern Hemisphere were already covered by the pollution plume. Accompanying trajectory chemistry and aerosol box model simulations indicate that H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets were generated in the SO2-rich plume and grew to sizes large enough to explain the observed increased Lidar backscatter signal. Implications of the SO2 transport pathway into the lower stratosphere presented in this study will be discussed.

  15. Origin of allanite in gneiss and granite in the Dabie orogenic belt, Central East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haihao; Xiao, Yilin; Xu, Lijuan; Sun, He; Huang, Jian; Hou, Zhenhui

    2017-03-01

    Allanite is a common accessory mineral phase, representing an important carrier of rare earth elements, Th, U, Sr and other trace elements in most continental rocks. As Th and U can be incorporated into the allanite lattice, the mineral is a good geochronological tool for constraining geological events. Moreover, the trace element features δEu, Th/U ratio and common lead content of allanite are indicators of the forming conditions. Allanite and coexisting epidote-group minerals are abundant in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks from the Dabie-Sulu orogen in central East China. However, if these minerals formed in the Neoproterozoic as magmatic phases, or in the Triassic as metamorphic phases is a matter of long-standing controversy. We report major and trace element analyses of whole rocks, allanite and coexisting epidote-group minerals, together with U-Th-Pb isotopic compositions of allanite in UHP gneiss from the Dabie-Sulu orogen, and allanite in the adjacent Jingshan granite. The granite is emplaced along the southeastern margin of the North China Craton and considered a product of partial melting of the subducted Dabie-Sulu gneiss. Trace elements (low Th/U and La/Sm, high δEu and high Sr) and high common lead concentrations indicate a metamorphic origin of allanite-epidote in the UHP gneiss. On the other hand, coarse-grained allanite from the Jingshan granite shows a corrosion core and a magmatic rim with common 208Pb up to 70% in the core and less than 30% in the rim. The allanite cores are of peritectic and the rims of magmatic origin with ages of ∼160 Ma, consistent with the granite crystallization age. In combination with previous studies, we conclude that the allanite of the Jingshan granite has form from the subducted and remolten Dabie-Sulu gneiss. Allanite records Triassic UHP metamorphic ages as well as Jurassic peritectic-magmatic ages as a part of the evolution of the Dabie-Sulu orogen.

  16. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rain belt over Middle East and North Africa: A high-resolution AGCM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rain belt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high-resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model, the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rain belt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust-induced responses in global- and regional-scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rain belt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rain belt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semiarid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the "Sahel drought," the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region's climate.

  17. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-10-27

    Glacial-interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ(13)C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ(13)C values (range: -25‰ to -16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10-20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10-20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues.

  18. Warming-induced northwestward migration of the East Asian monsoon rain belt from the Last Glacial Maximum to the mid-Holocene

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shiling; Ding, Zhongli; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Xu; Jiang, Wenying; Huang, Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Glacial–interglacial changes in the distribution of C3/C4 vegetation on the Chinese Loess Plateau have been related to East Asian summer monsoon intensity and position, and could provide insights into future changes caused by global warming. Here, we present δ13C records of bulk organic matter since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from 21 loess sections across the Loess Plateau. The δ13C values (range: –25‰ to –16‰) increased gradually both from the LGM to the mid-Holocene in each section and from northwest to southeast in each time interval. During the LGM, C4 biomass increased from <5% in the northwest to 10–20% in the southeast, while during the mid-Holocene C4 vegetation increased throughout the Plateau, with estimated biomass increasing from 10% to 20% in the northwest to >40% in the southeast. The spatial pattern of C4 biomass in both the LGM and the mid-Holocene closely resembles that of modern warm-season precipitation, and thus can serve as a robust analog for the contemporary East Asian summer monsoon rain belt. Using the 10–20% isolines for C4 biomass in the cold LGM as a reference, we derived a minimum 300-km northwestward migration of the monsoon rain belt for the warm Holocene. Our results strongly support the prediction that Earth's thermal equator will move northward in a warmer world. The southward displacement of the monsoon rain belt and the drying trend observed during the last few decades in northern China will soon reverse as global warming continues. PMID:26460029

  19. Metamorphic evolution of the Maud Belt: P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in Gjelsvikfjella, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisnath, Avinash; Frimmel, Hartwig E.

    2005-12-01

    A metamorphic petrological study, in conjunction with recent precise geochronometric data, revealed a complex P- T- t path for high-grade gneisses in a hitherto poorly understood sector of the Mesoproterozoic Maud Belt in East Antarctica. The Maud Belt is an extensive high-grade, polydeformed, metamorphic belt, which records two significant tectono-thermal episodes, once towards the end of the Mesoproterozoic and again towards the late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian. In contrast to previous models, most of the metamorphic mineral assemblages are related to a Pan-African tectono-thermal overprint, with only very few relics of late Mesoproterozoic granulite-facies mineral assemblages (M 1) left in strain-protected domains. Petrological and mineral chemical evidence indicates a clockwise P- T- t path for the Pan-African orogeny. Peak metamorphic (M 2b) conditions recorded by most rocks in the area ( T = 709-785 °C and P = 7.0-9.5 kbar) during the Pan-African orogeny were attained subsequent to decompression from probably eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (M 2a). The new data acquired in this study, together with recent geochronological and geochemical data, permit the development of a geodynamic model for the Maud Belt that involves volcanic arc formation during the late Mesoproterozoic followed by extension at 1100 Ma and subsequent high-grade tectono-thermal reworking once during continent-continent collision at the end of the Mesoproterozoic (M 1; 1090-1030 Ma) and again during the Pan-African orogeny (M 2a, M 2b) between 565 and 530 Ma. Post-peak metamorphic K-metasomatism under amphibolite-facies conditions (M 2c) followed and is ascribed to post-orogenic bimodal magmatism between 500 and 480 Ma.

  20. Summary terrane, mineral deposit, and metallogenic belt maps of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; West, Timothy D.; Dawson, Kenneth M.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Baranov, Boris V.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislauv G.; Diggles, Michael F.; Eremin, Roman A.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Gorodinskiy, Mary E.; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Frolov, Yuri F.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Koch, Richard D.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Pozdeev, Anany I.; Rozenblum, Ilya S.; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    This report is part of a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. The project is to provide critical information for collaborators and customers on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera.

  1. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  2. Appendix C: Summary of Major Metallogenic Belts in Northeast Asia (the Russian Far East, Yakutia, Siberia, Transbaikalia, Northern China, Mongolia, South Korea, and Japan)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodionov, Sergey M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Distanov, Elimir G.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Davydov, Yuriy V.V.; Fridovskiy, Valeriy Yu.; Gamyanin, Gennandiy N.; Gerel, Ochir; Kostin, Alexei V.; Letunov, Sergey A.; Li, Xujun; Nikitin, Valeriy M.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Sudo, Sadahisa; Sotnikov, Vitaly I.; Spiridonov, Alexander V.; Stepanov, Vitaly A.; Sun, Fengyue; Sun, Jiapeng; Sun, Weizhi; Supletsov, Valeriy M.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tyan, Oleg A.; Vetluzhskikh, Valeriy G.; Wakita, Koji; Yakovlev, Yakov V.; Zorina, Lydia M.

    2010-01-01

    The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and

  3. Early Permian East-Ujimqin mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks from the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt, North China: Origin, chronology, and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yinhang; Teng, Xuejian; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Min; Zhang, Tianfu

    2014-12-01

    The East-Ujimqin complex, located north of the Erenhot-Hegenshan fault, North China, is composed of mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks including peridotite, gabbro, alkali granite, and syenite. We investigated the tectonic setting, age, and anorogenic characteristics of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) through field investigation and microscopic and geochemical analyses of samples from the East-Ujimqin complex and LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of gabbro and alkali granite. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the complex indicate that this multiphase plutonic suite developed through a combination of fractional crystallization, assimilation processes, and magma mixing. The mafic-ultramafic rocks are alkaline and have within-plate geochemical characteristics, indicating anorogenic magmatism in an extensional setting and derivation from a mantle source. The mafic-ultramafic magmas triggered partial melting of the crust and generated the granitic rocks. The granitic rocks are alkali and metaluminous and have high Fe/(Fe + Mg) characteristics, all of which are common features of within-plate plutons. Zircon U-Pb geochronological dating of two samples of gabbro and alkali granite yielded ages of 280.8 ± 1.5 and 276.4 ± 0.7 Ma, placing them within the Early Permian. The zircon Hf isotopic data give inhomogeneous εHf(t) values of 8.2-14.7 for gabbroic zircons and extraordinary high εHf(t) values (8.9-12.5) for the alkali granite in magmatic zircons. Thus, we consider the East-Ujimqin mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks to have been formed in an extensional tectonic setting caused by asthenospheric upwelling and lithospheric thinning. The sources of mafic-ultramafic and granitic rocks could be depleted garnet lherzolite mantle and juvenile continental lower crust, respectively. All the above indicate that an anorogenic magma event may have occurred in part of the XMOB during 280-276 Ma.

  4. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus providing

  5. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight—secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus

  6. Middle Proterozoic mafic magmatism, east central Idaho: Implications for age of deposition of Belt Supergroup and basin subsidence models

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, K.R. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Doughty, P.T. . Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    In the Salmon River Arch, a ca. 1,365 Ma rapikivi granite intrudes the Proterozoic Yellow Jacket Formation, which is commonly correlated with the basal Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The contact aureole of the granite contains andalusite and overprints greenschist-facies burial metamorphism in the undeformed sedimentary strata. To the north, the granite intrudes amphibolite-facies, migmatitic paragneiss and a mafic igneous complex. Textures within the migmatites attest to deformation during partial melting. Preliminary U-Pb zircon data from a quartz diorite that intrudes the Yellowjacket sediments yield an age of ca. 1,445 Ma. This is consistent with zircon ages from the Crossport C and Moyie sills in northern Idaho and southern BC that constrain the basal Belt Supergroup to be older than 1,440 Ma. U-Pb zircon data from an amphibolitized mafic dike within the mafic igneous complex along the Salmon River are nearly concordant and yield Pb/Pb ages of ca. 1,377 Ma. The zircons exhibit skeletal, magmatic morphologies and the age is interpreted to be the time of primary crystallization. This age is slightly older than the age of the rapikivi granite and overlaps with the U-Pb zircon age of leucosomes in the migmatites. Thus, bimodal magmatism and partial melting occurred ca. 1,370 Ma. Deformation accompanied these events, but was concentrated in the deeper level, high-grade rocks. These processes are syn-depositional, based on age constraints from the intrusive quartz diorite. The authors envision that burial metamorphism, deformation, partial melting mafic magmatism and granite emplacement occurred during extensional deformation in the base of the Yellowjacket basin.

  7. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael J.; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David L.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2016-12-01

    We report the ages of cleavage development in a normally intractable lower greenschist facies slate belt, the Central Maine-Aroostook-Matapedia belt in east-central Maine. We have attacked this problem by identifying the minimum ages of muscovite in a regional Acadian cleavage (S1) and in a local ductile fault zone cleavage (S2) using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the ages of crosscutting plutons. Our success stems from the regional low-grade metamorphism of the rocks in which each crystallization event preserves a40Ar/39Ar crystallization age and not a cooling age. Evidence for recrystallization via a pressure solution mechanism comes from truncations of detrital, authigenic, and in some rocks S1 muscovite and chlorite grains by new cleavage-forming muscovite and chlorite grains. Low-blank furnace age spectra from meta-arkosic and slaty rocks climb from moderate temperature Devonian age-steps dominated by cleavage-forming muscovite to Ordovician age-steps dominated by a detrital muscovite component. S1- and S2-cleaved rocks were hornfelsed by granitoids of ∼407 and 377 Ma, respectively. The combination of these minimum ages with the maximum metamorphic crystallization ages establishes narrow constraints on the timing of these two cleavage-forming events, ∼410 Ma (S1) and ∼380 Ma (S2). These two events coincide in time with a change in the plate convergence kinematics from the arrival of the Avalon terrane (Acadian orogeny), to a right-lateral transpression arrival of the Meguma terrane in the Neoacadian orogeny.

  8. The Lamu Basin deepwater fold-and-thrust belt: An example of a margin-scale, gravity-driven thrust belt along the continental passive margin of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Barchi, Massimiliano R.

    2016-03-01

    In recent decades, advances in seismic processing and acquisition of new data sets have revealed the presence of many deepwater fold-and-thrust belts (DW-FTBs), often developing along continental passive margins. These kinds of tectonic features have been intensively studied, due to their substantial interest. This work presents a regional-scale study of the poorly explored Lamu Basin DW-FTB, a margin-scale, gravity-driven system extending for more than 450 km along the continental passive margin of Kenya and southern Somalia (East Africa). A 2-D seismic data set was analyzed, consisting of both recently acquired high-quality data and old reprocessed seismic profiles, for the first detailed structural and stratigraphic interpretation of this DW-FTB. The system originated over an Early to mid-Cretaceous shale detachment due to a mainly gravity-spreading mechanism. Analysis of synkinematic strata indicates that the DW-FTB was active from the Late Cretaceous to the Early Miocene, but almost all of the deformation occurred before the Late Paleocene. The fold-and-thrust system displays a marked N-S variation in width, the northern portion being more than 150 km wide and the southern portion only a few dozen kilometers wide; this along-strike variation is thought to be related to the complex tectonosedimentary evolution of the continental margin at the Somalia-Kenya boundary, also reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Locally, a series of volcanic edifices stopped the basinward propagation of the DW-FTB. A landward change in the dominant structural style, from asymmetric imbricate thrust sheets to pseudo-symmetric detachment folds, is generally observed, related to the landward thickening of the detached shales.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  10. A comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radition 2. East-west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a functon of Jovian longitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    1981-05-01

    On the basis of comparison of radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiaton the 'hot region' or east-west asymmetry in the planet's radiation belts is proposed to be due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes λJ~240°-360° and the existence of a dusk dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere, generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere. The model calculations were based upon the magnetic field configurations derived from the Pioneer data by Acuna and Ness [1976] (the O4 model) and Davis, Jones and Smith (quoted in Smith and Gulkis [1979]) (the P11 (3,2)A model), with an electron distribution derived in the first paper of this series [de Pater, this issue]. We would infer from the calculations that the O4 model gives a slightly better fit to the data; the relatively large number density at λJ~240°-360°, however, might indicate the presence of even higher order moments in the field.

  11. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of Late Cenozoic leucite lamproites from the East European Alpine belt (Macedonia and Yugoslavia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altherr, R.; Meyer, H.-P.; Holl, A.; Volker, F.; Alibert, C.; McCulloch, M. T.; Majer, V.

    In the East European Alpine belt, leucite-sanidine-phlogopite-olivine-bearing volcanic rocks of Late Cenozoic age occur at eight localities within the Vardar suture zone and at one locality in the Southern Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. Most of these volcanics are characterized by high Mg# (66.6-78.6), high abundances of Ni (117-373 ppm) and Cr (144-445 ppm) as well as high primary K2O contents (5.63-7.01 %) and K2O/Na2O values (1.93-4.91). Rocks with more differentiated compositions are rare. A lamproite affinity of these rocks is apparent from their relatively low contents of Al2O3 (9.9-14.3 wt%) and CaO (6.2-8.3 wt%) in combination with high abundances of Rb (85-967 ppm), Ba (1,027-4,189 ppm), Th (18.9-76.5 ppm), Pb (19-54 ppm), Sr (774-1,712 ppm) and F (0.16-0.52 wt%), and the general lack of plagioclase. Although eruption of the magmas took place in post-collisional extensional settings, significant depletions of Nb and Ta relative to Th and La, low TiO2 contents (0.92-2.17 %), low ratios of Rb/Cs, K/Rb and Ce/Pb as well as high ratios of Ba/La and Ba/Th suggest close genetic relationships to subduction zone processes. Whereas Sr and Nd isotope ratios show relatively large variations (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7078-0.7105, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51242-0.51215), Pb isotope ratios display a very restricted range with 206Pb/204Pb = 18.68-18.88 and variable but generally high Δ7/4 (11-18) and Δ8/4 (65-95) values. The observed petrographic, geochemical and isotopic characteristics are best explained by a genetic model involving preferential melting of phlogopite-rich veins in an originally depleted lithospheric mantle source, whereby the metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source is tentatively related to the addition of components from subducted sediments during consumption of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  12. Along-dip variations of structural style in the Somali Basin deep-water fold and thrust belt (East Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Continental passive margins are place of extended slope-failure phenomena, which can lead to the formation of gravity-driven deep-water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), in regions where no far-field compressional stress is active. These giant geological features, which are confined to the sedimentary section, consist of extensional-compressional linked systems detached over a common décollement, generally salt or shales. The continental passive margin of northern Kenya and southern Somalia is an excellent and relatively unexplored site for recognizing and understanding the DW-FTBs originated over a regional shale décollement. In this study we have interpreted a 2D seismic data-set of the 1980s, hosted by Marine Geoscience Data System at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (http://www.marine-geo.org), and recently reprocessed by ENI, in order to investigate the structural style of a DW-FTB developed offshore of northern Kenya and southern Somalia (Somali Basin). This region records the oldest sedimentary section of the Indian Ocean since the breakup of Gondwana began in the Middle-Lower Jurassic separating Madagascar from Africa. From the Upper Cretaceous to at least the Lower Miocene, the margin has been characterized by gravitational collapse leading to the formation of a DW-FTB extending more than 400 km along-strike. The northern portion of the DW-FTB is about 150 km wide, whilst in the southern portion is few tens of km wide. We analysed the northern portion along a regional seismic section. Our study represents the first detailed structural interpretation of this DW-FTB since its discovery in the 1980s. The good quality of the available reprocessed seismic data has allowed us to identify remarkable along-dip variations in the structural style. The basal detachment constantly deepens landward, in agreement with a prevailing gravity-spreading deformation process (as in the case of the Niger Delta). On the seismic data are not visible, as

  13. Stratigraphy of the Silurian outcrop belt on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky, with revisions in the nomenclature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Silurian rocks form a narrow arcuate outcrop belt about 100 mi long on the east side of the Cincinnati Arch in Kentucky. They range from as much as 300 ft thick in the north to a pinchout edge in the south. The nomenclature of this sequence is revised to reflect mappability and lithologic uniformity on the basis of detailed mapping at a scale of 1:24,000 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kentucky Geological Survey. The Silurian rocks are divided into two parts: the Crab Orchard Group, raised in rank from Crab Orchard Formation and redefined, in the lower part of the Silurian section, and Bisher Dolomite in the upper part of the section. The Crab Orchard Group is subdivided into the Drowning Creek Formation (new name) at the base of the Silurian, overlain by the Alger Shale (adopted herein) south of Fleming County and by the Estill Shale (elevated to formational rank) north of Bath County. The Brassfield Member (reduced in rank from Brassfield Dolomite or Formation) and the Plum Creek Shale and Oldham Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are included as members of the Drowning Creek; the Lulbegrud Shale, Waco, and Estill Shale Members of the former Crab Orchard Formation are now included in the Alger. The Drowning Creek Formation, 20 to 50 ft thick, is composed mainly of gray fine to coarse-grained dolomite with shale interbeds. The dolomite beds average several inches thick, with bedding surfaces that are locally smooth but generally irregular and are fossiliferous in many places; fossils include brachiopods, crinoid columnals, horn corals, colonial corals, trilobites, pelecypods, and bryozoans. The shale interbeds average several inches thick, except for its Plum Creek Shale Member which is entirely shale and as much as 12 ft thick, and are most abundant in the upper half of the formation. The members of the Drowning Creek intergrade and are indistinguishable in the northern part of the area. The Alger Shale, as much as 170 feet thick

  14. Dating slate belts using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon ages from crosscutting plutons: A case study from east-central Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanem, Hind; Kunk, Michael; Ludman, Allan; Bish, David; Wintsch, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Determining the tectonic significance of slate belts is a persistent problem in many orogenic belts because of the lack of time constraints on the age of deposition and the age(s) of cleavages. We have solved this problem in east-central Maine where the ages of the regional Acadian cleavage (S1) and local ductile fault zone cleavage (S2) were both constrained using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the ages of crosscutting plutons. Applying 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to rocks with multiple generations of muscovite was possible because each cleavage-forming muscovite records a crystallization age rather than a cooling age due to the low grade of regional metamorphism. Evidence for metamorphic crystallization in rocks dominated by regional Acadian cleavage (S1) comes from the truncations of detrital and authigenic muscovite and chlorite grains by new muscovite and chlorite grains that define the S1 foliation. In rocks that display two foliations, the evidence comes from the truncations of chlorite and muscovite grains defining all earlier fabrics by new muscovite grains in the younger folia (S2). Step-heating experiments using the 40Ar/39Ar technique on twelve samples all yielded sigmoidal age spectra. The low-temperature steps produced a hump in the age spectra, indicating 39Ar recoil into adjacent interlayered chlorite grains, the latter interlayering confirmed by back-scattered electron imaging. Continuing steps climbed steadily from those with minimum apparent ages as young as ~381 Ma to steps with maximum ages as old as 466 Ma. The samples with the lowest minimum apparent age steps are those in which the S2 cleavage-forming mica population dominates. In contrast, the oldest apparent age steps are from samples that have the highest modal abundance of detrital micas. The Middle Ordovician age of the maximum age steps is interpreted to be the minimum cooling age of the detrital micas. The minimum 40Ar/39Ar age steps of muscovite in the samples that display only S1 cleavage

  15. Sulfur and iron diagenesis in temperate unsteady sediments of the East China Sea inner shelf and a comparison with tropical mobile mud belts (MMBs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Chen, Ke-Ke; Yang, Gui-Peng; Fan, De-Jiang; Li, Tie

    2016-11-01

    Redox cycling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) exerts profound influences on fates of numerous elements in coastal marine sediments. In this study, S and Fe cycling and its geochemical expressions in the East China Sea (ECS) inner shelf, a representative of temperate mobile mud belts (MMBs), were characterized and compared with tropical counterparts (the Amazon shelf and the Gulf of Papua). Fe and S speciation consistently points to the dominance of authigenic nonsulfidized Fe(II) phases (i.e., poorly crystalline clays (PCCs) and carbonates) and the prevalence of Fe redox cycling in the suboxic or weakly sulfidic regimes of the ECS-MMBs. High contents of authigenic magnetite may be a common diagenetic expression in all MMBs. Compared to the tropical MMBs, three main differences of diagenetic expressions in the ECS-MMBs are (i) light 34Spyrite in the ECS-MMB versus characteristically heavy 34Spyrite in the Amazon shelf MMBs; (ii) lower total reactive Fe (FeTR), total diagenetic Fe(II), and ratio of FeTR to total Fe in the ECS-MMBs; and (iii) Fe(II) carbonates and PCCs are equally important sinks for nonsulfidized Fe(II) in the ECS-MMBs, whereas PCCs are the predominant sink in the tropical counterparts. These differences are ascribable to factors including low degradability of organic matter, small diffusion scales, less intense chemical weathering in the drainage basin, and/or weaker reverse weathering in the ECS-MMBs. Despite the differences above, Fe and S diagenetic expressions that characterize the prevalence of Fe redox cycling in the unsteady suboxic regimes are shared by the ECS-MMBs and tropical MMBs.

  16. Mechanical stability model of progradational carbonate platform margins under tectonic loads: Deformation of Cretaceous carbonate platforms in the Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt (east central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Juan; Suter, Max

    2015-02-01

    Shortening in the Sierra Madre Oriental fold-thrust belt (east central Mexico) is localized along the margins of Cretaceous carbonate platforms and controlled by mechanical stratigraphy. The platform margins are deformed by imbricate series of thrust ramps, whereas the coeval basins and platform interiors are deformed by map-scale detachment folds. Here we present a finite element model to evaluate the influence of the boundary geometry and boundary conditions on the style of deformation observed at these basinward progradational platform margins. We calculate the stress distribution in a linearly elastic platform-basin transition zone under the action of horizontal tectonic stress, taking into account changes of rock mechanical properties across the platform margin, as well as their dependence on direction, and infer the resulting fracture patterns based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Stress concentrations are predicted at the contacts between the massive rocks of the platform margin and the well-layered rocks of both, the platform interior and the adjacent basin. Brittle failure of the platform border can be mostly attributed to three effects: mechanical coupling between the carbonate platform and a substratum of moderate to low viscosity, variations in layering and texture that governed the mechanical properties of the involved carbonates as well as their dependence on direction, and the development of sharp domain boundary corners associated with progradational facies changes. In contrast, the dip of the basement and a possible taper of the overlying Upper Cretaceous shale toward the basin appear to have little influence on the mechanical failure of the platform margin.

  17. Belt-driven conveyor belts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    An intermediate belt drive system offers a number of advantages over conventional systems, including lower power requirements and the ability to use lower quality, cheaper, conveyor belts. The advantages of a correctly designed belt conveyor with end pulley drives are included.

  18. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of granitoids in the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt, northern Tibetan Plateau: origin and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Dong, Yunpeng; Zhang, Feifei; Yang, Zhao; Sun, Shengsi; He, Dengfeng

    2016-11-01

    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) in the northern margin of the Tibet Plateau is characterized by widespread granitic plutons, which are keys to understanding the tectonic evolution of the EKOB. The Zhiyu pluton, newly recognized in the central part of the EKOB, mainly consists of monzogranites, biotite granites and quartz diorites. Their LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb results show formation ages of 447 ± 1.6 Ma, 448 ± 2.5 Ma and 408 ± 1.8 Ma. The monzogranites and biotite granites are characterized by relatively high Sr (208-631 ppm), low Y (4.28-15.82 ppm) and Yb (0.44-1.59 ppm) contents, thus resulting in elevated Sr/Y (30-105) and (La/Yb)N (4-79) ratios, indicating geochemical features of adakitic rocks. These adakitic granites are medium- to high-K, calcic or calc-alkaline in composition, and display a weak peraluminous character. They have low MgO (0.57-1.84 wt.%, average 1.01 wt.%), Mg# (40-53, average 45), as well as low Cr (3.67-17.98 ppm, average 7.19 ppm) and Ni (2.59-9.30 ppm, average 4.71 ppm) contents. These rocks are enriched in LREE, and show negligible or variable positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.61-3.80, average 1.45) and significant negative Nb and Ta anomalies. Majority of the zircon grains from these adakitic granitic rocks have positive εHf(t) values of 0.09-5.21 with two-stage model ages ranging from 1.1 Ga to 1.6 Ga. These features are compatible with those of adakitic rocks derived from a thickened lower crust in the garnet stability field. Their formation is mainly controlled by the process of crust thickening following the closure of the Qimantag Ocean. The younger quartz diorites belong to medium- to high-K, calc-alkalic or alkali-calcic and metaluminous series, and exhibit a relatively high MgO (2.23-5.18 wt.%) and Mg# (40-56, average 50.11), with significant LREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies, as well as depletion of Nb, Ta. In addition, the quartz diorites have an enriched εHf(t) values ranging from -5.25 to -3.19. Combining

  19. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  20. A comparison of the radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. I - The high energy electron distribution in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. II - East-west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a function of Jovian longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison has been made between detailed model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation and the radio data at wavelengths of 6, 21, and 50 cm. The calculations were performed for a Jovian longitude of 200 deg and were based on the multipole field configurations as derived from the Pioneer data. The electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere was derived as a function of energy, pitch angle, and spatial coordinates. In addition, the hot region or east-west asymmetry in the radiation belts is investigated. It is suggested that this asymmetry is due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes of 240-360 deg and the existence of a dusk-to-dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere.

  1. Strain distribution across a partially molten middle crust: Insights from the AMS mapping of the Carlos Chagas Anatexite, Araçuaí belt (East Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, Geane C. G.; Egydio-Silva, Marcos; Vauchez, Alain; Camps, Pierre; Oliveira, Eurídice

    2013-10-01

    The easternmost part of the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí belt comprises an anatectic domain that involves anatexites (the Carlos Chagas unit), leucogranites and migmatitic granulites that display a well-developed fabric. Microstructural observations support that the deformation occurred in the magmatic to submagmatic state. Structural mapping integrating field and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) revealed a complex, 3D structure. The northern domain displays gently dipping foliations bearing a NW-trending lineation, southward, the lineation trend progressively rotates to EW then SW and the foliation is gently folded. The eastern domain displays E-W and NE-SW trending foliations with moderate to steeply dips bearing a dominantly NS trending lineation. Magnetic mineralogy investigation suggests biotite as the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility in the anatexites and ferromagnetic minerals in the granulites. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique suggest that the magnetic fabric comes from the crystalline anisotropy of biotite and feldspar grains, especially. The delineation of several structural domains with contrasted flow fabric suggests a 3D flow field involving westward thrusting orthogonal to the belt, northwestward orogen-oblique escape tectonics and NS orogen-parallel flow. This complex deformation pattern may be due to interplay of collision-driven and gravity-driven deformations.

  2. Structural setting of gold deposits in the Oudalan-Gorouol volcano-sedimentary belt east of the Markoye Shear Zone, West African Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2013-04-01

    The Oudalan-Gorouol volcano-sedimentary belt (OGB) of Burkina Faso and Niger hosts meta-volcanic and metasedimentary sequences of the Birimian Supergroup that were folded and deformed during emplacement of the Dori Batholith (D1-x), the Tangaean Event (D1) and the Eburnean Orogeny (D2). The emplacement of the Dori Batholith accompanied aureole deformation (D1-x) and the development of proto-mylonite, migmatite, gneiss and schist on the northern margin of the batholith. Contact metamorphic grade reached granulite facies with partial melting of the supracrustal sequences. Emplacement of the Dori Batholith was succeeded by emplacement of monzonite dykes and sills through the OGB. The Tangaean Event (D1) accompanied formation of (a) the Saoga Branch of the Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ), (b) the Mukosi and Billiata mylonite zones that are hosted in the MSZ, (c) the Afu Branch of the Kargouna Shear Zone Complex (KSZC), and (d) northwest-trending thrust-folds (F1) that crosscut the OGB and coalesce with the MSZ. Metamorphic grade attained amphibolite facies in mylonite or proto-mylonite zones in the Saoga and Afu branches. D1 was succeeded by emplacement of alkali-granite plutons of the Dolbel Batholith. The Eburnean Orogeny, D2, accompanied formation of (a) the Korizéna Branch of the MSZ, (b) the Waho Branch of the KSZC, and (c) northeast-trending shear-faults that crosscut the OGB. D2 is manifested by refolding of F1 by northeast-trending F2, and development of a pervasive northeast-trending S2 to S2-C. Metamorphic grade attained greenschist facies during D2 with development of the mineral assemblage quartz-chlorite-muscovite ± actinolite. D2 was succeeded by emplacement of northwest-trending gabbro and dolerite dykes. The OGB hosts structurally-controlled gold deposits that are sited along five metallogenic corridors and include the Essakane, Tin-Fal, Bom Kodjelé, Kossa and Tassiri Trends. Gold mineralisation is preferentially located where northeast-trending faults and

  3. 5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF ROD MILL BASE AND CONVEYOR BELT SUPPORT, EAST VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Grinding Rod Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  4. Bunkhouse basement interior showing storage area and a conveyor belt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bunkhouse basement interior showing storage area and a conveyor belt (circa 1936) used to unload dry goods into the basement through an opening on the east side of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  5. 17. TRACTOR ENGINE POWERING SHAFT SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, BELT CONNECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TRACTOR ENGINE POWERING SHAFT SYSTEM IN FOREGROUND, BELT CONNECTS WITH MAIN SHAFT LOOKING EAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  6. 7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Band Wheel, Showing Cloth Web Belt and Wooden Bearing Blocks, Looking West - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  7. 1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shown in the electric motor which powered the belts and drive shafts. This power system drove the tumblers which cleaned chain in building #7. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  8. 13. VIEW OF SWEEP ARMDRIVE MECHANISM AND BELT CHAIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF SWEEP ARM-DRIVE MECHANISM AND BELT CHAIN FROM MOOR, LOOKING EAST - Mystic River Drawbridge No. 7, Spanning Mystic River at Boston & Maine Railroad Eastern Route, Somerville, Middlesex County, MA

  9. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  10. The Paleozoic tectonic evolution and metallogenesis of the northern margin of East Junggar, Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Geochronological and geochemical constraints from igneous rocks of the Qiaoxiahala Fe-Cu deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Xiao, Bing; Wu, Chao; Bao, Zhiwei; Cai, Keda

    2016-11-01

    The East Junggar terrane (NW China) is an important constituent of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). From the Devonian to Permian, regional magmatism evolved from mainly calc-alkaline (I-type) to alkaline (A-type). The Qiaoxiahala Fe-Cu deposit, located in the Late Paleozoic Dulate island arc (northern margin of the East Junggar), is hosted in the volcanic rocks of the Middle Devonian Beitashan Formation. Two magmatic stages were identified in the deposit, the Qiaoxiahala diorite porphyry (380 ± 4.0 Ma) and a younger aplite (331 ± 3.1 Ma). The (high-K) calc-alkaline Beitashan Formation basaltic rocks are characterized by LILE and LREE enrichments and HFSE depletions, pointing to a subduction-related affinity. The high Mg# (42-75), elevated Ce/Th and Ba/Th, depleted Nb, positive εNd(t) (6.6), low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037) and MORB-like Pb isotope characters all suggest an origin involving partial melting of a MORB-like depleted mantle wedge (metasomatized by slab-derived fluids) with little evidence of crustal contamination. The calc-alkaline (I-type) diorite porphyry, characterized by LILE and LREE enrichments and HFSE depletions, may have formed from fractional crystallization of the basaltic rocks, with its parental magma derived from the same depleted mantle wedge. The negative εHf(t) (-8.26), Hf model age (TDMC) of 1406 Ma and the presence of inherited zircons (ca. 470 and 506 Ma) indicate that the diorite has assimilated older crustal material. The alkaline, metaluminous (A-type) aplite is characterized by HFSE enrichment and depletions in Sr, P and Ti, distinct from the basaltic rocks and diorite porphyry at Qiaoxiahala. The low Mg# (35-38), positive Zr and Hf, positive εHf(t) (4.77-9.75) and εNd(t) (6.85-6.86) and low T2DM (538-520 Ma) suggest a juvenile lower crustal source due to partial melting of basaltic lower crust as a result of underplating of mantle-derived melts and accompanied by magma mixing. The tectonic evolution of the Paleozoic East

  11. The Luanchuan Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag magmatic-hydrothermal system in the East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Constrains on metallogenesis from C-H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions and Rb-Sr isochron ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Santosh, M.; Zheng, Luo; Tang, Li; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xu-Huang; Zhang, Yun-Hui

    2015-11-01

    The Luanchuan Mo-W-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic ore district is located in the East Qinling metallogenic belt on the southern margin of the North China Craton. Two ore fields (Nannihu and Yuku) are recognized in the district, and three types of deposits are identified from the two ore fields as follows: (1) the 6 proximal porphyry-skarn type Mo-W deposits occurring at the inner contact zone of the granite porphyries, (2) the 3 middle skarn-hydrothermal type Zn deposits, and (3) the 8 distal hydrothermal type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits at the periphery of the porphyry. We present C-H-O isotope compositions of hydrothermal quartz and calcite, S-Pb isotope compositions of sulfide minerals, and sphalerite Rb-Sr isochron ages from the 17 deposits. The geochemical and geochronological data from the two ore fields all show systematic temporal and spatial variation, and primarily lead to the following inferences. (1) The temperatures and salinities of the ore-forming fluids decreased during mineralization. The ore-forming fluids gradually evolved from magmatic water to mixed magmatic-meteoric water. (2) The metallogenic components were primarily derived from igneous rocks, with increasing proportions of the materials from the ore-bearing rocks. (3) The mineralization ages of these deposits are close (147-136 Ma), which correspond to the emplacement of the granite intrusions. (4) The three types of deposits and the ore-related late Mesozoic intrusives constitute a unified magmatic-hydrothermal-mineralization system. Finally, we also suggest exploration strategies for the Luanchuan ore district.

  12. Geochronology and fluid inclusion study of the Yinjiagou porphyry-skarn Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit in the East Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Chen, Yuchuan; Li, Zongyan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Xinsheng; Qiao, Cuijie

    2014-01-01

    The Yinjiagou Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit of Henan Province is located in the Huaxiong block on the southern margin of the North China craton. It differs from other Mo deposits in the East Qingling area because of its large pyrite resource and complex associated elements. The deposit's mineralization process can be divided into skarn, sulfide, and supergene episodes with five stages, marking formation of magnetite in the skarn episode, quartz-molybdenite, quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite, and calcite-galena-sphalerite in the sulfide episode, and chalcedony-limonite in the supergene episode. Re-Os and 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates that both the skarn-type and porphyry-type orebodies of the Yinjiagou deposit formed approximately 143 Ma ago during the Early Cretaceous. Four types of fluid inclusions (FIs) have been distinguished in quartz phenocryst, various quartz veins, and calcite vein. Based on petrographic observations and microthermometric criteria the FIs include liquid-rich, gas-rich, H2O-CO2, and daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz phenocrysts of K-feldspar granite porphyry ranges from 341 °C to >550 °C, and the salinity is 0.4-44.0 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite veins is 382-416 °C, and the salinity is 3.6-40.8 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite ranges from 318 °C to 436 °C, and the salinity is 5.6-42.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite stockworks is in a range of 321-411 °C, and the salinity is 6.3-16.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-sericite-pyrite is in a range of 326-419 °C, and the salinity is 4.7-49.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The ore-forming fluids of the Yinjiagou deposit are mainly high-temperature, high-salinity fluids, generally with affinities to an H2O-NaCl-KCl ± CO2 system. The δ18OH2O values of ore

  13. Eocene Total Petroleum System -- North and East of the Eocene West Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit of the San Joaquin Basin Province: Chapter 19 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Hosford Scheirer, Allegra

    2009-01-01

    The North and East of Eocene West Side Fold Belt Assessment Unit (AU) of the Eocene Total Petroleum System of the San Joaquin Basin Province comprises all hydrocarbon accumulations within the geographic and stratigraphic limits of this confirmed AU. Oil and associated gas accumulations occur in Paleocene through early middle Miocene marine to nonmarine sandstones found on the comparatively stable northeast shelf of the basin. The assessment unit is located north and east of the thickest accumulation of Neogene sediments and the west side fold belt. The area enclosed by the AU has been affected by only mild deformation since Eocene time. Traps containing known accumulations are mostly low-relief domes, anticlines, and up-dip basin margin traps with faulting and stratigraphic components. Map boundaries of the assessment unit are shown in figures 19.1 and 19.2; this assessment unit replaces the Northeast Shelf of Neogene Basin play 1006, the East Central Basin and Slope North of Bakersfield Arch play 1010, and part of the West Side Fold Belt Sourced by Pre-middle Miocene Rocks play 1005 considered by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in their 1995 National Assessment (Beyer, 1996). Stratigraphically, the AU includes rocks from the uppermost crystalline basement to the topographic surface. In the region of overlap with the Central Basin Monterey Diagenetic Traps Assessment Unit, the North and East of Eocene West Side Fold Belt AU extends from basement rocks to the top of the Temblor Formation (figs. 19.3 and 19.4). In map view, the northern boundary of the assessment unit corresponds to the northernmost extent of Eocene-age Kreyenhagen Formation. The northeast boundary is the eastern limit of possible oil reservoir rocks near the eastern edge of the basin. The southeast boundary corresponds to the pinch-out of Stevens sand of Eckis (1940) to the south, which approximately coincides with the northern flank of the Bakersfield Arch (fig. 19.1). The AU is bounded on the

  14. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  15. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    PubMed

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  16. A continental rift model for the La Grande greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulski, T.; Hynes, A.; Liu, M.; Francis, D.; Rivard, B.; Stamatelopoulou-Seymour, K.

    1986-01-01

    Stratigraphic relationships and the geochemistry of volcanic rocks contrain the nature and timing of the tectonic and magmatic processes in the pre-deformational history of the La Grande greenstone belt in the Superior Province of north-central Quebec. The lowermost supracrustals in this belt are obscured by syntectonic granitoid intrusives. The supracrustal succession in the western part of the belt consists of a lower sequence of immature clastic sediments and mafic volcanoclastics, overlain by pillowed and massive basalts. Further east, along tectonic strike, a lower sequence of mafic volcanoclastics and immature clastic sediments is overlain by a thick sequence of pillowed and massive basalts, and resedimented coarse clastic sediments and banded iron formation. These are overlain by assive basaltic andesites, andesites and intermediate volcanoclastics intercalated with immature clastic sediments. In contrast, in the eastern part of the belt lenses of felsic volcanics and volcanoclastics occur at the base of the succession and pillowed and massive basalts are overlain by komatiites at the top. The La Grande greenstone belt can be explained as the product of continental rifting. The restricted occurence of komatiites, and eastwardly directed paleocurrents in clastic sediments in the central part of the belt are consistent with rifting commencing in the east and propagating westward with time. The increase in depth of emplacement and deposition with time of the lower three units in the central part of the belt reflects deposition in a subsiding basin. These supracrustal rocks are believed to represent the initial rift succession.

  17. To Belt or Not To Belt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) is in the midst of the first school-bus crash tests in more than 10 years. Its report is expected in June 2000, and those on both sides of the seat-belt debate are waiting to see what NHTSA will recommend on passenger restraints in large school buses. A sidebar lists sources…

  18. Belt conveyor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  19. 8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF JUNCTION OF EAST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF JUNCTION OF EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS AT PORCH ROOF LEVEL SHOWING GLAZED HEADERS AND BELT COURSE - David Sterrett House, State Game Lands Plot No. 169 (Upper Mifflin Township), Newville, Cumberland County, PA

  20. 1. VIEW EAST OF GENERATOR; BELTTIGHTENING MECHANISM AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST OF GENERATOR; BELT-TIGHTENING MECHANISM AT LEFT - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 5, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  1. 73. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP LOOKING EAST, NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. INTERIOR VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP LOOKING EAST, NOTE THE MAIN DRIVE SHAFT ON THE CEILING AND DRIVE BELTS TO THE MACHINERY. MAY 8, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  3. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  4. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  5. Moving Belt Radiator technology issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan, III

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The relative merits of Solid Belt (SBR) Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  6. Moving belt radiator development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The ralative merits of Solid Belt (SBR), Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  7. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Fillius, R W; McIlwain, C E

    1974-01-25

    Pioneer 10 counted relativistic electrons throughout the magnetosphere of Jupiter, with the greatest fluxes being inside 20 Jupiter radii. The peak flux of electrons with energy greater than 50 million electron volts was 1.3 x 10(7) per square centimeter per second at the innermost penetration of the radiation belts.

  8. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S

    1973-12-07

    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  9. Zircon ages, geochemistry and Nd isotopic systematics for the Palaeoproterozoic 2.3-1.8 Ga Kuilyu Complex, East Kyrgyzstan - The oldest continental basement fragment in the Tianshan orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröner, A.; Alexeiev, D. V.; Kovach, V. P.; Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Mikolaichuk, A. V.; Xie, H.; Sobel, E. R.

    2017-03-01

    Precambrian microcontinents represent key tectonic units in the accretionary collages of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and their geological history is reasonably well established since the Mesoproterozoic but remains weakly constrained for older epochs due to a scarcity of exposed Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Early Precambrian rocks were previously reported from several metamorphic complexes in the Kyrgyz Tianshan orogenic belt, mainly based on multigrain conventional zircon dating, but the present study only confirmed such rocks at one site, namely in the Kuilyu Complex of eastern Kyrgyzstan. New single grain SHRIMP II zircon ages, geochemical data, and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions for granitoid gneisses of the Kuilyu Complex elucidate the age, origin and tectonic settings of this oldest continental fragment in the Tianshan. The Kuilyu Complex is part of the basement in the Ishim - Middle Tianshan microcontinent. It consist of a strongly deformed and metamorphosed supracrustal assemblage of paragneisses and schists which are tectonically interlayered with amphibolites, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. Our zircon dating indicates that the Kuilyu Complex contains two suites of Palaeoproterozoic granitoid gneisses with magmatic protolith ages of ca. 2.32-2.33 Ga and 1.85 Ga. Granitoid magmatism at 1.85 Ga was almost immediately followed by amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ca 1.83 Ga, evidenced by growth of metamorphic zircon rims. The older, ca 2.3 Ga granitoid gneisses chemically correspond to calc-alkaline, metaluminous, I-type magnesian quartz diorite and granodiorite. The protolith of the younger, ca. 1.85 Ga granite-gneiss is an alkalic-calcic, metaluminous to peraluminous, ferroan medium-grained porphyric granite with chemical features resembling A-type granites. The 2.3 Ga and 1.85 Ga granitoid gneisses have slightly to distinctly negative initial εNd values of -1.2 and -6.6, and similar depleted mantle Nd model ages of 2

  10. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  11. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Jupiter's radiation belts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N.; Mcdonough, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model for the production and loss of energetic electrons in Jupiter's radiation belt is presented. It is postulated that the electrons originate in the solar wind and are diffused in toward the planet by perturbations which violate the particles' third adiabatic invariant. At large distances, magnetic perturbations, electric fields associated with magnetospheric convection, or interchange instabilities driven by thermal plasma gradients may drive the diffusion. Inside about 10 Jupiter radii, the diffusion is probably driven by electric fields associated with the upper atmosphere dynamo which is driven by neutral winds in the ionosphere. The diurnal component of the dynamo wind fields produces a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the decimetric radiation from the electrons in the belts, and the lack of obvious measured asymmetries in the decimetric radiation measurements provides estimates of upper limits for these Jovian ionospheric neutral winds.

  13. The levantine amber belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Horowitz, A.

    1992-02-01

    Amber, a fossil resin, is found in Early Cretaceous sanstones and fine clastics in Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel. The term "Levantine amber belt" is coined for this amber-containing sediment belt. The amber occurs as small nodules of various colors and frequently contains inclusions of macro- and microorganisms. The Lebanese amber contains Lepidoptera and the amber from southern Israel is rich in fungal remains. The source of the amber, based on geochemical and palynological evidence, is assumed to be from a conifer belonging to the Araucariaceae. The resins were produced by trees growing in a tropical near shore environment. The amber was transported into small swamps and was preserved there together with lignite. Later reworking of those deposits resulted in redeposition of the amber in oxidized sandstones.

  14. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  15. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  16. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, V.L.; Stern, S.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Rosenbaum, D.; Scalise, R.J.; Wentzler, P.

    1999-05-01

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius {ital a} and albedo {alpha} at heliocentric distance {ital R}, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of {ital COBE} DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance {ital R}, particle radius {ital a}, and particle albedo {alpha}. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40{lt}R{lt}50{endash}90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of ({ital R}, {ital a}, {alpha}) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  17. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  18. Intrusive rocks and plutonic belts of southeastern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, David A.; Morrell, Robert P.; Roddick, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    About 30 percent of the 175,000-km2 area of southeastern Alaska is underlain by intrusive igneous rocks. Compilation of available information on the distribution, composition, and ages of these rocks indicates the presence of six major and six minor plutonic belts. From west to east, the major belts are: the Fairweather-Baranof belt of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite; the Muir-Chichagof belt of mid-Cretaceous tonalite and granodiorite; the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt of porphyritic granodiorite, quartz diorite, and diorite of probable Cretaceous age; the Klukwan-Duke belt of concentrically zoned or Alaskan-type ultramafic-mafic plutons of mid-Cretaceous age within the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; the Coast Plutonic Complex sill belt of tonalite of unknown, but perhaps mid-Cretaceous, age; and the Coast Plutonic Complex belt I of early to mid-Tertiary granodiorite and quartz monzonite. The minor belts are distributed as follows: the Glacier Bay belt of Cretaceous and(or) Tertiary granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz diorite lies within the Fair-weather-Baranof belt; layered gabbro complexes of inferred mid-Tertiary age lie within and are probably related to the Fairweather-Baranof belt; the Chilkat-Chichagof belt of Jurassic granodiorite and tonalite lies within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Sitkoh Bay alkaline, the Kendrick Bay pyroxenite to quartz monzonite, and the Annette and Cape Fox trondhjemite plutons, all interpreted to be of Ordovician(?) age, together form the crude southern southeastern Alaska belt within the Muir-Chichagof belt; the Kuiu-Etolin mid-Tertiary belt of volcanic and plutonic rocks extends from the Muir-Chichagof belt eastward into the Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt; and the Behm Canal belt of mid- to late Tertiary granite lies within and next to Coast Plutonic Complex belt II. In addition, scattered mafic-ultramafic bodies occur within the Fairweather-Baranof, Muir-Chichagof, and Coast Plutonic Complex belts I and II. Palinspastic

  19. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  20. Geochemical evidence for a brooks range mineral belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, S.P.; Cathrall, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical studies in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, delineate a regional, structurally controlled mineral belt in east-west-trending metamorphic rocks and adjacent metasedimentary rocks. The mineral belt extends eastward from the Ambler River quadrangle to the Chandalar and Philip Smith quadrangles, Alaska, from 147?? to 156??W. longitude, a distance of more than 375 km, and spans a width from 67?? to 69??N. latitude, a distance of more than 222 km. Within this belt are several occurrences of copper and molybdenum mineralization associated with meta-igneous, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks; the geochemical study delineates target areas for additional occurrences. A total of 4677 stream-sediment and 2286 panned-concentrate samples were collected in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, from 1975 to 1979. The -80 mesh ( 2.86) nonmagnetic fraction of the panned concentrates from stream sediment were analyzed by semiquantitative spectrographic methods. Two geochemical suites were recognized in this investigation; a base-metal suite of copper-lead-zinc and a molybdenum suite of molybdenum-tin-tungsten. These suites suggest several types of mineralization within the metamorphic belt. Anomalies in molybdenum with associated Cu and W suggest a potential porphyry molybdenum system associated with meta-igneous rocks. This regional study indicates that areas of metaigneous rocks in the central metamorphic belt are target areas for potential mineralized porphyry systems and that areas of metavolcanic rocks are target areas for potential massive sulfide mineralization. ?? 1981.

  1. Radiation Belt Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-27

    is unlimited. 15 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0007 TR-2016-0007 RADIATION BELT DYNAMICS Jay M. Albert, et al. 27 December 2015 Final Report APPROVED FOR... KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this

  2. Metamorphism and plutonism in the Quetico Belt, Superior Province, N.W. Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Quetico Belt lies between the metavolcanic Wawa-Shebandowan and Wabigoon Belts. It consists of marginal metasedimentary rocks and central pelitic, gneissic and plutonic rocks. Metamorphism is Barrovian, at depths less than 10 km, and grade increases from margins to core of the belt: the outermost pelites are at chlorite-muscovite grade; inward a garnet-andalusite zone formed throughout the inner margin; and the central zone ranges form garnet-andalusite in the west and garnet-sillimanite-muscovite to garnet-sillimanite-cordierite and rare kyanite 6 to 150 km to the east. This increase is correlated with granitic intrusives. Migmatites in the core have intrusive leucosomes in the west and locally derived ones in the east. Isograd surfaces are steep where the belt is narrow and dip gently where it is wide. The Quetico Park intrusive complex of the central region of the Quetico Belt shows a zonation across it 20 to 50 km width from older, medium grained biotite composition to younger, coarse to pegmatitic granitic composition. Sediment of the Quetico basin had its source in the bordering metavolcanic belts and was deposited ca. 2.75 to 2.70 Ga ago. Boundaries of the belt dip inward, so it essentially is a graben of inter-arc or back-arc type.

  3. Geography of the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  4. Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

    This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

  5. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  6. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Timothy; Selesnick, Richard; Mazur, Joseph

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented ver-sion of the Selesnick et al., [2007] model. The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  7. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick Inner Zone Model (SIZM). The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations from SAMPEX/PET and HEO orbit and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  8. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Mazur, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al., [2007] model. The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  9. Controls on the architecture of the Himalayan thrust belt, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Paul, S. K.; Chambers, J. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, the syntaxes at the eastern and western terminations of the orogen connect a 2400 km long thrust belt. If the two syntaxes are locked, the behavior of the thrust belt may be different in the syntaxes than in the central part of the thrust belt. In fact, recent work in the central part of the Himalayan thrust belt reveals shortening estimates of ~700-900 km while closer to the syntaxes, the amount of shortening may be nearly half that (~470 km). Thus, there should be an identifiable region where the character of the thrust belt changes from that of the syntaxes to that of the central part of the thrust belt. In the Himachal Pradesh region of NW India, a transition exists in the architecture of the thrust belt. North of the Kanga reentrant, the high mountains are close to the frontal part of the thrust belt; yet, near the Beas River, ~90 km to the east, and further east still in the Sutlej and Yamuna valleys, the high mountains of the thrust belt are located far into the hinterland. The presence or absence of the Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface appears to control this pattern: when Greater Himalayan rocks are absent at the surface, as near the town of Dharamsala, the thrust belt is very narrow (<20 km) and the high mountains are located near the front of the thrust belt; however, when Greater Himalayan rocks are present, as they are further eastward, the thrust belt is wider (>150 km) and the high mountains are located in the hinterland. The presence/absence of Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface also appears to control where focused erosion is presently occurring and, subsequently, the erosional exposure of Lesser Himalayan rocks. Three models reveal the possible kinematic roles of the Greater Himalayan rocks and its subsequent control of the architecture of the thrust belt: 1) the fault that carries Greater Himalayan rocks may tip out at depth; 2) slip on that fault may continue to the surface; 3) the fault tips out and

  10. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  11. Crustal structure of central Syria: The intracontinental Palmyride mountain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali; Barazangi, Muawia; Best, John A.; Chaimov, Thomas A.

    1992-07-01

    Along a 450-km transect across central Syria seismic reflection data, borehole information, potential field data and surface geologic mapping have been combined to examine the crustal structure of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria. The transect is surrounded by the major plate boundaries of the Middle East, including the Dead Sea transform fault system along the Levantine margin to the west, the Bitlis suture and East Anatolian fault to the north, and the Zagros collisional belt to the northeast and east. Three main tectonic provinces of the northern Arabian platform in Syria are crossed by this transect from south to north: the Rutbah uplift, the Palmyra fold-thrust belt, and the Aleppo plateau. The Rutbah uplift in southern Syria is a broad, domal basement-cored structure with a thick Phanerozoic (mostly Paleozoic) cover of 6-7 km. Isopachs based on well and seismic reflection data indicate that this region was an early Paleozoic depocenter. The Palmyra fold-thrust belt, the northeastern arm of the Syrian Arc, is a northeast-southwest-trending intracontinental mountain belt that acts as a mobile tectonic zone between the relatively stable Rutbah uplift to the south and the less stable Aleppo plateau to the north. Short-wavelength en-echelon folds characterized by relatively steep, faulted southeast flanks dominate in the southwest, most strongly deformed segment of the belt, while a complex system of deeply rooted faults and broad folds characterize the northeastern region, described in this study. The Aleppo plateau lies immediately north of the Palmyride belt, with a combined Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary section that averages 4-5 km in thickness. Although this region appears relatively undeformed on seismic reflection data when compared to Palmyride deformation, a system of near-vertical, probable strike-slip faults crosscut the region in a dominantly northeasterly direction. Gravity and magnetic modeling constrains the deep crustal structure

  12. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported.

  13. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  14. Cortlandt-Beemerville magmatic belt: A probable late Taconian alkalic cross trend in the central Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.

    1981-07-01

    A belt of alkalic to alkalic-calcic pipes, lamprophyres, and intrusive complexes of probable Late Ordovician age extends from the Peach Lake Croton Falls area of Westchester County, New York, about 100 km S80°W to Beemerville, New Jersey. The rocks are intruded across a Taconic dynamothermal belt ranging from sillimanite grade on the east to chlorite grade on the west. Foliated Middle Ordovician and older rocks containing slaty cleavage or coarser grained metamorphic fabrics are crosscut by dikes that are posttectonic to late syntectonic relative to the Taconian dynamothermal events. Analysis of thrust faults and fold structures within this belt suggests that this cross-grain belt of alkalic to weakly alkalic rocks intruded steeply dipping brittle fractures trending N40° to 50°W, N35° to 60°E, and N70° to 80°E and along more ductile zones trending N20° to N70°E. This plutonic activity was restricted to a discrete east-west belt. The clear posttectonic to syntectonic nature of the dikes and the spatial and temporal association with Ordovician tectonism suggest that magmatic activity may be related to fracturing of mantle rock at the junction of two salients of Taconic age that intersect in the New York recess. The tectonic setting of the intrusive belt is unusual because it is associated in space and time with compressional tectonics of the Taconic orogeny, rather than with extensional rifting.

  15. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  16. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  2. Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth'€™s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations f...

  3. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  4. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, T.L.; Smith, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    -Tanana terrane (e.g., Fort Knox, True North, Ryan Lode, Kantishna district) and inland into the passive-margin rocks of the Selwyn basin ( e.g., Scheelite Dome, Brewery Creek, Dublin Gulch), respectively. By 70 Ma, the arc had migrated to the vicinity of present-day southwestern Alaska, where it was associated with the formation of additional orogenic Au deposits (e.g., Willow Creek district) and, within still-preserved shallow crustal levels, epithermal Au systems (e.g., Donlin Creek). The Au-bearing deposits of the Tintina Gold Belt are typical of those found in most well-preserved, moderate- to high-temperature Phanerozoic collisional orogens. Around the circum-Pacific region, these would include large areas of Mesozoic tectonism along the Cordilleran orogen, throughout the Russian Far East, and along the margins of the North China craton. Favorable terrain for such Au belts of Paleozoic age worldwide include the active Gondwana margins (e.g., Tasman orogenic system, northern Africa, Telfer district), and the northern margins ( e.g., Caledonian Kazakhstania, Uralian orogen, Baikal orogen, Tian Shan orogenic system) and western margins ( e.g., southern European massifs) to the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Gold lodes in all of the Phanerozoic belts are dominated by orogenic Au-deposit types; other deposit types are concentrated where relatively shallow levels to the orogens are locally preserved. A significant percentage of the lode-gold resource in many areas was lost to placer accumulation that began forming approximately 100 m.y. after hypogene ore formation, except where continent-continent collision "cratonized" highly mineralized terranes in central Asia.

  5. The distant Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, B.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, J. M.; Morbidelli, A.; Holman, M.; Loredo, T.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from a series of deep imaging surveys designed to look for very faint objects in the outer solar system. We find roughly 10-20 percent of our detections outside a heliocentric distance of 48 AU, a much larger fraction than all previously published surveys. The implications of this result for the radial structure of the Kuiper Belt will be discussed, as well as how it interacts with various theories regarding the sculpting of the orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian region. We find a luminosity function with a continuing steep slope down to the limit of our detections at about 26th magnitude, implying that observations are just on the threshold of reaching the level where the TNO size distribution is exptected to `roll over' to a shallower collisional slope. The size distribution in the observed region is expected to hold information about the time scale and physics of planetesimal building in the early outer Solar System. This work has been supported by a Henri Chretien international research grant (AAS), by NASA Origins grants NAG5-8198 and NAG5-9678, by an ACI Jeune award from the French Research Ministry, and an Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur BQR grant.

  6. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  7. Northern Belt of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.

    A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.

    The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.

    The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.

    The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.

    The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere

  8. A mantle conveyor belt beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.; Faccenna, C.

    2011-12-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone, leading to stacking of crustal slices during indentation. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic, generating the highest mountain belts on Earth (Argand, 1924). While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing in spite of large collisional resisting forces. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale upwelling is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia.

  9. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  10. Trends in PVC conveyor belting

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The development of mechanical systems of extraction at the coal face necessitated the introduction of efficient methods of mineral transportation in deep-mining operations. The most popular system is the belt conveyor. Originally PVC was being evaluated as a rubber substitute, as in its liquid form it appeared to offer an easier route to fabric coating and impregnation for conveyor belt applications. However, it was not until 1950, when over 200 miners lost their lives due to an underground fire being spread by combustible rubber conveyor belts, that the full significance of the properties of PVC were appreciated. Following this tragedy, an intensive development program to produce a substitute for rubber was initiated. It had to have similar operational characteristics as rubber while incorporating the safety features of resistance to flame propagation and build-up of static electrical charges. It became evident that PVC could be compounded to realize these requirements and belting manufacturers immediately started to produce a new generation of belts based on the previouly proven mechanical characteristics of multiply fabrics, but substituting PVC for the rubber content. The advantages of PVC are discussed.

  11. Tectonic structure of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leychenkov, German; Grikurov, Garrik; Golynsky, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    First overviews of tectonic structure of the Southern Continent were made by the pioneers of Antarctic earth science investigations almost 100 years ago. Despite rapidly advancing international geological studies under the Antarctic Treaty, the presentations of Antarctic tectonic structure remained largely speculative until the end of the past century when implementation of modern analytical and remote-sensing research technologies enabled compilation of more credible tectonic models of Antarctica. The East Antarctic bedrock consists mainly of the Precambrian crystalline complexes and the Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic platform units. Crystalline Shield is locally complicated by Neoproterozoic aulacogenes and Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic rifts. Shield assemblages reliably recognized in coastal outcrops indicate the predominant occurrence of Archean cratonic nuclei and Mesoproterozoic mobile belts. The undisturbed platform cover strata are exposed in East Antarctica mainly along its boundary with West Antarctica. Tectonic structure of ice-covered regions (more that 99% of the East Antarctic territory) is interpreted using mostly magnetic and bedrock topography data, but other geophysical and geological information (satellite, airborne and over-ice gravity; seismology; active seismics; erratics; detrital zircons dates; etc.) is also important. Archean cratons are geologically documented in western Dronning Maud Land, Enderby Land, Princess Elizabeth Land and in the southern Prince Charles Mts. Their distribution under the ice is marked by a specific magnetic pattern including low-amplitude mosaic and/or high-amplitude long-wavelength anomalies. The most extensive ancient craton being 1000 km across is believed to extend from the southern Prince Charles Mts. to the Gamburtsev Mts. Mesoproterozoic mobile belts are distinguished by elongated high-amplitude magnetic anomalies and are mapped along the costal area as the zone of 250-600 km wide. The Gamburtsev Mts. area is also

  12. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  13. Dynamics of Radiation Belt Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    This paper reviews basic concepts of particle dynamics underlying theoretical aspect of radiation belt modeling and data analysis. We outline the theory of adiabatic invariants of quasiperiodic Hamiltonian systems and derive the invariants of particle motion trapped in the radiation belts. We discuss how the nonlinearity of resonant interaction of particles with small-amplitude plasma waves, ubiquitous across the inner magnetosphere, can make particle motion stochastic. Long-term evolution of a stochastic system can be described by the Fokker-Plank (diffusion) equation. We derive the kinetic equation of particle diffusion in the invariant space and discuss its limitations and associated challenges which need to be addressed in forthcoming radiation belt models and data analysis.

  14. 44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING EAST THROUGH THE DOOR TO THE WOOD SHOP; ON THE LEFT IS THE D. H. POTTS TIRE SHRINKER; TO THE RIGHT OF THE DOOR IS THE BELT CHASE FROM THE BASEMENT LINESHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  15. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Video Gallery

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  16. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of Subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  17. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  18. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  19. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  20. What controls the growth and shape of the Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujic, Djordje; Hirschmiller, John; Mallyon, Deirdre

    2014-05-01

    We provide empirical evidence for the impact of surface processes on the structure and geometry of the present-day foreland fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) of the Himalaya. We have reconstructed and analysed ten balanced cross sections distributed along the entire length of the Himalayan arc. Here, we focus on the Siwalik Group, which represents the deformed part of the foreland basin and consists of synorogenic middle Miocene to Pleistocene sediments that form the youngest and frontal part of the Himalayan orogen. Within the active foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the Himalaya, extension, strain rate, and belt morphology vary systematically from west to east. Strain rates correlate well with west-to east increases in convergence rates according to both long-term plate velocity data and GPS data, suggesting that Pliocene to Holocene shortening is externally imposed and related to plate convergence rates. Conversely, the eastward decrease in belt width corresponds to an eastward increase in rainfall rates and specific stream power. Although mass accretion rates have not been well constrained, we argue that they remain relatively constant along the FTB. We suggest that the morphology of the Himalayan FTB is controlled primarily by erosion, in accordance with the critical taper model. Surface material removal is mainly controlled through rainfall and runoff and can be expressed as specific stream power. Thus, we propose that climatically induced erosion is the principal control on Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt morphology. We test this hypothesis through a series of 1D numerical models. Among the parameters controlling the form of a wedge, lithology, erodibility, and rock mechanical properties are relatively homogeneous throughout the belt. Hence, within the range of observed values in the Himalaya, we investigate the sensitivity of the shape of the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt to the sole-out depth of the basal décollement, flux of tectonically added material

  1. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  2. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  3. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  4. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  5. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  6. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  7. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  8. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  9. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  10. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  14. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  15. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  16. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  19. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  20. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel shall be provided with switches to stop the drive pulley automatically in the event of...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel shall be provided with switches to stop the drive pulley automatically in the event of...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  5. The Misnomer of East Asia Summer Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode

    2004-01-01

    The terminology East Asian summer monsoon is used to refer to the heavy rainfall in southeast China including the Yangtze River Valley starting in May and ending in August (e.g., Chen and Chang 1980, Tao and Chen 1987, Ding 1992, Chang et al. 2000a.) This rainfall region is associated with the Mei-Yu front, which extends to Japan and its neighborhood and is called Baiu there. The Mei-Yu front becomes prominent in May and has a slow northward movement. From May to July the elongated rain belt moves from the southeast coast of China to the Yangtze River Valley. The rain belt extends north-east-ward to south of Japan in May and later covers Korea also. The purpose of this note is to point out that the terminology of East Asian summer monsoon is a misnomer to refer to the portion of this rainbelt residing over East Asia, in the sense that it is not a monsoon.

  6. Central Nevada thrust belt: its preseismic state of knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, D.; Cameron, G.; Chamberlain, R. )

    1989-03-01

    The Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) is an east-vergent intra-Cordilleran fold-thrust belt of probable Cretaceous age. It is 100 km (60 mi) wide and more than 300 km (190 mi) long and merges near Las Vegas with the Sevier segment of the Overthrust belt. The CNTB affects 7 km (22,000 ft) of Paleozoic shelf deposits and contains significant Paleozoic-sourced oil in Tertiary fault blocks with uncertain but possibly thrust-related internal structure. Ongoing frontier exploration in the CNTB looks for thrust juxtaposition (present over the full width of the CNTB) of Mississippian source rocks beneath Devonian reefal and fractured carbonate reservoirs. Source and reservoir are involved in subunconformity traps beneath the valley fill and in subthrust duplex traps anywhere. Surface sampling suggests that maturation of Mississippian organic matter was achieved by stratigraphic burial and was little affected by thrust loading and Neogene volcanism. Present knowledge of the CNTB is based on early wells in foothills anticlines, extensive surface mapping, the Cordilleran COCORP line, and seismic data of limited scope. Their regional synthesis and chance location of some prospective trends have been done by arranging the data into semibalanced cross sections. The authors have used Dahlstromian and Suppean geometry, the authors have assumed crustal responses to thrusting, and they have applied a modified Wernicke model of Tertiary extensional tectonics.

  7. Geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Wawa greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, K. J.; Sylvester, P. J.; Attoh, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Wawa greenstone belt is located in the District of Algoma and extends east-northeast from Lake Superior to the western part of the Sudbury District in Ontario, Canada. Recent mapping by Attoh has shown that an unconformity at the base of the Dore' Formation and equivalent sedimentary rocks marks a significant stratigraphic break which can be traced throughout the volcanic belt. This break has been used to subdivide the volcanic-sedimentary into pre- and post-Dore' sequences. The pre-Dore' sequence includes at least two cycles of mafic-to-felsic volcanism, each capped by an iron-formation unit. The post-Dore' sequence includes an older mafic-to-felsic unit, which directly overlies sedimentary rocks correlated with the Dore' Formation, and a younger felsic breccia unit interpreted to have formed as debris flows from a felsic volcanic center. In the present study, samples of both the pre-and post-Dore' volcanic sequences were analyzed for major and trace elements, incuding rare earths (REE). This preliminary study is part of an ongoing program to assess the petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks of the Wawa greenstone belt.

  8. East Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the East African nations of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia, as well as portions of Kenya, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. Dominating the scene are the green Ethiopian Highlands. With altitudes as high as 4,620 meters (15,157 feet), the highlands pull moisture from the arid air, resulting in relatively lush vegetation. In fact, coffee-one of the world's most prized crops-originated here. To the north (above) the highlands is Eritrea, which became independent in 1993. East (right) of Ethiopia is Somalia, jutting out into the Indian Ocean. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) captured this true-color image on November 29, 2000. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  9. Libby thrust belt and adjacent structures - new factors to consider in thrust tectonics of northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.E.; Cressman, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    About 40 mi (65 km) west of the Rocky Mountain trench and at least 9 mi (15 km) above the sole detachment of the Rocky Mountain thrust belt is a zone of Cretaceous-Tertiary thrust faults up to 25 mi (40 km) wide in middle Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks. This zone (the Libby thrust belt) extends northward from the Lewis and Clark line to the northwest corner of Montana. Within the Libby thrust belt is a series of complex ramps, horsts, splays, and folds that accommodate a tectonic shortening of about 6.2 mi (10 km). Backsliding has occurred on some listric thrust faults, and middle Tertiary(.) extensional horst-and-graben faults offset or join most thrust faults. On the east, the lead thrust ramps up onto the broad open Purcell anticlinorium. On the west, the Libby thrust belt is overridden in the north by the lead thrust of the Yaak plate (whose central part is the broad, open Sylvanite anticline), and in the south, it is overridden by the Moyie thrust (which trends northwest and also overrides the west edge of the Yaak plate). Geologic cross sections suggest that the Belt rocks have overridden the Cambrian at shallow depths only and that Cambrian and younger Phanerozoic strata probably do not occur at greater depths beneath and west of the Purcell anticlinorium. This interpretation differs significantly from interpretations that suggest intercalation of major wedges of Paleozoic and Belt rocks at depth in this same area.

  10. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  11. Tectonics of some Amazonian greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts exposed amid gneisses, granitoid rocks, and less abundant granulites along the northern and eastern margins of the Amazonian Craton yield Trans-Amazonican metamorphic ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga. Early proterozoic belts in the northern region probably originated as ensimatic island arc complexes. The Archean Carajas belt in the southeastern craton probably formed in an extensional basin on older continental basement. That basement contains older Archean belts with pillow basalts and komatiites. Belts of ultramafic rocks warrant investigatijon as possible ophiolites. A discussion follows.

  12. Digital files for northeast Asia geodynamics, mineral deposit location, and metallogenic belt maps, stratigraphic columns, descriptions of map units, and descriptions of metallogenic belts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Diggles, Michael F.; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Obolensky, Alexander A.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Yan, Hongquan

    2004-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. It contains all of the data that are on the disc but extra files have been removed: index files, software installers, and Windows autolaunch files. This publication contains a a series of files for Northeast Asia geodynamics, mineral deposit location, and metallogenic belt maps descriptions of map units and metallogenic belts, and stratigraphic columns. This region includes Eastern Siberia, Russian Far East, Mongolia, Northeast China, South Korea, and Japan. The files include: (1) a geodynamics map at a scale of 1:5,000,000; (2) page-size stratigraphic columns for major terranes; (3) a generalized geodynamics map at a scale of 1:15,000,000; (4) a mineral deposit location map at a scale of 1:7,500,000; (5) metallogenic belt maps at a scale of 1:15,000,000; (6) detailed descriptions of geologic units with references; (7) detailed descriptions of metallogenic belts with references; and (8) summary mineral deposit and metallogenic belt tables. The purpose of this publication is to provide high-quality, digital graphic files for maps and figures, and Word files for explanations, descriptions, and references to customers and users.

  13. The southern and central parts of the "Souttoufide" belt, Northwest Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel; Gärtner, Andreas; Youbi, Nasrrddine; El Archi, Abdelkrim; Vernhet, Elodie; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki; Linnemann, Ulf; Bellon, Hervé; Gerdes, Axel; Guillou, Omar; Corsini, Michel; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2015-12-01

    The Souttoufide belt is situated between the High-Atlas in the north, the Mauritanides in the south and the West African Craton as well as the Tindouf basin in the east. Thus, this belt is a part of the West African fold belt system which surrounds the West African Craton. Outcrops occur only in three areas, while the rest of the Souttoufide belt is covered by Meso- to Cenozoic sediments. These areas are, from the south to the north, the Adrar Souttouf Massif, the Smara Zemmour area, and the western part of the Anti-Atlas. Because of the continuing processing and numerous publications, the Anti-Atlas cannot be dealt with in detail. Fundamental geological work in both of the other areas was mainly done during the second third of the 20th century, followed by several decades of inactivity. Numerous studies were done in the Adrar Souttouf massif during the last decade, while the Smara-Zemmour area still remains poorly investigated. Most of them were focused on geochronological analyses and geochemistry. Accordingly, the obtained data led to a new interpretation. The Adrar Souttouf is interpreted as a Pan-African belt exhibiting a Neoproterozoic island arc reworked by the Variscan collision between the North American Craton (NAC) and the West African Craton (WAC). The Smara-Zemmour area is considered as the external part of this Variscan belt thrusted onto the Palaeozoic Tindouf basin. The western Anti-Atlas as considered as a Pan-African active margin reworked during the Variscan orogen. Together, these three areas, lead to the hypothesis of a Late Pan-African belt capped by the Early and Middle Palaeozoic covers and then affected by the Middle Carboniferous tectonic event (330 Ma) related to the Pangaean assembly. Correlations with adjacent belts (Mauritanides and Anti-Atlas) are considered.

  14. Ring current and radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  15. Gravity survey of the southwestern part of the sourthern Utah geothermal belt

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.T.; Cook, K.L.

    1981-03-01

    A gravity survey covering an area of 6200 km/sup 2/ was made over the southwestern part of the southern Utah geothermal belt. The objective of the gravity survey is to delineate the geologic structures and assist in the understanding of the geothermal potential of the area. A total of 726 new gravity stations together with 205 existing gravity stations, are reduced to give: (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map, and (2) a fourth-order residual gravity anomaly map; both maps have a 2-mgal contour interval. The complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map shows an east-trending regional gravity belt with a total relief of about 70 mgal which crosses the central portion of the survey area. The gravity belt is attributed to a crustal lateral density variation of 0.1 gm/cc from a depth of 5 to 15 km.

  16. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  17. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  18. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Trujillo, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a medium wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System.

  19. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  20. V-belt assembly for transmitting power

    SciTech Connect

    Okawa, S.; Ogino, I.; Okuwaki, S.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a V-belt assembly trained over V-belt wheels for transmitting power comprising: a flexible endless belt; rigid suspension members secured fixedly to the endless belt perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the endless belt and having pivotal projections extending from opposite sides thereof; substantially U-shaped rigid transmission pieces having holes formed therein wherein the pivotal projections extending from the respective suspension members extend in sidewise directions and into the holes so as to allow for relative movement between each of the pivotal projections and the hole for engaging V-shaped grooves of the V-belt wheels. A center axis of the pivotal projection passes through an approximately central portion of thickness of the endless belt. Each of the suspension members is substantially U-shaped so as to surround one bottom surface and opposite side surfaces of the endless belt and is secured fixedly to the endless belt; and an opposed plate connected to each of the suspension members and positioned against a bottom surface of the endless belt opposite the one bottom surface.

  1. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  2. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  3. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  4. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drive pulley if slippage could cause ignition of the belt. (c) A person shall attend the belt at the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drive pulley if slippage could cause ignition of the belt. (c) A person shall attend the belt at the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt...

  6. Workshop on Techtonic Evolution of Greenstone Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewit, M. J. (Editor); Ashwal, Lewis D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: greenstone belt externalities; boundaries; rock terranes; synthesis and destiny; tectonic evolution; rock components and structure; sedimentology; stratigraphy; volcanism; metamorphism; and geophysics.

  7. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  8. Thrust belt geometry in the central Carolina slate belt North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Huntsman, J.R.; Dockal, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Newly recognized eastward-directed thrust faults and associated folds and cleavage constitute a major structural element in the central Carolina slate belt near Albemarle, North Carolina. At least two northwest-trending imbricate thrusts occur in a 10 km wide zone that trends 30 km along a northeast strike. Reconnaissance mapping suggests the presence of faults with similar style towards the west of this zone. Rocks directly involved in the thrust include the deep water rhythmites of the Tillery Formation that act as surface of detachment, and, also, a mafic rock that previously was mapped as a gabbro sill. Other field evidence documenting the thrusts includes: drag folds with a pronounced axial planar cleavage that parallels the faults; ramp areas with characteristic rootless folds; dragging of an earlier cleavage into fault surfaces; shear zones and kink bands with the same sense of movement as the thrusts. Axial planar cleavage results in part from pressure solution. The intensity of cleavage and the relative overall strain of the rocks increases from west to east across the thrust zone and suggests that thrusting progressed by successive propogation of footwall faults. Systematic and regular changes in the ratio of Bouma sequence intervals ((A+B+C+D)/E) show a marked discontinuity at the faults and suggest relative horizontal displacements of up to 14 km. Reconnaissance work suggests that the thrust may pre-date but are not younger than the regional low grade metamorphism.

  9. 47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH BACK BELT DROPPING HARDENED NAILS ON THE FRONT BELT TO BE TEMPERED; MOTION STOPPED - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  10. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  11. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  12. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2012B to recover interesting objects that will be discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population.

  13. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  14. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  15. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  17. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  2. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  4. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  5. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  6. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  7. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  8. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car.How should I wear my seat belt?The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  9. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure.

  10. Pitch difference and belt tooth configuration effect on load distribution of timing belt using FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Takanao; Furukawa, Yoshihisa; Tomono, Kiyohisa; Takahashi, Hideaki

    1996-09-01

    A timing belt used for an automotive engine`s camshaft consists of a facing fabric, elastoeric body and glass fiber cords. These materials show significant non-linear characteristics. Therefore, a model of the timing belt was analyzed using ABAQUS (a general non-linear finite element program). As a result, the mechanism that generates the belt load distribution was successfully confirmed by calculation. It was found that the pitch difference existing between the timing belt and pulley, and belt tooth configuration both have a large affect on load distribution of toothed belts. This paper reports the development of an analytical model which shows the effects of pitch difference and pulley tooth configuration on belt contact pressure.

  11. East African and Kuunga Orogenies in Tanzania - South Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Tenczer, V.

    2012-04-01

    Tanzania and southern Kenya hold a key position for reconstructing Gondwana consolidation because here different orogen belts with different tectonic styles interfere. The older, ca. 650-620 Ma East African Orogeny resulted from the amalgamation of arc terranes in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and continental collision between East African pieces and parts of the Azania terrane in the south (Collins and Pisarevsky, 2005). The change form arc suturing to continental collision settings is found in southern Kenya where southernmost arcs of the ANS conjoin with thickened continental margin suites of the Eastern Granulite Belt. The younger ca. 570-530 Ma Kuunga orogeny heads from the Damara - Zambesi - Irumide Belts (De Waele et al., 2006) over Tanzania - Mozambique to southern India and clashes with the East African orogen in southern-central Tanzania. Two transitional orogen settings may be defined, (1) that between island arcs and inverted passive continental margin within the East African Orogen and, (2) that between N-S trending East African and W-E trending Kuungan orogenies. The Neoproterozoic island arc suites of SE-Kenya are exposed as a narrow stripe between western Azania and the Eastern Granulite belt. This suture is a steep, NNW stretched belt that aligns roughly with the prominent southern ANS shear zones that converge at the southern tip of the ANS (Athi and Aswa shear zones). Oblique convergence resulted in low-vorticity sinstral shear during early phases of deformation. Syn-magmatic and syn-tectonic textures are compatible with deformation at granulite metamorphic conditions and rocks exhumed quickly during ongoing transcurrent motion. The belt is typified as wrench tectonic belt with horizontal northwards flow of rocks within deeper portions of an island arc. The adjacent Eastern Granulite Nappe experienced westward directed, subhorizontal, low-vorticity, high temperature flow at partly extreme metamorphic conditions (900°C, 1.2 to 1.4 GPa

  12. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. ); Holeman, E. )

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  13. Inner Radiation Belt Dynamics and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, P. P.; Looper, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al. Inner Zone Model (SIZM). By varying modeled physics parameters and solar particle injection parameters to generate many ensembles of the inner belt, then optimizing the ensemble weights according to inner belt observations from SAMPEX/PET at LEO and HEO/DOS at high altitude, we obtain the best-fit state of the inner belt. We need to fully sample the range of solar proton injection sources among the ensemble members to ensure reasonable agreement between the model ensembles and observations. Once this is accomplished, we find the method is fairly robust. We will demonstrate the data assimilation by presenting an extended interval of solar proton injections and losses, illustrating how these short-term dynamics dominate long-term inner belt climatology.

  14. Southwest U. S. -East Antarctic (SWEAT) connection: A hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moores, E.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A hypothesis for a late Precambrian fit of western North America with the Australia-Antarctic shield region permits the extension of many features through Antarctica and into other parts of Gondwana. Specifically, the Grenville orogen may extend around the coast of East Antarctica into India and Australia. The Wopmay orogen of northwest Canada may extend through eastern Australia into Antarctica and thence beneath the ice to connect with the Yavapai-Mazatzal orogens of the southwestern US. The ophiolitic belt of the latter may extend into East Antarctica. Counterparts of the Precambrian-Paleozoic sedimentary rocks along the US Cordilleran miogeocline may be present in the Transantarctic Mountains. Orogenic belt boundaries provide useful piercing points for Precambrian continental reconstructions. The model implies that Gondwana and Laurentia rifted away from each other on one margin and collided some 300 m.y. later on their opposite margins to from the Appalachians.

  15. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  16. An Introduction to the Major NSFC Program 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Dong, Y.; Li, S.; Xiao, W.

    2013-12-01

    Pangea is the youngest supercontinent in Earth's history and its main body formed about 250 million years ago. As supported by voluminous evidence from reliable geological, paleomagnetic and paleontological data, configurations of major continental blocks in Pangea have been widely accepted. However, controversy has long surrounded the reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea. So far, most Pangea reconstructions assume that continental blocks in East Asia had never become parts of Pangea before its breakup. In these reconstruction models, configurations of East Asian blocks in Pangea were mainly based on geological and paleomagnetic data before the 1990's but did not fully consider recent data produced by Chinese researchers about collisional mountain belts between continental blocks in East Asia. To precisely reconstruct the East Asian blocks in Pangea, the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) recently set up a Major NSFC Program entitled 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'. On the basis of summarizing and integrating previous data, this major program will carry out detailed field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological, paleomagnetic and paleontonological investigations on key segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Central China Orogenic Belt and Paleo-Tethys Belt, which assembled major continental blocks in East Asia, in order to determine the timing and processes of opening and closuring of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, Proto-Tethyan Ocean (Qin-Qi-Kun Ocean) and Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The program will not only answer where, when and how continental blocks in East Asia were assembled and whether or not they had become parts of Pangea before the breakup of the supercontinent, but will also improve and develop the theory of plate tectonics. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41190070, 41190075)

  17. Recent space shuttle observations of the South Atlantic anomaly and the radiation belt models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Braby, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Active ingredients consisting of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) and a Proton and Heavy Ion Detector (PHIDE) have been carried on a number of Space Shuttle flights. These instruments have allowed us to map out parts of the South Atlantic Particle Anomaly (SAA) and to compare some of it's features with predictions of the AP-8 energetic proton flux models. We have observed that consistent with the generally observed westward drift of the surface features of the terrestial magnetic field of the SAA has moved west by about 6.9 degrees longitude between the epoch year 1970 of the AP-8 solar maximum model and the Space Shuttle observations made twenty years later. However, calculations indicate that except for relatively brief periods following very large magnetic storms the SAA seems to occupy the same position in L-space as in 1970. After the great storm of 24 March 1991 reconfiguration of the inner radiation belt and/or proton injection into the inner belt, a second energetic proton belt was observed to form at approximately equal to 2. As confirmed by a subsequent flight observations, this belt was shown to persist at least for six months. Our measurements also indicate an upward shift in the L location of the primary belt from L = 1.4 to L = 1.5. In addition we confirm through direct real time observations the existence and the approximate magnitude of the East-West effect. If the need exists for improved and updated radiation belt models in the Space Station era, these observations point out the specific features that should be considered and incorporated when this task is undertaken.

  18. Canadian radiation belt science in the ILWS era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I. R.

    The Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration, and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) is a Canadian Space Agency small satellite mission proposed as a Canadian contribution to the satellite infrastructure for the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. Planned to operate contemporaneously with the NASA Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), the ORBITALS will monitor the energetic electron and ion populations in the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies (keV to tens of MeV) as well as the dynamic electric and magnetic fields, waves, and cold plasma environment which govern the injection, transport, acceleration and loss of these energetic and space weather critical particle populations in the inner magnetosphere. Currently in Phase A Design Study, the ORBITALS will be launched into a low-inclination GTO-like orbit which every second orbit maximizes the long lasting apogee-pass conjunctions with both the ground-based instruments of the Canadian Geospace Monitoring (CGSM) array as well as with the GOES East and West and geosynchronous communications satellites in the North American sector. In a twelve-hour orbit, every second apogee will conjunct with instrumentation 180 degree in longitude away in the Asian sector. Specifically, the ORBITALS will make the measurements necessary to reach reveal fundamental new understanding of the relative importance of different physical processes (for example VLF verses ULF waves) which shape the energetic particle populations in the inner magnetosphere, as well as providing the raw radiation measurements at MEO altitudes necessary for the development of the next-generation of radiation belt specification models. On-board experiments will also monitor the dose, single event upset, and deep-dielectric charging responses of electronic components on-orbit. Supporting ground-based measurements of ULF and higher frequency wave fields from the Canadian CARISMA (www.carisma.ca) magnetometer array, as well as from

  19. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  20. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  1. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  2. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  3. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  5. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  17. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping...

  2. Grenville foreland thrust belt hidden beneath the eastern US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Grenville foreland thrust structures are observed beneath the eastern US midcontinent on COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) line OH-1 and a short seismic line in southwest Ohio. These structures represent the first evidence for a significant Grenville foreland thrust belt preserved in eastern North America. On the COCORP lines, the structures include a thrust ramp anticline and an associated asymmetric syncline. The Grenville front tectonic zone appears to truncate these foreland structures, indicating a later, second phase expressed as a deeply penetrating, out-of-sequence thrust zone associated with the main uplift of the Grenville province on the east. A short, shallow seismic line in southwestern Ohio reveals an east-dipping sequence of prominently layered rocks that may lie above a footwall ramp to a deeper Grenville thrust fault. A drill hole into the less reflective top of this dipping sequence encountered unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks like those increasingly reported from other drill holes in southwestern Ohio and adjacent states. Although possibly part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift, these clastic sedimentary rocks may instead preserve evidence of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin in eastern North America. Alternatively these Precambrian sedimentary rocks together with an underlying, but yet undrilled, strongly layered sequence may correlate with similarly layered rocks observed on COCORP and industrial seismic lines within the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite province to the west in Indiana and Illinois and indicate that unmetamorphosed sedimentary material is an important constituent of the granite-rhyolite province. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Geology of the Idonnappu Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan: Evolution of a Cretaceous Accretionary Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi

    1992-12-01

    The Cretaceous Idonnappu Belt, located along the western Hidaka Mountains of central Hokkaido Island in Japan, records evidence of west to northwest directed underthrusting of oceanic crust. The Idonnappu fault divides the Idonnappu Belt into two subbelts; the western Oku-niikappu (ON) subbelt and the eastern Koiboku (KO) subbelt. The ON subbelt is dominated by a melange facies. It includes various thicknesses of pillow basalts, bedded radiolarian cherts, limestones, and greenish siliceous shales, all of which are intermixed with a highly sheared shaley matrix that displays a scaly cleavage. The KO subbelt is dominated by a thick flysch sequence and alternations of sandstone and shale with thin tectonic melange. The stratigraphic sequences within these belts usually young toward the west and display westward vergent structures. Outcrop- to microscopic-scale structures in the melange zone of the Idonnappu Belt, however, suggest eastward vergence. Detailed biostratigraphic studies show that structural packages young toward the east ranging in age from Lower to Upper Cretaceous. These observations are consistent with an accretionary prism model in which oceanic crust is underthrust toward the west or north west. In the middle Miocene, a change to westward vergence was caused by uplift of the Hidaka Mountains.

  4. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  5. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  6. The Possible Belts for Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, I.-G.; Duncan, M.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2004-08-01

    More than 100 extrasolar planets have been discovered since the 1990s. Unlike those of the solar system, these planets' orbital eccentricities cover a huge range from 0 to 0.7. Incidentally, the first Kuiper belt object was discovered in 1992. Thus an interesting and important question will be whether extrasolar planetary systems could have structures like the Kuiper belt or asteroid belt. We investigate the stability of these planetary systems with different orbital eccentricities by similar procedures to Rabl & Dvorak (1988) and Holman & Wiegert (1999). We claim that most extrasolar planetary systems can have their own belts at the outer regions. However, we find that orbits with high eccentricity are very powerful in depletion of these populations.

  7. Visualization of Radiation Belts from REPT Data

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization, created using actual data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes (REPT) on NASA’s Van Allen Probes, clearly shows the emergence of new third belt and second slot reg...

  8. Congressional panel makes recommendations on belt safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-12-15

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act) called for a Technical Study Panel to present a review and make recommendations on the use of belt air and the composition and fire retardant properties of belt materials in underground coal mining. In October 2007 the Panel released 20 recommendations publicly. These are presented in the article. Many recommendations encouraged the MSHA to enforce existing laws of maintenance and fire protection or example more vigorously. Maybe the biggest change recommended was that the industry should adopt the Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT) standard proposed in 1992. Another important recommendation was one that would help eliminate hazards associated with point feeding. 1 photo.

  9. A repair of a charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerator charging belts are expensive, and sometimes delicate items. A means of repair of the rubber coating has been found that, when applied properly, should give extended lifetime to these items at minimal cost. 3 refs.

  10. Electron Flux of Radiation Belts Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows meridional (from north-south) plane projections of the REPT-A and REPT-B electron flux values. The animation first shows the expected two-belt Van Allen zone structure; from Se...

  11. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  12. The Belt Method for Measuring Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W , Jr

    1943-01-01

    The measurement of pressure distribution may be accomplished rapidly for any number of locations deemed necessary in model or full-scale investigations by use of the "belt" method. Reasonable accuracy may be obtained by careful use of this method.

  13. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    We use high-resolution aeromagnetic data to map magnetic bodies of graywacke of limited exposure that are either interbedded or structurally emplaced within broader areas of non-magnetic graywacke within the Franciscan Complex Coastal belt in northern California, which is bounded by the San Andreas Fault on the west and the Franciscan Complex Central belt on the south and east. Previous work has not extensively subdivided the Coastal belt because of the poor exposure and the fact that the exposed lithology is primarily graywacke indistinguishable in outcrop and hand sample and is thus difficult to map in the field. A hand-held magnetic susceptibility meter, however, in combination with thin-section analysis, reveals that some Coastal belt graywackes are magnetic. The thin-section analysis shows that the magnetic samples have a significant component of andesitic grains, whereas the non-magnetic samples do not. Further, the locations of these magnetic rocks correspond to elongate regions of high magnetic intensity (magnetic anomalies) kilometers to tens of kilometers in length. Previous 2D modeling showed that the bodies of magnetic graywacke can be modeled as a folded sheet, with antiformal limbs near or exposed at the surface and synformal limbs reaching a depth of about 1 km. Locations of edges of magnetic source bodies can be extracted from their magnetic anomalies. Near surface, steeply dipping edges lie beneath local maxima in the horizontal gradient of the magnetic potential surface. The edges are demarcated by locating discrete points along the local maxima. We connected these points, using an algorithm with a specific set of parameters, to delineate the edges of the magnetic graywacke bodies. Together with the previous 2D modeling, the anomalies and their edges show that the Coastal belt contains antiformal structures 5 to 20 km in length and 1.5 km in width, with a wavelength approximately 1.5 km. The modal direction of elongation is oriented approximately

  14. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  15. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive?

    PubMed

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D

    1973-12-07

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  16. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  17. A photometric survey of outer belt asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimartino, M.; Gonano-Beurer, M.; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, G.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989, we have been conducting a research program devoted to the study of the Trojans and outer belt asteroids (Hilda and Cybele groups), in order to characterize their rotational properties and shapes. As an outcome of several observational campaigns, we determined rotational periods and lightcurve amplitudes for 23 distant asteroids, using both CCD and photoelectric photometry. In this paper, we compare the rotational properties of main belt asteroids and Trojans, based on the preliminary results of this survey.

  18. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: inscribed date panel "hospital 1885", corbelled brick belt course, parapet, second floor historic four-over-four window with brick lintels, quoins and decorative metal grilled, cantilever wooden walkway; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  20. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  1. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structures of Pocatello region: transition from thrust belt to hinterland, southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Burgel, W.D.; Rodgers, D.W.; Link, P.K.

    1987-08-01

    Remapping of upper Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks in the northern Bannock Range south and east of Pocatello, Idaho, indicates a polyphase deformation history characterized by both shortening and extension. Map-scale folds and faults, related to shortening in the transition zone between the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt and the hinterland to the west, are present, but have been offset and rotated along superimposed normal faults. The oldest structure evident is the north-trending, east-vergent Rapid Creek fold. This fold involves upper Proterozoic and Cambrian strata in the hanging wall of the Putnam thrust fault. The fold is truncated by east-striking subvertical faults that are inferred to be coeval tear faults. Fold and fault geometries suggest the Rapid Creek fold formed over a footwall ramp, whose location may have been controlled by basement normal faults related to Proterozoic rifting. Further evidence of Mesozoic uplift lies in the sub-Neogene unconformity on Cambrian rocks in the Pocatello area, compared to areas of the thrust belt 15 km (9.3 mi) to the northeast, where similar tuffaceous strata rest on Triassic limestones, indicating 7 km (4.3 mi) of pre-Neogene erosion near Pocatello.

  3. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    rent news and information and is published Monday through Friday in 8 volumes: China, East Europe, Soviet Union, East Asia, Near East & South Asia...JPRS-EER-87-141 23 SEPTFMRFR 1QS7 u etc* U ü J. Ma M i%\\ ■■■■■« FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Eur ft e N9BQ6W M...EER-87-141 23 SEPTEMBER 1987 EAST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL INTRABLOC Romanian Efforts To Weaken Minority Magyar Position Viewed (Martti Valkonen

  4. Early evolution of large micro-organisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Lepot, K; Ito, S; Javaux, E J

    2015-11-01

    The Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) is widely distributed in the East Pilbara Terrane (EPT) of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, and represents a Paleoarchean shallow-water to subaerial environment. It was deposited ~3.4 billion years ago and displays well-documented carbonate stromatolites. Diverse putative microfossils (SPF microfossils) were recently reported from several localities in the East Strelley, Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. Thus, the SPF provides unparalleled opportunities to gain insights into a shallow-water to subaerial ecosystem on the early Earth. Our new micro- to nanoscale ultrastructural and microchemical studies of the SPF microfossils show that large (20-70 μm) lenticular organic-walled flanged microfossils retain their structural integrity, morphology, and chain-like arrangements after acid (HF-HCl) extraction (palynology). Scanning and transmitted electron microscopy of extracted microfossils revealed that the central lenticular body is either alveolar or hollow, and the wall is continuous with the surrounding smooth to reticulated discoidal flange. These features demonstrate the evolution of large micro-organisms able to form an acid-resistant recalcitrant envelope or cell wall with complex morphology and to form colonial chains in the Paleoarchean era. This study provides evidence of the evolution of very early and remarkable biological innovations, well before the presumed late emergence of complex cells.

  5. Structural evolution of an arc-basin: The Gravina Belt in central southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    The upper Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Gravina belt lies along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska. This group of turbidites and mafic to intermediate volcanic rocks was deformed during mid to Late Cretaceous time during the closing of a basin of unknown size between the Alexander terrane on the west and the Stikine terrane to the east. Therefore structures of Gravina belt rocks largely reflect the final accretion and subsequent transport of the Alexander terrane. Six geologic transects across the central Gravina belt (southern Mitkof Island to northern Douglas Island) define a structural history that includes (1) syndepositional soft-sediment folding and faulting, possibly in conjunction with block tilting and extension; (2) tight to isoclinal folding or thrust faulting, with formation of a slaty cleavage (S1) striking ∼330°; (3) local coaxial refolding with formation of crenulation cleavage (S2); (4) development of domainal crenulation folds and cleavage (S3) oriented at a large angle to the margin of the belt; (5) intrusion of tonalitic plutons around 90 Ma; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip displacement on faults oriented ∼330°. Finite strain measurements on sedimentary rocks suggest the belt was at least twice its present width, normal to the foliation, before deformation. Subhorizontal margin-parallel fold axes, margin-parallel slaty cleavage, and margin-perpendicular stretching lineations suggest orthogonal contraction of the Gravina basin, assuming that oblique plate convergence was not decoupled along strike-slip faults. After contractional deformation, strike-slip faults indicate dextral displacement (probably of the order of several tens of kilometers) of the Alexander terrane with respect to the terranes to the east. Domainal crenulation folds and cleavages at a high angle to the margin of the belt suggest that the change in convergence directions occurred while the rocks (presently at the surface) could still

  6. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  7. > Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2012-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to drill two fully cored scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of Åre (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface geophysics and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major geophysical transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, geophysics, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground

  8. Distribution of Dust from Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the 'kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects; the resulting 3-D grid consists of 1.9 x 10' cells containing 1.2 x 10" particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau between 10 and 50 AU. Between 25 and 45 AU, there is an appreciable concentration of kuiperoidal dust in the form of a broad belt of mostly resonant particles associated with Neptune. In fact, each giant planet possesses its own circumsolar dust belt consisting of both resonant and gravitationally scattered particles. As with the cometary belts simulated in our related papers, we reveal a rich and sophisticated resonant structure of the dust belts containing families of resonant peaks and gaps. An important result is that both the column and number dust density are more or less flat between 10 and 50 AU, which might explain the surprising data obtained by Pioneers 10 & 11 and Voyager that the dust number density remains approximately distance-independent in this region. The simulated kuiperoidal dust, in addition to asteroidal and cometary dust, might represent a third possible source of the zodiacal light in the Solar system.

  9. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-10-01

    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  10. Inner Radiation Belt Data / Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Timothy; O'Brien, Paul; Selesnick, Richard

    We present detailed comparisons of a time-dependent inner radiation belt model with proton observations made by a variety of in-situ spacecraft during solar cycle 23. The recently-developed model (Selesnick et al., 2007) computes proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants in the inner belt, which we convert to the observable count rate at the location of the satellite by using a nominal instrument response function. These comparisons and initial data-assimilation efforts suggest that the model performance can be improved especially during intervals containing unmodeled processes such as trapped proton losses during geomagnetic storms.

  11. Inner Radiation Belt Data / Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Selesnick, R.; Looper, M.

    2008-12-01

    We present detailed comparisons of a time-dependent inner radiation belt model with in-situ proton observations made by a variety of spacecraft during solar cycle 23. The recently-developed model (Selesnick et al., 2007) computes proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants in the inner belt, which we convert to the observable count rate in a detector at the location of the satellite by using instrument response functions. These comparisons and initial data-assimilation efforts suggest that the model performance can be improved especially during injections of solar protons, and at L-shells above 2.

  12. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India: An ensialic mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Meen, James K.; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Rogers, John J. W.

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite belt of the Southern Indian Shield is described, a belt dominated by granulite grade (750 C, 5 to 6 kbar) supracrustal rocks whose protoliths included arkoses and shales with cratonic provenances. Rare earth elements and other geochemical signatures suggest a granitic source for these metasediments, possibly the spatially associated charnockite massifs. The presence of intercalated mafic gneisses, interpreted as basalts, implies a cratonic rift basin rather than a foreland basin setting. It was argued that the Kerala, as well as other early Proterozoic mobile belts formed during abortive continental rifting without major additions of new crust.

  13. Metallogenic Features and Series of the Mid-Lower Yantze Metallogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, K. Y.; Zeng, Y.; Chen, G. G.; Yuan, P.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Circum-Pacific Metallogenic Belt, the metallogenic belt of copper, iron, sulfur and gold in the mid-lower reaches of the Yantze River is the most important copper-polymetallic metallogenic belt in East China. In the recent years, there has been continous new achievements for geological prospectings, especially deep prospecting, and breakthroughs for prospectings in new positions and of new types. I. Geological background of mineralization The mid-lower Yantze metallogenic belt has Dabie Uplift and Jiangnan Uplift on both sides, comprising a tectonic feature of "two convexes and one concave". Metallogenic sedimentary system The sedimentary system closely related to mineralization in mid-lower Yantze River includes neritic carbonate sedimentary rock series, hydrothermal exhalative sedimentary rock series, volcano-sedimentary rock series and clastic sedimentary rock series. Regional magmatism and mineralization Magmatic activities are extremely intense in the mid-lower Yantze area. Magmatic rocks are widely scattered and have a variety of types. Conspicuously controlled by regional structure in space, the Yanshanian period has developed into the most active duration of East China magmatic activites, bearing a close relationship with ores. Two stages of the Yanshanian tectonic-magmatic-metallogenism could be detected: the late Jurassic high-K calc-alkaline porphyry, magmatic-hydrothermal metallogenic belt of W, Sn, Au, Ag, Pb and Zn in Jiangnan and porphyry-skarn-hydrothermal metallogenic belt of Cu and Au in the lower Yantze; the early Cratecious porphyry contact-metasomatic hydrothermal ore cluster of Fe and S associated with shoshonite series in the lower Yantze, as a result of the underplating process of mantle-derived basaltic magma during the late orogeny. II. Regional metallogenic features The advantegous minerals of the mid-lower Yantze metallogenic belt includes Cu, Fe, Au, W, Mo, Pb, Zn, etc.. There are up to 103 types of ascertained mineral

  14. Ultra-fast Electrons Explain Third Radiation Belt

    NASA Video Gallery

    In September 2012, NASA's Van Allen Probes observed the radiation belts around Earth had settled into a new configuration, separating into three belts instead of two. Scientists think the unusual p...

  15. Dust transport from non-East Asian sources to the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huh, Chih-An; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Chen, Wei-Nai; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Liu, Shaw-Chen; Chou, C. C. K.; Liang, Mao-Chang; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Lin, Fei-Jan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Huang, Yi-Tang

    2012-06-01

    It is generally thought that East Asia dominates the supply of eolian dust to the North Pacific. Here we show the first data-based evidence of dust primarily from non-East Asian sources even during March 2010 when a super dust storm from East Asia struck the western Pacific. Chemical characteristics of aerosol samples collected at a high-mountain site in Taiwan show variable inputs from eolian dust and biomass burning. From backward trajectory analyses, satellite observation and model simulation, dust origins can be traced to the Middle East and North Africa, suggesting an integrated source from the global dust belt. Our global model results demonstrate that dust deposition in the North Pacific is primarily contributed by non-East Asian sources with an eastward decrease along the Westerlies.

  16. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  17. Oak Ridge fault, Ventura fold belt, and the Sisar decollement, Ventura basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Yeats, R.S.; Huftile, G.J.; Grigsby, F.B. )

    1988-12-01

    The rootless Ventura Avenue, San Miguelito, and Rincon anticlines (Ventura fold belt) in Pliocene -Pleistocene turbidites are fault-propagation folds related to south-dipping reverse faults rising from a decollement in Miocene shale. To the east, the Sulfur Mountain anticlinorium overlies and is cut by the Sisar, Big Canyon, and Lion south-dipping thrusts that merge downward into the Sisar decollement in lower Miocene shale. Shortening of the Miocene and younger sequence is {approximately} 3 km greater than that of underlying competent Paleogens strata in the Ventura fold belt and {approximately} 7 km greater farther east at Sulfur Mountain. Cross-section balancing requires that this difference be taken up by the Paleogene sequence at the Oak Ridge fault to the south. Convergence is northeast to north-northeast on the base of earthquake focal mechanisms, borehole breakouts, and piercing-point offest of the South Mountain seaknoll by the Oak Ridge fault. A northeast-trending line connecting the west end of Oak Ridge and the east end of Sisar fault separates an eastern domain where late Quaternary displacement is taken up entirely on the Oak Ridge fault and a western domain where displacement is transferred to the Sisar decollement and its overlying rootless folds. This implies that (1) the Oak Ridge fault near the coast presents as much seismic risk as it does farther east, despite negligible near-surface late Quaternary movement; (2) ground-rupture hazard is high for the Sisar fault set in the upper Ojai Valley; and (3) the decollement itself could produce an earthquake analogous to the 1987 Whittier Narrows event in Low Angeles.

  18. 8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  19. 3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW FROM EAST. EAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE ROOF INTERSECTION OF THE EAST AND NORTH WINGS OF THE BUILDING. - Navy Yard, Ordnance Building, Intersection of Paulding & Kennon Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, East Control Area, west radar tower in foreground, east radar lower in background - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  1. 55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOOKING EAST FROM HEAD OF PLANE 2 EAST. POWER HOUSE AND FLUME VISIBLE TO RIGHT, TAILRACE RUNNING THROUGH CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. CRADLE TO INCLINED PLANE 3 EAST IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND TO LEFT. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  2. Anisotropic Shear-wave Velocity Structure of East Asian Upper Mantle from Waveform Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Yuan, H.; French, S. W.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    East Asia is a seismically active region featuring active tectonic belts, such as the Himalaya collision zone, western Pacific subduction zones and the Tianshan- Baikal tectonic belt. In this study, we applied full waveform time domain tomography to image 3D isotropic, radially and azimuthally anisotropic upper mantle shear velocity structure of East Asia. High quality teleseismic waveforms were collected for both permanent and temporary stations in the target and its adjacent regions, providing good ray path coverage of the study region. Fundamental and overtone wave packets, filtered down to 60 sec, were inverted for isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave structure using normal mode asymptotic coupling theory (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Joint inversion of SKS measurements and seismic waveforms was then carried out following the methodology described in (Marone and Romanowicz, 2007). The 3D velocity model shows strong lateral heterogeneities in the target region, which correlate well with the surface geology in East Asia. Our model shows that Indian lithosphere has subducted beneath Tibet with a different northern reach from western to eastern Tibet,. We also find variations of the slab geometry in Western Pacific subduction zones. Old and stable regions, such as, Indian shield, Siberia platform, Tarim and Yangtze blocks are found to have higher shear wave velocity in the upper mantle. Lower velocity anomalies are found in regions like Baikal rift, Tienshan, Indochina block, and the regions along Japan island-Ryukyu Trench and Izu-bonin Trench. The dominant fast and slow velocity boundaries in the study region are well correlated with tectonic belts, such as the central Asian orogenic belt and Alty/Qilian-Qinling/Dabie orogenic belt. Our radially anisotropic model shows Vsh> Vsv in oceanic regions and at larger depths(>300km), and Vsv > Vsh in some orogenic zones.. We'll show preliminary results of azimuthally anisotropic joint inversion of SKS

  3. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. The state of knowledge concerning the Kuiper belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, Harold F.

    1992-01-01

    The arguments for and against the idea that most short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt are discussed. Observational constraints on the distribution of mass in the Kuiper belt are reviewed as well as a model of the physical conditions that now exist. Finally, predictions from this model about the detectability of the Kuiper belt are compared to optical surveys.

  5. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  6. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  7. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  8. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  9. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  10. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  11. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  12. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  13. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  14. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  15. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  16. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  18. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  19. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  20. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  1. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  2. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  3. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  4. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  5. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  6. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  7. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  8. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  9. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  10. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section...

  12. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  13. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  14. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  3. Gondwana assembly: The view from Southern Africa and East Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, T. J.; Grunow, A. M.; Hanson, R. E.

    1997-07-01

    Neoproterozoic-Cambrian tectonism in Africa, Antarctica and formerly adjacent parts of East Gondwana records the final assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent. Here we compile recent data regarding the timing and kinematics of tectonism for critical parts of southern Africa and East Gondwana, focusing on the period between ~ 650-500 Ma, and integrate these data into a regional framework in order to investigate aspects of the assembly of this portion of Gondwana. We use this information to address the following questions. What cratons remained coherent continental blocks between Rodinia break-up and Gondwana assembly? What were the configurations of Neoproterozoic-Cambrian oceans that separated these coherent blocks? When did the cratons reassemble into the Gondwana supercontinent? In southern Africa, the apparent continuity of older terranes across the Neoproterozoic Zambezi belt, together with other evidence, suggest that the Congo and Kalahari cratons have been a coherent block since ~ 1.1 Ga. The Khomas/Adamastor ocean did not transect the Congo/ Kalahari block; instead any tectonic connection with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian collisional plate boundary in the Mozambique belt must have been via shear zones such as the Mwembeshi dislocation, which was active at ~ 550 Ma. Age and structural data from Queen Maud Land in East Antarctica indicate that this area was also linked with the Congo/Kalahari block and remained attached to it during the breakup of Rodinia. A suture must thus separate this block from the main part of the East Antarctic craton and likely represents the southern continuation of the Mozambique Ocean. Accumulating evidence for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian orogenesis (~ 550-520 Ma) in the Lützow-Holm Bay and Queen Maud Land regions of East Antarctica suggest the postulated continuation of the Mozambique suture zone may lie beneath the ice, where it separates the main part of the East Antarctic craton from the Congo-Kalahari block and contiguous sectors

  4. Uterine rupture. A seat belt hazard.

    PubMed

    van Enk, A; van Zwam, W

    1994-05-01

    A case is described of a uterine rupture resulting from a car accident occurring in a woman who was wearing a seat belt as generally recommended. The rupture was initially not recognised and only became apparent after attempts to induce labor which led to expulsion of the fetus into the abdominal cavity.

  5. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  6. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  7. Radiation Belts Throughout the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    The several preceding decades of deep space missions have demonstrated that the generation of planetary radiation belts is a universal phenomenon. All strongly magnetized planets show well developed radiation regions, specifically Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The similarities occur despite the tremendous differences between the planets in size, levels of magnetization, external environments, and most importantly, in the fundamental processes that power them. Some planets like Jupiter are powered overwhelmingly by planetary rotation, much like astrophysical pulsars, whereas others, like Earth and probably Uranus, are powered externally by the interplanetary environment. Uranus is a particularly interesting case in that despite the peculiarities engendered by its ecliptic equatorial spin axis orientation, its magnetosphere shows dynamical behavior similar to that of Earth as well as radiation belt populations and associated wave emissions that are perhaps more intense than expected based on Earth-derived theories. Here I review the similarities and differences between the radiation regions of radiation belts throughout the solar system. I discuss the value of the comparative approach to radiation belt physics as one that allows critical factors to be evaluated in environments that are divorced from the special complex conditions that prevail in any one environment, such as those at Earth.

  8. Planetary Migration and Kuiper Belt Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    The Kuiper belt holds memory of the dynamical processes that shaped the architecture of the solar system, including the orbital migration history of the giant planets. We propose studies of the orbital dynamics of the Kuiper Belt in order to understand the origin of its complex dynamical structure and its link to the orbital migration history of the giant planets. By means of numerical simulations, statistical tests, as well as analytical calculations we will (1) investigate the origin of resonant Kuiper belt objects to test alternative scenarios of Neptune's migration history, (2) investigate the long term dynamical evolution of the Haumea family of Kuiper Belt objects in order to improve the age estimate of this family, and (3) investigate resonance-sticking behavior and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism and its role in the origin of the extended scattered disk. These studies directly support the goals of the NASA-OSS program by improving our understanding of the origin of the solar system's architecture. Our results will provide constraints on the nature and timing of the dynamical excitation event that is thought to have occurred in early solar system history and to have determined the architecture of the present-day solar system; our results will also provide deeper theoretical understanding of sticky mean motion resonances which contribute greatly to the longevity of many small bodies, improve our understanding of dynamical transport of planetesimals in planetary systems, and help interpret observations of other planetary systems.

  9. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  10. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  11. The Case for School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Salvatore J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for seat belt installation on school buses and forced retirement of vehicles manufactured prior to 1977, when federal safety standards were upgraded to include compartmentalization features. Discredits a Transport Canada study for improper design and methodology used. Advises communities to examine research, consult experts, and visit…

  12. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  13. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  14. Loess-paleosol sequences at the northern European loess belt in Germany: Distribution, geomorphology and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Schulte, Philipp; Kels, Holger

    2016-12-01

    Pleistocene loess and loess derivates are distributed along the mountain front of the Central European Mountain Belt in northern and central Germany. Examples from two regions, the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE) and the Northern foreland of the Harz Mountains (FHM) show that the distribution of loess and the development of loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are controlled by relief, climate, tectonics, the distance to large river systems, the distance to the Scandinavian ice sheet and the distance to the shelf of the North Sea. In the oceanic LRE higher humidity enhanced the periglacial processes which increased erosion, but also led to preservation in accumulative positions. In contrast, in the more continental FHM the sediments were affected by less intensive periglacial processes and no solifluction can be detected. New loess distribution maps are presented for both key areas, and key sections, especially for the last glacial cycle, are compared and summarized. Both study regions are located in the west - east trending loess belt north of the Central European Mountain belt (in front of the Rhenish Shield = Ardennes-Eifel and Harz Mountains). Finally, a synthesis of typical sediment sequences for both regions is given as an example of paleoenvironmental (landscape) development in northern Central Europe.

  15. Transpression as the main deformational event in an Archaean greenstone belt, northeastern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudleston, P. J.; Schultz-Ela, D.; Bauer, R. L.; Southwick, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Deformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Vermilion district constitute an Archean greenstone belt trending east-west between higher grade rocks of the Vermilion Granitic Complex to the north and the Giants Range batholith to the south. Metamorphic grade is low throughout, being lowest in the center of the belt (chlorite zone of the greenschist facies). All the measured strain, a cleavage or schistosity, and a mineral lineation in this belt are attributed to the main phase of deformation D sub 2 that followed an earlier nappe-forming event D sub 1, which left little evidence of penetrative fabric. Previous work assumed that the D sub 2 deformation resulted from north-south compression across the district. It is now believed that a significant component of this deformation resulted from dextral shear across the whole region. Thus the Vermilion fault, a late-state largely strike-slip structure that bounds the Vermilion district to the north, may simply be the latest, most brittle expression of a shear regime that was much more widespread in space and time. Features that are indicative of shear include ductile shear zones with sigmoidal foliation patterns, highly schistose zones with the development of shear bands, feldspar clasts or pyrite cubes with asymmetric pressure shadows, and the fact that the asymmetry of the F sub 2 folds is predominantly Z for at least 15 km south of the Vermilion fault.

  16. Seismic reflection structure of intracratonic palmyride fold-thrust belt and surrounding Arabian platform, Syria

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Al-Otri, M.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-03-01

    Seismic reflection and drill-hole data from central Syria provide a detailed view of the subsurface structure (10-15 km depth) of the relatively little-studied intracratonic Palmyride fold and thrust belt. The data set, together with surface geologic mapping, constrains a structural/stratigraphic section spanning the northeast sector of the belt and the surrounding subprovinces of the Arabian platform. The seismic reflection and drill-hole data show Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences thickening abruptly into the Palmyrides from the adjacent, arched Paleozoic platforms Neogene (alpine) folding and thrusting of the Mesozoic basin, as documented on the seismic data, are sharply restricted to the narrow width of the belt ({approximately}100 km), in contrast to the relatively undeformed Phanerozoic strata of the platforms to the north and south. The seismic and drill-hole data support the hypothesis that the palmyrides began as a Permian-Triassic failed rift connected to the Levantine passive continental margin, which was inverted and complexly deformed by the interfering effects of Cenozoic movements along the Dead Sea transform fault system and the Turkish Bitlis convergent zone. The seismic data provide a first view into the extent and depth of the early basin formation and subsequent compressional deformation, and as such represent a necessary element for constraining reconstructions of northern Middle East plate motions. 20 figs.

  17. Structure and kinematics of a major tectonic contact, Michipicoten greenstone belt, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1992-01-01

    The Michipicoten greenstone belt, Ontario, experienced a complex history of folding, faulting, and fabric development. Near Wawa, a major east-west contact, here named the Steep Hill Falls (SHF) contact, extends entirely across the belt. The SHF contact is both an angular unconformity and a fault and is interpreted to be a regionally significant tectonic contact separating distinct northern and southern terranes, both of which include volcanic rocks of probable island-arc origin. The amount of horizontal transport involved in bringing the two terranes together along the SHF contact is not known. Mapping and structural analysis suggest that regionally significant horizontal displacements took place, with movement vectors that changed with time. Early faults, folds, and fabrics imply north-south to northeast-southwest (with respect to present directions) convergence, with a vergence reversal occurring during this complex event. The most likely models infer early south vergence and later north vergence. Transecting the earliest structures are younger (but still Archean) northeast-striking steep cleavages with associated upright folds that may relate to northwest-southeast assembly of the Superior Province craton. The craton assembly event thus involved a transport direction at a high angle to that inferred for the earlier assembly of the Michipicoten greenstone belt.

  18. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt.

    PubMed

    Lafon-Hughes, Laura; Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C; Kun, Alejandra; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  19. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  20. Regional structural synthesis, Wyoming salient of western Overthrust Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.S.

    1983-08-01

    Surface geologic mapping, regional and high-density reflection seismic data and information from approximately 370 wells are combined to describe geometrically that area of the western Overthrust belt between the Snake River Plain and the Uinta uplift. Particular care has been taken to two-dimensionally verify interpretations of multiple thrust sheets by linear restoration. By establishing equivalence of pre-thrust lengths of affected beds, one can gain confidence in interpreted structural geometrics as well as generate data in regard to internal shortening and deformation intensity. Due to irresolvable geometric problems within sections, 47 cross sections were developed at roughly 6-mi (10 km) spacing to help verify changes in displacement or placement of key structural elements. Displacements of 0 to 32 mi (51 km) have been demonstrated, and both structure of faults and subcrop relations of Absaroka and younger thrusts are described. Jurassic to Paleocene (Sevier) thrusts were active across a previously deformed cratonic shelf terrane and interacted with active structural elements such as the Uinta uplift, Gros Ventre Range, and Moxa arch. Thrusts are progressively younger to the east, except for the Darby-Prospect pair in which the Darby system is younger.

  1. Regional structural synthesis Wyoming salient of Western Overthrust Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.S.

    1982-10-01

    Surface geologic mapping, regional and high-density reflection seismic data nd information from approximately 370 wells ahve been combined to describe geometrically that area of the Western Overthrust belt between the Snake River plain and the Uinta uplift. Particular care has been taken to verify two-dimensional interpretations of multiple thrust sheets by linear restoration. By establishing equivalence of pre-thrust lenghts of affected beds, one can gain confidence in interpreted structural geometries, as well as generate data in regard to internal shortening and deformation intensity. Because of irresoluable geometric problems within sections, 47 cross sections were developed at rougly 6-mi (10 km) spacing to help verify changes in displacement or placement of key structurl elements. Displacements of 0 to 32 mi (o to 51 km) have been demonstrated. Jurassic to Paleocene (Sevier) thrusts were active across a previously deformed (Sevier) thrusts were active across a previously deformed cratonic shelf terrane and interacted with active structural elements such as the uinta uplift, Gros Ventre Range, and Moxa arch. Thrusts are progressively younger to ehe east except for the Darby-Prospect pair in which the Darby system is younger.

  2. The Broken Belt: Meteorite Concentrations on Stranded Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the first Antarctic meteorite concentrations were discovered more than 25 years ago, many theories regarding the role of iceflow in the production of meteorite concentrations have been put forward, and most agree on the basic principles. These models suggest that as the East Antarctic icesheet flows toward the margins of the continent, meteorites randomly located within the volume of ice are transported toward the icesheet margin. Where mountains or subsurface obstructions block glacial flow, diversion of ice around or over an obstruction reduces horizontal ice movement rates adjacent to the barriers and creates a vertical (upward) component of movement. If local mechanisms for ice loss (ablation) exist at such sites, an equilibrium surface will develop according to the balance between ice supply and loss, and the cargo of meteorites is exhumed on a blue ice surface. The result is a conceptual conveyor belt bringing meteorite-bearing volumes of ice from the interior of the continent to stagnant or slowmoving surfaces where ice is then lost and a precious cargo is left as a lag deposit. Cassidy et al. provides an excellent overview of how this model has been adapted to several Antarctic stranding surfaces.

  3. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granja, Bruna J. L.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Munoz-Martin, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.

    2009-01-01

    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  4. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  5. Southern borderland of Triassic Laurasia in north-east Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttner, A. W.

    1993-04-01

    Results obtained by Iranian and European geoscientists in the critical area to the north-east of the North Iran Suture east of Mashhad are desribed and discussed. A slightly metamorphosed ophiolite belt, outcropping as the south easterly continuation of the previously known ophiolites of Mashhad along the north eastern perimeter of the Fariman-Torbat-e-Jam depression, proved to be either the remnant of a Permian ocean floor or more likely the remnant of a narrow ocean trough. There is as yet no proof of a Triassic age for this ophiolitic belt. To the north of this ophiolitic belt an epicontinental Triassic sequence is exposed at the southern edge of Laurasia in the erosional Window of Aghdarband. This is the result of intermittent sedimentation in a pull-apart basin along sinistral strike-slip faults. The Triassic of Aghdarband has much in common with other deposits of the Triassic Tethys; however, it shows a few unique features, e.g. the Early Anisian Nicomedites fauna of a palaeobiogeographic North Tethyan Subprovince, or volcanogenic sedimentation during the late Anisian and the entire Ladinian. Permian ophiolites outcropping at the south-west corner of the Aghdarband erosional Window are transgressively overlain by basal conglomerats of this Triassic sequence. Hence the existence of a Triassic ocean south of Laurasia is very unlikely. This is an agreement with paleomagnetic data which suggest that the Central Iranian microcontinent was in direct contact with Laurasia during Triassic times. These palaeomagnetic data also suggest a clockwise rotation of the Central East Iran microplate during Triassic times (contrary to the anticlockwise rotation of this microplate in post-Triassic times). The sinistral strike-slip faulting and compression from the south-west which controls the structure of the Triassic may be derivative sequels to this clockwise rotation. All Eo-Cimmerian deformations of the Triassic rocks (e.g. folding, thrust faulting, strike-slip faulting

  6. Geochonology and Tectonic Significance of post-collisional porphyry in Qulong area, southeast segment of the Gangdese belt, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Zeren, Z.; Du, C.; Feng, L.; Nima, C.; Zhang, L.

    2012-12-01

    With the collision of Indian plate and Eura-Asian plate, there developed complicated tectono-magmanism during Meso-Cenozoic in Gangdese belt, Xizang Tibet. Therefore, it resulted that plentiful tectonism and post-collision high-K calc-alkaline magmatism related to mineralization distrubted from east to west in the belt. And this is quite significant for us to do some rearch on large-scale metallogenetics, uplifting epoch and EW-striking extension during the post-collision in Xizang-Qinghai Plateau. Zircon samples from Cangrila Granodiorite-porphyry in Qulong area, Southeast of Gangdese porphyry copper belt, Xiangbeishan diorite-porphyrite and from Jiama Granite-porphyry give LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of 16.3Ma, 14. 4Ma, and 15.4Ma, respectively, and all these ages represent the porphyries' forming ages. From barren Xiangbeishan diorite-porphyrite through intermediately mineralized Jiama Granite-porphyry to stongly mineralized Cangrila Granodiorite-porphyry, the LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of zircon become younger and younger. According to the regional data and geochemical characteristics, these porphyries were mainly derived directly from the thickened mafic lower-crust formed in south Tibet during collision and epeirogeny. During post-collisional extension stage, for inter-earth thermal flowing, SN-striking normal faulting systems across the Tibetan orogen caused rapid rising and localization of porphyry magmas and adequately separating of massive ore-bearing fluids from the magmatic hydrothermal systems. All these data indicate that Gandese belt has experienced from post-collisional extrusion changed into intra-plate extension since Miocene. During Miocene, Gangdese belt undergone violent intraplate extension, post-collisional porphyry intrusion and paroxysmal massive mineralization of porphyry-type, and all these was controlled by deep dynamics. Key Words: Qulong area; Gangdese tectonic belt; Tibet;Zircon La-ICP-MS U-Pb dating; intra-plate extension; Image Information For CL

  7. 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures and structural development of the eastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Arif Mohiuddin; Alam, M. Mustafa

    2003-02-01

    Structural architecture of the Bengal Basin has been strongly controlled by the collision pattern of the Indian plate with the Burma and Tibetan plates. The eastern fold belt (EFB) of the basin, comprising a series of north-south-trending curvilinear anticlines and synclines, represents a fold-and-thrust belt that constitutes the westward continuation of Arakan-Chin fold system of the Indo-Burman Ranges. The present study is mainly concerned with the 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures in order to develop an understanding about the process-response relationships between the structural style and tectonic evolution of the eastern fold belt. The dominant fold-generating mechanism is believed to be the east-west-directed compressional force arising from oblique subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Burma plate that resulted in the growth of fault-propagation folds above a detachment or decollement at depth, giving rise to the Neogene accretionary prism complex development. A prominent feature of the region is the major east-dipping thrusts separating successive accretionary wedges. In seismic sections, evidence for several phases of compressional deformation suggests that multiphase stress conditions were responsible for the structural expression of the fold belt. Deep seismic sections reveal that the base of folding is characterized by a low-interval velocity horizon that represents a detachment separating the upper folded zone from the lower, seismically coherent, nearly unfolded zone. This detachment coincides with the undercompacted pressured shale unit, which is thought to have played an important role in the structural development of the eastern fold belt. Clay mineralogical analysis reveals the presence of a low-density shale horizon within the dense and thick shale sequence that is thought to be an undercompacted pressured shale during the geological past, and was responsible for the initiation of decollement and incipient diapirism involving thin

  8. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  9. Optimization of measurements of the Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Brilkov, I. A.; Vlasova, N. A.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Earth's radiation belts discovered at the end of the 1950s have great scientific and practical interest. Their main characteristics in magnetically quiet periods are well known. However, the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts during magnetic storms and substorms, particularly the dynamics of relativistic electrons of the outer belt, when Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes undergo significant time variations, is studied insufficiently. At present, principally new experiments have been performed and planned with the intention to better study the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts and to operationally control the space-energy distributions of the Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes. In this paper, for spacecraft designed to measure the fluxes of electrons and protons of the Earth's radiation belts at altitudes of 0.5-10000 km, the optimal versions for detector orientation and orbital parameters have been considered and selected.

  10. 51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF CRUSHER ADDITION FROM EAST. SHOWS BAKER COOLER AT LOWER LEFT, AND FOUNDATIONS FOR ROD MILL BETWEEN COOLER AND STEPHENS-ADAMSON INCLINED BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE BELT CONVEYOR TO RIGHT OF ELEVATOR FED ELEVATOR FROM ROD MILL. 100-TON ORE BIN AND DUST COLLECTOR IS BEHIND FRAMING BENT. NOTE CONVEYOR EMERGING FROM BOTTOM OF ORE BIN, THIS AND THE INCLINED ELEVATOR FED THE SYMONS SCREEN (MISSING). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF REDUCTION PLANT NO. 6 WITH PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LIMESTONE REDUCTION ('CRUSHING') IN PROGRESS. FEEDER (RIGHT) FEEDS TO CONVEYOR BELTS (CENTER) AND CRUSHER (LEFT). LIMESTONE PROCESSED THROUGH THIS OPERATION IS FURTHER SCREENED AND PROCESSED AT ANOTHER PLANT ON THE THOMAS SITE. OPERATION OF THIS PLANT, WHICH BEGAN IN 1960, INCORPORATES WITHIN THE FEEDER A CONCRETE RETAINING WALL DATING TO A TURN OF THE CENTURY QUARRY OPERATION FORMERLY ON THIS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, Reduction Plant No. 6, State Route 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  12. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea in Fehmarn Belt: Indications of a new threshold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldens, Peter; Schwarzer, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    The Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea stages of regression and transgression controlled the history of the Baltic Sea since the last glacial period. Many details regarding their development remain unknown, including the question whether the regression of the Ancylus Lake (between 10,700 and 10,200 cal yr BP) took place west of the Darss Sill, or elsewhere. This study addresses whether a drowned river system in Fehmarn Belt (SW Baltic Sea) can be related to the drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The river channel is cut into glacial till in the western part of Fehmarn Belt. Here, the channel reaches an incision depth of up to 12 m at a base level of 40 m b.s.l. (below sea level). Near Mecklenburg Bay, the buried channel is incised down to 60 m b.s.l. and widens rapidly from several hundred meters to more than 1 km, fading towards east. It was mainly shaped as part of a glacial meltwater system at a maximum water level of 30 m b.s.l., and is therefore not related to the Ancylus Lake drainage. During the lowstand of the Baltic Ice Lake, local shallow water bodies covered the study area. A previously reported westward directed drainage of a lake in the eastern Fehmarn Belt could be restricted to a time interval between the highstand of the Ancylus Lake and prior to the Littorina Transgression. Timing, water level and potential water discharge of this event suggest a connection to a partial drainage of the Ancylus Lake. It is concluded that the threshold separating the Ancylus Lake from the North Sea needs to be located west of Fehmarn Belt.

  13. The petrology and geochemistry of a metabasite belt along the southern margin of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Bruand, E; Gasser, D; Bonnand, P; Stuewe, K

    2011-11-01

    A 600 km long metabasite belt is exposed at the southern border of the Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, south of the Eocene Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC). In this contribution, we present petrologic and geochemical results for parts of this metabasite belt. The metabasites studied are amphibolite grade and their PT conditions are evaluated with hornblende-plagioclase thermometry and the average PT method. From west to east the peak metamorphic conditions calculated are: about 730-793 °C for pressures between 5 and 15 kbar in the westernmost part, about 740-760 °C and 5 kbar in the middle locality and about 640-675 °C and 8 kbar in the easternmost locality. These results are comparable with the metamorphic conditions obtained on metapelite of the CMC for the westernmost and easternmost localities. In contrast, in the central part of the CMC, the metabasites experienced probably lower pressures than the metapelites to the north. Rare earth and trace element patterns of the metabasite belt are comparable with typical altered basalt patterns and reveal MORB and arc-tholeiitic geochemical characteristics. The presence of Ba and U anomalies are interpreted as a result of alteration prior to subduction, the Pb anomaly as a result of an intra-oceanic island arc signature and the Sr anomaly as a result of the interaction of sediments with the metabasites during subduction. We suggest that the association of MORB and arc tholeiitic rocks in the metabasite belt is likely derived from an intra-oceanic island arc which accreted to the Alaskan margin.

  14. Petrology and geobarometry of Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt granitoids near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hammarstrom, J.M. ); Brew, D.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The Admiralty-Revillagigedo belt (ARB) of southeastern Alaska is an approximately 400 mile long northwest-trending belt of Late Cretaceous ([approximately]95 Ma) calcalkalic plutons that extends from Juneau to Ketchikan. The ARB is bounded on the east by the younger Coast plutonic complex sill and on the west by the mid-Cretaceous Muir-Chichagof plutonic belt. Near Petersburg, the ARB consists of a variety of plutons that include equigranular and porphyritic quartz diorite, tonalite, quartz monzodiorite, and granodiorite. Minerals in these plutons are: hornblende, biotite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, apatite, zircon, titanite, and ilmenite [+-] epidote, minor allanite, magnetite, grossular-almandine garnet, clinopyroxene, and locally trace amounts of sulfide minerals. New geochemical data for six samples from three plutons near Petersburg overlap data for the rest of the ARB, which is metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. The central ARB granitoids are moderately LREE-enriched with slightly negative to slightly positive europium anomalies. High strontium (700 to 800 ppm) and low rubidium contents in central ARB plutons overlap compositions of ARB plutons to the north and south, and magmatic epidote-bearing plutons elsewhere. Pressure estimates for pluton emplacement based on hornblende geobarometry (6 to 9 kbars) are compatible with pressure estimates for plutons to the south and for metamorphic aureole assemblages around ARB plutons elsewhere in the western metamorphic belt of southeastern Alaska. These data support the chemical consanguinity of plutons along the length of the magmatic arc now preserved as the ARB and suggest that the whole ARB has been uplifted and eroded to expose plutons emplaced at relatively deep crustal levels.

  15. The petrology and geochemistry of a metabasite belt along the southern margin of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Bruand, E.; Gasser, D.; Bonnand, P.; Stuewe, K.

    2011-01-01

    A 600 km long metabasite belt is exposed at the southern border of the Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, south of the Eocene Chugach Metamorphic Complex (CMC). In this contribution, we present petrologic and geochemical results for parts of this metabasite belt. The metabasites studied are amphibolite grade and their PT conditions are evaluated with hornblende–plagioclase thermometry and the average PT method. From west to east the peak metamorphic conditions calculated are: about 730–793 °C for pressures between 5 and 15 kbar in the westernmost part, about 740–760 °C and 5 kbar in the middle locality and about 640–675 °C and 8 kbar in the easternmost locality. These results are comparable with the metamorphic conditions obtained on metapelite of the CMC for the westernmost and easternmost localities. In contrast, in the central part of the CMC, the metabasites experienced probably lower pressures than the metapelites to the north. Rare earth and trace element patterns of the metabasite belt are comparable with typical altered basalt patterns and reveal MORB and arc-tholeiitic geochemical characteristics. The presence of Ba and U anomalies are interpreted as a result of alteration prior to subduction, the Pb anomaly as a result of an intra-oceanic island arc signature and the Sr anomaly as a result of the interaction of sediments with the metabasites during subduction. We suggest that the association of MORB and arc tholeiitic rocks in the metabasite belt is likely derived from an intra-oceanic island arc which accreted to the Alaskan margin. PMID:26523072

  16. The Rwenzori Mountains, a Palaeoproterozoic crustal shear belt crossing the Albertine rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, D.; Link, K.; Sachau, T.; Passchier, C. W.; Aanyu, K.; Spikings, A.; Harbinson, R.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses the development of the Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt in the Rwenzori Mountains and its influence on the western part of the East African Rift System in Uganda. The Buganda-Toro belt is composed of several thick-skinned nappes consisting of Archaean Gneisses and Palaeoproterozoic cover units that are thrusted northwards. The high Rwenzori Mountains are located in the frontal unit of this belt with retrograde greenschist facies gneisses towards the north, which are unconformably overlain by metasediments and amphibolites. Towards the south, the metasediments are overthrust by the next migmatitic gneiss unit that belongs to a crustal-scale nappe. The southwards dipping metasedimentary and volcanic sequence in the high Rwenzori Mountains shows an inverse metamorphic grade with greenschist facies conditions in the north and amphibolite facies conditions in the south. Early D1 deformation structures are overgrown by cordierite, which in turn grows into D2 deformation, representing the major northwards directed thrusting event. We argue that the inverse metamorphic gradient develops because higher grade rocks are exhumed in the footwall of a crustal-scale nappe, whereas the exhumation decreases towards the north away from the nappe leading to a decrease in metamorphic grade. The D2 deformation event is followed by a D3 E-W compression, a D4 with the development of steep shear zones with a NNE-SSW and SSE-NNW trend including the large Nyamwamba shear followed by a local D5 retrograde event and D6 brittle reverse faulting. The Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt is relatively stiff and crosses the NNE-SSW running rift system exactly at the node where the highest peaks of the Rwenzori Mountains are situated and where the Lake George rift terminates towards the north. Orientation of brittle and ductile fabrics show some similarities indicating that the cross-cutting Buganda-Toro belt influenced rift propagation and brittle fault development

  17. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  18. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    PubMed

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  19. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Barro, Alassane S; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies.

  1. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Barro, Alassane S.; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K.

    2016-01-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies. PMID:27280981

  2. Structure of the Cordillera de la Costa Belt, North-Central Venezuela: Implications for plate tectronic models

    SciTech Connect

    Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Sisson, V.B.; Wright, J.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary results of an on-going study of the Cordillera de la Costa belt between Puerto Cabello and Choroni, north-central Venezuela, indicate that the deformational history is far more complicated than expected from simple plate-tectonic models. The Cordillera de la Costa belt consists of oceanic rocks (e.g., serpentinites, amphibilites, with lenses of eclogite and blueschist) intimately intermixed with metamorphosed continental margin deposits (e.g., mica and graphite schist, quartzite, marble). Locally, large granitic (basement ) complexes of Lower Paleozoic age are included as well. In late Cretaceous time, the entire belt was involved in four synmetamorphic deformations phases (D[sub 1a] to D[sub 1d]); the first (D[sub 1a]) occurred at depths of at 35-40 km and the later ones at successively shallower depths. This deformation occurred in a subduction zone, related to right-oblique convergence of the Farallon and Atlantic plates. The most penetrative structures resulted from (all in present coordinates) north-south contraction and east-west dextral simple shear (D[sub 1b]). During an Early Tertiary ( ) event (D[sub 2]), the belt was emplaced southward onto the South American continental margin. Subsequent deformational structures (D[sub 3]) resulted in cross folds and faults (with small pull-apart basins) which are consistent with the eastward passage of the Caribbean past the South American plate.

  3. Potential Greenstone Belt Continuity Undercover, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Álvarez, I.; Aurore, J.; McCuaig, C. T.; Alok, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Zimbabwean craton is one of the most metal-endowed cratons on the Earth with abundant deposits of Au, Ni, Cr and PGE that are spatially and genetically associated with greenstone belts. This study aims at tracing the possible undercover continuity of these greenstone belts. A conjunctive interpretation of regional-scale geological, gravity and magnetic data was carried out, focusing on the Harare-Shamva region, NE Zimbabwe. The datasets used in the study included: (1) public geological maps and reports; (2) Zimbabwean Government aeromagnetic surveys (1983-1992) with line spacing and terrain clearance ranging 250-1000 m, and 120-305 m, respectively; and (3) the national gravity dataset of Zimbabwe (1996) with >12,000 gravity measurements. The Harare-Shamva gravity coverage corresponds to one station per ˜10 km2. A digital elevation model was generated from the NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data (90m resolution) to preprocess the gravity data. Standard gravity corrections, namely, the latitude, free-air, Bouguer- slab and terrain corrections, were applied to the observed gravity data. A distance of 167 km was used for the terrain correction, and an average density value of 2.67 g.cm3 (expected granite density) was used for the Bouguer-slab correction. In the Harare-Shamva area, long wavelength Bouguer anomalies were filtered out by applying a second-order polynomial and extracting the residual anomalies interpreted as representing the effect of density heterogeneities located below the surface down to a depth of ˜10 km. These residual gravity anomalies are used to characterize the geometry of the greenstone bodies in the area. Based on the composite Bouguer map, positive anomalies are associated with the geometry of the Harare, Shamva, Mutoko, Guruve, Filabusi, Masvingo, Fort Rixon, Shangani, Bulawayo and Gwanda greenstone belts. These greenstone belts comprise metamorphosed ultramafic-mafic suites that are intercalated with felsic volcanics

  4. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1983-01-01

    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  5. High-energy proton radiation belt.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The experiments and theories to explain the high-energy protons trapped in the earth's radiation belt are reviewed. The theory of cosmic ray albedo neutron decay injection of protons into the radiation belt is discussed. Radial diffusion and change in the earth's dipole moment are considered along with losses of protons by ionization and nuclear collision. It is found that the measured albedo neutron escape current is sufficient to supply trapped protons above 30 MeV. The theoretical calculations of the trapped protons are in agreement with the measurements for L less than or equal to 1.7 both on and off the equator. For L greater than or equal to 1.7, additional trapped proton differential energy measurements should be made before the theory can be adequately tested. It appears that an additional loss mechanism such as pitch angle scattering may be required.

  6. QUAOAR: A ROCK IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-05-10

    Here we report Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the Quaoar-Weywot Kuiper Belt binary. From these observations, we find that Weywot is on an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.14 {+-} 0.04, a period of 12.438 {+-} 0.005 days, and a semimajor axis of 1.45 {+-} 0.08 x 10{sup 4} km. The orbit reveals a surprisingly high-Quaoar-Weywot system mass of (1.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 21} kg. Using the surface properties of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites as a proxy for Quaoar's surface, we reanalyze the size estimate from Brown and Trujillo. We find, from a mean of available published size estimates, a diameter for Quaoar of 890 {+-} 70 km. We find Quaoar's density to be {rho} = 4.2 {+-} 1.3gcm{sup -3}, possibly the highest density in the Kuiper Belt.

  7. A belted kingfisher flies above KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A belted kingfisher soars over the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The pigeon-sized, blue-gray male is identified by the blue-gray breast band; females show a chestnut belly band. The belted kingfisher ranges throughout the United States and Canada, wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. They dive into the water for fish and may also take crabs, crayfish, salamanders, lizards, mice and insects. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  8. Quaoar: A Rock in the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-05-01

    Here we report Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the Quaoar-Weywot Kuiper Belt binary. From these observations, we find that Weywot is on an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.14 ± 0.04, a period of 12.438 ± 0.005 days, and a semimajor axis of 1.45 ± 0.08 × 104 km. The orbit reveals a surprisingly high-Quaoar-Weywot system mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1021 kg. Using the surface properties of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites as a proxy for Quaoar's surface, we reanalyze the size estimate from Brown & Trujillo. We find, from a mean of available published size estimates, a diameter for Quaoar of 890 ± 70 km. We find Quaoar's density to be ρ = 4.2 ± 1.3gcm-3, possibly the highest density in the Kuiper Belt.

  9. Greenstone belts: Their components and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vearncombe, J. R.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Phillips, G. N.; Wilson, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone sucessions are defined as the nongranitoid component of granitoid-greenstone terrain and are linear to irregular in shape and where linear are termed belts. The chemical composition of greenstones is described. Also discussed are the continental environments of greenstone successions. The effects of contact with granitoids, geophysical properties, recumbent folds and late formation structures upon greenstones are examined. Large stratigraphy thicknesses are explained.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Belted kingfisher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prose, Bart L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Controlled Precipitation of Radiation Belt Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-23

    in support of the Air Force’s TIPER program, as well AFRL/NRL’s Injected whistler Precipitating HAARP facility in Gakona,waves Electrons Alaska. The...does LEP play in the losses of >100 keV radiation belt particles? (I A II II. Amplitude Data for 28- Mar -2001 47 N A A -LV t 9.." - 9.52" ---(b) -- SA

  12. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison

    This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1).

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present.

    The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight.

    In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.)

    In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  13. The Beaufort Sea fold-and-thrust belt, northwestern Canada: Implications for thrust-belt evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously, especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-17

    Ministry of equipped to deal with this. To provide services for the Finances, assures us. A similar rule will apply to pen- hundreds of thousands of...JPRS-EER-90-105 17 JULY 1990 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -’PRS Report-- East Europe REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL...TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 , VmR...U..ON 3TA.... A East Europe JPRS-EER-90-105 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC PNUC

  15. EMIC Waves in the Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanova, M.; Mann, I. R.; Drozdov, A.; Orlova, K.; Shprits, Y.; Darrouzet, F.; Ergun, R.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are believed to be important for influencing the dynamics of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere - both ring current ions and radiation belt electrons - causing particle precipitation into the atmosphere. EMIC waves are generated from unstable ion distributions as a result of ion temperature anisotropy, with the ion dynamics being modified self-consistently by the growth of the EMIC instability. EMIC waves are also thought to influence higher energy electrons in the Van Allen belts through a Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance, including changes in electron pitch-angle distributions and electron scattering loss into the atmosphere. We will present some of the latest results addressing EMIC wave distribution, solar wind and magnetospheric conditions favorable for their generation and their role in energetic particle loss in the inner magnetosphere. We will focus on results from recent satellite missions including THEMIS and Cluster, as well as some of the latest results from the Van Allen Probes. We will also highlight the value of data from networks of modern ground-based magnetometers in providing continuous monitoring over global scales, especially in conjunction with in-situ measurements from satellites. Such coordinated ground-satellite conjunction studies represent a powerful tool for understanding the self-consistent and cross-energy coupling in the inner magnetosphere between ring current ions and radiation belt electrons via the intermediary of EMIC waves.

  16. CHAOTIC DIFFUSION OF RESONANT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Malhotra, Renu

    2009-09-15

    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean-motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper Belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term stability than the 3:2-only {approx}15% of Twotinos are projected to survive for 4 Gyr, compared to {approx}27% of Plutinos, based on an extrapolation from our 1-Gyr integrations. We find that Pluto has only a modest effect, causing a {approx}4% decrease in the Plutino population that survives to 4 Gyr. Given current observational estimates, and assuming an initial distribution of particles proportional to the local phase-space volume in the resonance, we conclude that the primordial populations of Plutinos and Twotinos formerly made up more than half the population of the classical and resonant Kuiper Belt. We also conclude that Twotinos were originally nearly as numerous as Plutinos; this is consistent with predictions from early models of smooth giant planet migration and resonance sweeping of the Kuiper Belt and provides a useful constraint for more detailed models.

  17. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source.

  18. The gravitational sculpting of the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, H. F.; Duncan, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    Results are presented of numerical integrations over billion year time scales of the orbital evolution of more than one thousand test particles on initially low-inclination, low-eccentricity orbits within the proposed Kuiper belt beyond Neptune. Particles which eventually crossed Neptune's orbit often showed long periods (up to several billion years) of relatively low-eccentricity oscillations punctuated by a very rapid jump to Neptune-crossing eccentricity. This flux may be the ultimate source of present-day short-period comets. It is found here that there exists a correlation between Liapunov and crossing times in the Kuiper belt. None of the particles in the study with Liapunov time scales greater than about 1 Myr actually became a Neptune-crosser in 4 Gyr. An intricate structure to the region between 35 and 45 AU is found at the end of the billion year simulation. Implications for the origins of short-period comets and the detectability of objects currently in the Kuiper belt are discussed.

  19. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  20. Mantle conveyor beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, C.; Becker, T. W.

    2012-04-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic. While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing, in spite of large collisional resisting forces, and in the absence of a substantial, upper mantle slab driving force at present-day. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale, convective "conveyor belt" with an active upwelling component is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia

  1. Mantle conveyor beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Faccenna, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic. While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing, in spite of large collisional resisting forces, and in the absence of a substantial, upper mantle slab driving force at present-day. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale, convective "conveyor belt" with an active upwelling component is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia.

  2. Surface testing and evaluation of the conveyor belt service machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jaspal, J.S.; Miller, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    In underground room-and-pillar mining methods, the sectional conveyor belts are extended or retracted periodically to maintain shuttle car tramming distance to a minimum. A conventional conveyor belt extension or retraction is a heavy, arduous job that, if mechanized, has the potential to improve productivity and safety. This book presents a Bureau of Mines conveyor belt service machine (CBSM) reduced the burden of heavy work of this activity and mechanize it. The CBSM is a self-contained, battery-powered, rubber-tired vehicle capable of handling, storing, and transporting conveyor belting, wire rope, and associated belt structures in seams as low as 48 in. Belt extensions and retractions are accomplished by moving the tailpiece of a belt conveyor with the CBSM to the next position while dispensing or retrieving the belt, wire rope, and associated belt structures. The CBSM improves the belt extensions and retractions by making them easier and faster, and it utilizes fewer workers. The CBSM was surface tested at the Bureau's Mining Equipment Test Facility to evaluate its performance and reliability. Modifications were made to the CBSM to correct deficiencies found during surface testing.

  3. Middle Devonian hornblende granite of the Imjingang Belt in South Korea: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age and its implication on the depositional age of the Imjingang Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeoncheol; Horie, Kenji; Kim, Yoonsup; Kee, Weon-Seo; Williams, Ian S.; Hidaka, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    The Yeoncheon Group, comprising the major part of the Imjingang belt in central Korean peninsula, is composed mainly of stratigraphically the lower Misan Formation, consisting of calc-silicates rocks alternating with pelitic schists, quartzite, marble and amphibolite, and the upper Daegwangri Formation, consisting of metapelites with rare intercalation of hornblende-bearing siliceous layers. The hornblende granite locally intrudes the lower part of the calc-silicate rocks. Pegmatite veins intrude both calc-silicate rocks and hornblende granite. All these rocks are strongly deformed during the Triassic collision orogeny to have the same geometry of structural elements. The granite is highly strained mylonite with isoclinal and sheath folds, and mineral stretching lineation parallel to the fold axis. On the other hand, competent pegmatite veins are deformed to have lens-shaped boudin structure. Shear criteria in mylonitized granite indicate the top-to-the-east sense of movement. Alkali-feldspar porphyroclasts (

  4. Escape of asteroids from the main belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a < 4.1 au is essentially complete, with an absolute magnitude limit ranging from HV < 15.9 in the inner belt (a < 2.5 au) to HV < 14.4 in the outer belt (2.5 au < a < 4.1 au). We modeled the semimajor-axis drift caused by the Yarkovsky force and assigned four different sizes (diameters of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 km) and random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical

  5. Planet Imager Discovers Young Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    A debris disk just discovered around a nearby star is the closest thing yet seen to a young version of the Kuiper belt. This disk could be a key to better understanding the interactions between debris disks and planets, as well as how our solar system evolved early on in its lifetime. Hunting for an analog The best way to understand how the Kuiper belt — home to Pluto and thousands of other remnants of early icy planet formation in our solar system — developed would be to witness a similar debris disk in an earlier stage of its life. But before now, none of the disks we've discovered have been similar to our own: the rings are typically too large, the central star too massive, or the stars exist in regions very unlike what we think our Sun's birthplace was like. A collaboration led by Thayne Currie (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan) has changed this using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), part of a new generation of extreme adaptive-optics systems. The team discovered a debris disk of roughly the same size as the Kuiper belt orbiting the star HD 115600, located in the nearest OB association. The star is only slightly more massive than our Sun, and it lives in a star-forming region similar to the early Sun's environment. HD 115600 is different in one key way, however: it is only 15 million years old. This means that observing it gives us the perfect opportunity to observe how our solar system might have behaved when it was much younger. A promising future GPI's spatially-resolved spectroscopy, combined with measurements of the reflectivity of the disk, have led the team to suspect that the disk might be composed partly of water ice, just as the Kuiper belt is. The disk also shows evidence of having been sculpted by the motions of giant planets orbiting the central star, in much the same way as the outer planets of our solar system may have shaped the Kuiper belt. The observations of HD 115600 are some of the very first to emerge from GPI and the new

  6. Stalled Orogen Linked to East Antarctic Craton Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Y. M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Bell, R. E.; Jordan, T. A.; Damaske, D.

    2015-12-01

    The interior of East Antarctica is often regarded as a coherent Archean craton surrounded by Paleo to Neoproterozoic orogenic belts. Here we use recent aerogeophysical, satellite magnetic, satellite gravity and passive seismic results in central East Antarctica to challenge this view. Firstly, anomalously thick crust (compared to most other cratons) has been imaged in East Antarctica by both passive seismic and gravity modelling with values up to 60 km (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature; An et al., 2015, JGR). The thick crust underlies both the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and an elevated region between Lake Vostok and Dronning Maud Land, referred to as the East Antarctic Mountain Ranges plateau (An et al., 2015). Second, satellite magnetic data reveal that the Gamburtev Province lies in between the Ruker/Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod/South Pole and Recovery provinces. The Nimrod/ South Pole province is a Paleo to Meso Proterozoic igneous province formed along the edges of the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Mawson continent (e.g. Goodge and Fanning, 2010 JGR). Our aerogeophysical and sediment provenance data interpretations suggest that the Gamburtsev Province represents a distinct Grenvillian-age orogenic belt. A stalled orogen with thick crust (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred)- is preserved in the interior of East Antarctica resembling e.g. the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson Orogen and segments of Grenvillian orogens in Laurentia. The stalled orogen may relate to widespread accretionary and collisional events within Rodinia. However, passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) favour linking crustal thickening to the Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (e.g. Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). Further aerogeophysical observations over Princess Elizabeth Land are timely to enable more robust correlations with geological observations and to help dating the

  7. The persistence and role of basin structures on the 3D architecture of the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrenberg, Arne F.; Holcombe, Rodney J.; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    The 3D architecture of fold-thrust belts commonly involves thin-skinned and thick-skinned deformation. Both thick- and thin-skinned deformation styles have been suggested to occur in the Marañón Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB) in Peru, but the relative timing and strain partitioning associated with them are not well understood. We demonstrate that inherited basement structures along the Peruvian convergent margin reactivated during the evolution of the MFTB. We present results from field mapping, interpretation of remote sensing imagery, and cross section construction and restoration. The results show that the Chonta Fault, a median pre-folding basin normal fault, was inverted and acted as a mechanical buttress during initial east-vergent contraction of the fold-thrust belt. This fault separates the belt into two domains of distinctly different structural styles. During the Eocene, units to the west of the Chonta Fault deformed by folding, using the fault as a buttress, and subsequently propagated eastward by thin-skinned thrusting. This was followed in the Miocene by west-vergent, basement-involved deformation, which overprinted the earlier east-vergent, thin-skinned structures. The proposed tectonic model of the MFTB highlights the role of basement-fault reactivation during orogenesis and the involvement of deep structures in partitioning deformation styles.

  8. A population of comets in the main asteroid belt.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Henry H; Jewitt, David

    2006-04-28

    Comets are icy bodies that sublimate and become active when close to the Sun. They are believed to originate in two cold reservoirs beyond the orbit of Neptune: the Kuiper Belt (equilibrium temperatures of approximately 40 kelvin) and the Oort Cloud (approximately 10 kelvin). We present optical data showing the existence of a population of comets originating in a third reservoir: the main asteroid belt. The main-belt comets are unlike the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud comets in that they likely formed where they currently reside and may be collisionally activated. The existence of the main-belt comets lends new support to the idea that main-belt objects could be a major source of terrestrial water.

  9. Physiological effects of back belt wearing during asymmetric lifting.

    PubMed

    Bobick, T G; Belard, J L; Hsiao, H; Wassell, J T

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of wearing a back belt on subjects' heart rate, oxygen consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency during asymmetric repetitive lifting. Thirty subjects with materials-handling experience utilized three different belts (ten subjects per belt). Subjects completed six 30-min lifting sessions--three while wearing a belt and three without. Data analyses were conducted on the second, third, and fourth lifting periods. A 9.4 kg box, without handles, was lifted 3 times/min, starting at 10 cm above the floor, ending at 79 cm, with a 60 degree twist to the right. Data analysis indicates that belt-wearing did not have a significant effect on the overall mean values for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency. Belt-wearing had a significant effect on the overall mean oxygen consumption of the subjects.

  10. Structural inversion of the Tamworth Belt: Insights into the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Robinson, J.; Glen, R.; Roberts, J.

    2016-05-01

    The middle to late Permian Hunter Bowen Event is credited with the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, yet contention surrounds the structural dynamics responsible for the development of this curvature. Debate is largely centred on the roles of orogen parallel strike-slip and orogen normal extension and contraction to explain the development of curvature. To evaluate the dynamic history of the Hunter Bowen Event, we present new kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt. The Tamworth Belt formed as a Carboniferous forearc basin and was subsequently inverted during the Hunter Bowen Event. Kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt are based on new maps and cross-sections built from a synthesis of best-available mapping, chronostratigraphic data and new interpretations of depth-converted seismic data. The following conclusions are made from our study: (i) the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly driven by margin normal contraction (east-west shortening; present-day coordinates), and; (ii) variations in structural style along the strike of the Tamworth Belt can be explained by orthogonal vs. oblique inversion, which reflects the angular relationship between the principal shortening vector and continental-arc margin. Given these conclusions, we suggest that curvature around the controversial Manning Bend was influenced by the presence of primary curvature in the continental margin, and that the Hastings Block was translated along a sinistral strike-slip fault system that formed along this oblique (with respect to the regional east-west extension and convergence direction) part of the margin. Given the available temporal data, the translation of the Hastings Block took place in the Early Permian (Asselian) and therefore preceded the Hunter Bowen Event. Accordingly, we suggest that the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly associated with enhancing curvature that was either primary in origin, or associated with fault block translation

  11. Dyke belt in North Western margin of Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Victor

    2015-04-01

    The Early Triassic dyke swarm belt is strengthening at about 500 km (50-60 km width) along the northern margin of Siberian platform. Its locations is limited from the north by rift structure of the Yenisei-Khatanga trough, and from the south by Kystyktah-Ayan-Ambardah uprise. From west to east dyke belt is crossing Norilsk, Kamensky and Maimecha-Kotuiskaya province. In this direction the composition of dykes changing from basic rthrough alkali-basic to alkali-ultramafic varieties. The sickness of dykes varies from 0,5-10m up to 90 m and length - from 5-15 m to 140 km. The orientation of the bulk of dykes coincides with the direction of the major structural and tectonic lineaments of the region. Dykes are often refer to the fault planes. The composition of dykes may vary along the stretches. The density of hundreds of basaltic dykes and small intrusions in the dyke swarms is not permanent and sometimes essentially uneven. They form a compact dyke swarms of dykes, stocks and sub layering bodies veins. In dyke package on Huor-Uyallah river here are 20 subparallel dykes of different chemical composition at a distance of 2 km Lack of the evidence of the dykes crossing allows to assume their formation during the same magmatic cycle. Dykes cross cut through the entire incision of basaltic plateau. They did not created the flow effusions and refer to the final stage trap magmatism. Ar/Ar age of the youngest dykes in the province Kamenska 238-247 Ma. the age of lamproite dyke in Norilsk province is 235 Ma. Dykes are represented by dolerites trachydolerites, syenites, minettes, lamprophyres (camptonite, spessartite, vosgesite), avgitites, melanephelinite, alnoites, limburgites alkaline picrites, meimechites. Their content vary widely: SiO2 - 35,7-62,6; TiO2- 0,4-7,5; Al2O3- 4,4-17,5; Fe2O3- 4,6-20,6; MnO- 0,08-0,44; MgO- 0,8-31,5; CaO- 0,7-15,4; Na2O- 0,01-6,5; K2O 0,8-5,3 wt.%; P2O5 0,1-1,2 wt.%. The h Bolsheavamskaya volcanic basin in Kamensky province is most abundant in

  12. Greenstone belts: Their boundaries, surrounding rock terrains and interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.; Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts are an important part of the fragmented record of crustal evolution, representing samples of the magmatic activity that formed much of the Earth's crust. Most belts developed rapidly, in less than 100 Ma, leaving large gaps in the geological record. Surrounding terrains provide information on the context of greenstone belts. The effects of tectonic setting, structural geometry and evolution, associated plutonic activity and sedimentation are discussed.

  13. Jupiters radiation belts and their effects on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.; Divita, E. L.; Gigas, G.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of electron and proton radiation on spacecraft which will operate in the trapped radiation belts of the planet Jupiter are described, and the techniques and results of the testing and simulation used in the radiation effects program are discussed. Available data from the Pioneer 10 encounter of Jupiter are compared with pre-encounter models of the Jupiter radiation belts. The implications that the measured Jovian radiation belts have for future missions are considered.

  14. New compounds will help coal operators comply with BELT standards

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    US coal producers will soon have a new set of conveyor belting standards, which are currently proposed as a rulemaking by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), to bring higher levels of resistance to propagation of fire by a secondary source. The new test being put into effect is known as a Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT). The article, submitted by Fenner Dunlop, discusses the company's testing procedures and the development of conveyors to comply with regulations. 2 photos.

  15. Shallow crustal structure of eastern-central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Ramón, V. M.; Lermo-Samaniego, J.

    2015-12-01

    Central-eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is featured by large basins (i.e., Toluca, Mexico, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Libres-Oriental). It has been supposed that major crustal faults limit these basins. Sierra de Las Cruces range separates the Toluca and Mexico basins. The Sierra Nevada range separates Mexico basin from the Puebla-Tlaxcala basin. Based in gravity and seismic data we inferred the Toluca basin is constituted by the Ixtlahuaca sub-basin, to the north, and the Toluca sub-basin to the south, which are separated by a relative structural high. The Toluca depression is more symmetric and bounded by sub-vertical faults. In particular its eastern master fault controlled the emplacement of Sierra de Las Cruces range. Easternmost Acambay graben constitutes the northern and deepest part of the Ixtlahuaca depression. The Toluca-Ixtlahuaca basin is inside the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system, and limited to the west by the Guerrero terrane which continues beneath the TMVB up to the Acambay graben. Mexico basin basement occupies an intermediate position and featured by a relative structural high to the north-east, as established by previous studies. This relative structural high is limited to the west by the north-south Mixhuca trough, while to the south it is bounded by the east-west Copilco-Xochimilco-Chalco sub-basin. The Puebla-Tlaxcala basin basement is the shallowest of these 3 tectonic depressions. In general, features (i.e., depth) and relationship between these basins, from west to east, are controlled by the regional behavior of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt basement (i.e., Oaxaca Complex?). This study indicates that an active east-west regional fault system limits to the south the TMVB (from the Nevado de Toluca volcano through the Popocatepetl volcano and eastward along southern Puebla-Tlaxcala basin). The Tenango and La Pera fault systems constituting the western part of this regional fault system coincide with northern

  16. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J. E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.ed

    2010-07-15

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  17. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  18. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  19. Evidence for spreading in the lower Kam Group of the Yellowknife greenstone belt: Implications for Archaean basin evolution in the Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstaedt, H.; Padgham, W. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Yellowknife greenstone belt is the western margin of an Archean turbidite-filled basin bordered on the east by the Cameron River and Beaulieu River volcanic belts (Henderson, 1981; Lambert, 1982). This model implies that rifting was entirely ensialic and did not proceed beyond the graben stage. Volcanism is assumed to have been restricted to the boundary faults, and the basin was floored by a downfaulted granitic basement. On the other hand, the enormous thickness of submarine volcanic rocks and the presence of a spreading complex at the base of the Kam Group suggest that volcanic rocks were much more widespread than indicated by their present distribution. Rather than resembling volcanic sequences in intracratonic graben structures, the Kam Group and its tectonic setting within the Yellowknife greenstone belt have greater affinities to the Rocas Verdes of southern Chile, Mesozoic ophiolites, that were formed in an arc-related marginal basin setting. The similarities of these ophiolites with some Archean volcanic sequences was previously recognized, and served as basis for their marginal-basin model of greenstone belts. The discovery of a multiple and sheeted dike complex in the Kam Group confirms that features typical of Phanerozoic ophiolites are indeed preserved in some greenstone belts and provides further field evidence in support of such a model.

  20. Overview of radiometric ages in three allochthonous belts of Northern Venezuela: Old ones, new ones, and their impact on regional geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sisson, V.B.; Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Ostos, M.; Blythe, A.E.; Snee, L.W.; Copeland, Peter; Wright, J.E.; Donelick, R.A.; Guth, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The margin of northern Venezuela is a complex zone representing the orogenic events from basement formation to subsequent subduction and exhumation during transpressional collision. This boundary zone has six east-west-trending belts that each record a different segment of its development. This geologic complexity requires radiometric ages to unravel, and we herein provide 48 new ages including U-Pb (4), Rb-Sr (2), 40Ar/39Ar (24), zircon and apatite fission-track (17), and 14C (1) ages to constrain the evolution of three of these belts. These three belts are the Cordillera de la Costa, Caucagua-El Tinaco, and Serran??a del Interior belts. In the Cordillera de la Costa belt, U-Pb geochronologic data indicate portions of the basement igneous and metaigneous rocks formed in the Cambro-Ordovician (513-471 Ma). New 40Ar/39Ar data from Margarita Island indicate that some of the subduction complex was rapidly cooled and exhumed, whereas other portions indicate slower cooling. This contrasts with new 40Ar/39Ar data from the Puerto Cabello. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  1. The structural history and mineralization controls of the world-class Geita Hill gold deposit, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanislav, I. V.; Brayshaw, M.; Kolling, S. L.; Dirks, P. H. G. M.; Cook, Y. A.; Blenkinsop, T. G.

    2016-05-01

    The Geita Hill gold deposit is located in the Archean Geita Greenstone Belt and is one of the largest gold deposits in East Africa. The Geita Greenstone Belt experienced a complex deformation and intrusive history that is well illustrated and preserved in and around the Geita Hill gold deposit. Deformation involved early stages of ductile shearing and folding (D1 to D5), during which episodic emplacement of large diorite intrusive complexes, sills, and dykes occurred. These ductile deformation phases were followed by the development of brittle-ductile shear zones and faults (D6 to D8). The last stages of deformation were accompanied by voluminous felsic magmatism involving the intrusion of felsic porphyry dykes, within the greenstone belt, and the emplacement of large granitic bodies now forming the margins of the greenstone belt. Early, folded lamprophyre dykes, and later lamprophyre dykes, crosscutting the folded sequence are common, although volumetrically insignificant. The gold deposit formed late during the tectonic history of the greenstone belt, post-dating ductile deformation and synchronous with the development of brittle-ductile shear zones that overprinted earlier structural elements. The main mineralizing process involved sulfide replacement of magnetite-rich layers in ironstone and locally the replacement of ferromagnesian phases and magnetite in the diorite intrusions. The intersection between the brittle-ductile (D6) Geita Hill Shear Zone and different structural elements of ductile origin (e.g., fold hinges), and the contact between banded ironstone and folded diorite dykes and sills provided the optimal sites for gold mineralization.

  2. The structural history and mineralization controls of the world-class Geita Hill gold deposit, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanislav, I. V.; Brayshaw, M.; Kolling, S. L.; Dirks, P. H. G. M.; Cook, Y. A.; Blenkinsop, T. G.

    2017-02-01

    The Geita Hill gold deposit is located in the Archean Geita Greenstone Belt and is one of the largest gold deposits in East Africa. The Geita Greenstone Belt experienced a complex deformation and intrusive history that is well illustrated and preserved in and around the Geita Hill gold deposit. Deformation involved early stages of ductile shearing and folding (D1 to D5), during which episodic emplacement of large diorite intrusive complexes, sills, and dykes occurred. These ductile deformation phases were followed by the development of brittle-ductile shear zones and faults (D6 to D8). The last stages of deformation were accompanied by voluminous felsic magmatism involving the intrusion of felsic porphyry dykes, within the greenstone belt, and the emplacement of large granitic bodies now forming the margins of the greenstone belt. Early, folded lamprophyre dykes, and later lamprophyre dykes, crosscutting the folded sequence are common, although volumetrically insignificant. The gold deposit formed late during the tectonic history of the greenstone belt, post-dating ductile deformation and synchronous with the development of brittle-ductile shear zones that overprinted earlier structural elements. The main mineralizing process involved sulfide replacement of magnetite-rich layers in ironstone and locally the replacement of ferromagnesian phases and magnetite in the diorite intrusions. The intersection between the brittle-ductile (D6) Geita Hill Shear Zone and different structural elements of ductile origin (e.g., fold hinges), and the contact between banded ironstone and folded diorite dykes and sills provided the optimal sites for gold mineralization.

  3. Detrital zircon analysis of Mesoproterozoic and neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of northcentral idaho: Implications for development of the Belt-Purcell basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.S.; Vervoort, J.D.; Burmester, R.F.; Oswald, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed detrital zircon grains from 10 metasedimentary rock samples of the Priest River complex and three other amphibolite-facies metamorphic sequences in north-central Idaho to test the previous assignment of these rocks to the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell Supergroup. Zircon grains from two samples of the Prichard Formation (lower Belt) and one sample of Cambrian quartzite were also analyzed as controls with known depositional ages. U-Pb zircon analysis by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry reveals that 6 of the 10 samples contain multiple age populations between 1900 and 1400 Ma and a scatter of older ages, similar to results reported from the Belt- Purcell Supergroup to the north and east. Results from the Priest River metamorphic complex confirm previous correlations with the Prichard Formation. Samples from the Golden and Elk City sequences have significant numbers of 1500-1380 Ma grains, which indicates that they do not predate the Belt. Rather, they are probably from a relatively young, southwestern part of the Belt Supergroup (Lemhi subbasin). Non-North American (1610-1490 Ma) grains are rare in these rocks. Three samples of quartzite from the Syringa metamorphic sequence northwest of the Idaho batholith contain zircon grains younger than the Belt Supergroup and support a Neoproterozoic age. A single Cambrian sample has abundant 1780 Ma grains and none younger than ~1750 Ma. These results indicate that the likely protoliths of many high-grade metamorphic rocks in northern Idaho were strata of the Belt-Purcell Supergroup or overlying rocks of the Neoproterozoic Windermere Supergroup and not basement rocks.

  4. Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data: Dynamics of the Peri-Adriatic Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Rabaute, Alain; Duni, Llambro; Kuka, Neki; Koci, Rexhep; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in GPS technology and processing strategies make now spatial geodesy a suitable tool to image intra-continental slowly deforming areas such as collisional mountain belts and to get further insights on their kinematics and dynamics. Here, using the peri-Adriatic belts as a test case, we propose a methodology based on accurate GPS velocities to discriminate whether the current day deformation pattern over a mountain belt is controlled at the first order by gravity through gradients of gravitational potential energy. We calculate a new GPS velocity field covering the peri-Adriatic region and the entire Balkan Peninsula, taking advantage of newly available measurements coming from private networks operating since several years in this area. Based on these velocities, we derive the strain rate tensor and an interpolated velocity field using the method of Haines & Holt (1993). Opposite to the commonly accepted hypothesis considering the Balkans as part of the stable Eurasia, we show that the peninsula experiences significant compression across the Dinarides belt and extension toward the Aegean domain South of 44°N. We image a clockwise rotation of the entire peninsula around North Albania, and propose that the lithosphere under the old Scutari-Peck transform zone is weak and acts as a pivot point for this rotation since early Miocene. The Hellenic slab suction and the release of stress in the northern Hellenides subduction zone may favour the southwestward motion of the inner Balkan lithosphere, flowing between the rigid Apulia and Black sea blocks consequently. Because our velocity field is unusually dense in Slovenia and Austria, we picture the Eastern Alps deformation with great details and show that the Austrian Alps are moving eastward together with the Alpine foreland and Bohemian Promontory relative to stable Eurasia. Based on these new GPS data, we investigate the dynamics of the peri-Adriatic mountain belts, in particular of Albania and Eastern

  5. Anatomy of an intracratonic fold belt: Examples from the southwestern Palmyride fold belt in central Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Chaimov, T.A.; Barazangi, M.; Best, J.A. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Palmyride fold belt, a 400 {times} 100 km, NE-trending, transpressive belt in central Syria, represents the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic inversion of a linear intracratonic basin. The southwestern Palmyrides are characterized by short wavelength (2-5 km) folds separated by small intermontane basins. To elucidate the subsurface structure, a three-dimensional model, based mainly on about 450 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data, was generated using a LandMark{reg sign} graphics workstation. The new model includes many features not identified in outcrop. Short, NW-trending transcurrent, or transfer, faults link the short, en echelon NE-trending thrust faults and blind thrusts of the Palmyrides. Varying structural styles are observed within the southwestern part of the belt. In one instance the structure of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks mimics that in deeper Paleozoic rocks; elsewhere, a strong discordance between Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks appears to be related to the development of a regional detachment in Triassic rocks at about 4 km depth. Shortening the southwestern palmyrides totals about 20-25 km, based on palinspastic restoration of a balanced cross section across the belt. Seismic stratigraphy constrains the timing of at least three distinct episodes of Palmyride shortening: Late Cretaceous, middle Eocene, and Miocene to present. All three episodes were penecontemporaneous with specific tectonic events along the northern Arabian plate boundaries.

  6. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  7. Solar Neutrons and the Earth's Radiation Belts.

    PubMed

    Lingenfelter, R E; Flamm, E J

    1964-04-17

    The intensity and spectrum of solar neutrons in the vicinity of the earth are calculated on the assumption that the low-energy protons recently detected in balloon and satellite flights are products of solar neutron decay. The solar-neutron flux thus obtained exceeds the global average cosmic-ray neutron leakage above 10 Mev, indicating that it may be an important source of both the inner and outer radiation belts. Neutron measurements in the atmosphere are reviewed and several features of the data are found to be consistent with the estimated solar neutron spectrum.

  8. Inner main belt asteroids in Slivan states?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family has previously been determined. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods that were either short or long. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been demonstrated to be able to explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, the effect causes the spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spin-orbit resonance known as Cassini state 2, a configuration dubbed "Slivan state". Aims: It has been proposed based on an analysis of a sample of asteroids in the Flora family that Slivan states might also exist in this region of the main belt. This is surprising because convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6 was assumed to prevent Slivan states in this zone. We therefore investigated the possibility of a long-term stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt and among the asteroids previously observed. Methods: We used the swift integrator to determine the orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. We also implemented our own secular spin propagator into the swift code to efficiently analyze their spin evolution. Results: Our experiments show that the previously suggested Slivan states of the Flora-region asteroids are marginally stable for only a small range of the flattening parameter Δ. Either the observed spins are close to the Slivan state by chance, or additional dynamical effects that were so far not taken into account change their evolution. We find that only the asteroids with very low-inclination orbits (lower than ≃4°, for instance) could follow a similar evolution path as the Koronis members and be captured in their spin state into the Slivan state. A greater number of asteroids in the inner main-belt Massalia

  9. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Greenberg, Richard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations.

  10. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  11. Orion revisited. III. The Orion Belt population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, K.; Alves, J.; Bouy, H.; Sarro, L. M.; Ascenso, J.; Burkert, A.; Forbrich, J.; Großschedl, J.; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Lombardi, M.; Meingast, S.; Köhler, R.; Teixeira, P. S.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the ɛ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0 Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. Methods: We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (XMM-Newton) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. Results: We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5 Myr and likely 10 Myr and estimate a total of about 2500 members, assuming a normal IMF. This new population, which we call the Orion Belt population, is essentially extinction-free, disk-free, and its spatial distribution is roughly centered near ɛ Ori, although substructure is clearly present. Conclusions: The Orion Belt population is likely the low-mass counterpart to the Ori OB Ib subgroup. Although our results do not rule out Blaauw's sequential star formation scenario for Orion, we argue that the recently proposed blue streams scenario provides a better framework on which one can explain the Orion star formation region as a whole. We speculate that the Orion Belt population could represent the evolved counterpart of an Orion nebula-like cluster. The catalog (Full Table A.1) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A124

  12. Aircraft radial-belted tire evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Davis, Pamela A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the ongoing joint NASA/FAA/Industry Surface Traction And Radial Tire (START) Program being conducted at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF). The START Program involves tests using three different tire sizes to evaluate tire rolling resistance, braking, and cornering performance throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Preliminary results from recent 40 x 14 size bias-ply, radial-belted, and H-type aircraft tire tests are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the current program status and planned ALDF test schedule.

  13. Stratospheric Polar Freezing Belt Causes Denitrification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Jensen, E. J.; Toon, O. B.; Drdla, K.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Trajectory cloud model calculations are presented to show that homogeneous freezing of nitric acid hydrates can produce a polar freezing belt in both hemispheres that can cause denitrification. While hydrate cloud microphysical properties are similar over both poles, the shorter persistence of clouds in the Arctic prevents the depth of the denitrified layers from growing beyond a few kilometers. The 1999-2000 Arctic winter is unique in showing a distinct denitrification profile with a depth of approx. 4.5 km that is nearly half as deep as that computed for a typical Antarctic winter.

  14. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  15. United States East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Snowy to the north and west and cloudy to the east, this MODIS image from February 28, 2002, shows the eastern U.S. Piedmont, a region of relatively low-lying, rolling plateau that runs between New Jersey to the north and Alabama to the south. Bounded on the west by the Appalachians and on the east by the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont is fertile agricultural land, and appears to be greening up in (from bottom left) Georgia, South Carolina, and parts of North Carolina, while winter has left its snowy mark on West Virginia (left of center), and to the northeast in Pennsylvania, New York, and New England.

  16. Numerical modeling of fold-and-thrust belts: Applications to Kuqa foreland fold belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, H.; Morgan, J. K.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    We constructed discrete element models to simulate the evolution of fold-and-thrust belts. The impact of rock competence and decollement strength on the geometric pattern and deformation mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts has been investigated. The models reproduced some characteristic features of fold-and-thrust belts, such as faulted detachment folds, pop-ups, far-traveled thrust sheets, passive-roof duplexes, and back thrusts. In general, deformation propagates farther above a weak decollement than above a strong decollement. Our model results confirm that fold-and-thrust belts with strong frictional decollements develop relatively steep and narrow wedges formed by closely spaced imbricate thrust slices, whereas fold belts with weak decollements form wide low-taper wedges composed of faulted detachment folds, pop-ups, and back thrusts. Far-traveled thrust sheets and passive-roof duplexes are observed in the model with a strong lower decollement and a weak upper detachment. Model results also indicate that the thickness of the weak layer is critical. If it is thick enough, it acts as a ductile layer that is able to flow under differential stress, which helps to partition deformation above and below it. The discrete element modeling results were used to interpret the evolution of Kuqa Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt along northern Tarim basin, China. Seismic and well data show that the widely distributed Paleogene rock salt has a significant impact on the deformation in this area. Structures beneath salt are closely spaced imbricate thrust and passive-roof duplex systems. Deformation above salt propagates much farther than below the salt. Faults above salt are relatively wide spaced. A huge controversy over the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt is whether it is thin-skinned or thick-skinned. With the insights from DEM results, we suggest that Kuqa structures are mostly thin-skinned with Paleogene salt as decollement, except for the rear part near the backstop, where the

  17. VIEW EAST, EAST ELEVATION OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE, NOTE ROD LINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST, EAST ELEVATION OF ECCENTRIC HOUSE, NOTE ROD LINES EXITING THE BUILDING AND ROD LINES WITH SUPPORTS IN FOREGROUND LEFT. - South Penn Oil Company, G. M. Mead Lot 492 Lease, Morrison Run Field, Clarendon, Warren County, PA

  18. 10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING: SECOND FLOOR (East Section), VIEW SOUTH: EAST, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS OF COLD STORAGE, ALSO SHOWING REMNANTS OF COOLING PIPES - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 3. East side, details of north half of east web; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side, details of north half of east web; also details of roadway, railing and overhead bracing; looking northeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

  20. Perspective view looking from the east to the east northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view looking from the east to the east northeast facade, with Swiss Chalet in background, to replicate the view shown in MD-1109-J-18 - National Park Seminary, Japanese Pagoda, 2805 Linden Lane, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  1. 29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUMFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR. ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ARE REPLACEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF EAST SIDE WALL AND DOOR, FACING EAST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View east. East abutment, showing bearings on concrete pads, drainage pipes for approach, and scupper downspouts. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  5. Herschel-resolved Outer Belts of Two-belt Debris Disks—Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust (T warm ˜ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer. Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μm), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid-Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μm) and Herschel/PACS (70-to-160 μm) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout (f MB = a min/a BOS ˜ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel-unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, with important participation from NASA.

  6. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  7. 10. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST TOWER IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST TOWER IS SEEN AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH ON THE SKYLINE, AND THE EAST WALKWAY ABUTMENT IS SEEN AT THE LEFT OF THE VIEW. THE VERTICAL CABLE RUNS FROM THE EYEBOLT TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE SPACER. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 2. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North Coweta Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  9. 17. View of north side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View of north side of East Ward Street east of North McDonald Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  10. 20. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South McDonald Avenue, facing southeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  11. 7. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of south side of East Ward Street east of South Coweta Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  12. 13. View of south side of East Ward Street east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of south side of East Ward Street east of Sibett Avenue, facing southwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  13. 4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Engine room, east end looking east toward engine #4 (Enterprise Diesel; reduction gear in foreground; in left rear, two D.C. generators with Ames Ironworks horizontal engine and sturtevant vertical engine - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-06-15

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice-perhaps mixed with ammonia-that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the {approx}20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  15. Population of the Scattered Kuiper Belt.

    PubMed

    Trujillo; Jewitt; Luu

    2000-02-01

    We present the discovery of three new scattered Kuiper Belt objects (SKBOs) from a wide-field survey of the ecliptic. This continuing survey has to date covered 20.2 deg2 to a limiting red magnitude of 23.6. We combine the data from this new survey with an existing survey conducted at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope to constrain the number and mass of the SKBOs. The SKBOs are characterized by large eccentricities, perihelia near 35 AU, and semimajor axes greater than 50 AU. Using a maximum likelihood model, we estimate the total number of SKBOs larger than 100 km in diameter to be N=&parl0;3.1+1.9-1.3&parr0;x104 (1 sigma errors) and the total mass of SKBOs to be M approximately 0.05 M plus sign in circle, demonstrating that the SKBOs are similar in number and mass to the Kuiper Belt inside 50 AU.

  16. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  17. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  18. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Plan Progress Report for CEMA Agriculture (Ngok Bin, Petr Ivashov; INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT DER LANDWIRTSCHAFT, No 6, 1985) 1 ECONOMY...INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS CEMA Civil Air Transport Pilot Training School Described (Dmitri Zassorov; VOLKSARMEE, No 47, 1985) 12 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Former...AFFAIRS CURRENT 5-YEAR PLAN PROGRESS REPORT FOR CEMA AGRICULTURE Moscow/East Berlin INTERNATIONALE ZEITSCHRIFT DER LANDWIRTSCHAFT in German No 6, 1985 pp

  19. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    VA . 22161 O o3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90-042 CONTENTS 30 MARCH 1990 POLITICAL CZECHOSLOVAKIA Jicinsky on Constitutional Background of Federation [LIDOVE...vice [NEPSZABADSAG] Is it possible that one day they will president, by Judit Kozma, Andras Szigethy, and Bela come here to auction the factory away

  20. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-03

    SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 DTCCQüÄury TEMBNT i. DISTRIBUTION STA’ Approved fox public release; jMslribaüon UnEmited East Europe JPRS-EER-90-137...28Aug90p5 [Article by Judit Kozma: "Vacated Enterprise Head- quarters Will Also Be Nationalized; State Property Agency Begins Privatization"] [Text

  1. JPRS Report East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Radio Broadcasts for Baltic, Ukrainian Polonia Begin [TRYBUNA 8 May] .................................... 2 YUGOSLAVIA Reasons for Tudjman’s...for Baltic, Ukrainian Polonia Elena Lagadinova, deputy chairman; Begin Khristina Pepeldzhiyska, deputy chairman; 90P20027A Warsaw TR YBUNA in Polish 8...Commission for [Text] On 7 May, Polish Radio began broadcasting Socioeconomic Development; special programs for Poles [ Polonia ] residing in the East. 2

  2. East Texas Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brandi, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, "Loblolly Magazine" is published twice a year. Issues are frequently devoted to a distant theme. The theme of this issue, "East Texas Storytellers," attempts to capture some of the local color and regional history of eastern Texas. The first article,…

  3. East Texas Quilts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Karen, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Patchwork quilting is an original folk art in the United States. Pilgrims first used worn out scraps of cloth to make bed covers in an age of scarcity. Featured here are stories on East Texas Quilts, their origins, the love and hard work which goes into the making of a quilt (Ira Barr and others). The techniques needed to construct a quilt are…

  4. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-18

    above total includes one to two events a month,79 upkeep of an old-age home, of the community library and a kosher 99 butcher shop. The old-age home...the kosher butcher shop, which is open Tuesday to Thursday from 1000 to 1800 hours, includes, in addition to the about 10 East Berlin regular

  5. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  6. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825... Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person wears an approved safety harness when aloft or working topside in heavy weather. Tests, Drills,...

  7. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R

    2010-11-01

    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  8. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event.

    PubMed

    Herz, N

    1969-05-23

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 +/- 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history.

  9. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herz, N.

    1969-01-01

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 ?? 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history.

  10. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  11. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  15. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  16. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  18. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive...

  19. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  20. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nominal breaking strength of 5,400 pounds. (e) All safety belt and lanyard hardware shall be drop forged or pressed steel, cadmium plated in accordance with type 1, Class B plating specified in Federal... strength of 5,400 pounds, shall be used. (d) Safety belt lanyard shall be a minimum of 1/2-inch nylon,...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nominal breaking strength of 5,400 pounds. (e) All safety belt and lanyard hardware shall be drop forged or pressed steel, cadmium plated in accordance with type 1, Class B plating specified in Federal... strength of 5,400 pounds, shall be used. (d) Safety belt lanyard shall be a minimum of 1/2-inch nylon,...

  3. Promoting Automobile Safety Belt Use by Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers-Hoag, Karen M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A program of behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was successful in establishing and maintaining automobile safety belt use by 16 children (ages 4-7) who never used them during a five-day preobservation period. Safety belt use occurred during 76%-90% of follow-up observations after two-three months.…

  4. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  5. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  6. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29.1413 Section 29.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers...

  11. Prioritizing Safety with Seat Belts: The Unanswered Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Reviews conflicting federal and state developments (including liability lawsuits) involving seat belt installation on school buses. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board differ on this issue, and several states are considering seat belt legislation or crashworthiness studies. Hints are…

  12. Research Says "No" to School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineland, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Presents factual data on research in school bus safety that shows that seat belts in school buses may actually be detrimental to students. Includes data from surveys and research tests and sources for additional information on seat belts in school buses. (MD)

  13. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  15. Ultra-high temperature granulite-facies metamorphic rocks from the Mozambique belt of SW Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.

    2013-06-01

    The metamorphic rocks in the Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) Mozambique belt of southwestern Tanzania, around the town of Songea, can be subdivided into one- and two pyroxene bearing charnockitic gneisses, migmatitic granitoid gneisses and amphibolite-facies metapelites. Lower-grade amphibolite-facies rocks are rare and can be classified as sillimanite- and/or garnet-bearing metapelites. Most of the studied charnockitic gneisses show excellent corona textures with large orthopyroxene grains rimmed by clinopyroxene, followed by quartz and well developed garnet rims due to the reaction Opx + Pl = Grt + Cpx + Qtz that formed during isobaric cooling. These and other charnockitic gneisses show symplectites of orthopyroxene and An-rich plagioclase that resulted from the breakdown of garnet during isothermal decompression due to the reaction Grt + Cpx + Qtz = Opx + Pl. Geothermobarometric calculations yield up to ~ 1050 °C and up to ~ 12 kbar for peak metamorphic conditions. These are higher temperature and slightly lower pressure conditions than reported for other granulite-facies terrains in the Mozambique belt of Tanzania. Single zircon Pb-Pb evaporation and U-Pb SHRIMP ages for magmatic zircons extracted from two charnockitic and two granitic gneisses cluster in two groups, one at ~ 750 Ma and one at ~ 1150 Ma with the older reflecting the time of emplacement of the igneous precursors, and the younger approximating the time of charnockitization. These protolith ages are similar to those farther east in the Masasi area of southern Tanzania, as well as in northern Mozambique and in southern Malawi, and suggest that the Mozambique belt consists of chronologically heterogeneous assemblages whose pre-metamorphic tectonic setting remains obscure.

  16. Distribution and characteristics of metamorphic belts in the south- eastern Alaska part of the North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Cordilleran orogen in south-eastern Alaska includes 14 distinct metamorphic belts that make up three major metamorphic complexes, from east to west: the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex; the Glacier Bay-Chichagof plutonic-metamorphic complex; and the Chugach plutonic-metamorphic complex. Each of these complexes is related to a major subduction event. The metamorphic history of the Coast complex is lengthy and is related to the Late Cretaceous collision of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes and the Gravina overlap assemblage to the west against the Stikine terrane to the east. The metamorphic history of the Glacier Bay-Chichagof complex is relatively simple and is related to the roots of a Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous island arc. The metamorphic history of the Chugach is complicated and developed during and after the Late Cretaceous collision of the Chugach terrane with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes. -from Authors

  17. Variscan fold belt and its foreland in western Europe from late Carboniferous to Permian time

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, A.; Benard, F.; Cazes, M.; Le Gall, B.

    1988-08-01

    The Variscan front was emplaced in the Later Carboniferous with a south-to-north or southeast-to-northwest-trending vergence of thrusting. At the same time, folds were formed in the foreland. In England and southern Scotland, such structures were induced by an east-west direction of shortening, followed by a more subdued north-south compressive event. In Stephanian time, isolated basins developed on the Hercynian belt. In the Massif Central Marues Massif, they are closely related to transcurrent faults which developed in response to north-south-trending compressive stresses. The distribution of stresses completely changed in Early Permian time when extension dominated almost everywhere. Three kinds of basins developed at that time: those related to the relaxation of stresses on the Hercynian range, a north-south-trending rift system in the western United Kingdom and the North Sea, and a broad flexural evaporitic basin from eastern England to Poland.

  18. Tectonic setting and evolution of late Archaean greenstone belts of Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Late Archean (3.0-2.5 Ga) greenstone belts are a major component of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield where alternating, metavolcanic - rich and metasedimentary - rich subprovinces form a prominent central striped region bordered in part by high-grade gneiss subprovinces, the Pikiwitonei and Minto in the north, and the Minnesota River Valley in the south. The high-grade gneiss subprovinces are characterized by granulite facies gneiss of plutonic and supracrustal origin, and by abundant plutonic rocks. Minnesota River Valley has rocks older than 3.5 Ga; absolute ages of Pikiwitonei and Minto rocks are unknown but Minto does have north-south structural trends distinctive from the dominant east-west structures of Superior Province. A discussion follows.

  19. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling.

    PubMed

    Fung, Shing F

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., <1000 km) where many robotic and human space flights occur. The availability of radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling.

  20. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  1. Neptune's eccentricity and the nature of the kuiper belt

    PubMed

    Ward; Hahn

    1998-06-26

    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  2. Detecting extrasolar asteroid belts through their microlensing signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ethan; Zheng, Zheng; Dong, Subo

    2017-02-01

    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called 'pseudo-caustics', regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive signatures in the microlensing light curves for a wide range of belt configurations, with source trajectories as far as tenths of the Einstein ring radius from the centre of the lens. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys like WFIRST, which will have the power of detecting per cent-level changes in microlensing light curves even with subminute exposure times, may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of an earth mass.

  3. a Wave Model for a Pneumatic Tyre Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PINNINGTON, R. J.; BRISCOE, A. R.

    2002-06-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation of an infinite flattened tyre belt is generated. The belt vibration is controlled by bending, tension, shear and the sidewall stiffness. The dispersion relations for two waves in the belt are calculated and used to find both the input impedance and attenuation on a tyre belt of infinite extent. Tension and the sidewall controls the deformation and stiffness below 100Hz. Waves propagate around the belt above this frequency. The wave speeds due to bending and shear were predicted and measured. The model presented here should be valid for the prediction of tyre response above about 400 Hz when for a car tyre the modal behaviour is observed to cease. In this high-frequency region, the tyre at the input appears to be of infinite extent.

  4. Geochemical survey of lower Pennsylvanian Corbin Sandstone outcrop belt in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Richers, D.M.

    1981-09-01

    Geochemical anomalies that may constitute further evidence for the existence of the east-west trending 38th Parallel lineament have been discovered in Wolfe, Powell, and Menifee Counties, Kentucky. Stream-water, stream-sediment, and outcrop samples collected along the northeast-southwest-trending Corbin Sandstone outcrop belt show anomalous concentrations of U, Th, Zn, Cu, and Ni only in parts of the belt that skirt the 38th Parallel lineament. Landsat studies also show that anomalies are closely associated with the intersections of the four major linear trends present in eastern Kentucky. This association, in part, suggests that the anomalies resulted from ascending fluids which utilize these lineaments as conduits. The presence of slightly uraniferous rock at Bell Branch in Menifee County (together with the presence of geochemical anomalies in the stream-water and sediment samples in Powell, Wolfe, and Menifee Counties) is encouraging even though commercial quantities of uranium or base metals have not been discovered. An anomalously uraniferous kimberlite pipe in Elliot County warrants additional study for this part of eastern Kentucky.

  5. Deformational sequence of a portion of the Michipicoten greenstone belt, Chabanel Township, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrady, C. H.; Mcgill, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed mapping at a scale of one inch = 400 feet is being carried out within a fume kill, having excellent exposure, located in the southwestern portion of the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt near Wawa, Ontario. The rocks are metasediments and metavolcanics of lower greenschist facies. U-Pb geochronology indicates that they are at least 2698 + or - 11 Ma old. The lithologic packages strike northeast to northwest, but the dominant strike is approximately east-west. Sedimentary structures and graded bedding are well preserved, aiding in the structural interpretation of this multiply deformed area. At least six phases of deformation within a relatively small area of the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt have been tentatively identified. These include the following structural features in approximate order of occurrence: (0) soft-sediment structures; (1) regionally overturned rocks, flattened pebbles, bedding parallel cleavage, and early, approximately bedding parallel faults; (2) northwest to north striking cleavage; (3) northeast striking cleavage and associated folds, and at least some late movement on approximately bedding parallel faults; (4) north-northwest and northeast trending faults; and (5) diabase dikes and associated fracture cleavages. Minor displacement of the diabase dikes occurs on faults that appear to be reactivated older structures.

  6. Cretaceous crustal structure and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, western US Cordillera

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Gans, P.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Combined structural and geochronologic studies to the west of the Sevier belt at lat 39{degree}-40{degree}N indicate that peak metamorphism of the upper 15 km of crust occurred during the Late Cretaceous (70-90 Ma), overlapping in time with the intrusion of muscovite-bearing granites and pegmatites. Metamorphism was accompanied by penetrative deformation (top-to-the-east layer-parallel shear); both were localized at the currently exposed structural levels, resulting in impressive vertical and lateral strain gradients and T{sub max} gradients of > 50 C/km. Inception of thrust faulting in the Sevier belt may have predated peak metamorphism and intrusion of granites in the hinterland by 10-15 m.y., but it continued during and ended simultaneously with the end of metamorphism at about 70 Ma. The rise of muscovite-bearing granites and hot fluids, generated by metamorphism and crustal anatexis at greater depth, provides and explanation for the observed localized metamorphism and deformation at relatively high structural levels.

  7. Low-grade, M1 metamorphism of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberg, G.R. . Dept. of Geology); Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B. )

    1993-04-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex of western Canada and southeastern Alaska that developed as a result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collision of the Alexander terrane and Gravina assemblage on the west against the Yukon Prong and Stikine terranes to the east. Sub-greenschist to lower greenschist facies metabasalts exposed along the west end of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska record the earliest metamorphic event (M1). These low-grade rocks are gradational with younger, higher-grade assemblages that define an inverted metamorphic gradient (metamorphic event M5). The most common metamorphic mineral assemblages are chlorite-epidote-actinolite with or without pumpellyite and stilpnomelane. There is no systematic distribution of metamorphic mineral assemblages in the study area, and all assemblages are in the pumpellyite-actinolite facies near the transition to the lower greenschist facies. Different low-variance assemblages can be attributed to minor differences in pressure, temperature, or X[sub CO[sub 2

  8. Geology of the Flat Swamp Mountain caldera and related rocks, Carolina slate belt, central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Flat Swamp Member (FSM) of the Cid Formation (Late Proterozoic) and related volcanogenic deposits in the Carolina slate belt of central North Carolina constitute a submarine caldera complex, mildly deformed and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The intracaldera facies, including mudflow breccias, ashfall tuffs, pyroclastic flows and lava flows, are 1.2 to 1.8 km thick in the Denton area. The FSM thins abruptly near Badin, passing laterally into extracaldera facies less than 150 m thick of coarse- to fine-grained crystal-rich ashfall tuffs with an upper unit of extremely fine-grained devitrified vitric tuffs. The thickness and average grainsize decrease to the south and east, until the FSM merges with adjacent mudstones. The Morrow Mountain Rhyolite includes bodies of homogeneous rhyolite as much as several km across emplaced within the FSM and stratigraphically lower units, interpreted to be shallow intrusions and some surface-breaking lava domes, emplaced at depths from 0 to 3 km within the caldera and along the ring-fractures. The FSM has been mapped over an area of about 2,400 km[sup 2], and it forms a time-constant layer useful in elucidating slate belt stratigraphy.

  9. Late Cretaceous extension in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, northwestern Utah and southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.L.; Allmendinger, R.W. ); Dallmeyer, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Cover rocks of the Raft River metamorphic core complex, located in the Sevier belt hinterland, preserve a structural and metamorphic history that predates the middle Tertiary extension of the region. In the eastern Raft River Mountains, Cambrian( )-Permian rocks form two allochthons that occur in the hanging wall of the mid-Miocene Raft River detachment fault. Dramatically attenuated, metamorphosed Cambrian( )-Pennsylvanian strata of the lower allochthon yield Late Cretaceous muscovite {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar plateau ages (ca. 82-90 Ma) that are interpreted to date cooling during final stages of layer parallel extension. Devonian-Permian rocks exposed in the Black Pine Mountains underwent east-west extension ({approximately} 160%) associated with syntectonic growth of white mica along cleavage. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar whole-rock spectra of associated slates also indicate a Late Cretaceous metamorphism. Together, field and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results suggest that Late Cretaceous extension occurred in the Sevier belt hinterland at the same time as shortening in the eastern foreland and at depth in the hinterland. Sufficient topography must have been present to drive upper-crustal extension in the eastern hinterland.

  10. Body mass as a determinant of seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Bolton, A; Wade, G

    1989-04-01

    Prevention of death and injury from motor vehicle accidents depends in part on seat belt use. Understanding the determinants of seat belt use is important for developing strategies to increase seat belt use. The cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported seat belt use was analyzed using data from 3,140 Health Risk Appraisals completed by Tennessee residents during 1986. Persons in the lowest quintile BMI (less than or equal to 21.8 kg/m2) stated they use seat belts 63% (SD = 38%) of the time compared to persons in the highest BMI quintile (greater than or equal to 29.0 kg/m2) who reported using seat belts 50% (SD = 38%) of the time. BMI remained associated with seat belt use after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, cigarette use, alcohol use, drug use, urban/rural residence, state area of residence, miles driven per year, self-reported physical activity, and satisfaction with life. For a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, seat belt use declined -0.73% (95% CI = -1.01, -0.46), and the relative odds of not being a frequent seat belt user increased 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05). BMI was the third variable selected in a step-wise multiple linear regression after education and race. The BMI/seat belt association, if causal, has implications for (1) targeting of education programs to likely nonusers by traffic safety agencies; (2) targeting health promotion messages to likely nonusers by primary care providers; and (3) design of automobile seats and restraint devices.

  11. The effects of standard enforcement on Michigan safety belt use.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Vivoda, Jonathon M; Fordyce, Tiffani A

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of standard enforcement legislation on safety belt use in Michigan through a series of seven statewide direct observation surveys. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results in Michigan to the results in other states that have changed the provision of their mandatory safety belt use law from secondary to standard enforcement. The study found that standard enforcement has been effective in increasing safety belt use in Michigan. Immediately following the implementation of standard enforcement, Michigan's belt use rate increased to 83.5%, 13.4 percentage points higher than the highest rate previously observed. One year after the change, safety belt use in Michigan was still nearly 10 percentage points greater than the highest observed rate before standard enforcement legislation was enacted. Results indicated that safety belt use decreased slightly in the year following the implementation of standard enforcement. This appears to be an overall trend across all observed groups, and not due to any single demographic category. The results also suggest that standard enforcement legislation appears to have a greater effect on groups with historically low belt use, such as young people, males, passengers, and Black/African-Americans. When compared with other states that have made the change from secondary to standard enforcement, the increase in the safety belt use rate in Michigan was comparable to the increase seen in states with relatively high safety belt use prior to standard enforcement. However, states that had low safety belt use rates prior to adopting standard enforcement legislation observed a larger percentage point increase in the year following their change to standard enforcement.

  12. The Effects of Nighttime Seat Belt Enforcement on Seat Belt Use by Tavern Patrons: A Preliminary Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Van Houten, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Nighttime seat belt use by patrons of 10 taverns in two Canadian cities increased following an intervention consisting of police enforcement and the use of signs and posters. Separate observations of daytime seat belt use noted an increase in one city and maintenance at a high level in the other. (JW)

  13. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic setting of sedimentary basins in the Sevier thrust belt and hinterland, eastern Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Suydam, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern Great Basin contains a sparse record of broadly distributed Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which record: evolution of intermontane basins during development of the Sevier (Sv)contractional orogen and incipient extensional collapse of the elevated Sv hinterland (east-central NV), and complex tectono-sedimentary interactions between frontal thrust belt structures and the western margin of the adjacent foreland basin. Palinspastic restoration of these strata and associated structures to pre-Tertiary extension positions reveals a clearer pictures of Cretaceous basin paleogeography and allows comparison with the Puna/Altiplano plateau and precordillera thrust belt of the Neogene Andean orogen. Two syntectonic stratal assemblages are present in east-central NV. Lower Cretaceous alluvial strata (Newark Canyon Fm) record basin development coeval with emergence of contractional structures in the Sv hinterland. Localized early Cretaceous basins were possibly piggyback immature; periods of open drainage to the to the east and south suggest connection with the nascent Sv foreland basin to the east (Cedar Mountain/Sanpete Fms) prior to major thrust loading in central Utah. Development of hinterland structures is almost recorded by Aptian-Albian foreland basin alluvial deposits in SW Utah (Dakota Fm) and southern Nevada (Willow Tank Fm). Upper Cretaceous to Eocene strata (Sheep Pass Fm) record inception of regionally abundant alluvial-lacustrine basins which developed in response to onset of latest Cretaceous extension and associated collapse of the Sv hinterland. Evolution of the structurally complex western margin of the Sv foreland basin is recorded in Cretaceous through Eocene strata deposited in: piggyback basins which were at times hydrologically connected to the adjacent foreland basins, and thrust-proximal portions of the foreland basin. These proximal areas are characterized by folding and faulting of basin fill and development of intrabasinal unconformities.

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  15. Plains tectonism on Venus: The deformation belts of Lavinia Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Jankowski, David G.; Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.; Hager, Bradford H.; Mcgill, George E.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution radar images from the Magellan spacecraft have revealed the first details of the morphology of the Lavinia Planitia region of Venus. A number of geologic units can be distinguished, including volcanic plains units with a range of ages. Transecting these plains over much of the Lavinia region are two types of generally orthogonal features that we interpret to be compressional wrinkle ridges and extensional grooves. The dominant tectonic features of Lavinia are broad elevated belts of intense deformation that transect the plains with complex geometry. They are many tens to a few hundred kilometers wide, as much as 1000 km long, and elevated hundreds of meters above the surrounding plains. Two classes of deformation belts are seen in the Lavinia region. 'Ridge belts' are composed of parallel ridges, each a few hundred meters in elevation, that we interpret to be folds. Typical fold spacings are 5-10 km. 'Fracture belts' are dominated instead by intense faulting, with faults in some instances paired to form narrow grabens. There is also some evidence for modest amounts of horizontal shear distributed across both ridge and fracture belts. Crosscutting relationships among the belts show there to be a range in belt ages. In western Lavinia, in particular, many ridge and fracture belts appear to bear a relationship to the much smaller wrinkle ridges and grooves on the surrounding plains: ridge morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains wrinkle ridges, and fracture morphology tends to dominate belts that lie more nearly parallel to local plains grooves. We use simple models to explore the formation of ridge and fracture belts. We show that convective motions in the mantle can couple to the crust to cause horizontal stresses of a magnitude sufficient to induce the formation of deformation belts like those observed in Lavinia. We also use the small-scale wavelengths of deformation observed within individual ridge belts to

  16. Herschel-Resolved Outer Belts of Two-Belt Debris Disks--Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Werner, Michael W.; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-12-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 57 main sequence stars (42 A-type and 15 solar-type) with previously known warm dust (Twarm ~200K) detected and characterized by Spitzer. About half of the star-disk systems in our sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures that mirror that of the asteroid-Kuiper belt geometry of our own solar system. The Herschel observations at 70 and/or 100 micron spatially resolve the cold/outer dust component for 18 two-belt debris systems (15 for the first time; 10 are also resolved at 160 micron), finding evidence of planetesimals at >100 AU, i.e. larger size than assumed from a simple blackbody fit to the SED. By breaking the degeneracy between the grain properties and the dust's radial location, the resolved images help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust's composition for each system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+MIPS (5 to 70 micron), the Herschel/PACS (70 and/or 100 and 160 micron) dataset, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that the majority of resolved cold/outer belts of star+disk systems are well fit with a mixed ice/rock composition, rather than pure rocky grains. In the absence of spectral features for ice, we find that the behavior of the continuum can help constrain the composition of the grains well (of icy nature and not pure rocky material) given the Herschel-resolved locations of the cold/outer dust belts. We have also begin to identify the presence of candidate companions via Keck direct imaging, which may be interacting with the observed dust.

  17. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.

    1980-01-01

    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  18. Spectroscopy of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Brown, Robert H.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent near-infrared spectroscopy of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs indicates considerable spectral diversity among them. Some have entirely bland spectra with no discernible spectral features (e.g., Chiron), while 5145 Pholus has a very active spectrum with absorption bands of H2O, CH3OH, and probably the mineral olivine present. In addition, the strong red color of Pholus indicates the presence of organic solids. Among the KBOs, 1993 SC has an active spectrum with the probably presence of hydrocarbons and possibly the ices of H2O and N2. The diversity among these spectra and the implications that such diversity has for models of the formation of the formation of the planets will be discussed.

  19. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  20. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  1. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  2. Magnetostratigraphic constraints on the development of paired fold-thrust belts/foreland basins in the Argentine Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.H. ); Damanti, J.F. ); Jordan, T.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Development of a paired fold thrust-thrust belt/foreland basin is correlated to the flattening of the subducting Nazca plate between 28-33{degree}S. Magnetostratigraphic studies in neogene basin-filling continental strata determine local basin subsidence rates and provide relatively precise chronostratigraphic correlation between different depositional environments. The data demonstrate that most existing lithostratigraphic units are diachronous and require new tectonic interpretations. Increases in sediment accumulation rates closely correspond to changes in provenance and indicate that the Frontal Cordillera, on the Chile-Argentina border was a positive topographic province by 18 Ma. The Precordillera evolved from {approx}16 Ma to the present as thrusting migrated from west to east. Published ages from intercalated airfall tuffs constrain some sedimentary sections in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas where the earliest uplift occurred since 10 Ma. The youngest uplifts are on the west side close to continuing thrusting in the Precordillera. Not all fold-thrust belt/foreland basin pairs are associated with flat subduction, suggesting that tectonic controls exceeding the scale of individual plate segments may be important. The hydrocarbon-producing Subandean fold-thrust belt/foreland basin, located in the area of 'steep' subduction that underlies northern Argentina and Bolivia (18-24{degree}S), is also believed to have evolved since middle Miocene time. Recently initiated magnetostratigraphic studies in the Subandean foreland basin will attempt to temporally constrain the Neogene tectonic evolution for comparison with the southern region.

  3. Ecological Speciation in Nolina parviflora (Asparagaceae): Lacking Spatial Connectivity along of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of ecological speciation states that as populations diverge in different niches, reproductive isolation evolves as a by-product of adaptation to these different environments. In this context, we used Nolina parviflora as a model to test if this species evolved via ecological speciation and to explore current and historical gene flow among its populations. Nolina parviflora is a montane species endemic to Mexico with its geographical distribution restricted largely to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This mountain range is one of the most complex geological regions in Mexico, having undergone volcanism from the mid-Miocene to the present. Ecologically, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt possesses different types of vegetation, including tropical dry forest; oak, pine, pine-oak, and pine-juniper forests; and xerophytic scrub - all of which maintain populations of N. parviflora. Using species distribution models, climatic analyses, spatial connectivity and morphological comparisons, we found significant differences in climatic and morphological variables between populations of N. parviflora in two distinct Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt regions (east vs. west). This could mean that the geographically isolated populations diverged from one another via niche divergence, indicating ecological speciation. Spatial connectivity analysis revealed no connectivity between these regions under the present or last glacial maximum climate models, indicating a lack of gene flow between the populations of the two regions. The results imply that these populations may encompass more than a single species. PMID:24905911

  4. Age and Sr isotopic composition of volcanic rocks in the Maricunga Belt, Chile: implications for magma sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Robinson, A.C.; Rybuta, J.J.; Cuitino, L.; Moscoso, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic rocks from the Maricunga belt of north-central Chile indicate that igneous activity took place throughout most of Miocene time at various places in the 150 by 30 km belt. No migration patterns of volcanism appear in the Miocene rocks of the belt. Volcanic activity ceased by the end of the Miocene. All the Miocene volcanic rocks studied are calcic andesites to dacites with about 62% SiO2, 18% A12O3, 4% Fe2O3 (total), and 2% K2O. Initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri) values fall into two groups, one of lower values around 0.7050 to the west and the other of higher values around 0.7060 to the east. It is postulated that the two Sri groups reflect two adjoining coherent lower-crustal magma sources of possibly different age and subtly different composition that form part of the western edge of the South American craton. ?? 1994.

  5. Ecological speciation in Nolina parviflora (Asparagaceae): lacking spatial connectivity along of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Specht, Chelsea D

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of ecological speciation states that as populations diverge in different niches, reproductive isolation evolves as a by-product of adaptation to these different environments. In this context, we used Nolina parviflora as a model to test if this species evolved via ecological speciation and to explore current and historical gene flow among its populations. Nolina parviflora is a montane species endemic to Mexico with its geographical distribution restricted largely to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This mountain range is one of the most complex geological regions in Mexico, having undergone volcanism from the mid-Miocene to the present. Ecologically, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt possesses different types of vegetation, including tropical dry forest; oak, pine, pine-oak, and pine-juniper forests; and xerophytic scrub--all of which maintain populations of N. parviflora. Using species distribution models, climatic analyses, spatial connectivity and morphological comparisons, we found significant differences in climatic and morphological variables between populations of N. parviflora in two distinct Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt regions (east vs. west). This could mean that the geographically isolated populations diverged from one another via niche divergence, indicating ecological speciation. Spatial connectivity analysis revealed no connectivity between these regions under the present or last glacial maximum climate models, indicating a lack of gene flow between the populations of the two regions. The results imply that these populations may encompass more than a single species.

  6. INCLINATION MIXING IN THE CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-20

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  7. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-19

    the employees of the Central Elections Office, and [made by senators]. It requires that [the time for or delegates from foreign representations...several other papers, such as the center for Central and East Europe. Moreover we are 23 March issue of HAROMSZEK, published in Sep- granting one-half...million to a joint venture on a modern siszentgyorgy [Sfintu Gheorghe]. system of payment. The Hungarian central bank has This is not the wish of a man

  8. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-22

    construction of a plant for caustic soda , chlorine, and chlorine products in our country with the participation of the USSR (with 80 percent of the...and Haldia (India), Karachi (Pakistan), Zarka (Jordan), and Banyas (Syria—one of the biggest refineries in the Middle East), the soda factory in...the ruins of princely manors offer an excellent motive for evoking glorious pages of the country’s history . We know that hundreds of thousands of

  9. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-14

    PRS-EER-90-020 14 FEBRUARY 1990,FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -’PRS Report- East Europe cc> REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...goals under the national anti-Albanian plot cultivated by Mr. Gorbachev and Mr. plan. The plan to "rotate managers" (reactivated in Bush at the Malta ...found under the appropriate municipalities are also valid for the various districts of date in the DEPARTMENT OF STATE BULLETIN. Bucharest Municipality

  10. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION ST&fmTWTX" Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited East Eur • • e A 99Ö06A 0152 REPRODUCED BY US DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...beneficial result. The appropriate superior state, departmental and public bodies must always assume the most active stance and use our alerts and...countries. One need only call to mind the meetings with representatives of Finland, France, Greece, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Canada, Malta , Austria

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 JDT[C QUAlITY !Il ED East Europe JPRS-EER-90-027 CONTENTS 5...34This is a letter from the Technical and communist oppression, the people in Czechoslovakia are Economic Department of the Railway here. They tell...committees having jurisdiction by 23 February. Parties police department has begun investigating the incident. may announce new candidates to replace

  12. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-11

    34- ••.•ad East Eur • if e REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA . 22161 ro DTIC QUALITY...county seat Szekszard; 17. Vas County, county seat Szombathely; 18. Veszprem County, county seat Veszprem; and 19. Zala County, county seat...27Aug90p5 [Article by Judit Hunyadi: "Hey Pal, That’s the Ukrai- nian Disease, Eat Chocolate; Orenburg, Where Is Your Truth?"] [Excerpts] We are at

  13. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD. VA , 22161 0 C." DTMC QUALMr M- 1 3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90-045 CONTENTS 4 APRIL 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC...Joint Venture in Banking Data Support Established [NEPSZA VA 30 Jan] ..................... 43 Commentary on Kornai’s ’Passionate Pamphlet’ [FIGYELO 1...yesterday by Bela [Report by Jozsef Kiss, Eva Kovacs, Judit Stefany, Beata Horvath, managing director of Unio Publishing House. Tari, and Istvan Janos Toth

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA . 22161 VEC QUA=Y rg=1𔄁BD -3 East Europe JPRS-EER-90...Reform’ [DUGA 14-27 Oct] ........................................... 38 SOCIAL HUNGARY Pensions To Be Boosted to Subsistence Level [NEPSZA VA 19 Dec...course of the year 25000575 Budapest NEPSZA VA in Hungarian compensations be adjusted consistent with actual con-19 Dec 89 pp 2-3 sumer price levels

  15. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    POLITYKA Weekly News Roundup [POLITYKA 4 AugJ 23 ECONOMIC INTRABLOC IMF Chief on East European Economic Changes [FIGYELO 5 Jul] 26...Aug] ■■■■■■■■■■■ 38 Price Guarantees Not Enough To Stabilize Food Market [ZIELONY SZTANDAR 22 Jul] 40 Farmers Subsidize Own Crops To Bring...revealed by the fact that the valuable experts started looking for work elsewhere. Those who left or are ready to leave will accomplish two things

  16. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    between the BCP CC and the central committee of their [the East German] party became strained. Todor Pavlov , who was at the time chief editor of...Socialist Unity Party of Germany] CC. DIE WELT came into the picture then. An article titled "Stalinist Pavlov Criticizes Young Bulgarian Philosophers...Marendic, Federal Secretary for Agriculture Stevo Mirkovic, Deputy and Assistant Fed- eral Secretaries for Internal Affairs Ivan Erak and Petar

  18. Oscillations control of a transmission belt by Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.

  19. Active Fault Mapping of Naga-Disang Thrust (Belt of Schuppen) for Assessing Future Earthquake Hazards in NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the geodynamic appraisal of Naga-Disang Thrust North East India. The Disang thrust extends NE-SW over a length of 480 km and it defines the eastern margin of Neogene basin. It branches out from Haflong-Naga thrust and in the NE at Bulbulia in the right bank of Noa Dihing River, it is terminated by Mishmi thrust, which extends into Myanmar as 'Sagaing fault,which dip generally towards SE. It extends between Dauki fault in the SW and Mishmi thrust in the NE. When the SW end of 'Belt of Schuppen' moved upwards and towards east along the Dauki fault, the NE end moved downwards and towards west along the Mishmi thrust, causing its 'S' shaped bending. The SRTM generated DEM is used to map the topographic expression of the schuppen belt, where these thrusts are significantly marked by topographic break. Satellite imagery map also shows presence lineaments supporting the post tectonic activities along Naga-Disang Thrusts. The southern part of 'Belt of Schuppen' extends along the sheared western limb of southerly plunging Kohima synform, a part of Indo Burma Ranges (IBR) and it is seismically active.The crustal velocity at SE of Schuppen is 39.90 mm/yr with a azimuth of 70.780 at Lumami, 38.84 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Senapati and 36.85 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Imphal. The crustal velocity at NW of Schuppen belt is 52.67 mm/yr (Azimuth 57.66) near Dhauki Fault in Meghalaya. It becomes 43.60 mm/yr (Azimuth76.50) - 44.25 (Azimuth 73.27) at Tiding and Kamlang Nagar around Mishmi thrust. The presence of Schuppen is marked by a change in high crustal velocity from Indian plate to low crustal velocity in Mishmi Suture as well as Indo Burma Ranges. The difference in crustal velocities results in building up of strain along the Schuppen which may trigger a large earthquake in the NE India in future. The belt of schuppean seems to be seismically active, however, the enough number of large earthquakes are not recorded. These observations are significant on Naga

  20. Oceanography of East Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface