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Sample records for easterly waves part

  1. Diagnosing GCM errors over West Africa using relaxation experiments. Part II: intraseasonal variability and African easterly waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Douville, Hervé

    2011-10-01

    A near-global grid-point nudging of the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model towards ECMWF reanalyses is used to diagnose the regional versus remote origin of the summer model biases and variability over West Africa. First part of this study revealed a limited impact on the monsoon climatology compared to a control experiment without nudging, but a significant improvement of interannual variability, although the amplitude of the seasonal anomalies remained underestimated. Focus is given here on intraseasonal variability of monsoon rainfall and dynamics. The reproducible part of these signals is investigated through 30-member ensemble experiments computed for the 1994 rainy season, a year abnormally wet over the Sahel but representative of the model systematic biases. In the control experiment, Arpege-Climat simulates too few rainy days that are associated with too low rainfall amounts over the central and western Sahel, in line with the seasonal dry biases. Nudging the model outside Africa tends to slightly increase the number of rainy days over the Sahel, but has little effect on associated rainfall amounts. However, results do indicate that a significant part of the monsoon intraseasonal variability simulated by Arpege-Climat is controlled by lateral boundary conditions. Parts of the wet/dry spells over the Sahel occur in phase in the 30 members of the nudging experiment, and are therefore embedded in larger-scale variability patterns. Inter-member spread is however not constant across the selected summer season. It is partly controlled by African Easterly Waves, which show dissimilar amplitude from one member to another, but a coherent phasing in all members. A lowpass filtering of the nudging fields suggests that low frequency variations in the lateral boundary conditions can lead to eastward extensions of the African Easterly Jet, creating a favorable environment for easterly waves, while high frequency perturbations seem to control their

  2. Analyzing the Multiscale Processes in Tropical Cyclone Genesis Associated with African Easterly Waves using the PEEMD. Part I: Downscaling Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Shen, B. W.; Cheung, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advance in high-resolution global hurricane simulations and visualizations have collectively suggested the importance of both downscaling and upscaling processes in the formation and intensification of TCs. To reveal multiscale processes from massive volume of global data for multiple years, a scalable Parallel Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (PEEMD) method has been developed for the analysis. In this study, the PEEMD is applied to analyzing 10-year (2004-2013) ERA-Interim global 0.750 resolution reanalysis data to explore the role of the downscaling processes in tropical cyclogenesis associated with African Easterly Waves (AEWs). Using the PEEMD, raw data are decomposed into oscillatory Intrinsic Function Modes (IMFs) that represent atmospheric systems of the various length scales and the trend mode that represents a non-oscillatory large scale environmental flow. Among oscillatory modes, results suggest that the third oscillatory mode (IMF3) is statistically correlated with the TC/AEW scale systems. Therefore, IMF3 and trend mode are analyzed in details. Our 10-year analysis shows that more than 50% of the AEW associated hurricanes reveal the association of storms' formation with the significant downscaling shear transfer from the larger-scale trend mode to the smaller scale IMF3. Future work will apply the PEEMD to the analysis of higher-resolution datasets to explore the role of the upscaling processes provided by the convection (or TC) in the development of the TC (or AEW). Figure caption: The tendency for horizontal wind shear for the total winds (black line), IMF3 (blue line), and trend mode (red line) and SLP (black dotted line) along the storm track of Helene (2006).

  3. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  4. Genesis of Pre-Hurricane Felix (2007). Part I: The Role of the Easterly Wave Critical Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    the boundary layer does not overcome the positive entropy flux from the ocean surface. As suggested by Montgomery et al. (2006), cold pools of...Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a high-resolution nested grid configuration that permits the representation of cloud system processes...from the jet level to the top of the atmospheric boundary layer. The region of a quasi-closed Lagrangian circulation within the wave pouch provides a

  5. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-08-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the

  6. Observed formation of easterly waves over northeast Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2018-06-01

    This study explores the thermodynamic and kinematic features of easterly waves over northeast Africa in July-September season 2005-2015. A daily African easterly wave (AEW) index is formulated from transient satellite rainfall and reanalysis vorticity, and the ten most intense cases are studied by composite analysis. Surface moisture is advected from central Africa towards the Red Sea during AEW formation. The anomalous 600 hPa wind circulation is comprized of a cyclonic-south anticyclonic-north rotor pair and accentuated easterly jet along 17N. Composite convection is initiated over Ethiopia and subsequently intensifies following interaction with a zonal circulation located downstream. Composite AEW temperature anomalies reveal a cool lower-warm upper layer heating profile. 2-8 day variance of satellite OLR reaches a maximum over the southern Arabian Peninsula, suggesting an upstream role for surface heating and the Somali Jet. The large scale environment is analyzed by regression of the AEW index onto daily fields of rainfall, surface air pressure and temperature in July-September season ( N = 1004). The rainfall regression reflects a westward propagating AEW wave-train of higher values on 13N and lower values on 7N with a longitude spacing of 25°. The air pressure and temperature regression features a N-S dipole indicating an anomalous northward ITCZ. A low pressure signal west of the Maritime Continent coupled with a warm zone across the South Indian Ocean coincides with AEW formation over the eastern Sahel.

  7. The relationship between African easterly waves and equatorial waves and the influence from the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methven, John; Guiying, Yang; Hodges, Kevin; Woolnough, Steve

    2017-04-01

    There is strong intraseasonal and interannual variability in African easterly waves (AEWs). AEWs are crucial to precipitation across West Africa, but also generate positive vorticity centres that sometimes develop into tropical storms which can in turn spin-up into hurricanes in the easterlies across the North Atlantic. In this paper we show that there are connections between African easterly waves (AEWs), equatorial Rossby (R1 and R2) waves and westward-moving mixed Rossby gravity (WMRG) waves and that the conditions for propagation of equatorial waves may have a major influence on AEW and hence tropical cyclone variability. Two analysis approaches are taken using ERA-Interim data from 1979-2010: i) positive vorticity centres within AEWs are tracked at 600 hPa over West Africa to the Atlantic region and ii) the re-analysis data is filtered using a broad frequency and zonal wavenumber band and the filtered meridional wind is projected onto the horizontal structure functions derived from equatorial wave theory. The tracked vorticity centres are part of AEWs and are found to move along with features in the meridional wind projecting onto R1 and R2 waves. In contrast, the structures projecting onto WMRG waves move westwards at a faster rate. The projection is calculated independently on each pressure level to create composite cross-sections of each wave mode in the zonal-height plane, shown relative to the 600 hPa vorticity centres. The R2 waves tilt in the sense necessary for baroclinic growth and amplify from east to west, indicating that R2 horizontal structure captures the baroclinic wave component of AEWs. The composites show that the R2 structures have a wavelength matching the spacing between vorticity centres, while R1 and WMRG waves are longer. Intriguingly, the WMRG component has very strong cross-equatorial flow immediately to the east of positive vorticity centres developing on the AEJ. Although the WMRG propagates faster to the west and gets ahead of the

  8. African Easterly Jet: Barotropic Instability, Waves, and Cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man-Li C; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Thorncroft, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structure of the African easterly jet, focusing on instability processes on a seasonal and subseasonal scale, with the goal of identifying features that could provide increased predictability of Atlantic tropical cyclogenesis. The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is used as the main investigating tool. MERRA is compared with other reanalyses datasets from major operational centers around the world and was found to describe very effectively the circulation over the African monsoon region. In particular, a comparison with precipitation datasets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project shows that MERRA realistically reproduces seasonal precipitation over that region. The verification of the generalized Kuo barotropic instability condition computed from seasonal means is found to have the interesting property of defining well the location where observed tropical storms are detected. This property does not appear to be an artifact of MERRA and is present also in the other adopted reanalysis datasets. Therefore, the fact that the areas where the mean flow is unstable seems to provide a more favorable environment for wave intensification, could be another factor to include-in addition to sea surface temperature, vertical shear, precipitation, the role of Saharan air, and others-among large-scale forcings affecting development and tropical cyclone frequency. In addition, two prominent modes of variability are found based on a spectral analysis that uses the Hilbert-Huang transform: a 2.5-6-day mode that corresponds well to the African easterly waves and also a 6-9-day mode that seems to be associated with tropical- extratropical interaction.

  9. Easterly wave activity and associated heavy rainfall during the pre-monsoon season of 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawaisarje, G. K.; Khare, Prakash; Chaudhari, Hemantkumar S.; Puviarasan, N.; Ranalkar, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Waves in easterlies are a tropical disturbance, which are moving from east to west or west-northwest (WNW). Over the Indian region, easterly waves occur mainly in winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. These easterly waves have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the associated heavy rainfall, lightning and thunder squalls. Influence of easterly waves is less explored during pre-monsoon season. It is seen that during years 2001-2015, a total of 80 cases of trough in easterlies were witnessed by southern peninsular India in the pre-monsoon season. The maxima occurred in March (43 cases), followed by April (25 cases) and May (12 cases). It is observed that the year 2005 witnessed the longest spell of easterly waves for 18 days during 24 March to 10 April 2005, which is quite unusual. The event has claimed a death toll of 55 people in the two states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, and heavy rains associated with this event damaged many houses and huts in Tamil Nadu. The unusual nature of the event has prompted us to undertake the study in details. In all, the event witnessed six systems as troughs in easterlies with their movement westwards from south Andaman Sea region to Lakshadweep and southeast Arabian Sea and Sri Lanka and adjoining Cape Comorin area. An attempt has been made to study the event of easterly waves during the year 2005 by exploring winds, temperature advection, vorticity, moisture convergence and potential instability. The causative reason is due to culmination of positive temperature advection, its multiple interactions with deep convective clouds and moisture incursion from anticyclonic flow close to eastern coast of south peninsular region of India. Observing the waves with the internal mechanism makes the study useful for operational forecasting and provides a better understanding of easterly waves.

  10. The Role of African Easterly Wave on Dust Transport and the Interaction Between Saharan Dust Layer and Atlantic ITCZ During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K-M

    2011-01-01

    Saharan dust outbreaks not only transport large amount of dust to the northern Atlantic Ocean, but also alter African easterly jet and wave activities along the jet by changing north-south temperature gradient. Recent modeling and observational studies show that during periods of enhance outbreaks, rainfall on the northern part of ITCZ increases in conjunction with a northward shift of ITCZ toward the dust layer. In this paper, we study the radiative forcing of Saharan dust and its interactions with the Atlantic Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), through African easterly waves (AEW), African easterly jet (AEJ), using the Terra/Aqua observations as well as MERRA data. Using band pass filtered EOF analysis, we find that African easterly waves propagating westward along two principal tracks, centered at 15-25N and 5-10N respectively. The easterly waves in the northern track are slower, with propagation speed of 9 ms-1, and highly correlated with major dust outbreak over North Africa. On the other hand, easterly waves along the southern track are faster with propagating speed of 10 ms-1, and are closely tied to rainfall/cloud variations along the Atlantic ITCZ. Dust transport along the southern track leads rainfall/cloud anomalies in the same region by one or two days, suggesting the southern tracks of dust outbreak are regions of strong interaction between Saharan dust layer and Atlantic ITCZ. Possible linkage between two tracks of easterly waves, as well as the long-term change of easterly wave activities and dust outbreaks, are also discussed.

  11. Hurricane genesis: on the breaking African easterly waves and critical layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaadi, Ali; Brunet, Gilbert; Yau, Peter

    2015-04-01

    This study bring new understanding on the decades-old hurricane genesis problem that starts with westward travelling African easterly waves that can evolve into coherent cyclonic vortices depending on their strength and other nonlinear wave breaking processes. In general, observations indicate that only a small fraction of the African easterly waves that occur in a single hurricane season contribute to tropical cyclogenesis. However, this small fraction includes a large portion of named storms. In addition, a recent study by Dunkerton et al. (2009) has shown that named storms in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins are almost all associated with a cyclonic Kelvin "cat's eye" of a tropical easterly wave typical of critical layers, located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. To better understand the dynamics involved in hurricane genesis, the flow characteristics and the physical and dynamical mechanisms by which easterly waves form cat's eyes are investigated with the help of atmospheric reanalyzes and numerical simulations. We perform a climatological study of developing easterly waves covering the 1998-2001 hurricane seasons using ERA-Interim 6-hourly reanalysis data. Composite analyses for all named storms show a monotonic potential vorticity (PV) profile with weak meridional PV gradient and a cyclonic (i.e., south of the easterly jet axis) critical line for time periods of several days preceding the cat's eye formation. In addition, the developing PV anomaly composite shows a statistically significant companion wave-packet of non-developing easterly waves. A barotropic shallow water model is used to study the initial value and forced problems of disturbances on a parabolic jet and realistic profiles associated with weak basic state meridional PV gradients, leading to Kelvin cat's eye formation around the jet axis. The results highlight the synergy of the dynamical mechanisms, including wave breaking and PV redistribution within the nonlinear critical layer

  12. On the Influence of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves on African Easterly waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorncroft, C. D.; Brammer, A.

    2015-12-01

    While Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves (CCKWs) are generally weaker in Boreal Summer than in Boreal Spring in the tropical West African region, previous reseach has shown that they can have a significant impact on African Easterly Waves (AEWs) in the West African and tropical Atlantic regions. This talk will highlight the significance of CCKWs in determining variability in AEW behaviour including how they impact: (i) Initiation of AEWs, (ii) Convection within existing AEWs and (iii) Development of favorable AEW structures for tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical Atlantic. Reanalysis and satellite datasets will be combined to shed light on these interactions from both a climatological and a case-study perspective. A major conclusion from this work is the strong recognition that forecasters in the region should be closely monitoring the propagation of CCKWs into the region and that medium-range weather prediction efforts in the tropics should be paying close attention to the fidelity of models to represent CCKWs.

  13. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  14. African Easterly Waves and Their Association with Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guo-Jun; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Curtis, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Summer tropical synoptic-scale waves over West Africa are quantified by the 850 mb meridional wind component from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project. Their relationships with surface precipitation patterns are further explored by applying the data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in combination with other satellite observations during 1998-2002. Evident wavelet spectral power peaks are seen within a period of 2.5 - 6 days in both meridional wind and precipitation. The most intense wave signals in meridional wind are concentrated along 15 deg N- 25 deg N. Wave signals in precipitation and corresponding wavelet cross-spectral signals between these two variables, however, are primarily located at 5 deg N- 15 deg N, the latitudes of major summer rain events. There is a tendency for the perturbations in meridional wind component to lag (lead) precipitation signals south (north) of 15 deg N. In some cases, either an in-phase or out-of-phase relationship can even be found between these two variables, suggesting a latitude-dependent horizontal structure for these waves and probably implying two distinct wave-convective coupling mechanisms. Moreover, the lagging relationship (and/or the out-of-phase tendency) is only observed south of 15 deg N during July-September, indicating a strong seasonal preference. This phase relationship is generally consistent with the horizontal wave structures from a composite analysis.

  15. Reduced African Easterly Wave Activity with Quadrupled CO 2 in the Superparameterized CESM

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, Walter M.; Aiyyer, Anantha

    African easterly wave (AEW) activity is examined in quadrupled CO 2 experiments with the superparameterized CESM (SP-CESM). The variance of 2–10-day filtered precipitation increases with warming over the West African monsoon region, suggesting increased AEW activity. The perturbation enstrophy budget is used to investigate the dynamic signature of AEW activity. The northern wave track becomes more active associated with enhanced baroclinicity, consistent with previous studies. The southern track exhibits a surprising reduction of wave activity associated with less frequent occurrence of weak waves and a slight increase in the occurrence of strong waves. These changes are connected to changes inmore » the profile of vortex stretching and tilting that can be understood as interconnected consequences of increased static stability from the lapse rate response, weak temperature gradient balance, and the fixed anvil temperature hypothesis.« less

  16. Reduced African Easterly Wave Activity with Quadrupled CO 2 in the Superparameterized CESM

    DOE PAGES

    Hannah, Walter M.; Aiyyer, Anantha

    2017-10-01

    African easterly wave (AEW) activity is examined in quadrupled CO 2 experiments with the superparameterized CESM (SP-CESM). The variance of 2–10-day filtered precipitation increases with warming over the West African monsoon region, suggesting increased AEW activity. The perturbation enstrophy budget is used to investigate the dynamic signature of AEW activity. The northern wave track becomes more active associated with enhanced baroclinicity, consistent with previous studies. The southern track exhibits a surprising reduction of wave activity associated with less frequent occurrence of weak waves and a slight increase in the occurrence of strong waves. These changes are connected to changes inmore » the profile of vortex stretching and tilting that can be understood as interconnected consequences of increased static stability from the lapse rate response, weak temperature gradient balance, and the fixed anvil temperature hypothesis.« less

  17. Convection and Easterly Wave Structure Observed in the Eastern Pacific Warm-Pool during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Walter A.; Cifelli, R.; Boccippio, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During September-October 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001) ITCZ field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the warm-pool region of the East Pacific. In addition to the TAO mooring array, observational platforms deployed during the field phase included the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, the NSF ship RN Horizon, and the NOAA P-3 and NCAR C-130 aircraft. This study combines C-band Doppler radar, rawinsonde, and surface heat flux data collected aboard the RN Brown to describe ITCZ convective structure and rainfall statistics in the eastern Pacific as a function of 3-5 day easterly wave phase. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC-2001. Wind and thermodynamic data reveal that the wave trough axes exhibited positively correlated U and V winds and a slight westward phase tilt with height. A relatively strong (weak) northeasterly deep tropospheric shear followed the trough (ridge) axis. Temperature and humidity perturbations exhibited mid-to upper level cooling (warming) and drying (moistening) in the northerly (trough and southerly) phase. At low levels warming (cooling) occurred in the northerly (southerly) phase with little change in the relative humidity, though mixed layer mixing ratios were larger during the northerly phase. When composited, radar, sounding, lightning and surface heat flux observations suggest the following systematic behavior as a function of wave phase: approximately zero to one quarter wavelength ahead of (behind) the wave trough in northerly (southerly) flow, larger (smaller) CAPE, lower (higher) CIN, weaker (stronger) tropospheric shear, higher (lower) conditional mean rain rates, higher (lower) lightning flash densities, and more (less) robust convective vertical structure occurred. Latent and sensible heat fluxes reached a minimum in the northerly phase and then increased through the trough, reaching a peak during the ridge phase

  18. Modeling North Atlantic Nor'easters With Modern Wave Forecast Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrie, Will; Toulany, Bechara; Roland, Aron; Dutour-Sikiric, Mathieu; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Qi, Jianhua; Hu, Yongcun; Casey, Michael P.; Shen, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Three state-of-the-art operational wave forecast model systems are implemented on fine-resolution grids for the Northwest Atlantic. These models are: (1) a composite model system consisting of SWAN implemented within WAVEWATCHIII® (the latter is hereafter, WW3) on a nested system of traditional structured grids, (2) an unstructured grid finite-volume wave model denoted "SWAVE," using SWAN physics, and (3) an unstructured grid finite element wind wave model denoted as "WWM" (for "wind wave model") which uses WW3 physics. Models are implemented on grid systems that include relatively large domains to capture the wave energy generated by the storms, as well as including fine-resolution nearshore regions of the southern Gulf of Maine with resolution on the scale of 25 m to simulate areas where inundation and coastal damage have occurred, due to the storms. Storm cases include three intense midlatitude cases: a spring Nor'easter storm in May 2005, the Patriot's Day storm in 2007, and the Boxing Day storm in 2010. Although these wave model systems have comparable overall properties in terms of their performance and skill, it is found that there are differences. Models that use more advanced physics, as presented in recent versions of WW3, tuned to regional characteristics, as in the Gulf of Maine and the Northwest Atlantic, can give enhanced results.

  19. Intraseasonal variability of the West African monsoon and African easterly waves during boreal summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaka, Ghassan J., Jr.

    Substantial subseasonal variability in African easterly wave (AEW) activity and cyclogenesis frequency occurs in the main hurricane development region of the Atlantic during boreal summer. A complete understanding of intraseasonal variability in the Atlantic and west Africa during boreal summer requires analysis of how the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) modulates the west African monsoon and consequently AEWs. Because the MJO is predictable a few weeks in advance, understanding how and why the MJO impacts the west African monsoon may have a profound influence on Atlantic tropical cyclone prediction. This study documents the MJO influence on the west African monsoon system during boreal summer using a variety of reanalysis and satellite datasets. This study aims to identify and explain the MJO teleconnection to the west African monsoon, and the processes that induce precipitation and AEW variability in this region. Intraseasonal west African and Atlantic convective anomalies on 30-90 day timescales are likely induced by equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves generated in the Indian Ocean and west Pacific by the MJO. Previous studies have hypothesized that an area including the Darfur mountains and the Ethiopian highlands is an initiation region for AEWs. It is shown here that the initial MJO influence on precipitation and AEW activity in the African monsoon appears to occur in these regions, where eddy kinetic energy (EKE) anomalies first appear in advance of MJO-induced periods of enhanced and suppressed AEW activity. In the initiation region, upper tropospheric temperature anomalies are reduced, the atmosphere moistens by horizontal advection, and an eastward extension of the African easterly jet occurs in advance of the MJO wet phase of the African monsoon, when AEW activity is also enhanced. These factors all support strong precursor disturbances in the initiation region that seed the African easterly jet and contribute to downstream development of AEWs. Opposite

  20. LASE Observations of Interactions Between African Easterly Waves and the Saharan Air Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Ferrare, Richard; Browell, Edward; Kooi, Susan; Biswas, Mrinal; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Notari, Anthony; Heymsfield, Andrew; Butler, Carolyn; Burton, Sharon; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) participated in the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) field experiment in 2006 that was conducted from Sal, Cape Verde to study the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) and its influence on the African Easterly Waves (AEWs) and Tropical Cyclones (TCs). During NAMMA, LASE collected simultaneous water vapor and aerosol lidar measurements from 14 flights onboard the NASA DC- 8. In this paper we present three examples of the interaction of the SAL and AEWs regarding: moistening of the SAL and transfer of latent heat; injection of dust in an updraft; and influence of dry air intrusion on an AEW. A brief discussion is also given on activities related to the refurbishment of LASE to enhance its operational performance and plans to participate in the next NASA hurricane field experiment in the summer of 2010.

  1. Origin of the pre-tropical storm Debby (2006) African easterly wave-mesoscale convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Liu, Liping; Tang, Guoqing; Spinks, James; Jones, Wilson

    2013-05-01

    The origins of the pre-Debby (2006) mesoscale convective system (MCS) and African easterly wave (AEW) and their precursors were traced back to the southwest Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains (AS), and Ethiopian Highlands (EH) in the vicinity of the ITCZ using satellite imagery, GFS analysis data and ARW model. The sources of the convective cloud clusters and vorticity perturbations were attributed to the cyclonic convergence of northeasterly Shamal wind and the Somali jet, especially when the Mediterranean High shifted toward east and the Indian Ocean high strengthened and its associated Somali jet penetrated farther to the north. The cyclonic vorticity perturbations were strengthened by the vorticity stretching associated with convective cloud clusters in the genesis region—southwest Arabian Peninsula. A conceptual model was proposed to explain the genesis of convective cloud clusters and cyclonic vorticity perturbations preceding the pre-Debby (2006) AEW-MCS system.

  2. Short-term Climate Simulations of African Easterly Waves with a Global Mesoscale Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Recent high-resolution global model simulations ( Shen et al., 2010a, 2010b, 2012; 2013), which were conducted to examine the role of multiscale processes associated with tropical waves in the predictability of mesoscale tropical cyclones (TCs), suggested that a large-scale system (e.g., tropical waves) can provide determinism on the prediction of TC genesis, making it possible to extend the lead time of genesis predictions. Selected cases include the relationship between (i) TC Nargis (2008) and an Equatorial Rossby wave; (ii) Hurricane Helene (2006) and an intensifying African Easterly Wave (AEW); (iii) Twin TCs (2002) and a mixed Rossby-gravity wave during an active phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO); (iv) Hurricane Sandy (2012) and tropical waves during an active phase of the MJO. In this talk, thirty-day simulations with different model configurations are presented to examine the model's ability to simulate AEWs and MJOs and their association with tropical cyclogenesis. I will first discuss the simulations of the initiation and propagation of 6 consecutive AEWs in late August 2006 and the mean state of the African easterly jet (AEJ) over both Africa and downstream in the tropical Atlantic. By comparing our simulations with NCEP analysis and satellite data (e.g., TRMM), it is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and th AEWs. Results from the sensitivity experiments suggest the following: 1) accurate representations of non-linear interactions between the atmosphere and land processes are crucial for improving the simulations of the AEWs and the AEJ; 2) improved simulations of an individual AEW and its interaction with local environments (e.g., the Guinea Highlands) could provide determinism for hurricane formation downstream. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is

  3. The Role of African Easterly Wave on Dust Transport and the Interaction Between Saharan Dust Layer and Atlantic ITCZ During Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships among Saharan dust outbreak and transport, African easterly waves (AEW), African easterly jet (AEJ) and associated convective activities of Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) using Cloudsat-Calipso, MODIS and MERRA data. We find that a major Saharan dust outbreak is associated with the formation of a westward propagating strong cyclone around 15-25N over the western part northern Saharan. The strong cyclonic flow mobilizes and lifts the dust from the desert surface to a high elevation. As the cyclone propagate westward, it transports a thick elevated dust layer between 900 -500 hPa from the African continent to the eastern Atlantic. Cloudiness is reduced within the warm, dry dusty layer, but enhanced underneath it, possibly due to the presence of a shallow inversion layer over the marine boundary layer. The dust outbreak is linked to enhanced deep convection in the northern part of Atlantic ITCZ, abutting the southern flank of the dust layer, and a strengthening of the northward flank of the AEJ. As the dust layer spreads westward, it loses elevation and becomes increasing diffused as it reaches the central and western Atlantic. Using band pass filtered EOF analysis of MERRA winds, we find that AEWs propagating westward along two principal tracks, centered at 15-25N and 5-10N respectively. The easterly waves in the northern track are highly correlated with major dust outbreak over North Africa and associated with slower moving systems, with a quasi-periodicity of 6-9 day. On the other hand, easterly waves along the southern track are faster, with quasi-periodicity of 3-5 days. These faster easterly waves are closely tied to rainfall/cloud variations along the Atlantic ITCZ. Dust transport along the southern track by the faster waves generally leads rainfall/cloud anomalies in the same region by one or two days, suggesting the southern tracks of dust outbreak are regions of strong interaction between

  4. Influence of the Madden-Julian oscillation and Caribbean low-level jet on east Pacific easterly waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, E. D.; Whitaker, J.

    2017-12-01

    The east Pacific warm pool in which easterly waves (EWs) exist exhibits basic state variability associated with the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and Caribbean low-level jet (CLLJ). This study compares and contrasts composite changes in the background environment, eddy kinetic energy EKE budget, moisture budget, and EW tracks during MJO and CLLJ events. While previous studies have shown that the MJO influences jet activity in the east Pacific, the influence of the MJO and CLLJ on EWs is not synonymous. The MJO has a more extensive influence in the main EW path along the Central American coast, while the CLLJ is a stronger modulator of the ITCZ. Anomalous low-level westerly MJO and CLLJ periods are associated with favorable conditions for EW development along the main EW path, although the impact of the MJO is more extensive. Easterly MJO and CLLJ periods support enhanced EW development along the ITCZ, although the CLLJ is a greater modulator of EW tracks in this region, likely associated with basic state changes that favor convection and its influence on the EKE budget. EW growth in the ITCZ during easterly MJO periods is more reliant on barotropic conversion as an energy source than for strong CLLJ period waves, when EAPE to EKE conversion associated with ITCZ convection is more important. A moisture budget analysis for ITCZ waves shows that strong CLLJ period waves have stronger horizontal advection in front of the wave axis relative to easterly MJO periods waves. These differences in horizontal advection are interpreted in the context of a linearized horizontal advection budget. The results highlight that the influence of these phenomena on east Pacific EWs should be considered distinct.

  5. The Response of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones to Suppression of African Easterly Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patricola, Christina M.; Saravanan, R.; Chang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) genesis is strongly linked with African easterly waves (AEWs) on the synoptic time scale. However, the TC-AEW relationship is unclear on interannual to climate time scales, and it is unknown whether AEWs are necessary to maintain climatological TC frequency, that is, whether TCs are limited by AEWs. We investigated the impact of AEW suppression on seasonal Atlantic TC activity using a 10-member ensemble of regional climate model simulations in which AEWs were either prescribed or removed through the lateral boundary condition. The climate model experiments produced no significant change in seasonal Atlantic TC number, indicating that AEWs are not necessary to maintain climatological basin-wide TC frequency even though TCs readily originate from these types of disturbances. This suggests that the specific type of "seedling" disturbance is unimportant for determining basin-wide seasonal Atlantic TC number and that in the absence of AEWs, TCs will generate by other mechanisms. The results imply that changes in the presence of AEWs may not be reliable predictors of seasonal variability and future change in Atlantic TC frequency.

  6. Electrically-Active Convection in Tropical Easterly Waves and Implications for Tropical Cyclogenesis in the Atlantic and East Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leppert, Kenneth D., II; Petersen, Walter A.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the characteristics of tropical easterly wave convection and the possible implications of convective structure on tropical cyclogenesis and intensification over the Atlantic Ocean and East Pacific using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar (PR), and Lightning Imaging Sensor as well as infrared (IR) brightness temperature data from the NASA global-merged IR brightness temperature dataset. Easterly waves were partitioned into northerly, southerly, trough, and ridge phases based on the 700-hPa meridional wind from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis dataset. Waves were subsequently divided according to whether they did or did not develop tropical cyclones (i.e., developing and nondeveloping, respectively), and developing waves were further subdivided according to development location. Finally, composites as a function of wave phase and category were created using the various datasets. Results suggest that the convective characteristics that best distinguish developing from nondeveloping waves vary according to where developing waves spawn tropical cyclones. For waves that developed a cyclone in the Atlantic basin, coverage by IR brightness temperatures .240 K and .210 K provide the best distinction between developing and nondeveloping waves. In contrast, several variables provide a significant distinction between nondeveloping waves and waves that develop cyclones over the East Pacific as these waves near their genesis location including IR threshold coverage, lightning flash rates, and low-level (<4.5 km) PR reflectivity. Results of this study may be used to help develop thresholds to better distinguish developing from nondeveloping waves and serve as another aid for tropical cyclogenesis forecasting.

  7. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  8. Effects of Saharan Mineral Dust Aerosols on the Dynamics of an Idealized African Easterly Jet-African Easterly Wave System over North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Dustin Francis Phillip

    The central objective of this work is to examine the direct radiative effects of Saharan mineral dust aerosols on the dynamics of African easterly waves (AEWs) and the African easterly jet (AEJ). Achieving this objective is built around two tasks that use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled to an online dust model (WRF-dust model). The first task (Chapter 2) examines the linear dynamics of AEWs; the second task (Chapter 3) examines the nonlinear evolution of AEWs and their interactions with the AEJ. In Chapter 2, the direct radiative effects of dust on the linear dynamics of AEWs are examined analytically and numerically. The analytical analysis combines the thermodynamic equation with a dust continuity equation to form an expression for the generation of eddy available potential energy (APE) by the dust field. The generation of eddy APE is a function of the transmissivity and spatial gradients of the dust, which are modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency. The expression predicts that for a fixed dust distribution, the wave response will be largest in regions where the dust gradients are maximized and the Doppler-shifted frequency vanishes. The numerical analysis calculates the linear dynamics of AEWs using zonally averaged basic states for wind, temperature and dust consistent with summertime conditions over North Africa. For the fastest growing AEW, the dust increases the growth rate from ~15% to 90% for aerosol optical depths ranging from tau=1.0 to tau=2.5. A local energetics analysis shows that for tau=1.0, the dust increases the maximum barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions by ~50% and ~100%, respectively. The maxima in the generation of APE and conversions of energy are co-located and occur where the meridional dust gradient is maximized near the critical layer, i.e., where the Doppler-shifted frequency is small, in agreement with the prediction from the analytical analysis. In Chapter 3, the direct radiative effects of dust

  9. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Wave in Late Summer, 2003-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African Easterly Waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximum tropical cyclone activity, in years 2003-2007. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, most AEWs intensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. We conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

  10. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong

    2012-12-19

    Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximumtropical cyclone activity, in years 2003–07. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, mostAEWsintensify inmore » the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. The authors conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.« less

  11. Mantle Flow Implications across Easter and Southern Africa from Shear Wave Splitting Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; van der Meijde, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new shear wave splitting results from broadband seismic stations in Botswana and Namibia, and combine them with previous results from stations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola to further examine the pattern of seismic anisotropy across southern Africa. The new results come from stations in northern Namibia and Botswana, which help to fill in large gaps in data coverage. Our preliminary results show that fast polarization directions overall trend in a NE orientation. The most noticeable measurements that deviate from this pattern are located around the Archean Tanzania Craton in eastern Africa. The general NE pattern of fast polarization directions is attributed to mantle flow linked to the African superplume. Smaller scale variations from this general direction can be explained by shape anisotropy in the lithosphere in magmatic regions in the East African rift system and to fossil anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere.

  12. Applying the recurrence quantification analysis method for analyzing the recurrence of simulated multiple African easterly waves in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, T.; Shen, B. W.; Wu, Y.; Faghih-Naini, S.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    In late August, 2006, six African easterly waves (AEWs) appeared sequentially over the African continent during a 30-day period. With a global model of 1/4 degree resolution, statistics of these AEWs were realistically captured. More interestingly, the formation, subsequent intensification, and movement of Hurricane Helene (2006) were simulated to a degree of satisfaction during the model integration from Day 22 to 30 (Shen et al., 2010). We then developed a parallel ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (PEEMD; Shen et al. 2012; 2017; Cheung et al. 2013) to reveal the role of downscaling processes associated with the environmental flows in determining the timing and location of Helene's formation (Wu and Shen, 2016), supporting its practical predictability at extended-range time scales. Recently, further analysis of the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the simulated temperature and reanalysis data showed that CCs are above 0.65 during the 30 day simulations but display oscillations. While high CCs are consistent with the accurate simulations of the AEWs and Hurricane Helene, oscillations may indicate the inaccurate simulations of moving speeds (i.e., an inaccurate phase) as compared to observations. The observed AEWs have comparable but slightly different periods. To quantitatively examine this space-varying feature in observations and the temporal oscillations in the CCs of the simulations, we select recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) methods and the recurrence plot (RP) in order to account for the local nature of these features. A recurrence is defined when the trajectory returns back to the neighborhood of a previously visited state. With the RQA methods, we can compute the "recurrence rate" and "determinism" present in the RP in order to reveal the degree of recurrence and determinism (or "predictability") of the recurrent solutions. To verify of our implementations in Python, we applied our methods to analyze idealized solutions (e

  13. Modulation of equatorial Pacific westerly/easterly wind events by the Madden-Julian oscillation and convectively-coupled Rossby waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puy, Martin; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Guilyardi, E.

    2016-04-01

    Synoptic wind events in the equatorial Pacific strongly influence the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution. This paper characterizes the spatio-temporal distribution of Easterly (EWEs) and Westerly Wind Events (WWEs) and quantifies their relationship with intraseasonal and interannual large-scale climate variability. We unambiguously demonstrate that the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Convectively-coupled Rossby Waves (CRW) modulate both WWEs and EWEs occurrence probability. 86 % of WWEs occur within convective MJO and/or CRW phases and 83 % of EWEs occur within the suppressed phase of MJO and/or CRW. 41 % of WWEs and 26 % of EWEs are in particular associated with the combined occurrence of a CRW/MJO, far more than what would be expected from a random distribution (3 %). Wind events embedded within MJO phases also have a stronger impact on the ocean, due to a tendency to have a larger amplitude, zonal extent and longer duration. These findings are robust irrespective of the wind events and MJO/CRW detection methods. While WWEs and EWEs behave rather symmetrically with respect to MJO/CRW activity, the impact of ENSO on wind events is asymmetrical. The WWEs occurrence probability indeed increases when the warm pool is displaced eastward during El Niño events, an increase that can partly be related to interannual modulation of the MJO/CRW activity in the western Pacific. On the other hand, the EWEs modulation by ENSO is less robust, and strongly depends on the wind event detection method. The consequences of these results for ENSO predictability are discussed.

  14. Burns during Easter festivities in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pallantzas, A; Kourakos, P; Stampolidis, N; Papagianni, E; Balagoura, A; Stathopoulos, A; Polizoi, A; Emvalomata, A; Evaggelopoulou, M; Castana, O

    2012-12-31

    Easter is the most important holiday for the Greek Church. It is rich in traditions and rituals but during the Greek Easter festivities, especially at midnight Mass on Easter Saturday night, it is customary to throw fireworks around. These fireworks are not part of the true Easter tradition and they are potentially fatal. Unfortunately, in the past few years, the custom has become more and more popular in Greece. There are some local variations, mainly in the Aegean islands, where homemade rockets are used to have a "rocket war". The rockets consist of wooden sticks loaded with an explosive mixture containing gunpowder and launched from special platforms. Many severe injuries involving loss of sight and limbs as well as major burns are also caused by the use of illegal fireworks at Easter. Every year numerous burn victims are hospitalized. The most affected areas are the face, the upper extremities, and the chest, often in association with slight or severe wounds and injuries. This study presents our department's experience with incidents due to the use of fireworks during Easter festivities.

  15. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  16. Easter School Guidance. The National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This booklet explains the goals of Easter Schools, part of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. Easter Schools should be planned to cover four half-days and include four literacy and four mathematics lessons each covering the equivalent of at least an hour. The booklet addresses the following issues: why funding has been made…

  17. Easter microplate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, M. C.; Searle, R. C.; Bott, M. H. P.

    2003-04-01

    We use two-dimensional elastic finite element analysis, supplemented by strength estimates, to investigate the driving mechanism of the Easter microplate. Modeled stresses are compared with the stress indicators compiled from earthquake focal mechanisms and structural observations. The objective is to constrain the tectonic forces that govern the Easter microplate rotation and to test the microplate driving hypothesis proposed by [1993]. We infer that the mantle basal drag cannot drive the microplate rotation but opposes it, and that the asthenospheric viscosity is no more than about 1 × 1018 Pa s. At most, the basal drag comprises 20% of the force resisting microplate rotation. The outward pull of the main plates can drive the rotation by shear drag applied along the northern and southern boundaries of the microplate. However, we propose an additional driving force which arises from the strong variation of the ridge resistance force along the east and west rifts, so that the main driving torques come from the pull of the major plates acting across the narrowing and slowing rifts. This requires the strength to increase substantially toward the rift tips due to thickening of the brittle lithosphere as the spreading rate slows.

  18. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  19. Effects of isolation and fishing on the marine ecosystems of Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Beets, Jim; Berkenpas, Eric; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Gorny, Matthias; Sala, Enric

    2013-01-01

    1. An expedition to Salas y Gómez and Easter islands was conducted to develop a comprehensive baseline of the nearshore marine ecosystem, to survey seamounts of the recently created Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (MMHMP) – a no-take marine reserve of 150 000 km2 – and to compare these results with Easter Island where the marine ecosystem is similar but has no marine protection. 2. Live coral cover was surprisingly high at both Easter Island (53%) and Salas y Gómez (44%), especially considering their sub-tropical location, high wave energy environments, and geographic isolation. 3. Endemic and regionally-endemic species comprised 77% of the fish abundance at Easter Island and 73% at Salas y Gómez. Fish biomass at Salas y Gómez was relatively high (1.2 t ha-1) and included a large proportion of apex predators (43%), whereas at Easter Island it was almost three times lower (0.45 t ha-1) with large predators accounting for less than 2% of the biomass, despite good habitat quality. 4. The large cohort of small sharks and the absence of larger sharks at Salas y Gómez suggest mesopredator release consistent with recent shark fishing. The fish fauna at the seamounts between Easter Island and Salas y Gómez, outside of MMHMP, harboured 46% endemic species, including a new species of damselfish (Chromis sp. nov.) and probably a new species of Chimaera (Hydrolagus). Numerous seamounts adjacent to Salas y Gómez are currently not included in the MMHMP. 5. This expedition highlights the high biodiversity value of this remote part of the Pacific owing to the uniqueness (endemicity) of the fauna, large apex predator biomass, and geographic isolation.

  20. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1995-01-01

    A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner bearing diameter of the non-rotating bearing side and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of an applied stationary side load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

  1. Supplemental Material for: Examining the Roles of the Easterly Wave Critical Layer and Vorticity Accretion During the Tropical Cyclogenesis of Hurricane Sandy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    equatorial waves, and extratropical intrusions. When convection is phase-locked to the underlying dynamic structure to such an extent that this...classification evidently guarantees (in all but a few instances) subsequent growth to a named tropical storm . It is not only the statistical narrowness of the...representing numerical simulations that moist vortical updrafts are the essential building blocks of the tropical storm within the rotating proto-vortex. These

  2. Laboratory Investigation of Wave Breaking. Part 2. Deep Water Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    respectively, phase velocity is given implicitly by: C3 = [ + (f )2] ( Levi - Civita , 1925) (2a)C3 CS = F (1 + (c_-_)2 + (fH)4 (Beach Erosion Board, 1941...In view of the above, one is led to wonder why almost all wave- 4 oriented research within the past two decades has been directed towards wave growth...mechanisms, as opposed to wave breaking. There seem to be ’’ at least two reasors. Wave breaking--aidefined by turbulent energy loss- -is a non

  3. Herbert Easterly auxiliary truck heater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The objective of this work was to continue the development of the Herbert Easterly heater apparatus for vehicles, such as semi-trailer tractors in order to fully establish its technical feasibility and provide the basis for its commercialization. This heater is auxiliary to the vehicle's primary heating system. With the engine off it heats both the vehicle engine to a temperature at which it starts easily and the vehicle passenger compartment. Specifically, this heater is automatically ignitable, operates directly from the vehicle diesel fuel supply and preheats the vehicle engine fuel prior to combustion. During the course of this work ninemore » different versions of prototype heaters were designed, constructed and tested. All designs were based on the ideas and principles outlined in the Easterly patent. Each successive version incorporated design and fabrication improvements relative to the previous version. The final version, Prototype 9, utilized a multiple water jacket design to capture additional heat from the combustion gases prior to exhausting to the atmosphere. This final prototype exceeded the performance of a commercially available Webasto DBW-2010 using the same commercial burner as the one used in the Webasto unit. The time required to raise the heater fluid temperature by 120{degree}F was 23% less (20 minutes compared to 26 minutes) for Prototype 9 compared to the commercially available unit. In addition a prototype heat exchanger for preheating engine fuel was designed, fabricated and tested. It was also determined that the Prototype 9 auxiliary heater could operate at 85{degree}F for approximately 6 hours on a fully charged 12 volt marine battery rated to deliver 500 cold cranking amps.« less

  4. National assessment of nor’easter-induced coastal erosion hazards: mid- and northeast Atlantic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birchler, Justin J.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.

    2015-09-21

    Extreme coastal changes caused by hurricanes or nor’easters may increase the vulnerability of communities both during a storm and to future storms. For example, when sand dunes are substantially eroded, inland structures are exposed to storm surge and waves. On barrier islands, absent or low dunes allow water to flow inland across the island.

  5. William Crabtree and the date of Easter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, D.

    2014-04-01

    A previously unknown treatise by William Crabtree (c.1603-c.1644) has recently been unearthed in the Lancashire Record Office. The treatise, in manuscript form and written in 1640, deals with the controversy over the long-term impact of the Julian Calendar - then in use in England - upon the ecclesiastical dating of Easter. By Crabtree's time, the timing of the Easter celebration in England was often several weeks adrift of the intentions of the early Church Fathers. The Gregorian Calendar, which Roman Catholic countries had adopted as long ago as 1582 in order to resolve the problem, was still vehemently resisted by the English state. This is possibly the only surviving manuscript in Crabtree's own hand. In it, he displays noteworthy dispassionate objectivity as he outlines the astronomical basis for the Easter date and explains why it has gone awry.

  6. The Sensitivity of WRF Daily Summertime Simulations over West Africa to Alternative Parameterizations. Part 1: African Wave Circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Erik; Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) as a West African regional-atmospheric model is evaluated. The study tests the sensitivity of WRF-simulated vorticity maxima associated with African easterly waves to 64 combinations of alternative parameterizations in a series of simulations in September. In all, 104 simulations of 12-day duration during 11 consecutive years are examined. The 64 combinations combine WRF parameterizations of cumulus convection, radiation transfer, surface hydrology, and PBL physics. Simulated daily and mean circulation results are validated against NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and NCEP/Department of Energy Global Reanalysis 2. Precipitation is considered in a second part of this two-part paper. A wide range of 700-hPa vorticity validation scores demonstrates the influence of alternative parameterizations. The best WRF performers achieve correlations against reanalysis of 0.40-0.60 and realistic amplitudes of spatiotemporal variability for the 2006 focus year while a parallel-benchmark simulation by the NASA Regional Model-3 (RM3) achieves higher correlations, but less realistic spatiotemporal variability. The largest favorable impact on WRF-vorticity validation is achieved by selecting the Grell-Devenyi cumulus convection scheme, resulting in higher correlations against reanalysis than simulations using the Kain-Fritch convection. Other parameterizations have less-obvious impact, although WRF configurations incorporating one surface model and PBL scheme consistently performed poorly. A comparison of reanalysis circulation against two NASA radiosonde stations confirms that both reanalyses represent observations well enough to validate the WRF results. Validation statistics for optimized WRF configurations simulating the parallel period during 10 additional years are less favorable than for 2006.

  7. HLA in anthropology: the enigma of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thorsby, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we first present four significant cases where human leukocyte antigen (HLA) studies have been useful for the reconstruction of human peopling history on the worldwide scale; i.e., the spread of modern humans from East Africa, the colonization of East Asia along two geographic routes, the co-evolution of genes and languages in Africa, and the peopling of Europe through a main northward migration. These examples show that natural selection did not erase the genetic signatures of our past migrations in the HLA genetic diversity patterns observed today. In the second part, we summarize our studies on Easter Island. Using genomic HLA typing, we could trace an introduction of HLA alleles of native American (Amerindian) origin to Easter Island before the Peruvian slave trades; i.e., before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they may have already been introduced in prehistoric time. Our results give further support to an initial Polynesian population of the island, but also reveal an early contribution by Amerindians. Together, our data illustrate the usefulness of typing for HLA alleles to complement genetic analyses in anthropological investigations.

  8. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Easter Seals: Supporting the Mission and

    Science.gov Websites

    Saving Money with Natural Gas Easter Seals: Supporting the Mission and Saving Money with and Saving Money with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Easter Seals : Supporting the Mission and Saving Money with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center

  10. Wave propagation in fiber composite laminates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the wave propagation characteristics, transient strains and residual properties in unidirectional and angle-ply boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy laminates impacted with silicone rubber projectiles at velocities up to 250 MS-1. The predominant wave is flexural, propagating at different velocities in different directions. In general, measured wave velocities were higher than theoretically predicted values. The amplitude of the in-plane wave is less than ten percent of that of the flexural wave. Peak strains and strain rates in the transverse to the (outer) fiber direction are much higher than those in the direction of the fibers. The dynamics of impact were also studied with high speed photography.

  11. Morphology and distribution of seamounts surrounding Easter Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rappaport, Y.; Naar, D.F.; Barton, C.C.; Liu, Z.-J.; Hey, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the morphology and distribution of a seamount population on a section of seafloor influenced by both superfast seafloor spreading and hotspot volcanism. The population under investigation is part of a broad chain of seamounts extending eastward from the East Pacific Rise, near Easter Island. In order to define the morphological variability of the seamounts, basal shape, cross-sectional area, volume, flatness, and flank slope are plotted against height for 383 seamounts with heights greater than 200 m, based on bathymetry data collected by GLORI-B and SeaBeam 2000, during three cruises onboard the R/V Melville in the spring of 1993. Nearly complete swath mapping coverage of the seamounts is available for the analysis of size and shape distribution. We quantitatively describe the seamount population of this active region, in which seamounts cover ???27% of the seafloor, and account for ???4.2% of the total crustal volume. Over 50% of the total volume (61,000 km3) of seamounts used in this study is made up by the 14 largest seamounts, and the remaining volume is made up by the 369 smaller seamounts (>200 m in height). Our analysis indicates there are at least two seamount populations in the Easter Island-Salas y Gomez Island (25??-29??S, 113??-104??W) study area. One population of seamounts is composed of short seamounts (1200 m), shield-like, pointy cones (flatness ???1200 m) originate exclusively from a hotspot source, but only a portion of the smaller volcanoes (

  12. Paleoecology of Easter Island: Evidence and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, V.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Sáez, A.; Giralt, S.; Pla, S.; Margalef, O.

    2010-04-01

    The existence of palm-dominated forests covering the island since the last glaciation and the recent deforestation by humans are paradigmatic in Easter Island's paleoecological reconstructions. The timing and mode of the deforestation are controversial, but there is general agreement that it actually occurred, and it is often given as an example of a human-induced environmental catastrophe with philosophical implications for the future of the whole planet. To evaluate whether this is the only well-supported hypothesis or if there might be other scenarios compatible with the paleoecological data, this paper reviews all the available evidence on past vegetation changes on Easter Island. The discussion is centered on three main points: 1) the alleged nature and extension of the former forests, 2) the taxonomic identity of the dominant palms, and 3) the nature of the recent ecological changes leading to a treeless island. The potential causes of the assumed deforestation are beyond the scope of this study. Concerning the first point, palynological and anthracological results obtained so far are not only compatible with a forested island, but also with other scenarios, for example a mosaic vegetation pattern with forests restricted to sites with a high freshwater table (gallery forests), which are mostly around the permanent lakes and along the coasts. With regard to palm identity, some extant species have been proposed as potential candidates, but the palms that dominated these forests seem to have become extinct and their identity remains unknown. The existence of a sedimentary hiatus around the dates of forest decline complicates the picture and reinforces the possibility of climatic changes. It is concluded that the hypothesis of a previously forested island has yet to be demonstrated. Therefore, the recent ecological disaster, human-induced or not, is still speculative. Several types of future studies are proposed for a better understanding of Easter Island

  13. Millimeter wave front-end figure of merit, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, Gabriel G.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents a practical approach for defining and calculating a meaningful figure of merit for frequency modulated continuous wave radar systems with separate receive and transmit (bistatic) antennas.

  14. [Epidemiological dynamics of Dengue on Easter Island].

    PubMed

    Canals, Mauricio; González, Christian; Canals, Andrea; Figueroa, Daniela

    2012-08-01

    Dengue is considered an emerging disease with an increasing prevalence especially in South America. In 2002, an epidemic of classic Dengue (DENV-1) occurred unexpectedly on Easter Island, where it had never been detected before. It reappeared in 2006-2007 and 2008, 2009 and 2011. The aim of this study was to estimate the most relevant parameters of the epidemiological dynamics of transmission of Dengue on Easter Island and to model the dynamics since 2002, comparing the predictions with the actual situation observed. Of the total cases, 52.27% were females and 47.73% men. The average age of infection was 31.38 ± 18.37 years, similar in men and women. We estimated the reproductive number R0 = 3.005 with an IC0,95 = [1.92, 4.61]. The inter-epidemic period reached an estimated T = 5.20 to 6.8 years. The case simulation showed recurrent epidemics with decreasing magnitude (damped oscillations), which is a known phenomenon in models of dengue and malaria. There was good qualitative fit to the epidemiological dynamics from 2002 onwards. It accurately predicted the rise in cases between 2006 and 2011. The predicted number of cases during the 2002 epidemic is greater than the confirmed cases and the predicted epidemic was faster than notified cases. Interepidemic period in the simulation was 6.72 years between 2002 and 2008 and 4.68 years between 2008 and 2013. From the theoretical perspective, the first epidemic had affected 94% of the population (approximately 3500 cases), but 639 were reported suggesting underreporting and a lot of sub-clinical cases occurred. Future epidemic of decreasing size are expected, although the main danger are epidemics of hemorrhagic dengue fever resulting from the introduction of different dengue virus serotypes.

  15. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  16. From Easter Island to coated coronary stents: a remarkable saga.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John D

    2008-01-01

    Easter Island, even though it's in the middle of nowhere, is indeed a piece of the continent, as John Donne alluded to. In addition to contributing rapamycin to the medical field, the island is an example to the whole world of the consequences of affluent lifestyles, tribal wars, and ignorance of ecology. Jared Diamond expressed these thoughts best in his book, "Collapse:" The parallels between Easter Island and the whole modern world are chillingly obvious... All countries on earth today share resources and affect each other just as did Easter's dozen clans. Polynesian Easter Island was as isolated in the Pacific Ocean as the Earth is today in space. People see the collapse of Easter Island 's society as a metaphor; a worst-case scenario, for what may lie ahead for us in our own future. Some veteran Easter Island archaeologists like Claudio Cristina feel that Diamond's views are overly simplistic, commenting that he only spent a week on the island (versus 30 years for Cristina). Predatory Polynesian rats, earthquakes, tsunamis, variations in rainfall, diseases introduced by European sailing ships, could all have contributed to the near-demise of Easter Island. Tribal wars certainly didn't help, nor did slave-raiding parties from Peru. Only the eyes of the moai (Fig. 5) have seen it all, but the statues remain silent, as they have for over 1,000 years.

  17. Las Cumbres Observatory Followup of Gravitational Waves - Part 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) is a unique followup facility for gravitational-wave detections. It consists of 20 telescopes at 6 sites around the world, working as one robotic, dynamically scheduled global network. This has proven to be extremely useful for gravitational-wave followup during observing run 2 (O2). Given the robotic nature of our network, we are capable of receiving gravitational wave alerts, selecting and prioritizing galaxies to be observed in the localization region, and submitting the observations to the LCO scheduler - all within seconds. Observations can then begin within minutes. We will present our experience employing this strategy during O2, as well as the extensive followup data obtained for one of the triggers. This is talk 3 in a series of three talks (the details of the division of topics between these three talks is embargoed at the time of abstract submission).

  18. Las Cumbres Observatory Followup of Gravitational Waves - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis

    2018-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) is a unique followup facility for gravitational-wave detections. It consists of 20 telescopes at 6 sites around the world, working as one robotic, dynamically scheduled global network. This has proven to be extremely useful for gravitational-wave followup during observing run 2 (O2). Given the robotic nature of our network, we are capable of receiving gravitational wave alerts, selecting and prioritizing galaxies to be observed in the localization region, and submitting the observations to the LCO scheduler - all within seconds. Observations can then begin within minutes. We will present our experience employing this strategy during O2, as well as the extensive followup data obtained for one of the triggers. This is talk 1 in a series of three talks (the details of the division of topics between these three talks is embargoed at the time of abstract submission).

  19. Las Cumbres Observatory Followup of Gravitational Waves - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. Andrew; Arcavi, Iair; McCully, Curtis

    2018-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO) is a unique followup facility for gravitational-wave detections. It consists of 20 telescopes at 6 sites around the world, working as one robotic, dynamically scheduled global network. This has proven to be extremely useful for gravitational-wave followup during observing run 2 (O2). Given the robotic nature of our network, we are capable of receiving gravitational wave alerts, selecting and prioritizing galaxies to be observed in the localization region, and submitting the observations to the LCO scheduler - all within seconds. Observations can then begin within minutes. We will present our experience employing this strategy during O2, as well as the extensive followup data obtained for one of the triggers. This is talk 2 in a series of three talks (the details of the division of topics between these three talks is embargoed at the time of abstract submission).

  20. A numerical analysis of transient planetary waves and the vertical structure in a meso-strato-troposphere model, part 1.4A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, K. S.; Sasamori, T.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of unstable planetary waves is computed by a quasi-geostrophic model extending from the surface up to 80 km by means of eigenvalue-eigenfunction techniques in spherical coordinates. Three kinds of unstable modes of distinct phase speeds and vertical structures are identified in the winter climate state: (1) the deep Green mode with its maximum amplitude in the stratosphere; (2) the deep Charney mode with its maximum amplitude in the troposphere: and (3) the shallow Charney mode which is largely confined to the troposphere. Both the Green mode and the deep Charney mode are characterized by very slow phase speeds. They are mainly supported by upward wave energy fluxes, but the local baroclinic energy conversion within the stratosphere also contributes in supporting these deep modes. The mesosphere and the troposphere are dynamically independent in the summer season decoupled by the deep stratospheric easterly. The summer mesosphere supports the easterly unstable waves 1-4. Waves 3 and 4 are identified with the observed mesospheric 2-day wave and 1.7-day wave, respectively.

  1. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.

  2. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.

  3. Stress wave propagation on standing trees. Part 2, Formation of 3D stress wave contour maps.

    Treesearch

    Juan Su; Houjiang Zhang; Xiping Wang

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of wood quality in standing trees is an important procedure in the forest operational value chain worldwide. The goal of this paper is to investigate how a stress wave travel in a tree stem as it is introduced into the tree through a mechanical impact. Experimental stress wave data was obtained on freshly cut red pine logs in the...

  4. A Lesson in Complexity: Seabed Minerals and Easter Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druker, Kristen

    1984-01-01

    This high school-level classroom activity presents a hypothetical situation based on scientific fact concerning the likelihood that seabed mineral deposits lie off Easter Island. Activity goals, instructional strategies, and instructions for students are included. (JN)

  5. 6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM SOUTHERN FOOT BRIDGE ABOVE INTAKE STRUCTURE EASTERLY TOWARD UPSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  6. 6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET CONTROL WORKS IN THE FOREGROUND.... Volume XX, No. 8, September 9, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  7. 18. EASTERLY VIEW ALONG THE SPILLWAY BUCKET, SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS.... ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. EASTERLY VIEW ALONG THE SPILLWAY BUCKET, SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS.... Volume XX, No. 5, September 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. 16. VIEW EASTERLY ALONG THE UPSTREAM SIDE OF THE OGEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW EASTERLY ALONG THE UPSTREAM SIDE OF THE OGEE SECTION OF THE SPILLWAY.... Volume XVIII, No. 13, January 29, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  9. Gauß and beyond: the making of Easter algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, Reinhold

    2004-07-01

    It is amazing to see how many webpages are devoted to the art of finding the date of Easter Sunday. Just for illustration, the reader may search for terms such as Gregorian calendar, date of Easter, or Easter algorithm. Sophisticated essays as well as less enlightening contributions are presented, and many a doubt is expressed about the reliability of some results obtained with some Easter algorithms. In short, there is still a great interest in those problems. Gregorian Easter algorithms exist for two centuries (or more?), but most of their history is rather obscure. Some reasons may be that some important sources are written in Latin or in the German of Goethe's time, or they are difficult to discover. Without being complete, the following paper is intended to shed light on how those techniques emerged and evolved. Like a microcosm, the history of Easter algorithms resembles the history of any science: it is a story of trials, errors, and successes, and, last but not least, a story of offended pride. A number of articles, published before 1910, are cited in: A. Fraenkel, Die Berechnung des Osterfestes. Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, Volume 138 (1910), 133-146.

  10. 2015 Easter bolide over North Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedüs, T.; Csizmadia, S.; Zelkó, Z.; Kereszty, Z.; Bíró, Z.

    2015-01-01

    On Easter Monday, April 6, 2015, at UTC 17h31m (near sunset) there was a bright (peak magnitude -12 ~ -14) bolide which also produced a sonic boom, over North Hungary, close to Miskolc, above the Bükk mountains. The event was witnessed by many people, and recorded by several car dashboard-, meteorological and all sky cameras from as far away as Farád (North-West Hungary) and Görbeháza (North-East Hungary). Unfortunately, with the event having occurred only a few minutes after sunset, the sky was still bright and therefore the Hungarian Video meteor network cameras were not yet operating. Our team has collected and re-calibrated as much video and photo material as possible. Since there were very few direct images of the bolide itself, but more photos and videos of the persistent train left behind, these latter images were also used, in certain circumstances, in our calculations. The deduced final atmospheric path and heliocentric orbit are presented, along with the estimation of the errors.

  11. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  12. Observations of Munitions Mobility During a Nor'easter at Wallops Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, C.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Hagg, R. K.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnance (or munitions) may migrate, bury, or become exposed over time, and may pose a hazard to both humans and environment. Understanding the behavior of munitions under various wave and current conditions is central to management and remediation of contaminated underwater sites. We embedded Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) into inert replicas of large caliber munitions (81 mm - 155 mm), herein referred to as `smart munitions'. Several smart munitions were deployed in the field with IMUs logging at 16 Hz continuously. Simultaneously the local hydrodynamic conditions were monitored to correlate any resulting munitions mobility. Here, we present the response of the smart munitions to wave and current conditions observed during a nor'easter off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia USA in about 10 m water depth. During the nor'easter, peak significant wave heights of 2.8 m were observed in 10 m water depth. Over a roughly 10-hour period, an 81 mm smart munition migrated approximately 206 ft in a net onshore direction. Displacement and heading of the migrated smart munition were estimated by divers during the recovery. Integration of the trajectory of motion for the smart munition using a custom signal processing algorithm was in good agreement with the diver measurements. Discussion will focus on the relationship of the local sediment type and the potential for munitions mobility.

  13. Satellite Shows Developing U.S. Nor'easter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    National Weather Service forecasters have been tracking a low pressure area that moved from the Midwest into the Atlantic Ocean today, and is expected to become a strong nor'easter that will bring blizzard conditions to the northeastern U.S. The path of the system was captured in a NASA movie of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery. An animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental or GOES satellite captured over the period of January 24 through 26 showed the progression of the developing nor'easter. The satellite animation began on Jan. 24 when clouds associated with a cold front preceding the low, pushed off the U.S. East coast. The front was followed by a low pressure area that moved from the Midwest to the southeast. That low moved over the Carolinas and exited into the Atlantic Ocean on Jan. 26. NOAA's National Weather Service forecast calls for the low to intensify along the Eastern Seaboard and bring blizzard conditions to the northeastern U.S. on Monday night, January 26 and Tuesday, January 27. On Monday, January 26, 2015, the National Weather Service noted: A storm system off the East Coast will continue to strengthen as it develops into a major nor'easter on Monday. As the storm moves up the coast, it is expected to bring snowfall of 1-3 feet or more to many parts of the Northeast through Tuesday evening, including New York City and Boston. Strong, gusty winds will combine with the snow to create blizzard conditions along and near the coast. Winter storm warnings are in effect for the panhandles of West Virginia and Maryland, much of interior New England down to the northern Mid-Atlantic as well as for Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Winter weather advisories are in effect for portions of the Ohio Valley, Mid-Atlantic and the southern Appalachians as well as a narrow area across interior New England. To create the video and imagery, NASA/NOAA's GOES Project located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in

  14. Satellite Shows Developing U.S. Nor'easter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-26

    National Weather Service forecasters have been tracking a low pressure area that moved from the Midwest into the Atlantic Ocean today, and is expected to become a strong nor'easter that will bring blizzard conditions to the northeastern U.S. The path of the system was captured in a NASA movie of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery. (This GOES 13 image was captured on January 26, 2015 at 1445 UTC.) On Monday, January 26, 2015, the National Weather Service noted: A storm system off the East Coast will continue to strengthen as it develops into a major nor'easter on Monday. As the storm moves up the coast, it is expected to bring snowfall of 1-3 feet or more to many parts of the Northeast through Tuesday evening, including New York City and Boston. Strong, gusty winds will combine with the snow to create blizzard conditions along and near the coast. Winter storm warnings are in effect for the panhandles of West Virginia and Maryland, much of interior New England down to the northern Mid-Atlantic as well as for Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Winter weather advisories are in effect for portions of the Ohio Valley, Mid-Atlantic and the southern Appalachians as well as a narrow area across interior New England. To create the video and imagery, NASA/NOAA's GOES Project located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland overlays the cloud data from NOAA's GOES-East satellite on a true-color image of land and ocean created by data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. Together, these data create the entire animation of the storm and show its movement. GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. Geostationary describes an orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position with respect to the rotating Earth. This allows GOES to hover continuously over one position on Earth's surface, appearing stationary. As a

  15. Satellite Shows Developing U.S. Nor'easter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-26

    National Weather Service forecasters have been tracking a low pressure area that moved from the Midwest into the Atlantic Ocean today, and is expected to become a strong nor'easter that will bring blizzard conditions to the northeastern U.S. The path of the system was captured in a NASA movie of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery. On Monday, January 26, 2015, the National Weather Service noted: A storm system off the East Coast will continue to strengthen as it develops into a major nor'easter on Monday. As the storm moves up the coast, it is expected to bring snowfall of 1-3 feet or more to many parts of the Northeast through Tuesday evening, including New York City and Boston. Strong, gusty winds will combine with the snow to create blizzard conditions along and near the coast. Winter storm warnings are in effect for the panhandles of West Virginia and Maryland, much of interior New England down to the northern Mid-Atlantic as well as for Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Winter weather advisories are in effect for portions of the Ohio Valley, Mid-Atlantic and the southern Appalachians as well as a narrow area across interior New England. To create the video and imagery, NASA/NOAA's GOES Project located at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland overlays the cloud data from NOAA's GOES-East satellite on a true-color image of land and ocean created by data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. Together, these data create the entire animation of the storm and show its movement. GOES satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. Geostationary describes an orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position with respect to the rotating Earth. This allows GOES to hover continuously over one position on Earth's surface, appearing stationary. As a result, GOES provide a constant vigil for the atmospheric

  16. The Polynesian gene pool: an early contribution by Amerindians to Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Thorsby, Erik

    2012-03-19

    It is now generally accepted that Polynesia was first settled by peoples from southeast Asia. An alternative that eastern parts of Polynesia were first inhabited by Amerindians has found little support. There are, however, many indications of a 'prehistoric' (i.e. before Polynesia was discovered by Europeans) contact between Polynesia and the Americas, but genetic evidence of a prehistoric Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool has been lacking. We recently carried out genomic HLA (human leucocyte antigen) typing as well as typing for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome markers of blood samples collected in 1971 and 2008 from reputedly non-admixed Easter Islanders. All individuals carried HLA alleles and mtDNA types previously found in Polynesia, and most of the males carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin (a few had European Y chromosome markers), further supporting an initial Polynesian population on Easter Island. The HLA investigations revealed, however, that some individuals also carried HLA alleles which have previously almost only been found in Amerindians. We could trace the introduction of these Amerindian alleles to before the Peruvian slave trades, i.e. before the 1860s, and provide suggestive evidence that they were introduced already in prehistoric time. Our results demonstrate an early Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island, and illustrate the usefulness of typing for immunogenetic markers such as HLA to complement mtDNA and Y chromosome analyses in anthropological investigations.

  17. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 2: Experimental Pressure Measurements and Fractional Frequency Whirl Threshold for Wave and Plain Journal Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Dimofte, Florin; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A new hydrodynamic bearing concept, the wave journal bearing, is being developed because it has better stability characteristics than plain journal bearings while maintaining similar load capacity. An analysis code to predict the steady state and dynamic performance of the wave journal bearing is also part of the development. To verify numerical predictions and contrast the wave journal bearing's stability characteristics to a plain journal bearing, tests were conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center using an air bearing test rig. Bearing film pressures were measured at 16 ports located around the bearing circumference at the middle of the bearing length. The pressure measurements for both a plain journal bearing and a wave journal bearing compared favorably with numerical predictions. Both bearings were tested with no radial load to determine the speed threshold for self-excited fractional frequency whirl. The plain journal bearing started to whirl immediately upon shaft start-up. The wave journal did not incur self-excited whirl until 800 to 900 rpm as predicted by the analysis. Furthermore, the wave bearing's geometry limited the whirl orbit to less than the bearing's clearance. In contrast, the plain journal bearing did not limit the whirl orbit, causing it to rub.

  18. African Easterly Jet: Structure and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Man-Li C.; Reale, Oreste; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Koster, Randy D.; Pegion, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), its structure and the forcings contributing to its maintenance, critically revisiting previous work which attributed the maintenance of the jet to soil moisture gradients over tropical Africa. A state-of-the-art global model in a high-end computer framework is used to produce a 3-member 73-year ensemble run forced by observed SST to represent the Control run. The AEJ as produced by the Control is compared with the representation of the AEJ in the European Center for Medium Range Forecast Reanalyses (ERA-40) and other observational data sets and found very realistic. Five Experiments are then performed, each represented by sets of 3-member 22 year long (1980-2001) ensemble runs. The goal of the Experiments is to investigate the role of meridional soil moisture gradients, different land surface properties and orography. Unlike previous studies, which have suppressed soil moisture gradients within a highly idealized framework (i.e., the so-called bucket model), terrestrial evaporation control is here achieved with a highly sophisticated landsurface treatment and with an extensively tested and complex methodology. The results show that the AEJ is suppressed by a combination of absence of meridional evaporation gradients over Africa and constant vegetation, even if the individual forcings taken separately do not lead to the AEJ disappearance, but only its modification. Moreover, the suppression of orography also leads to a different circulation in which there is no AEJ. This work suggests that it is not just soil moisture gradients, but a unique combination of geographical features present only in northern tropical Africa, which causes and maintains the jet.

  19. Teaching ocean wave forecasting using computer-generated visualization and animation—Part 1: sea forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitford, Dennis J.

    2002-05-01

    Ocean waves are the most recognized phenomena in oceanography. Unfortunately, undergraduate study of ocean wave dynamics and forecasting involves mathematics and physics and therefore can pose difficulties with some students because of the subject's interrelated dependence on time and space. Verbal descriptions and two-dimensional illustrations are often insufficient for student comprehension. Computer-generated visualization and animation offer a visually intuitive and pedagogically sound medium to present geoscience, yet there are very few oceanographic examples. A two-part article series is offered to explain ocean wave forecasting using computer-generated visualization and animation. This paper, Part 1, addresses forecasting of sea wave conditions and serves as the basis for the more difficult topic of swell wave forecasting addressed in Part 2. Computer-aided visualization and animation, accompanied by oral explanation, are a welcome pedagogical supplement to more traditional methods of instruction. In this article, several MATLAB ® software programs have been written to visualize and animate development and comparison of wave spectra, wave interference, and forecasting of sea conditions. These programs also set the stage for the more advanced and difficult animation topics in Part 2. The programs are user-friendly, interactive, easy to modify, and developed as instructional tools. By using these software programs, teachers can enhance their instruction of these topics with colorful visualizations and animation without requiring an extensive background in computer programming.

  20. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part One: P-Wave Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D. G.; Abbott, R. E.; Preston, L. A.; Hampshire, J. B., II

    2015-12-01

    Explosion-source phenomenology is best studied when competing signals (such as instrument, site, and propagation effects), are well understood. The second phase of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is moving from granite geology to alluvium geology at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site. To improve subsurface characterization of Yucca Flat (and therefore better understand propagation and site effects), an active-source seismic survey was conducted using a novel 13,000-kg impulsive hammer source. The source points, spaced 200 m apart, covered a N-S transect spanning 18 km. Three component, 2-Hz geophones were used to record useable signals out to 10 km. We inverted for P-wave velocity by computing travel times using a finite-difference 3D eikonal solver, and then compared that to the picked travel times using a linearized iterative inversion scheme. Preliminary results from traditional reflection processing methods are also presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Nor'easter Pounds New England

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-27

    The U.S. National Weather Service called it a “a crippling and historic winter blizzard.” In late January 2015, transportation systems from Trenton to Portland were shut down, and more than 35 million people hunkered down for extreme snowfall and biting winds. For those in New England, it turned out to be a monstrous storm. For the Mid-Atlantic region, not so much. Vast swaths of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, and Long Island (NY) were blanketed with 15 to 25 inches (40 to 60 centimeters) of snow as of midday on January 27, 2015, and snow was expected to continue into January 28. Sustained winds reached gale force, with hurricane-force gusts along the coastlines. Storm surges sent ice and water into the streets of Scituate and Nantucket, Massachusetts. Many New England towns, including the city of Boston, were expected to approach all-time snowfall records. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite on the Suomi NPP satellite acquired these nighttime images at 1:45 am US eastern standard time (06:45 Universal Time) on January 27, 2015. The top image, lit by moonlight and city lights, shows a nor'easter off the coast of the East Coast of the United States. City lights are blurred somewhat by the cloud cover. The second image shows the same scene in longwave infrared radiation, with brighter shades representing the colder temperatures of snow-producing clouds. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using VIIRS data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Read more: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=85166&eocn... Via: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on

  2. Gravity study of the Pitcairn-Easter hotline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, M.; Dehghani, G. A.; Diament, M.; Francheteau, J.; Stoffers, P.

    1994-11-01

    Shipboard free air gravity and bathymetric anomalies with an extension of 400 km were identified across the Pitcairn-Easter hotline in the South Pacific. The anomalies are associated with one of the positive geoid undulations observed in the area from satellite data. Several smaller topographic features, volcano-tectonic ridges oriented N 65 deg E, are superimposed on the topographic hig. Admittance computations and direct modeling show that the swell topography is compensated by a low density zone within the lithosphere, 4 to 8 km below the crust. The volcano tectonic ridges are locally compensated in a classical Airy sense. The swell and the associated ridges were probably created by the action of a thermal anomaly resulting from the interaction of the Easter Island hotspot and of the Easter Microplate accretion centers.

  3. CACTUS (Calculator and Computer Technology User Service): Some Easter Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    In the Western Gregorian Calendar, the date of Easter Sunday is defined as the Sunday following the ecclesiastical Full Moon that falls on or next after March 21. While the pattern of dates so defined usually repeats each 19 years, there is a 0.08 day difference between the cycles. More accurately, the system has a period of 70 499 183 lunations…

  4. Description of deaths on Easter Island, 2000-2012 period.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

    2014-01-01

    Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.

  5. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  6. Christmas and Easter Art Programs in Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncum, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes art programs that were given at several elementary Australian schools focusing on Christmas and Easter. Explains that the programs are based on the accounts of the birth and death of Jesus given in the Bible. States that the programs integrate studio art, art criticism, and art history. (CMK)

  7. 10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE FOOTBRIDGE TO THE GAGING STATION. BIG DALTON DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR AND ETR COMPLEXES. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY TOWARD CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT. MTR AND ITS ATTACHMENTS IN FOREGROUND. ETR BEYOND TO RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4100. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF EASTERLY ELEVATION OF SPILLWAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ACROSS CANAL PRISM, FROM ROUTE 146 EMBANKMENT. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  10. 17. VIEW EASTERLY ALONG DOWNSTREAM END OF THE SPILLWAY, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW EASTERLY ALONG DOWNSTREAM END OF THE SPILLWAY, SHOWING CELL WALL CONSTRUCTION IN THE CRIB CUTOFF.... Volume XX, No. 4, August 3, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  11. MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID NOT EXPLAIN DARK CLOUD. MTR WING WILL ATTACH TO GROUND FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1567. Unknown Photographer, 2/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate arises in a homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangwei; Dai, Yuyao; Yan, Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we shall demonstrate theoretically that steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate can arise in an infinite homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector, which is partly attributed to that, here, nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector is not involved with energy losses or gain. Altering value of real-part-of-impedance of the metamaterial, the bound electromagnetic eigenstate may become to be a progressive wave. Our work may be useful to further understand energy conversion and conservation properties of electromagnetic wave in the dispersive and absorptive medium and provides a feasible route to stop, store and release electromagnetic wave (light) conveniently by using metamaterial with near-zero-real-part-of-impedance.

  13. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  14. Time-space mapping of Easter Chain volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John M.; Stoffers, Peter; McWilliams, Michael O.

    1995-12-01

    New 40Ar/ 39Ar and published K sbnd Ar ages show that the locus of volcanism along the Easter Volcanic Chain (EVC) has shifted systematically from the Nazca Ridge, at about 26 m.y., to the recently active Sala y Gomez Island/Easter Island region. This indicates a plume rather than a hotline (i.e., mantle roll) origin for the EVC. The time-space distribution of ages, combined with published ages for the Galapagos and Juan Fernandez volcanic chains, is used to reconstruct Nazca plate velocities over the past 26 m.y. A plume now located in the region of Sala y Gomez Island is most compatible with these data. West of the plume, the EVC records neither Nazca nor Pacific plate motions. This section of the EVC may be related to westward channeling of plume material to the Pacific-Nazca spreading boundary region.

  15. Easterly and westerly wind events in the equatorial Pacific ocean and their oceanic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puy, martin; Lengaigne, matthieu; Vialard, jerome; Guilyardi, eric

    2014-05-01

    Intraseasonal wind variability is known to influence the onset and evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in particular through the occurrence of Westerly Wind Events (WWEs) in the western Equatorial Pacific. For predictability purposes, it is important to identify the large scale atmospheric controls of the occurrences of those WWEs. We hence carefully assess the link between equatorial WWEs and large-scale atmospheric waves. We find that WWEs preferably occur during convectively active phases associated to equatorial atmospheric Rossby waves (74% against 15% if the distribution was random) and to the MJO (60% against 15%). We also find that WWEs that occur in relation with those atmospheric waves tend to be stronger. The results also show that WWEs that occur in relation with the MJO tend to be longer than others, and tend to have a larger impact on SST, both on the eastern edge of the warm pool and in the eastern Pacific. We further show that the central and eastern equatorial Pacific is home to frequent easterly wind events (EWEs). These EWEs are further shown to be influenced by atmospheric Rossby waves and the MJO, but to a lesser extent than WWEs. We will discuss the potential influence of EWEs on the ENSO cycle, and propose a modeling strategy to test the influence of these EWEs / WWEs on the ENSO evolution.

  16. Water Waves Generated by a Slowly Moving Two-Dimensional Body. Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Francis Ogilvie This research was carried out under the sPonsorship of the Naval Sea Systems Command General Hydromechanics Research (GHR) Program under...from Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Sponsored by Naval Sea Systems Command General Hydromechanics Research Program, administered by the David W. Taylor...asymptotically ff 0 k . If the domain of x is - ’ x ’ + , tite only part of the d.;ymy ., t< expansion that represents waves comes fr m the iitemoqeneous

  17. Impact of Hurricanes and Nor'easters on a Migrating Inlet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2016-12-01

    After breaching in 2007, Katama Inlet, connecting Katama Bay to the Atlantic Ocean on the south shore of Martha's Vineyard, MA, migrated 2 km until it closed in 2015. Bathymetric surveys before and after Hurricanes Irene (2011) and Sandy (2012) indicate the strong waves and currents associated with these storms caused 2 m of erosion and deposition around the inlet mouth. The waves, currents, and bathymetric change observed during the hurricanes were used to validate the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic components of a Delft3D numerical model of the Martha's Vineyard coastline for storm (> 3 m wave heights) conditions. When driven with observed bathymetry and offshore waves, as well as simulated (WaveWatch3) winds and barometric pressures, the model reproduces the pattern and range of bathymetric change observed around the inlet. Model simulations of realistic (i.e., Irene and Sandy) and idealized storm conditions with a range of durations and wave conditions are used to test the relative importance of short-duration, high-intensity storms (hurricanes) and longer-duration, lower-intensity storms (nor'easters) on inlet migration. The simulations suggest that longer-duration, lower-intensity storms cause a higher range and variance in bathymetric change around the inlet than shorter-duration, higher-intensity storms. However, the simulations also suggest that the storm-induced migration of the inlet depends more on the wave direction at the peak of the storm than on the duration of the storm peak. The effect of storms on inlet migration over yearly time scales will be discussed. Funded by NSF, NOAA, ONR, and ASD(R&E).

  18. Teaching ocean wave forecasting using computer-generated visualization and animation—Part 2: swell forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitford, Dennis J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper, the second of a two-part series, introduces undergraduate students to ocean wave forecasting using interactive computer-generated visualization and animation. Verbal descriptions and two-dimensional illustrations are often insufficient for student comprehension. Fortunately, the introduction of computers in the geosciences provides a tool for addressing this problem. Computer-generated visualization and animation, accompanied by oral explanation, have been shown to be a pedagogical improvement to more traditional methods of instruction. Cartographic science and other disciplines using geographical information systems have been especially aggressive in pioneering the use of visualization and animation, whereas oceanography has not. This paper will focus on the teaching of ocean swell wave forecasting, often considered a difficult oceanographic topic due to the mathematics and physics required, as well as its interdependence on time and space. Several MATLAB ® software programs are described and offered to visualize and animate group speed, frequency dispersion, angular dispersion, propagation, and wave height forecasting of deep water ocean swell waves. Teachers may use these interactive visualizations and animations without requiring an extensive background in computer programming.

  19. WaveNet: A Web-Based Metocean Data Access, Processing, and Analysis Tool. Part 3 - CDIP Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    and Analysis Tool; Part 3 – CDIP Database by Zeki Demirbilek, Lihwa Lin, and Derek Wilson PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering...Technical Note (CHETN) describes coupling of the Coastal Data Information Program ( CDIP ) database to WaveNet, the first module of MetOcnDat (Meteorological...provides a step-by-step procedure to access, process, and analyze wave and wind data from the CDIP database. BACKGROUND: WaveNet addresses a basic

  20. Constraints on Wave Drag Parameterization Schemes for Simulating the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Part I: Gravity Wave Forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lucy J.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2005-12-01

    Parameterization schemes for the drag due to atmospheric gravity waves are discussed and compared in the context of a simple one-dimensional model of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). A number of fundamental issues are examined in detail, with the goal of providing a better understanding of the mechanism by which gravity wave drag can produce an equatorial zonal wind oscillation. The gravity wave driven QBOs are compared with those obtained from a parameterization of equatorial planetary waves. In all gravity wave cases, it is seen that the inclusion of vertical diffusion is crucial for the descent of the shear zones and the development of the QBO. An important difference between the schemes for the two types of waves is that in the case of equatorial planetary waves, vertical diffusion is needed only at the lowest levels, while for the gravity wave drag schemes it must be included at all levels. The question of whether there is downward propagation of influence in the simulated QBOs is addressed. In the gravity wave drag schemes, the evolution of the wind at a given level depends on the wind above, as well as on the wind below. This is in contrast to the parameterization for the equatorial planetary waves in which there is downward propagation of phase only. The stability of a zero-wind initial state is examined, and it is determined that a small perturbation to such a state will amplify with time to the extent that a zonal wind oscillation is permitted.

  1. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Site Identification and Ranking Methodology Part I: Wave Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcher, Levi; Thresher, Robert

    Marine hydrokinetic energy is a promising and growing piece of the renewable energy sector that offers high predictability and additional energy sources for a diversified energy economy. This report investigates the market opportunities for wave energy along the U.S. coastlines. It is part one of a two-part investigation into the United State's two largest marine hydrokinetic resources (wave and tidal). Wave energy technology is still an emerging form of renewable energy for which large-scale, grid-connected project costs are currently poorly defined. Ideally, device designers would like to know the resource conditions at economical project sites so they can optimize devicemore » designs. On the other hand, project developers need detailed device cost data to identify sites where projects are economical. That is, device design and siting are, to some extent, a coupled problem. This work describes a methodology for identifying likely deployment locations based on a set of criteria that wave energy experts in industry, academia, and national laboratories agree are likely to be important factors for all technology types. This work groups the data for the six criteria into 'locales' that are defined as the smaller of either the local transmission grid or a state boundary. The former applies to U.S. islands (e.g., Hawaii, American Samoa) and rural villages (e.g., in Alaska); the latter applies to states in the contiguous United States. These data are then scored from 0 to 10 according to scoring functions that were developed with input from wave energy industry and academic experts. The scores are aggregated using a simple product method that includes a weighting factor for each criterion. This work presents two weighting scenarios: a long-term scenario that does not include energy price (weighted zero) and a near term scenario that includes energy price. The aggregated scores are then used to produce ranked lists of likely deployment locales. In both scenarios

  2. Wave Response during Hydrostatic and Geostrophic Adjustment. Part I: Transient Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Jeffrey M.; Bannon, Peter R.

    2005-05-01

    response in the horizontal by the Lamb waves. The amplitude of this signal increases during the onset of the heating and decreases as the heating is turned off. The lowest vertical wavenumber buoyancy waves still dominate the horizontal adjustment, and the horizontal scale of displacements is increased by an order of magnitude. Within a few hours the transient motions remove the perturbations and an approximately trivial balanced state is established.A warming of 2 h duration with geometry representative of a large convective system generates a weak but discernible Lamb wave signal. The response to the conglomerate system is mainly hydrostatic. After several hours, the only signal in the vicinity of the heated region is that of inertia-gravity waves oscillating about a nontrivial hydrostatic and geostrophic state.This paper is the first of two parts treating the transient dynamics of hydrostatic and geostrophic adjustment. Part II examines the potential vorticity conservation and the partitioning of total energy.

  3. Constraints on Wave Drag Parameterization Schemes for Simulating the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Part II: Combined Effects of Gravity Waves and Equatorial Planetary Waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lucy J.; Shepherd, Theodore G.

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the effect of combining equatorial planetary wave drag and gravity wave drag in a one-dimensional zonal mean model of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Several different combinations of planetary wave and gravity wave drag schemes are considered in the investigations, with the aim being to assess which aspects of the different schemes affect the nature of the modeled QBO. Results show that it is possible to generate a realistic-looking QBO with various combinations of drag from the two types of waves, but there are some constraints on the wave input spectra and amplitudes. For example, if the phase speeds of the gravity waves in the input spectrum are large relative to those of the equatorial planetary waves, critical level absorption of the equatorial planetary waves may occur. The resulting mean-wind oscillation, in that case, is driven almost exclusively by the gravity wave drag, with only a small contribution from the planetary waves at low levels. With an appropriate choice of wave input parameters, it is possible to obtain a QBO with a realistic period and to which both types of waves contribute. This is the regime in which the terrestrial QBO appears to reside. There may also be constraints on the initial strength of the wind shear, and these are similar to the constraints that apply when gravity wave drag is used without any planetary wave drag.In recent years, it has been observed that, in order to simulate the QBO accurately, general circulation models require parameterized gravity wave drag, in addition to the drag from resolved planetary-scale waves, and that even if the planetary wave amplitudes are incorrect, the gravity wave drag can be adjusted to compensate. This study provides a basis for knowing that such a compensation is possible.

  4. WaveNet: A Web-Based Metocean Data Access, Processing and Analysis Tool; Part 5 - WW3 Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Program ( CDIP ); and Part 4 for the Great Lakes Observing System/Coastal Forecasting System (GLOS/GLCFS). Using step-by-step instructions, this Part 5...Demirbilek, Z., L. Lin, and D. Wilson. 2014a. WaveNet: A web-based metocean data access, processing, and analysis tool; part 3– CDIP database

  5. Waves and Particles, The Orbital Atom, Parts One and Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1973 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide includes parts one and two of the four-part third year Portland Project, a three-year integrated secondary science curriculum sequence. The Harvard Project Physics textbook is used for reading assignments for part one. Assignments relate to waves, light, electricity, magnetic fields, Faraday and the electrical age,…

  6. Orbital and spin parts of energy currents for electromagnetic waves through spatially inhomogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoung-In; Mok, Jinsik

    2018-05-01

    We investigate electromagnetic waves propagating through non-magnetic and loss-free dielectric media, but with spatially inhomogeneous refractive indices. We derive hence a set of analytic formulae for conservation laws and energy-current (Poynting) vector. As a result, we deduce that the energy-current vector cannot be neatly separated into its orbital and spin parts in contrast to the cases with spatially homogeneous media. In addition, we present physical interpretations of the two additional terms due to spatial material inhomogeneity.

  7. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  8. Ecological release and venom evolution of a predatory marine snail at Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas F; Lee, Taehwan

    2009-05-20

    Ecological release is coupled with adaptive radiation and ecological diversification yet little is known about the molecular basis of phenotypic changes associated with this phenomenon. The venomous, predatory marine gastropod Conus miliaris has undergone ecological release and exhibits increased dietary breadth at Easter Island. We examined the extent of genetic differentiation of two genes expressed in the venom of C. miliaris among samples from Easter Island, American Samoa and Guam. The population from Easter Island exhibits unique frequencies of alleles that encode distinct peptides at both loci. Levels of divergence at these loci exceed observed levels of divergence observed at a mitochondrial gene region at Easter Island. Patterns of genetic variation at two genes expressed in the venom of this C. miliaris suggest that selection has operated at these genes and contributed to the divergence of venom composition at Easter Island. These results show that ecological release is associated with strong selection pressures that promote the evolution of new phenotypes.

  9. Shear-wave polarization anisotropy in the mantle wedge beneath the southern part of Tohoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, J.; Nakajima, J.; Hasegawa, A.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated shear-wave polarization anisotropy in the mantle wedge beneath the southern part of Tohoku, Japan, by using waveform data of intermediate depth earthquakes with M>2.5 recorded by the seismic networks of Tohoku University and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). We selected waveform data with ray paths whose incident angles to the surface are 35 degrees or less to avoid contamination of particle motions by converted phases. All the seismograms thus selected were filtered with bandpassed ranges of 2-8 Hz. Cross-correlation method [Ando et al., 1983] was used for determining delay time between the leading and following shear-waves (delay time) and the leading shear-wave polarization direction (fast direction). Two horizontal components of observed seismograms were rotated with the direction from 0 to 180 degrees with an interval of 5 degrees, and shifted one horizontal component by a time lag. The time lag varied from 0 to 1 s with an interval of 0.01 s. The length of time window used to calculate correlation coefficient was set to be nearly equal to one cycle of the shear-wave. We do not use the data whose maximum correlation coefficient is less than 0.8. Obtained results show that most of the fast directions at stations in the back-arc side are nearly E-W, whereas those at stations in the fore-arc side are N-S. We infer that the anisotropy caused by lattice-preferred orientation of olivine, which is probably produced by flow in the mantle wedge, is a likely candidate for the observed shear-wave splitting with E-W trend fast directions in the back-arc side. Although it is not certain what causes the N-S trend fast directions in the for-arc side, the same trend is seen in the previous studies of other areas in Tohoku [Okada et al.,1995; Nakajima, 2002]. Observed delay times are mostly 0.1-0.3 s, which is consistent with the results of Okada et al. [1995] and Nakajima [2002]. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the staff of the JMA for allowing us to use

  10. Imaging Gravity Waves in Lower Stratospheric AMSU-A Radiances. Part 1: Simple Forward Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-14

    brightening” of microwave radiances acquired from purely vertical background temperature profiles by cross- track scanners. Waves propagating along track...three-dimensional wave fields. For example, some limb sensors return high- resolution vertical temperature profiles with wave oscilla- tions...provide only ver- tical profiles of wave oscillations, similar to radiosonde and rocketsonde data. Similarly, limb-tracking measurements from the

  11. The Great Easter Egg Hunt: The Void's Incredible Richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    An image made of about 300 million pixels is being released by ESO, based on more than 64 hours of observations with the Wide-Field Camera on the 2.2m telescope at La Silla (Chile). The image covers an 'empty' region of the sky five times the size of the full moon, opening an exceptionally clear view towards the most distant part of our universe. It reveals objects that are 100 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see. Easter is in many countries a time of great excitement for children who are on the big hunt for chocolate eggs, hidden all about the places. Astronomers, however, do not need to wait this special day to get such an excitement: it is indeed daily that they look for faraway objects concealed in deep images of the sky. And as with chocolate eggs, deep sky objects, such as galaxies, quasars or gravitational lenses, come in the wildest variety of colours and shapes. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 14a/06 The Deep 3 'Empty' Field The image presented here is one of such very deep image of the sky. It is the combination of 714 frames for a total exposure time of 64.5 hours obtained through four different filters (B, V, R, and I)! It consists of four adjacent Wide-Field Camera pointings (each 33x34 arcmin), covering a total area larger than one square degree. Yet, if you were to look at this large portion of the firmament with the unaided eye, you would just see... nothing. The area, named Deep 3, was indeed chosen to be a random but empty, high galactic latitude field, positioned in such a way that it can be observed from the La Silla observatory all over the year. Together with two other regions, Deep 1 and Deep 2, Deep 3 is part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS), based on ideas submitted by the ESO community and covering a total sky area of 3 square degrees. Deep 1 and Deep 2 were selected because they overlapped with regions of other scientific interest. For instance, Deep 1 was chosen to complement the deep ATESP radio survey carried out

  12. Waves and Particles--The Orbital Atom, Parts One & Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Student Guide, 1971 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    The third year of the Portland Project, a three-year secondary school curriculum in integrated science, consists of four parts, the first two of which are covered in this student guide. The reading assignments for part one, "Waves and Particles," are listed in the student guide and are to be read in the Harvard Project Physics textbook.…

  13. Magneto-thermo-elastokinetics of geometrically nonlinear laminated composite plates. Part 2: vibration and wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Zhanming; Hasanyan, Davresh; Librescu, Liviu; Ambur, Damodar R.

    2005-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, the governing equations of geometrically nonlinear, anisotropic composite plates incorporating magneto-thermo-elastic effects have been derived. In order to gain insight into the implications of a number of geometrical and physical features of the system. three special cases are investigated: (i) free vibration of a plate strip immersed in a transversal magnetic field; (ii) free vibration of the plate strip immersed in an axial magnetic field; (iii) magneto-elastic wave propagations of an infinite plate. Within each of these cases, a prescribed uniform thermal field is considered. Special coupling characteristics between the magnetic and elastic fields are put into evidence. Extensive numerical investigations are conducted and pertinent conclusions which highlight the various effects induced by the magneto-elastic couplings and the finite electroconductivity, are outlined.

  14. Herbert Easterly auxiliary truck heater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The objective of this work was to continue the development of the Herbert Easterly heater apparatus for vehicles, such as semi-trailer tractors in order to fully establish its technical feasibility and provide the basis for its commercialization. This heater is auxiliary to the vehicle`s primary heating system. With the engine off it heats both the vehicle engine to a temperature at which it starts easily and the vehicle passenger compartment. Specifically, this heater is automatically ignitable, operates directly from the vehicle diesel fuel supply and preheats the vehicle engine fuel prior to combustion. During the course of this work ninemore » different versions of prototype heaters were designed, constructed and tested. All designs were based on the ideas and principles outlined in the Easterly patent. Each successive version incorporated design and fabrication improvements relative to the previous version. The final version, Prototype 9, utilized a multiple water jacket design to capture additional heat from the combustion gases prior to exhausting to the atmosphere. This final prototype exceeded the performance of a commercially available Webasto DBW-2010 using the same commercial burner as the one used in the Webasto unit. The time required to raise the heater fluid temperature by 120{degree}F was 23% less (20 minutes compared to 26 minutes) for Prototype 9 compared to the commercially available unit. In addition a prototype heat exchanger for preheating engine fuel was designed, fabricated and tested. It was also determined that the Prototype 9 auxiliary heater could operate at 85{degree}F for approximately 6 hours on a fully charged 12 volt marine battery rated to deliver 500 cold cranking amps.« less

  15. Upper-tropospheric inversion and easterly jet in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Xie, S.-P.; Shiotani, M.; Hashizume, H.; Hasebe, F.; VöMel, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Watanabe, T.

    2003-12-01

    Shipboard radiosonde measurements revealed a persistent temperature inversion layer with a thickness of ˜200 m at 12-13 km in a nonconvective region over the tropical eastern Pacific, along 2°N, in September 1999. Simultaneous relative humidity measurements indicated that the thin inversion layer was located at the top of a very wet layer with a thickness of 3-4 km, which was found to originate from the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) to the north. Radiative transfer calculations suggested that this upper tropospheric inversion (UTI) was produced and maintained by strong longwave cooling in this wet layer. A strong easterly jet stream was also observed at 12-13 km, centered around 4°-5°N. This easterly jet was in the thermal wind balance, with meridional temperature gradients produced by the cloud and radiative processes in the ITCZ and the wet outflow. Furthermore, the jet, in turn, acted to spread inversions further downstream through the transport of radiatively active water vapor. This feedback mechanism may explain the omnipresence of temperature inversions and layering structures in trace gases in the tropical troposphere. Examination of high-resolution radiosonde data at other sites in the tropical Pacific indicates that similar UTIs often appear around 12-15 km. The UTI around 12-15 km may thus be characterized as one of the "climatological" inversions in the tropical troposphere, forming the lower boundary of the so-called tropical tropopause layer, where the tropospheric air is processed photochemically and microphysically before entering the stratosphere.

  16. Internal wave scattering in continental slope canyons, part 1: Theory and development of a ray tracing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarian, Robert H.; Legg, Sonya

    2017-10-01

    When internal waves interact with topography, such as continental slopes, they can transfer wave energy to local dissipation and diapycnal mixing. Submarine canyons comprise approximately ten percent of global continental slopes, and can enhance the local dissipation of internal wave energy, yet parameterizations of canyon mixing processes are currently missing from large-scale ocean models. As a first step in the development of such parameterizations, we conduct a parameter space study of M2 tidal-frequency, low-mode internal waves interacting with idealized V-shaped canyon topographies. Specifically, we examine the effects of varying the canyon mouth width, shape and slope of the thalweg (line of lowest elevation). This effort is divided into two parts. In the first part, presented here, we extend the theory of 3-dimensional internal wave reflection to a rotated coordinate system aligned with our idealized V-shaped canyons. Based on the updated linear internal wave reflection solution that we derive, we construct a ray tracing algorithm which traces a large number of rays (the discrete analog of a continuous wave) into the canyon region where they can scatter off topography. Although a ray tracing approach has been employed in other studies, we have, for the first time, used ray tracing to calculate changes in wavenumber and ray density which, in turn, can be used to calculate the Froude number (a measure of the likelihood of instability). We show that for canyons of intermediate aspect ratio, large spatial envelopes of instability can form in the presence of supercritical sidewalls. Additionally, the canyon height and length can modulate the Froude number. The second part of this study, a diagnosis of internal wave scattering in continental slope canyons using both numerical simulations and this ray tracing algorithm, as well as a test of robustness of the ray tracing, is presented in the companion article.

  17. Material State Awareness for Composites Part I: Precursor Damage Analysis Using Ultrasonic Guided Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI).

    PubMed

    Patra, Subir; Banerjee, Sourav

    2017-12-16

    Detection of precursor damage followed by the quantification of the degraded material properties could lead to more accurate progressive failure models for composite materials. However, such information is not readily available. In composite materials, the precursor damages-for example matrix cracking, microcracks, voids, interlaminar pre-delamination crack joining matrix cracks, fiber micro-buckling, local fiber breakage, local debonding, etc.-are insensitive to the low-frequency ultrasonic guided-wave-based online nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) (~100-~500 kHz) systems. Overcoming this barrier, in this article, an online ultrasonic technique is proposed using the coda part of the guided wave signal, which is often neglected. Although the first-arrival wave packets that contain the fundamental guided Lamb wave modes are unaltered, the coda wave packets however carry significant information about the precursor events with predictable phase shifts. The Taylor-series-based modified Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) technique is proposed to quantify the stretch parameter to compensate the phase shifts in the coda wave as a result of precursor damage in composites. The CWI analysis was performed on five woven composite-fiber-reinforced-laminate specimens, and the precursor events were identified. Next, the precursor damage states were verified using high-frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) and optical microscopy imaging.

  18. Further evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool on Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Thorsby, E; Flåm, S T; Woldseth, B; Dupuy, B M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Fernandez-Vina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Available evidence suggests a Polynesian origin of the Easter Island population. We recently found that some native Easter Islanders also carried some common American Indian (Amerindian) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, which probably were introduced before Europeans discovered the island in 1722. In this study, we report molecular genetic investigations of 21 other selected native Easter Islanders. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers showed no traces of an Amerindian contribution. However, high-resolution genomic HLA typing showed that two individuals carried some other common Amerindian HLA alleles, different from those found in our previous investigations. The new data support our previous evidence of an Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island.

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  20. Magmatic evolution of the Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region (South East Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hekinian, R.; Stoffers, P.; Akermand, D.; Binard, N.; Francheteau, Jean; Devey, C.; Garbe-Schonberg, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Easter microplate-Crough Seamount region located between 25?? S-116?? W and 25?? S-122?? W consists of a chain of seamounts forming isolated volcanoes and elongated (100-200 km in length) en echelon volcanic ridges oriented obliquely NE (N 065??), to the present day general spreading direction (N 100??) of the Pacific-Nazca plates. The extension of this seamount chain into the southwestern edge of the Easter microplate near 26??30??? S-115?? W was surveyed and sampled. The southern boundary including the Orongo fracture zone and other shallow ridges ( 0.25) MORBs which are similar in composition to other more recent basalts from the Southwest and East Rifts spreading axes of the Easter microplate. Incompatible element ratios normalized to chondrite values [(Ce/Yb)N = 1-2.5}, {(La/Sm)N = 0.4-1.2} and {(Zr/Y)N = 0.7-2.5} of the basalts are also similar to present day volcanism found in the Easter microplate. The volcanics from the Easter microplate-Crough region are unrelated to other known South Pacific intraplate magmatism (i.e. Society, Pitcairn, and Salas y Gomez Islands). Instead their range in incompatible element ratios is comparable to the submarine basalts from the recently investigated Ahu and Umu volcanic field (Easter hotspot) (Scientific Party SO80, 1993) and centered at about 80 km west of Easter Island. The oblique ridges and their associated seamounts are likely to represent ancient leaky transform faults created during the initial stage of the Easter microplate formation (??? 5 Ma). It appears that volcanic activity on seamounts overlying the oblique volcanic ridges has continued during their westward drift from the microplate as shown by the presence of relatively fresh lava observed on one of these structures, namely the first Oblique Volcanic Ridge near 25?? S-118?? W at about 160 km west of the Easter microplate West Rift. Based on a reconstruction of the Easter microplate, it is suggested that the Crough seamount (< 800 m depth) was formed

  1. Statistical Analysis of the Links between Blocking and Nor'easters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, J. F.; Pfahl, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nor'easters can be loosely defined as extratropical cyclones that develop as they progress northward along the eastern coast of North America. The path makes it possible for these storms to generate storm surge along the coastline and/or heavy precipitation or snow inland. In the present analysis, the path of the storms is investigated relative to the behavior of upstream blocking events over the North Atlantic Ocean. For this analysis, two separate Lagrangian tracking methods are used to identify the extratropical cyclone paths and the blocking events. Using the cyclone paths, Nor'easters are identified and blocking statistics are calculated for the days prior to, during and following the occurrence of the Nor'easters. The path, strength and intensification rates of the cyclones are compared with the strength and location of the blocks. In the event that a Nor'easter occurs, the likelihood of the presence of block at the southeast tip of Greenland is statistically significantly increased, i.e., the presence of a block concurrent with a Nor'easter happens more often than by random coincidence. However no significant link between the strength of the storms and the strength of the block is identified. These results suggest that the presence of the block mainly affects the path of the Nor'easters. On the other hand, in the event of blocking at the southeast tip of Greenland, the likelihood of a Nor'easter, as opposed to a different type of storm is no greater than what one might expect from randomly sampling cyclone tracks. The results confirm a long held understanding in forecast meteorology that upstream blocking is a necessary but not sufficient condition for generating a Nor'easter.

  2. WaveNet: A Web-Based Metocean Data Access, Processing and Analysis Tool. Part 4 - GLOS/GLCFS Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    and Coastal Data Information Program ( CDIP ). This User’s Guide includes step-by-step instructions for accessing the GLOS/GLCFS database via WaveNet...access, processing and analysis tool; part 3 – CDIP database. ERDC/CHL CHETN-xx-14. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

  3. Role of equatorial waves in tropical cyclogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Carl J., III

    Tropical cyclones typically form within preexisting wavelike disturbances that couple with convection. Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multisatellite rainfall estimates, this study determines the relative number of tropical cyclones that can be attributed to various wave types, including the Madden--Julian oscillation (MJO), Kelvin waves, equatorial Rossby (ER) waves, mixed Rossby--gravity (MRG) waves, and tropical depression (TD)-type disturbances. Tropical cyclogenesis is attributed to an equatorial wave's convection when the filtered rainfall anomaly exceeds a threshold value at the genesis location. More storms are attributed to TD-type disturbances than to any other wave type in all of the Northern Hemisphere basins. In the Southern Hemisphere, however, ER waves and TD-type disturbances are equally important as precursors. Fewer storms are attributed to MRG waves, Kelvin waves, and the MJO in every basin. Although relatively few storms are attributed to the MJO, tropical cyclogenesis is 2.6 times more likely in its convective phase compared with its suppressed phase. This modulation arises in part because each equatorial wave type is amplified within MJO's convective phase. The amplification significantly increases the probability that these waves will act as tropical cyclone precursors. A case study from June 2002 illustrates the effects of a series of Kelvin waves on two tropical cyclone formations. These waves were embedded in the convective phase of the MJO. Together, the MJO and the Kelvin waves preconditioned the low-level environment for cyclogenesis. The first Kelvin wave weakened the trade easterlies, while the subsequent waves created monsoon westerlies near the equator. These westerlies provided the background cyclonic vorticity within which both storms developed. The effects of tropical cyclone-related rainfall anomalies are also investigated. In the wavenumber--frequency spectrum for rainfall, tropical cyclones can inflate the

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Phenylpropanoid Glycerol Glucosides in Different Organs of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-05-20

    The Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is esteemed worldwide as an attractive ornamental plant, and the flower buds and bulbs are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. L. longiflorum contains significant amounts of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, a group of compounds that may contribute to plant pathogen defense, ultraviolet/high-intensity visible light (UV/high light) protection, and the purported medicinal uses of lilies. To define the natural distribution of these compounds within the plant, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed for the quantitative analysis of five phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, namely, (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 1; (2R)-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-O-p-coumaroylglycerol, 2; (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 3; (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 4; and (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 5, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The p-coumaroyl-based 3 and its acetylated derivative 5 were determined to be the most abundant of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides found in Easter lily bulbs, at 776.3 ± 8.4 and 650.7 ± 32.6 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The acetylated p-coumaroyl- and caffeoyl-based derivatives, 5 and 4, accumulated to the highest concentration in the closed flower buds, at 4925.2 ± 512.8 and 3216.8 ± 406.4 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Compound 4, followed by 5 and 1, proved to be the most abundant in the mature flowers, occurring at 6006.2 ± 625.8, 2160.3 ± 556.5, and 1535.8 ± 174.1 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Total concentrations of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides were 10-100-fold higher in the above-ground plant organs as compared to the bulbs and fleshy roots. Two of the five compounds, 1 and 2, were identified in L. longiflorum for the first time. The quantitative

  5. Pressure wave propagation in fluid-filled co-axial elastic tubes. Part 1: Basic theory.

    PubMed

    Berkouk, K; Carpenter, P W; Lucey, A D

    2003-12-01

    Our work is motivated by ideas about the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. This is a serious disease characterized by the appearance of longitudinal cavities within the spinal cord. Its causes are unknown, but pressure propagation is probably implicated. We have developed an inviscid theory for the propagation of pressure waves in co-axial, fluid-filled, elastic tubes. This is intended as a simple model of the intraspinal cerebrospinal-fluid system. Our approach is based on the classic theory for the propagation of longitudinal waves in single, fluid-filled, elastic tubes. We show that for small-amplitude waves the governing equations reduce to the classic wave equation. The wave speed is found to be a strong function of the ratio of the tubes' cross-sectional areas. It is found that the leading edge of a transmural pressure pulse tends to generate compressive waves with converging wave fronts. Consequently, the leading edge of the pressure pulse steepens to form a shock-like elastic jump. A weakly nonlinear theory is developed for such an elastic jump.

  6. The Solsticial Pause on Mars. Part 1; A Planetary Wave Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Stephen R.; Mulholland, David P.; Read, Peter L.; Montabone, Luca; Wilson, R. John; Smith, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale planetary waves are diagnosed from an analysis of profiles retrieved from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during its scientific mapping phase. The analysis is conducted by assimilating thermal profiles and total dust opacity retrievals into a Mars global circulation model. Transient waves are largest throughout the northern hemisphere autumn, winter and spring period and almost absent during the summer. The southern hemisphere exhibits generally weaker transient wave behavior. A striking feature of the low-altitude transient waves in the analysis is that they show a broad subsidiary minimum in amplitude centred on the winter solstice, a period when the thermal contrast between the summer hemisphere and the winter pole is strongest and baroclinic wave activity might be expected to be strong. This behavior, here called the 'solsticial pause,' is present in every year of the analysis. This strong pause is under-represented in many independent model experiments, which tend to produce relatively uniform baroclinic wave activity throughout the winter. This paper documents and diagnoses the transient wave solsticial pause found in the analysis; a companion paper investigates the origin of the phenomenon in a series of model experiments.

  7. A simple model of ultrasound propagation in a cavitating liquid. Part I: Theory, nonlinear attenuation and traveling wave generation.

    PubMed

    Louisnard, O

    2012-01-01

    The bubbles involved in sonochemistry and other applications of cavitation oscillate inertially. A correct estimation of the wave attenuation in such bubbly media requires a realistic estimation of the power dissipated by the oscillation of each bubble, by thermal diffusion in the gas and viscous friction in the liquid. Both quantities and calculated numerically for a single inertial bubble driven at 20 kHz, and are found to be several orders of magnitude larger than the linear prediction. Viscous dissipation is found to be the predominant cause of energy loss for bubbles small enough. Then, the classical nonlinear Caflish equations describing the propagation of acoustic waves in a bubbly liquid are recast and simplified conveniently. The main harmonic part of the sound field is found to fulfill a nonlinear Helmholtz equation, where the imaginary part of the squared wave number is directly correlated with the energy lost by a single bubble. For low acoustic driving, linear theory is recovered, but for larger drivings, namely above the Blake threshold, the attenuation coefficient is found to be more than 3 orders of magnitude larger then the linear prediction. A huge attenuation of the wave is thus expected in regions where inertial bubbles are present, which is confirmed by numerical simulations of the nonlinear Helmholtz equation in a 1D standing wave configuration. The expected strong attenuation is not only observed but furthermore, the examination of the phase between the pressure field and its gradient clearly demonstrates that a traveling wave appears in the medium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events. Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-12

    is based on expand - ing the complete three dimensional solution of the wave equation expressed in cylindrical S coordinates in an asymptotic form which...using line source (2-D) theory. It is based on expand - ing the complete three dimensional solution of the wave equation expressed in cylindrical...generating synthetic point-source seismograms for shear dislocation sources using line source (2-D) theory. It is based on expanding the complete three

  9. Identification of the Radiative and Nonradiative Parts of a Wave Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenders, B. J.; Ferwerda, H. A.

    2001-08-01

    We present a method for decomposing a wave field, described by a second-order ordinary differential equation, into a radiative component and a nonradiative one, using a biorthonormal system related to the problem under consideration. We show that it is possible to select a special system such that the wave field is purely radiating. We discuss the differences and analogies with approaches which, unlike our approach, start from the corresponding sources of the field.

  10. Gravity-wave spectra in the atmosphere observed by MST radar, part 4.2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A universal spectrum of atmospheric buoyancy waves is proposed based on data from radiosonde, Doppler navigation, not-wire anemometer and Jimsphere balloon. The possible existence of such a universal spectrum clearly will have significant impact on several areas in the study of the middle atmosphere dynamics such as the parameterization of sub-grid scale gravity waves in global circulation models; the transport of trace constituents and heat in the middle atmosphere, etc. Therefore, it is important to examine more global wind data with temporal and spatial resolutions suitable for the investigation of the wave spectra. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar observations offer an excellent opportunity for such studies. It is important to realize that radar measures the line-of-sight velocity which, in general, contains the combination of the vertical and horizontal components of the wave-associated particle velocity. Starting from a general oblique radar observation configuration, applying the dispersion relation for the gravity waves, the spectrum for the observed fluctuations in the line-of-sight gravity-wave spectrum is investigated through a filter function. The consequence of the filter function on data analysis is discussed.

  11. Multichannel analysis of the surface waves of earth materials in some parts of Lagos State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegbola, R. B.; Oyedele, K. F.; Adeoti, L.; Adeloye, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method that utilizes multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), which was used to measure shear wave velocities, with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some local government areas in Lagos, Nigeria. MASW data were acquired using a 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into a two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of the depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0-15 m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/ borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrate the accuracy and consistency of MASW-derived shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/ very low velocity data are reflective of organic clay/ peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failure, subsidence and weakening of structures within the study areas.

  12. Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part 1: Definition, Calibration, and Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM- YYYY) 02-03-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Journal Article 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Semiempirical Dissipation...Spectral wave modeling has been performed for the "£_ <• , r. , r , r M> l . en • .u u i .• rll ;imi nl .K. •ihr (l’ last...wind output). The nonlinear scattering term Sn\\ repre- sents all processes that lead to an exchange of wave en - ergy between the different spectral

  13. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    PubMed

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña, Cindy M

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island.

  14. Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I, Acoustic wave behavior

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Peter Carter

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic wave velocities in standing trees or live softwood species were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Tree velocities were compared with acoustic velocities measured in corresponding butt logs through a resonance acoustic method. The experimental data showed a skewed relationship between tree and log acoustic measurements. For most trees tested,...

  15. Cavitation cluster dynamics in shock-wave lithotripsy: part 1. Free field.

    PubMed

    Arora, M; Junge, L; Ohl, C D

    2005-06-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of cavitation bubble growth and collapse in shock-wave lithotripsy in a free field was studied experimentally. The lithotripter was equipped with two independently triggerable layers of piezoceramics. The front and back layers generated positive pressure amplitudes of 30 MPa and 15 MPa, respectively, and -10 MPa negative amplitude. The time interval between the launch of the shock waves was varied from 0 and 0.1 s, covering the regimens of pulse-modification (regimen A, delay 0 to 4 micros), shock wave-cavitation cluster interaction (B, 4 micros to 64 micros) and shock wave-gas bubble interaction (C, 256 micros to 0.1 s). The time-integrated cavitation activity was most strongly influenced in regimen A and, in regimen B, the spatial distribution of bubbles was altered, whereas enhancement of cavitation activity was observed in regimen C. Quantitative measurements of the spatial- and time-integrated void fractions were obtained with a photographic and light-scattering technique. The preconditions for a reproducible experiment are explained, with the existence of two distinct types of cavitation nuclei, small particles suspended in the liquid and residuals of bubbles from prior cavitation clusters.

  16. Part of evanescent modes in the normally incident gravity surface wave's energy layout around a submerged obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charland, J.; Rey, V.; Touboul, J.

    2012-04-01

    Part of evanescent modes in the normally incident gravity surface wave's energy layout around a submerged obstacle Jenna Charland *1, Vincent Rey *2, Julien Touboul *2 *1 Mediterraneen Institute of Oceanography. Institut des Sciences de l'Ingénieur Toulon-Var. Avenue Georges Pompidou, BP 56, 83162 La Valette du Var Cedex, France. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Délégation Normandie. Projet soutenu financièrement par la Délégation Générale de l'Armement. *2 Mediterraneen Institute of Oceanography. Institut des Sciences de l'Ingénieur Toulon-Var. Avenue Georges Pompidou, BP 56, 83162 La Valette du Var Cedex, France. During the last decades various studies have been performed to understand the wave propagation over varying bathymetries. Few answers related to this non linear problem were given by the Patarapanich's studies which described the reflection coefficient of a submerged plate as a function of the wavelength. Later Le-Thi-Minh [2] demonstrated the necessity of taking into account the evanescent modes to better describe the propagation of waves over a varying bathymetry. However, all these studies stare at pseudo-stationary state that allows neither the comprehension of the transient behaviour of propagative modes nor the role of the evanescent modes in this unstationnary process. Our study deals with the wave establishment over a submerged plate or step and focuses on the evanescent modes establishment. Rey [3] described the propagation of a normally incident surface gravity wave over a varying topography on the behaviour of the fluid using a linearized potential theory solved by a numerical model using an integral method. This model has a large field of application and has been adapted to our case. This code still solves a stationary problem but allows us to calculate the contribution of the evanescent modes in the energy layout around a submerged plate or a submerged step. The results will show the importance of the trapped energy

  17. A simple mathematical model of society collapse applied to Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, M.; Flores, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model for the evolution and collapse of the Easter Island society. Based on historical reports, the available primary resources consisted almost exclusively in the trees, then we describe the inhabitants and the resources as an isolated dynamical system. A mathematical, and numerical, analysis about the Easter Island community collapse is performed. In particular, we analyze the critical values of the fundamental parameters and a demographic curve is presented. The technological parameter, quantifying the exploitation of the resources, is calculated and applied to the case of another extinguished civilization (Copán Maya) confirming the consistency of the adopted model.

  18. Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear coordinates using a summation-by-parts finite difference method

    DOE PAGES

    Petersson, N. Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2015-07-20

    We develop a fourth order accurate finite difference method for solving the three-dimensional elastic wave equation in general heterogeneous anisotropic materials on curvilinear grids. The proposed method is an extension of the method for isotropic materials, previously described in the paper by Sjögreen and Petersson (2012) [11]. The method we proposed discretizes the anisotropic elastic wave equation in second order formulation, using a node centered finite difference method that satisfies the principle of summation by parts. The summation by parts technique results in a provably stable numerical method that is energy conserving. Also, we generalize and evaluate the super-grid far-fieldmore » technique for truncating unbounded domains. Unlike the commonly used perfectly matched layers (PML), the super-grid technique is stable for general anisotropic material, because it is based on a coordinate stretching combined with an artificial dissipation. Moreover, the discretization satisfies an energy estimate, proving that the numerical approximation is stable. We demonstrate by numerical experiments that sufficiently wide super-grid layers result in very small artificial reflections. Applications of the proposed method are demonstrated by three-dimensional simulations of anisotropic wave propagation in crystals.« less

  19. The oceanic boundary layer driven by wave breaking with stochastic variability. Part 1. Direct numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter P.; McWilliams, James C.; Melville, W. Kendall

    2004-05-01

    We devise a stochastic model for the effects of breaking waves and fit its distribution functions to laboratory and field data. This is used to represent the space time structure of momentum and energy forcing of the oceanic boundary layer in turbulence-resolving simulations. The aptness of this breaker model is evaluated in a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of an otherwise quiescent fluid driven by an isolated breaking wave, and the results are in good agreement with laboratory measurements. The breaker model faithfully reproduces the bulk features of a breaking event: the mean kinetic energy decays at a rate approaching t(-1) , and a long-lived vortex (eddy) is generated close to the water surface. The long lifetime of this vortex (more than 50 wave periods) makes it effective in energizing the surface region of oceanic boundary layers. Next, a comparison of several different DNS of idealized oceanic boundary layers driven by different surface forcing (i.e. constant current (as in Couette flow), constant stress, or a mixture of constant stress plus stochastic breakers) elucidates the importance of intermittent stress transmission to the underlying currents. A small amount of active breaking, about 1.6% of the total water surface area at any instant in time, significantly alters the instantaneous flow patterns as well as the ensemble statistics. Near the water surface a vigorous downwelling upwelling pattern develops at the head and tail of each three-dimensional breaker. This enhances the vertical velocity variance and generates both negative- and positive-signed vertical momentum flux. Analysis of the mean velocity and scalar profiles shows that breaking effectively increases the surface roughness z_o by more than a factor of 30; for our simulations z_o/lambda {≈} 0.04 to 0.06, where lambda is the wavelength of the breaking wave. Compared to a flow driven by a constant current, the extra mixing from breakers increases the mean eddy viscosity by more than a

  20. Radio Wave Propagation for Communication on and around Mars. Part 1; Highlights: Propagation Through Mars Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser

    1999-01-01

    We recommend to use the dayside Martian ionosphere as a reflector for global communication, because the dayside ionosphere has stable density peak and usable critic frequency. This is very crucial for the future Mars ground to around communication. The dayside ionosphere has been well modeled as a Chapman layer. We suggest to perform the Martian nightside ionospheric modeling study. Because the nightside ionosphere has very little measurements available, we propose to drop a digital ionosond instrument into the Mars surface for data collection. Even though the Martian tropospheric radio refractivity has small value, it still can cause the ray bending and multipath effects. We recommend to perform an accurate calculation on excess phase and group delays (range and time delays). Other effects, such as range rate errors, appearance angle deviation, defocusing loss on Mars, etc. are also needed to be estimated. Ice depolarization effects due to Martian clouds on radio waves is unknown yet, which is expected to be small, because lower optical depth and thinner layer of cloud: Total Martian atmospheric gaseous attenuation is expected to be less than 1 dB on microwaves band, because the Martian atmosphere has very low concentration in uncondensed H2O and O2. An accurate calculation for zenith opacity requires the information about scale heights of H2O and O2 distribution. An accurate water vapor altitude profile at Mars is not available yet. Under the normal condition, CO2 and N2 gases do not have electric or magnetic dipoles and do not absorb electromagnetic energy from the waves. However, they may generate the dipoles through a collision and interact with waves under a high density condition and absorb electromagnetic waves in the infrared and visible band. Dust storm is most dominant factor to the radio wave attenuation. Large Martian dust storm can cause at least 3 dB or higher loss to Ka band wave. For a normal dust storm, the attenuation is about 1 dB. The

  1. Upper-Tropospheric Synoptic-Scale Waves. Part II: Maintenance and Excitation of Quasi Modes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivest, Chantal; Farrell, Brian F.

    1992-11-01

    In a preceding paper a simple dynamical model for the maintenance of upper-tropospheric waves was proposed: the upper-level Eady normal modes. In this paper it is shown that these modes have counterparts in basic states with positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, and that these counterparts can be maintained and excited on time scales consistent with observations.In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal-mode solutions no longer exist. That the normal-mode solution disappears when gradients are infinitesimal represents an apparent singularity and challenges the interpretation of upper-level synoptic-scale waves as related to the upper-level Eady normal modes. What happens to the upper-level modal solution in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity is examined in a series of initial-value experiments. Our results show that they become slowly decaying quasi modes. Mathematically the quasi modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained.Following a previous study by Farrell, a class of near-optimal initial conditions for the excitation of upper-level waves is identified. The initial conditions consist of upper-tropospheric disturbances that lean against the shear. They strongly excite upper-level waves not only in the absence of tropospheric potential vorticity gradients, but also in their presence. This result is important mathematically since it suggests that quasi modes are as likely to emerge from favorably configured initial disturbances as true normal modes, although the excitation is followed by a slow decay.

  2. Travelling wave ultrasonic motors, Part I: Working principle and mathematical modelling of the stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, P.; Wallaschek, J.

    1992-05-01

    Travelling wave ultrasonic motors have recently been attracting considerable attention: they may possibly soon replace—at least in certain areas—small electromagnetic motors. This development has been made possible by recent advances in power electronics, material research and digital control, which allow utilization of the piezoelectric effect for low power motors. In these motors the mechanical energy is generated with frequencies of the order of 40 kHz via piezo-elements producing bending waves in a stator, which has approximately the form of a circular plate. The rotor is then driven by the stator via contact forces, and with an extremely simple mechanism frequency reductions of 1:40 000 and more are obtained between the stator vibration and the rotor motion. As a consequence, one can work in the 40 kHz range on the electrical side, while a low frequency rotation is obtained on the mechanical side, as is desirable for many applications. In the present paper, which is the first of a series, the working principle of travelling wave ultrasonic motors is reviewed, and the main phenomena are mathematically modelled. In further papers a detailed mathematical description of the stator vibration and a first model of the contact problem will be given.

  3. Major Nor'easter Set to Impact Northeast U.S.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-26

    This image was taken by the Suomi NPP satellite's VIIRS instrument at 1825Z on January 26, 2015. A low pressure system currently forming off the mid-Atlantic coast will rapidly strengthen into a major nor'easter today and affect parts of the Northeast U.S. through early Wednesday. This system will be responsible for heavy to intense snowfall and strong winds, with blizzard conditions expected from eastern New Jersey to eastern Massachusetts where Blizzard Warnings are in effect. Accumulations will likely exceed one foot from eastern New Jersey through eastern Maine by late Tuesday. The heaviest snow accumulations, perhaps exceeding two feet, are forecast across portions of Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, including the Boston area. Currently, New York City is forecast to receive 18-24 inches of snow, and Boston is forecast to receive 24-36 inches of snow. Wind gusts of 45 to 60 mph will be common from eastern New Jersey to eastern Massachusetts, leading to widespread blizzard conditions. Wind gusts up to 70 mph are possible in far eastern Massachusetts, including Cape Cod and Nantucket. Credit: NASA/NOAA/NPP/VIIRS Via: NASA/NOAA via NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  4. The mean zonal flow response to Rossby wave and gravity wave forcing in the equatorial lower stratosphere: Relationship to the QBO. [QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation)

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Holton, J.R.

    1991-09-15

    Observations show that the westerly acceleration of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) can be accounted for by Kelvin waves, but that there is a deficiency in the easterly acceleration due to Rossby-gravity waves. Rossby waves and westward propagating gravity waves have been suggested as alternative sources for the easterly acceleration. We have tested the possible role of these two wave modes in a two-dimensional model of the QBO. When the easterly acceleration is due to Rossby waves, the zonal-mean response is steady; when it is due to gravity waves, an oscillation with some features similar to the QBO occurs, butmore » it is of short period and weak amplitude. A similar result occurs when a standing-wave forcing pattern is imposed. These results suggest that Rossby waves play only a minor role in the QBO, and that while the Rossby-gravity mode is essential, other gravity modes may also be important for the easterly phase. 12 refs., 22 figs.« less

  5. The mean zonal flow response to Rossby wave and gravity wave forcing in the equatorial lower stratosphere - Relationship to the QBO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Holton, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations show that the westerly acceleration of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) can be accounted for by Kelvin waves, but that there is a deficiency in the easterly acceleration due to Rossby-gravity waves. Rossby waves and westward propagating gravity waves have been suggested as alternative sources for the easterly acceleration. The possible role of these two wave modes has been tested in a two-dimensional model of the QBO. When the easterly acceleration is due to Rossby waves, the zonal-mean response is steady; when it is due to gravity waves, an oscillation with some features similar to the QBO occurs, but it is of short period and weak amplitude. A similar result occurs when a standing-wave forcing pattern is imposed. These results suggest that Rossby waves play only a minor role in the QBO, and that while the Rossby-gravity mode is essential, other gravity modes may also be important for the easterly phase.

  6. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake...

  7. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake...

  8. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake...

  9. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake...

  10. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70 Chesapeake...

  11. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Easter Seal Directory of Resident Camps for Persons with Special Health Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    The directory describes approximately 260 resident camps in 44 states and Canada for children and adults with physical, mental, social, and/or emotional handicaps which have been compiled by the National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults. Organized alphabetically by state, each camp listing includes information on impairments…

  13. The Easter Seal Directory of Resident Camps for Persons with Special Health Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    The directory of resident camps is designed for persons with special health needs (children and adults with physical, mental, social, or emotional handicaps). Published by the National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, the listing contains residential facilities only (day care camp program information is not included). Listed…

  14. Sustainability in a Differential Equations Course: A Case Study of Easter Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Lorelei

    2011-01-01

    Easter Island is a fascinating example of resource depletion and population collapse, and its relatively short period of human habitation combined with its isolation lends itself well to investigation by students in a first-semester ordinary differential equations course. This article describes curricular materials for a semester-long case study…

  15. Hopping into Economics: First Graders Learn about Economics through an Easter Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gaylene

    A 3-month study unit introducing first grade students to economics through an Easter theme is outlined in five sections. Sections 1 and 2 describe rationale, goals, and learning objectives. Section 3 provides learning activities. A wide range of instructional strategies is used to teach the basic economic concepts of want, need, scarcity,…

  16. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytological changes of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) upon root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White, commonly known as Easter lily, is an important floral crop with an annual wholesale value of over $26 million in the U.S. The root lesion nematode (RLN), Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major pest of lily due to the significant root damage it causes. In this study w...

  18. Sub-seasonal prediction of significant wave heights over the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans, part II: The impact of ENSO and MJO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Ravi P.; Kinter, James L.; Shin, Chul-Su

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluates the effect of El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events on 14-day mean significant wave height (SWH) at 3 weeks lead time (Wk34) over the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2). The WAVEWATCH-3 (WW3) model is forced with daily 10m-winds predicted by a modified version of CFSv2 that is initialized with multiple ocean analyses in both January and May for 1979-2008. A significant anomaly correlation of predicted and observed SWH anomalies (SWHA) at Wk34 lead-time is found over portions of the domain, including the central western Pacific, South China Sea (SCS), Bay of Bengal (BOB) and southern Indian Ocean (IO) in January cases, and over BOB, equatorial western Pacific, the Maritime Continent and southern IO in May cases. The model successfully predicts almost all the important features of the observed composite SWHA during El Niño events in January, including negative SWHA in the central IO where westerly wind anomalies act on an easterly mean state, and positive SWHA over the southern Ocean (SO) where westerly wind anomalies act on a westerly mean state. The model successfully predicts the sign and magnitude of SWHA at Wk34 lead-time in May over the BOB and SCS in composites of combined phases-2-3 and phases-6-7 of MJO. The observed leading mode of SWHA in May and the third mode of SWHA in January are influenced by the combined effects of ENSO and MJO. Based on spatial and temporal correlations, the spatial patterns of SWHA in the model at Wk34 in both January and May are in good agreement with the observations over the equatorial western Pacific, equatorial and southern IO, and SO.

  19. Dispersion of electron Bernstein waves including weakly relativistic and electromagnetic effects. Part 2. Extraordinary modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1987-06-01

    Extraordinary solutions of the weakly relativistic, electromagnetic dispersion relation are investigated for waves propagating perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. As in a companion paper, which treated ordinary modes, weakly relativistic effects are found to modify dramatically the dispersion predicted by strictly non-relativistic ‘classical’ theory in the neighbourhood of harmonics of the cyclotron frequency Ωe. The infinite families of classical Gross-Bernstein and Dnestrovskii-Kostomarov modes are truncated to include only harmonics s satisfying s (ω2p mc2/4kB TΩ2e)⅓ and s (ωp/Ωe)⅔/8 respectively where ωp is the plasma frequency and T the temperature. All classical cut-offs and resonances are removed apart from the x- and z- mode cut-offs. The only coupling between large- and small-wave-vector modes is between the z mode and a Gross-Bernstein mode near the upper-hybrid frequency and between the x mode and the second Gross-Bernstein mode near 2Ωe. Dispersion of the weakly relativistic counterpart of the x mode departs only slightly from that predicted by cold plasma theory except near Ωe and 2Ωe.

  20. Localization and activation of the Drosophila protease easter require the ER-resident saposin-like protein seele.

    PubMed

    Stein, David; Charatsi, Iphigenie; Cho, Yong Suk; Zhang, Zhenyu; Nguyen, Jesse; DeLotto, Robert; Luschnig, Stefan; Moussian, Bernard

    2010-11-09

    Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity is generated by a series of serine protease processing events in the egg perivitelline space. Gastrulation Defective processes Snake, which then cleaves Easter, which then processes Spätzle into the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. seele was identified in a screen for mutations that, when homozygous in ovarian germline clones, lead to the formation of progeny embryos with altered embryonic patterning; maternal loss of seele function leads to the production of moderately dorsalized embryos. By combining constitutively active versions of Gastrulation Defective, Snake, Easter, and Spätzle with loss-of-function alleles of seele, we find that Seele activity is dispensable for Spätzle-mediated activation of Toll but is required for Easter, Snake, and Gastrulation Defective to exert their effects on dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, Seele function is required specifically for secretion of Easter from the developing embryo into the perivitelline space and for Easter processing. Seele protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum of blastoderm embryos, suggesting a role in the trafficking of Easter to the perivitelline space, prerequisite to its processing and function. Easter transport to the perivitelline space represents a previously unappreciated control point in the signal transduction pathway that controls Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Two dimensional modeling of elastic wave propagation in solids containing cracks with rough surfaces and friction - Part II: Numerical implementation.

    PubMed

    Delrue, Steven; Aleshin, Vladislav; Truyaert, Kevin; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis. In the crack model, three different contact states can be recognized: contact loss, total sliding and partial slip. Normal (clapping) interactions between the crack faces are implemented using a quadratic stress-displacement relation, whereas tangential (friction) interactions were introduced using the Coulomb friction law for the total sliding case, and the Method of Memory Diagrams (MMD) in case of partial slip. In the present part of the paper, we integrate the developed crack model into finite element software in order to simulate elastic wave propagation in a solid material containing internal contacts or cracks. We therefore implemented the comprehensive crack model in MATLAB® and introduced it in the Structural Mechanics Module of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The potential of the approach for ultrasound based inspection of solids with cracks showing acoustic nonlinearity is demonstrated by means of an example of shear wave propagation in an aluminum sample containing a single crack with rough surfaces and friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental studies of shock-wave/wall-jet interaction in hypersonic flow, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Experimental studies have been conducted to examine slot film cooling effectiveness and the interaction between the cooling film and an incident planar shock wave in turbulent hypersonic flow. The experimental studies were conducted in the 48-inch shock tunnel at Calspan at a freestream Mach number of close to 6.4 and at a Reynolds number of 35 x 10(exp 6) based on the length of the model at the injection point. The Mach 2.3 planar wall jet was generated from 40 transverse nozzles (with heights of both 0.080 inch and 0.120 inch), producing a film that extended the full width of the model. The nozzles were operated at pressures and velocities close to matching the freestream, as well as at conditions where the nozzle flows were over- and under-expanded. A two-dimensional shock generator was used to generate oblique shocks that deflected the flow through total turnings of 11, 16, and 21 degrees; the flows impinged downstream of the nozzle exits. Detailed measurements of heat transfer and pressure were made both ahead and downstream of the injection station, with the greatest concentration of measurements in the regions of shock-wave/boundary layer interaction. The major objectives of these experimental studies were to explore the effectiveness of film cooling in the presence of regions of shock-wave/boundary layer interaction and, more specifically, to determine how boundary layer separation and the large recompression heating rates were modified by film cooling. Detailed distributions of heat transfer and pressure were obtained in the incident-shock/wall-jet interaction region for a series of shock strengths and impingement positions for each of the two nozzle heights. Measurements were also made to examine the effects of nozzle lip thickness on cooling effectiveness. The major conclusion from these studies was that the effect of the cooling film could be readily dispersed by relatively weak incident shocks, so the peak heating in the recompression region was not

  3. Seismic wave propagation in anisotropic ice - Part 2: Effects of crystal anisotropy in geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, A.; Eisen, O.; Hofstede, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Mayer, C.; Miller, H.; Steinhage, D.; Binder, T.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of seismic waves in anisotropic ice. Two effects are important: (i) sudden changes in crystal orientation fabric (COF) lead to englacial reflections; (ii) the anisotropic fabric induces an angle dependency on the seismic velocities and, thus, recorded travel times. Velocities calculated from the polycrystal elasticity tensor derived for the anisotropic fabric from measured COF eigenvalues of the EDML ice core, Antarctica, show good agreement with the velocity trend determined from vertical seismic profiling. The agreement of the absolute velocity values, however, depends on the choice of the monocrystal elasticity tensor used for the calculation of the polycrystal properties. We make use of abrupt changes in COF as a common reflection mechanism for seismic and radar data below the firn-ice transition to determine COF-induced reflections in either data set by joint comparison with ice-core data. Our results highlight the possibility to complement regional radar surveys with local, surface-based seismic experiments to separate isochrones in radar data from other mechanisms. This is important for the reconnaissance of future ice-core drill sites, where accurate isochrone (i.e. non-COF) layer integrity allows for synchronization with other cores, as well as studies of ice dynamics considering non-homogeneous ice viscosity from preferred crystal orientations.

  4. A study on crustal shear wave splitting in the western part of the Banda arc-continent collision

    SciTech Connect

    Syuhada, E-mail: hadda9@gmail.com; Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences; Hananto, Nugroho D.

    2016-03-11

    We analyzed shear wave splitting parameters from local shallow (< 30 km) earthquakes recorded at six seismic stations in the western part of the Banda arc-continent collision. We determined fast polarization and delay time for 195 event-stations pairs calculated from good signal-to-noise ratio waveforms. We observed that there is evidence for shear wave splitting at all stations with dominant fast polarization directions oriented about NE-SW, which are parallel to the collision direction of the Australian plate. However, minor fast polarization directions are oriented around NW-SE being perpendicular to the strike of Timor through. Furthermore, the changes in fast azimuths with themore » earthquake-station back azimuth suggest that the crustal anisotropy in the study area is not uniform. Splitting delay times are within the range of 0.05 s to 0.8 s, with a mean value of 0.29±0.18 s. Major seismic stations exhibit a weak tendency increasing of delay times with increasing hypocentral distance suggesting the main anisotropy contribution of the shallow crust. In addition, these variations in fast azimuths and delay times indicate that the crustal anisotropy in this region might not only be caused by extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA), but also by heterogeneity shallow structure such as the presence of foliations in the rock fabric and the fracture zones associated with active faults.« less

  5. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation of high-frequency S-waves in the central part of the External Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majstorović, Josipa; Belinić, Tena; Namjesnik, Dalija; Dasović, Iva; Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan

    2017-09-01

    The central part of the External Dinarides (CED) is a geologically and tectonically complex region formed in the collision between the Adriatic microplate and the European plate. In this study, the contributions of intrinsic and scattering attenuation ( Q i - 1 and Q sc - 1 , respectively) to the total S-wave attenuation were calculated for the first time. The multiple lapse-time window analysis (MLTWA method), based on the assumptions of multiple isotropic scattering in a homogeneous medium with uniformly distributed scatterers, was applied to seismograms of 450 earthquakes recorded at six seismic stations. Selected events have hypocentral distances between 40 and 90 km with local magnitudes between 1.5 and 4.7. The analysis was performed over 11 frequency bands with central frequencies between 1.5 and 16 Hz. Results show that the seismic albedo of the studied area is less than 0.5 and Q i - 1 > Q sc - 1 at all central frequencies and for all stations. These imply that the intrinsic attenuation dominates over scattering attenuation in the whole study area. Calculated total S-wave and expected coda wave attenuation for CED are in a very good agreement with the ones measured in previous studies using the coda normalization and the coda-Q methods. All estimated attenuation factors decrease with increasing frequency. The intrinsic attenuation for CED is among the highest observed elsewhere, which could be due to the highly fractured and fluid-filled carbonates in the upper crust. The scattering and the total S-wave attenuation for CED are close to the average values obtained in other studies performed worldwide. In particular, good agreement of frequency dependence of total attenuation in CED and in the regions that contributed most strong-motion records for ground motion prediction equations used in PSHA in Croatia indicates that those were well chosen and applicable to this area as far as their attenuation

  6. Is ENSO related to 2015 Easter Star Capsized on the Yangtze River of China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural disasters have profound effects on community security and economic damage of China's Hubei province. In June 1st, 2015, a cruise ship, Easter Star, capsized on Yangtze River in Hubei province with 442 died. What reason gives rise to such strong convection causing ship sunk? Based on the wind disasters of Hubei province happened in 1963-2015, this study analyzes their features bytime-series regression, and correlates them to global El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The compared results demonstrated that the wind disasters shown an increasing tendency. There are two peaks corresponding to the strongest ENSO peaks during the past 50 years; each peak lasts two-three years. The facts demonstrated an essential linear relation between the ENSO phenomena and wind disasters in Hubei province. 2015 Easter Star capsized happened at current El Niño event in 2014-2015. We also observed that the historical wind disasters appeared in seasonal variation. Over 90% events concentrated in spring and summer; very few events happened in autumn and winter. Moreover, the disasters depend on the geographic conditions. Most disasters concentrated in four zones, named as Xingshan-Baokang, Xuanen, Wufeng-Yichang, Jingzhou-Gongan, in which Xingshan and Changyang are the two most density of zones. Yangtze River provides an air flowing conduct for strong convective winds. It can be concluded that the strong convection causing 2015 Easter Star capsized is related to current global ENSO phenomenon.Keywords: ENSO, wind disaster, time-series regression analysis, Easter Star, Yangtze River, Hubei Province,

  7. New records of coral-associated crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura: Carpilioidea, Trapezoidea) from Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Christopher B; Mendoza, Jose C E; Castro, Peter

    2017-01-10

    A review is made of those brachyurans that are symbiotic or otherwise associated with scleractinian corals on Easter Island, southeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of seven species is reported, including three species from two families not previously known from the island. Earlier records of Trapezia are analyzed and, although as many as six species have been previously reported, we conclude that only three species are known to occur on the island with certainty.

  8. A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, J; Ulloa, S; Villagra, E; Lagos, J; Aguayo, C; Fasce, R; Parra, B; Mora, J; Becerra, N; Lagos, N; Vera, L; Olivares, B; Vilches, M; Fernández, J

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9% nt and 100% aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

  9. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  10. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J

    2014-10-14

    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands.

  11. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Ian D.; Browning, Stuart A.; Anderson, Atholl J.

    2014-01-01

    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800–1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140–1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands. PMID:25267611

  12. Two dimensional modeling of elastic wave propagation in solids containing cracks with rough surfaces and friction - Part I: Theoretical background.

    PubMed

    Aleshin, Vladislav; Delrue, Steven; Trifonov, Andrey; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns the modeling of internal contacts (called cracks for brevity), while part II is related to the integration of the developed contact model into a solid mechanics module that allows the description of wave propagation processes. The contact model is used to produce normal and tangential load-displacement relationships, which in turn are used by the solid mechanics module as boundary conditions at the internal contacts. Due to friction, the tangential reaction curve is hysteretic and memory-dependent. In addition, it depends on the normal reaction curve. An essential feature of the proposed contact model is that it takes into account the roughness of the contact faces. On one hand, accounting for roughness makes the contact model more complicated since it gives rise to a partial slip regime when some parts on the contact area experience slip and some do not. On the other hand, as we will show, the concept of contact surfaces covered by asperities receding under load makes it possible to formulate a consistent contact model that provides nonlinear load-displacement relationships for any value of the drive displacements and their histories. This is a strong advantage, since this way, the displacement-driven model allows for a simple explicit procedure of data exchange with the solid mechanics module, while more traditional flat-surface contacts driven by loads generate a complex iterative procedure. More specifically, the proposed contact model is based on the previously developed method of memory diagrams that allows one to automatically obtain memory-dependent solutions to frictional

  13. Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) promote dermal fibroblast migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Debora; Munafo, John P; Lucibello, Teresa; Baldeon, Manuel; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2013-07-09

    Preparations derived from bulbs of various Lilium species have been used to promote the healing of skin abrasions, sores and burns and to aid in healing wounds in Traditional Chinese and Greco-Roman Medicine. To evaluate fractionated Easter lily bulb extracts and their steroidal glycosides (1-5) for the promotion of dermal fibroblast migration in vitro, a model for the early events in wound healing. An activity-guided screening approach was used by coupling sequential solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and semi-preparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an in vitro dermal fibroblast migration assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT). To gain insight into the mode of action of the steroidal glycosides, nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of genes for transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β) and its receptors were evaluated. Fractionated bulb extracts and the two isolated steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2) induced NO production and TGF-β receptor I mRNA expression in fibroblast cell culture. In a cytotoxicity assay, steroidal glycosides (1) and (3) had IC50 values of 8.2 and 8.7 µM, but the natural acetylation of the C-6″' hydroxy of the terminal glucose unit in (2) resulted in a 3-fold decrease in cell cytotoxicity when compared with (1). Results from the dermal fibroblast migration assay revealed that the steroidal glycoalkaloids (1) and (2), and the furostanol saponin (3) promoted fibroblast migration from the range of 23.7±5.7 to 37.7±5.1%, as compared with the control. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the steroidal glycosides present in Easter lily bulbs induce, at least in part, the observed dermal fibroblast migration activity of the bulb extracts. This is the first evidence that steroidal glycosides from Lilium longiflorum may potentially play a role in the wound healing process and may provide a scientific basis for the historical use of lily

  14. Wave journal bearing with compressible lubricant--Part 1: The wave bearing concept and a comparison to the plain circular bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1995-01-01

    To improve hydrodynamic journal bearing steady-state and dynamic performance, a new bearing concept, the wave journal bearing, was developed at the author's lab. This concept features a waved inner bearing diameter. Compared to other alternative bearing geometries used to improve bearing performance such as spiral or herring-bone grooves, steps, etc., the wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. A three-wave bearing operating with a compressible lubricant, i.e., gas is analyzed using a numerical code. Its performance is compared to a plain (truly) circular bearing over a broad range of bearing working parameters, e.g., bearing numbers from 0.01 to 100.

  15. Quantification of Dune Response over the Course of a 6-Day Nor'Easter, Outer Banks, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.; Swann, C.

    2014-12-01

    The amount and type of foredune morphologic change during a storm event primarily scales with the level of inundation during that event. Specifically, external hydrodynamic forcing (total water level) can be compared with antecedent beach and foredune morphology to predict an impact regime that relates to the type of expected morphologic evolution of the system. For example, when total water levels are above the dune toe, but below the dune crest, the impact regime is classified as "collision" and the expected morphology response is slumping or scarping of the dune face. While the amount of dune retreat scales largely with the duration of wave attack to the dune face, characteristics of the dune other than its crest or toe elevation may also enhance or impede rates of morphologic change. The aftermath of Hurricane Sandy provided a unique opportunity to observe alongshore variations in dune response to a 6-day Nor'Easter (Hs >4 m in 6 m depth), as a variety of dunes were constructed (or not) by individual home owners in preparation for the winter storm season. Daily terrestrial lidar scans were conducted along 20 km of coastline in Duck, NC using Coastal Lidar And Radar Imaging System (CLARIS) during the first dune collision event following Sandy. Foredunes were grouped by their pre-storm form (e.g. vegetated, pushed, scarped, etc) using automated feature extraction tools based on surface curvature and slope, and daily rates of morphologic volume change were calculated. The highest dune retreat rates were focused along a 1.5 km region where cross-shore erosion of recently pushed, un-vegetated dunes reached 2 m/day. Variations in dune response were analyzed in relation to their pre-storm morphology, with care taken to normalize for alongshore variations in hydrodynamic forcing. Ongoing research is focused on identifying specific metrics that can be easily extracted from topographic DEMs to aid in dune retreat predictions.

  16. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of LBA Convective Systems: Easterly and Westerly Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2002-01-01

    The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate convection that occurred during the TRMM LBA field experiment in Brazil. Convection in this region can be categorized into two different regimes. Low-level easterly flow results in moderate to high CAPE and a drier environment. Convection is more intense like that seen over continents. Low-level westerly flow results in low CAPE and a moist environment. Convection is weaker and more widespread characteristic of oceanic or monsoon-like systems. The GCE model has been used to study both regimes in order to provide cloud data sets that are representative of both environments in support of TRMM rainfall and heating algorithm development. Two different case are presented: Jan 26,1999, an easterly regime case, and Feb 23,1999, a westerly regime case. The Jan 26 case is an organized squall line and is initialized with a standard cold pool. The sensitivity to mid-level sounding moisture and wind shear will also be shown. The Feb 23 case is less-organized with only transient lines and is initialized with either warm bubbles or prescribed surface fluxes. Heating profiles, rainfall statistics and storm characteristics are compared and validated for the two cases against observations collected during the experiment.

  17. Declining Radial Growth Response of Coastal Forests to Hurricanes and Nor'easters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Arnold; Rollinson, Christine R.; Kearney, William S.; Dietze, Michael C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2018-03-01

    The Mid-Atlantic coastal forests in Virginia are stressed by episodic disturbance from hurricanes and nor'easters. Using annual tree ring data, we adopt a dendroclimatic and statistical modeling approach to understand the response and resilience of a coastal pine forest to extreme storm events, over the past few decades. Results indicate that radial growth of trees in the study area is influenced by age, regional climate trends, and individual tree effects but dominated periodically by growth disturbance due to storms. We evaluated seven local extreme storm events to understand the effect of nor'easters and hurricanes on radial growth. A general decline in radial growth was observed in the year of the extreme storm and 3 years following it, after which the radial growth started recovering. The decline in radial growth showed a statistically significant correlation with the magnitude of the extreme storm (storm surge height and wind speed). This study contributes to understanding declining tree growth response and resilience of coastal forests to past disturbances. Given the potential increase in hurricanes and storm surge severity in the region, this can help predict vegetation response patterns to similar disturbances in the future.

  18. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of Easter lily in the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Ames, R N; Linderman, R G

    1977-12-01

    The vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi of commercially grown Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) were studied. Soil and root samples were collected monthly from March through September 1975 from five fields in the coastal area of southern Oregon and northern California. Soil seivings were inoculated onto clover, onion, and lily to cause infections resulting in the production of many new mycorrhizal spores facilitating identification. Four VA mycorrhizal species were found: Acaulospora trappei, A. elegans, Glomus monosporus, and G. fasciculatus. All four VA species infected Easter lily, clover, and onion. Acaulospora trappei and G. fasciculatus were the most commonly isolated species from all five fields. Mycorrhizal infections in roots of field-grown lilies were sparse and presumably young in March and gradually increased in size and number until September when bulbs were harvested. Over 75% of each root system became infected with mycorrhizae in fields with all four fungal species, and those levels were reached by July. In fields with only two mycorrhizal species, usually 50% or less of each root system was infected, even by the end of the growing season.

  19. Momentum and buoyancy transfer in atmospheric turbulent boundary layer over wavy water surface - Part 1: Harmonic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Ezhova, E. V.; Zilitinkevich, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    The surface-drag and mass-transfer coefficients are determined within a self-consistent problem of wave-induced perturbations and mean fields of velocity and density in the air, using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. Investigation of a harmonic wave propagating along the wind has disclosed that the surface drag is generally larger for shorter waves. This effect is more pronounced in the unstable and neutral stratification. The stable stratification suppresses turbulence, which leads to weakening of the momentum and mass transfer.

  20. Influence of QBO on stratospheric Kelvin and Mixed Rossby gravity waves in high-top CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah Solihah, Karina; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni

    2018-05-01

    It is well established that quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) has a substantial influence on Kelvin and mixed Rossby gravity (MRG) wave activity in the tropical lower stratosphere. In this study, we examined how QBO influences Kelvin and MRG wave activity in the lower stratosphere, based on nine high-top CMIP5 models. The results show that the Kelvin and MRG wave signals are stronger in the models with QBO, and relatively weaker in the models without QBO. The results are consistent with established theory, whereby upward-propagating Kelvin waves occurs more frequently during the easterly QBO phase, while upward-propagating MRG waves occurs during the westerly QBO phase. Without the QBO, the mean flow exhibits a near-zero easterly wind, which prevents the waves from propagating and penetrating into the stratosphere. Our analysis also shows that models with the QBO tend to have more robust signatures (in terms of amplitude and phase speed) of Kelvin and MRG waves.

  1. Observational analyses and numerical simulations of the transition of a tropical wave critical layer to a tropical depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    In recent research my collaborators and I have hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from the cyclonic Kelvin Cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis that typifies the trade wind belt. The genesis sequence is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "Marsupial Paradigm". In this talk I will summarize our previous observational findings using the ERA-40, TRMM and best-track data sets and then report on our first multi-scale numerical test of the Marsupial Paradigm that revisits the enigmatic problem of the transformation of an idealized African easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex. The results are found to support key elements of the Marsupial Paradigm by demonstrating the existence of a vorticity dominant region with minimal strain within the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave and pouch move together. As part of the research, I will also report on our findings concerning the evolution of stratiform vs. convective precipitation within the Cat's eye. It is shown that moist deep convection is sustained near the center of the Cat's eye. The convergence profile within the Cat's eye is found to become dominantly convective with persistent convection. Low-level convergence plays a key role in establishing and intensifying the near-surface circulation, while the non-advective vorticity flux and the mid-level convergence associated with stratiform precipitation help to increase the mid-level circulation and build a tropospheric-deep vortex. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to a newly proposed field experiment for the most active period of the Atlantic hurricane season

  2. Population subdivision of hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana across equatorial and Easter Microplate boundaries.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sook-Jin; Park, Eunji; Lee, Won-Kyung; Johnson, Shannon B; Vrijenhoek, Robert C; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-10-28

    The Equator and Easter Microplate regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean exhibit geomorphological and hydrological features that create barriers to dispersal for a number of animals associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitats. This study examined effects of these boundaries on geographical subdivision of the vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana. DNA sequences from one mitochondrial and eleven nuclear genes were examined in samples collected from ten vent localities that comprise the species' known range from 23°N latitude on the East Pacific Rise to 38°S latitude on the Pacific Antarctic Ridge. Multi-locus genotypes inferred from these sequences clustered the individual worms into three metapopulation segments - the northern East Pacific Rise (NEPR), southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR), and northeastern Pacific Antarctic Ridge (PAR) - separated by the Equator and Easter Microplate boundaries. Genetic diversity estimators were negatively correlated with tectonic spreading rates. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IMa2) model provided information about divergence times and demographic parameters. The PAR and NEPR metapopulation segments were estimated to have split roughly 4.20 million years ago (Mya) (2.42-33.42 Mya, 95 % highest posterior density, (HPD)), followed by splitting of the SEPR and NEPR segments about 0.79 Mya (0.07-6.67 Mya, 95 % HPD). Estimates of gene flow between the neighboring regions were mostly low (2 Nm < 1). Estimates of effective population size decreased with southern latitudes: NEPR > SEPR > PAR. Highly effective dispersal capabilities allow A. pompejana to overcome the temporal instability and intermittent distribution of active hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Consequently, the species exhibits very high levels of genetic diversity compared with many co-distributed vent annelids and mollusks. Nonetheless, its levels of genetic diversity in partially isolated populations are inversely

  3. Retrospective Analysis of Patient Presentations at the Sydney (Australia) Royal Easter Show from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Nathan; Mo, Shirley; Ong, Leon; Jegathees, Thuvarahan; Wei, Daniel; Fahey, David; Liu, Jia Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Comprehensive studies on the relationship between patient demographics and subsequent treatment and disposition at a single mass-gathering event are lacking. The Sydney Royal Easter Show (SRES; Sydney Olympic Park, New South Wales, Australia) is an annual, 14-day, agricultural mass-gathering event occurring around the Easter weekend, attracting more than 800,000 patrons per year. In this study, patient records from the SRES were analyzed to examine relationships between weather, crowd size, day of week, and demographics on treatment and disposition. This information would help to predict factors affecting patient treatment and disposition to guide ongoing training of first responders and to evaluate the appropriateness of staffing skills mix at future events. Hypothesis Patient demographics, environmental factors, and attendance would influence the nature and severity of presentations at the SRES, which would influence staffing requirements. A retrospective analysis of 4,141 patient record forms was performed for patients who presented to St John Ambulance (Australian Capital Territory, Australia) at the SRES between 2012 and 2014 inclusive. Presentation type was classified using a previously published minimum data set. Data on weather and crowd size were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and the SRES, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v22 (IBM; Armonk, New York USA). Between 2012 to 2014, over 2.5 million people attended the SRES with 4,141 patients treated onsite. As expected, the majority of presentations were injuries (49%) and illnesses (46%). Although patient demographics and presentation types did not change over time, the duration of treatment increased. A higher proportion of patients were discharged to hospital or home compared to the proportion of patients discharged back to the event. Patients from rural/regional locations (accounting for 15% of all patients) were

  4. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophila embryo DV axis formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Suk; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David

    2010-06-22

    The establishment of Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity relies on serine proteolytic activity in the perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective cleaves and activates Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral restriction of ligand formation depends on the Pipe sulfotransferase, which is expressed in ventral cells of the follicular epithelium surrounding the developing oocyte. Pipe modifies components of the developing eggshell to produce a ventral cue embedded in the vitelline membrane. This ventral cue is believed to promote one or more of the proteolysis steps in the perivitelline space. By examining the processing of transgenic, tagged versions of the perivitelline proteins during DV patterning, we find that the proteolysis of Easter by Snake is the first Pipe-dependent step and therefore the key ventrally restricted event in the protease cascade. We also find that Snake and Easter associate together in a complex in both wild-type and pipe mutant-derived embryos. This observation suggests a mechanism in which the sulfated target of Pipe promotes a productive interaction between Snake and Easter, perhaps by facilitating conformational changes in a complex containing the two proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) and tulip.

    PubMed

    Piirilä, P; Kanerva, L; Alanko, K; Estlander, T; Keskinen, H; Pajari-Backas, M; Tuppurainen, M

    1999-03-01

    We report on IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria to two Liliaceae plants, tulip and Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum), diagnosed in a floral shop worker. Occupational asthma was diagnosed according to patient history, PEF monitoring, and a work-simulating provocation test. Flower-specific IgE was studied, and RAST inhibition tests were performed. Skin prick testing showed positive reactions to tulip, Easter lily, and chrysanthemum. Total IgE was 180 kU/I, and specific IgE to tulip was 2.6 and to Easter lily 6.5 kU/I. In the RAST-inhibition test, no cross-reactivity was found. Occupational asthma was diagnosed by peak flow monitoring at work and at home, as well as specific inhalation challenge with Easter lily, with an immediate 18% reduction in PEF. In addition, contact urticaria and conjunctivitis were diagnosed. After a 9-year follow-up without exposure to lilies, the skin prick tests to L. longiflorum and tulip were still positive, but the specific IgE had disappeared. A case of IgE-mediated occupational asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by L. longiflorum and tulip is presented. RAST inhibition tests indicated concomitant sensitization to the two Liliaceae plants.

  6. Detection of Acoustic/Infrasonic/Seismic Waves Generated by Hypersonic Re-Entry of the HAYABUSA Capsule and Fragmented Parts of the Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Kazuki; Ueda, Masayoshi; Shiba, Yasuo; Furumoto, Muneyoshi; Fujita, Kazuhisa

    2011-10-01

    Acoustic/infrasonic/seismic waves were observed during the re-entry of the Japanese asteroid explorer ``HAYABUSA'' at 6 ground sites in Woomera, Australia, on 2010 June 13. Overpressure values of infrasound waves were detected at 3 ground sites in a range from 1.3 Pa, 1.0 Pa, and 0.7 Pa with each distance of 36.9 km, 54.9 km, and 67.8 km, respectively, apart from the SRC trajectory. Seismic waveforms through air-to-ground coupling processes were also detected at 6 sites, showing a one-to-one correspondence to infrasound waves at all simultaneous observation sites. Audible sound up to 1 kHz was recorded at one site with a distance of 67.8 km. The mother spacecraft was fragmented from 75 km down to 38 km with a few explosive enhancements of emissions. A persistent train of HAYABUSA re-entry was confirmed at an altitude range of between 92 km down to 82 km for about 3 minutes. Light curves of 136 fragmented parts of the spacecraft were analyzed in detail based on video observations taken at multiple ground sites, being classified into three types of fragmentations, i.e., melting, explosive, and re-fragmented types. In a comparison between infrasonic waves and video-image analyses, regarding the generation of sonic-boom type shock waves by hypersonically moving artificial meteors, both the sample return capsule and fragmented parts of the mother spacecraft, at an altitude of 40 ± 1 km were confirmed with a one-to-one correspondence with each other.

  7. A Serological Survey of Sera from Domestic Animals on Easter Island

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, P.; Gray, D. P.; Gibbs, H. C.; Murphy, D. A.

    1968-01-01

    Animals' sera collected on Easter Island from December 1964 to February 1965 were tested by appropriate methods for the presence of antibodies to various infections. These included, ornithosis, Q-fever, brucellosis, Johne's disease, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and vesicular stomatitis viruses. It appeared that the cattle and sheep were exposed to the ornithosis group of agents. The sheep were also exposed to toxoplasmosis. The low-grade reactions observed on the cattle sera with the leptospira and brucella antigens were not sufficient to indicate past infection. All sera tested with Q-fever and Johne's disease antigens gave negative reactions. The results suggested that neither strain of vesicular stomatitis virus had yet been introduced into this restricted animal population. PMID:4233830

  8. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  9. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawaii; PART IV: measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in Honolua Bay, Northwest Maui: 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Kathy

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Honolua Bay, northwest Maui, Hawaii, during 2003 and 2004 to better understand coastal dynamics in coral reef habitats. Measurements were acquired through two different collection methods. Two hydrographic survey cruises were conducted to acquire spatially-extensive, but temporally-limited, three-dimensional measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in the winter and summer of 2003. From mid 2003 through early 2004, a bottom-mounted instrument package was deployed in a water depth of 10 m to collect long-term, single-point high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity. The purpose of these measurements was to collect hydrographic data to learn how waves, currents and water column properties such as water temperature, salinity and turbidity vary spatially and temporally in a near-shore coral reef system adjacent to a major stream drainage. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. This report, the final part in a series, describes data acquisition, processing and analysis. Previous reports provided data and results on: Long-term measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off Kahana (PART I), the spatial structure of currents, temperature, salinity and suspended sediment along West Maui (PART II), and flow and coral larvae and sediment dynamics during the 2003 summer spawning season (PART III).

  10. Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish Growth in Varying Mediums and Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittingham, P.; Figueroa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study the harvest yield and taste of Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish microgreens in different growing mediums and locations at the Stanford Farm. They are grown in three different mediums: compost, potting mix, and a 50/50 mix of both. We hypothesized that the even mixture of compost and potting mix would have a larger harvest yield and greater nutrient content while being grown in the lath house. The experiment begins with two sets of three planting trays, one in the greenhouse and one in the lath house, filled with the former growing mediums. Next, the seeds of the microgreens are sprinkled evenly in their designated halves of the tray, then covered with a thin layer of their growing medium to allow for germination. The trays in the lath house are watered 1-2 times a day while the greenhouse trays must be watered thrice. The progress of the microgreens are observed everyday and the weight, height, root length and width of the plant is measured. Once harvested, 9-11 days after planting, the microgreens are weighed and tested for taste and consistency. Because each microgreen variety is planted in only half of a tray, the weight of the full tray is calculated to estimate the value and yield of a single species on a larger scale. Upon collecting data from both the lath house and greenhouse, we found that the plants perform better in the 50/50 mixture and potting mix, but grow very poorly in the compost because it requires a lot of water and does not hold the moisture it receives. We also had a higher yield of Easter Egg Radish due to its height and water content. In the greenhouse, both species had a richer flavor. The farm plans to start a microgreen business to provide an added source of income and utilize the results of this experiment in an applied business model focused on efficiency and profit.

  11. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing a new anisotropic teleseismic body-wave tomography code - part II: Inversion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a

  12. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kauai. Part I: Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity : June - August, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Kathy; Logan, Joshua B.; Field, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Hanalei Bay, northern Kauai, Hawaii, during the summer of 2005 to better understand coastal circulation and sediment dynamics in coral reef habitats. A series of bottom-mounted instrument packages were deployed in water depths of 10 m or less to collect long-term, high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity. These data were supplemented with a series of vertical instrument casts to characterize the vertical and spatial variability in water column properties within the bay. The purpose of these measurements was to collect hydrographic data to learn how waves, currents and water column properties vary spatially and temporally in an embayment that hosts a nearshore coral reef ecosystem adjacent to a major river drainage. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. This report, the first part in a series, describes data acquisition, processing and analysis.

  13. Treatment of the polar coordinate singularity in axisymmetric wave propagation using high-order summation-by-parts operators on a staggered grid

    SciTech Connect

    Prochnow, Bo; O'Reilly, Ossian; Dunham, Eric M.

    In this paper, we develop a high-order finite difference scheme for axisymmetric wave propagation in a cylindrical conduit filled with a viscous fluid. The scheme is provably stable, and overcomes the difficulty of the polar coordinate singularity in the radial component of the diffusion operator. The finite difference approximation satisfies the principle of summation-by-parts (SBP), which is used to establish stability using the energy method. To treat the coordinate singularity without losing the SBP property of the scheme, a staggered grid is introduced and quadrature rules with weights set to zero at the endpoints are considered. Finally, the accuracy ofmore » the scheme is studied both for a model problem with periodic boundary conditions at the ends of the conduit and its practical utility is demonstrated by modeling acoustic-gravity waves in a magmatic conduit.« less

  14. Treatment of the polar coordinate singularity in axisymmetric wave propagation using high-order summation-by-parts operators on a staggered grid

    DOE PAGES

    Prochnow, Bo; O'Reilly, Ossian; Dunham, Eric M.; ...

    2017-03-16

    In this paper, we develop a high-order finite difference scheme for axisymmetric wave propagation in a cylindrical conduit filled with a viscous fluid. The scheme is provably stable, and overcomes the difficulty of the polar coordinate singularity in the radial component of the diffusion operator. The finite difference approximation satisfies the principle of summation-by-parts (SBP), which is used to establish stability using the energy method. To treat the coordinate singularity without losing the SBP property of the scheme, a staggered grid is introduced and quadrature rules with weights set to zero at the endpoints are considered. Finally, the accuracy ofmore » the scheme is studied both for a model problem with periodic boundary conditions at the ends of the conduit and its practical utility is demonstrated by modeling acoustic-gravity waves in a magmatic conduit.« less

  15. High-power free-electron maser with frequency multiplication operating in a shortwave part of the millimeter wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Savilov, A. V.; Sedykh, S. N.

    2012-08-01

    The possibility of using frequency multiplication in order to obtain high-power short-wavelength radiation from a free-electron maser (FEM) with a Bragg resonator has been studied. Preliminary experiments with an LIU-3000 (JINR) linear induction accelerator demonstrate the operation of a frequency-multiplying FEM at megawatt power in the 6- and 4-mm wave bands on the second and third harmonic, respectively.

  16. Nonlinear evolution of the first mode supersonic oblique waves in compressible boundary layers. Part 1: Heated/cooled walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear stability of an oblique mode propagating in a two-dimensional compressible boundary layer is considered under the long wave-length approximation. The growth rate of the wave is assumed to be small so that the concept of unsteady nonlinear critical layers can be used. It is shown that the spatial/temporal evolution of the mode is governed by a pair of coupled unsteady nonlinear equations for the disturbance vorticity and density. Expressions for the linear growth rate show clearly the effects of wall heating and cooling and in particular how heating destabilizes the boundary layer for these long wavelength inviscid modes at O(1) Mach numbers. A generalized expression for the linear growth rate is obtained and is shown to compare very well for a range of frequencies and wave-angles at moderate Mach numbers with full numerical solutions of the linear stability problem. The numerical solution of the nonlinear unsteady critical layer problem using a novel method based on Fourier decomposition and Chebychev collocation is discussed and some results are presented.

  17. Macro-mechanical modeling of blast-wave mitigation in foams. Part II: reliability of pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britan, A.; Liverts, M.; Shapiro, H.; Ben-Dor, G.

    2013-02-01

    A phenomenological study of the process occurring when a plane shock wave reflected off an aqueous foam column filling the test section of a vertical shock tube has been undertaken. The experiments were conducted with initial shock wave Mach numbers in the range 1.25le {M}_s le 1.7 and foam column heights in the range 100-450 mm. Miniature piezotrone circuit electronic pressure transducers were used to record the pressure histories upstream and alongside the foam column. The aim of these experiments was to find a simple way to eliminate a spatial averaging as an artifact of the pressure history recorded by the side-on transducer. For this purpose, we discuss first the common behaviors of the pressure traces in extended time scales. These observations evidently quantify the low frequency variations of the pressure field within the different flow domains of the shock tube. Thereafter, we focus on the fronts of the pressure signals, which, in turn, characterize the high-frequency response of the foam column to the shock wave impact. Since the front shape and the amplitude of the pressure signal most likely play a significant role in the foam destruction, phase changes and/or other physical factors, such as high capacity, viscosity, etc., the common practice of the data processing is revised and discussed in detail. Generally, side-on pressure measurements must be used with great caution when performed in wet aqueous foams, because the low sound speed is especially prone to this effect. Since the spatial averaged recorded pressure signals do not reproduce well the real behaviors of the pressure rise, the recorded shape of the shock wave front in the foam appears much thicker. It is also found that when a thin liquid film wet the sensing membrane, the transducer sensitivity was changed. As a result, the pressure recorded in the foam could exceed the real amplitude of the post-shock wave flow. A simple procedure, which allows correcting this imperfection, is discussed in

  18. An evanescent wave biosensor--Part I: Fluorescent signal acquisition from step-etched fiber optic probes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G P; Golden, J P; Ligler, F S

    1994-06-01

    A fiber-optic biosensor capable of remote continuous monitoring has recently been designed. To permit sensing at locations separate from the optoelectronic instrumentation, long optical fibers are utilized. An evanescent wave immuno-probe is prepared by removing the cladding near the distal end of the fiber and covalently attaching antibodies to the core. Probes with a radius unaltered from that of the original core inefficiently returned the signal produced upon binding the fluorescent-labelled antigen. To elucidate the limiting factors in signal acquisition, a series of fibers with increasingly reduced probe core radius was examined. The results were consistent with the V-number mismatch, the difference in mode carrying capacity between the clad and unclad fiber, being a critical factor in limiting signal coupling from the fiber probe. However, it was also delineated that conditions which conserve excitation power, such that power in the evanescent wave is optimized, must also be met to obtain a maximal signal. The threshold sensitivity for the optimal step-etched fiber probe was improved by over 20-fold in an immunoassay, although, it was demonstrated that signal acquisition decreased along the probe length, suggesting that a sensor region of uniform radius is not ideal.

  19. [Reasons to recommend vaccination against dengue in Easter Island: Immunization Advisory Committee of Sociedad Chilena de Infectología].

    PubMed

    Fica, Alberto; Potin, Marcela; Moreno, Gabriela; Véliz, Liliana; Cerda, Jaime; Escobar, Carola; Wilhelm, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Dengue was first diagnosed on Easter Island on year 2002 and thereafter recurrent outbreaks have occurred involving different serotypes of dengue virus. Its vector, Aedes aegypti has not been eliminated despite the small size of the island. Conditions at the local hospital preclude adequate management of severe and hemorrhagic cases due to the absence of a Critical Care Unit as well as no availability of platelets, or plasma units for transfusion. Besides, transfer, of severely affected patients to continental Chile is cumbersome, slow and expensive. In this scenario, it is advisable to implement selective vaccination of Easter Island habitants with an available quadrivalent attenuated dengue vaccine with the aim to reduce hemorrhagic and severe dengue cases. This strategy should not replace permanent efforts to control waste disposal sites, water sources, maintain vector surveillance and increase education of the population.

  20. The Foulness Multiton Air Blast Simulator. Part 3. Blast Wave Formation and Methods Used to Drive the Simulator,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    the total energy release of the explosive driver using expanded polystyrene and at the same time, controlling the rate of release. The part played by aqueous foam in minimising irregularities in waveform also is described. (Author)

  1. Determination of Bedrock Variations and S-wave Velocity Structure in the NW part of Turkey for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, A. O.; Arslan, M. S.; Aksahin, B. B.; Genc, T.; Isseven, T.; Tuncer, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tekirdag region (NW Turkey) is quite close to the North Anatolian Fault which is capable of producing a large earthquake. Therefore, earthquake hazard mitigation studies are important for the urban areas close to the major faults. From this point of view, integration of different geophysical methods has important role for the study of seismic hazard problems including seismotectonic zoning. On the other hand, geological mapping and determining the subsurface structure, which is a key to assist management of new developed areas, conversion of current urban areas or assessment of urban geological hazards can be performed by integrated geophysical methods. This study has been performed in the frame of a national project, which is a complimentary project of the cooperative project between Turkey and Japan (JICA&JST), named as "Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education". With this principal aim, this study is focused on Tekirdag and its surrounding region (NW of Turkey) where some uncertainties in subsurface knowledge (maps of bedrock depth, thickness of quaternary sediments, basin geometry and seismic velocity structure,) need to be resolved. Several geophysical methods (microgravity, magnetic and single station and array microtremor measurements) are applied and the results are evaluated to characterize lithological changes in the region. Array microtremor measurements with several radiuses are taken in 30 locations and 1D-velocity structures of S-waves are determined by the inversion of phase velocities of surface waves, and the results of 1D structures are verified by theoretical Rayleigh wave modelling. Following the array measurements, single-station microtremor measurements are implemented at 75 locations to determine the predominant frequency distribution. The predominant frequencies in the region range from 0.5 Hz to 8 Hz in study area. On the other hand, microgravity and magnetic measurements are performed on

  2. New observations on mid-plate volcanism and the tectonic history of the Pacific plate, Tahiti to Easter microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, R. C.; Francheteau, J.; Cornaglia, B.

    1995-04-01

    We describe the geology and tectonics of a continuous swathe of seafloor between Tahiti and the western edge of the Easter microplate imaged by GLORIA and Sea Beam on two separate cruise transits in 1987 and 1988. The data reveal that mid-plate volcanism is common in this region, even on deep seafloor hundreds of kilometres from major lines of seamounts and islands. This supports the idea of a thin weak lithosphere over the Pacific Superswell, and the idea that the tops of major mantle plumes may spread out over diameters of the order of 1000 km. The mid-plate volcanism occurs in two distinct forms. Over most of our traverse it appears as fields of relatively young and acoustically strongly backscattering lava flows, often accompanied by groups of numerous small, circular volcanoes. East of 122° W (about chron 5A), however, we observed a distinct form: major, sharp-crested, constructional volcanic ridges, many tens of kilometres long, individually trending ENE, but lying en-echelon along an E-W regional trend. These ridges appear morphologically identical to the 'cross-grain ridges' seen elsewhere in the Pacific. We attribute their formation to magma supplied from the regionally hot mantle leaking along tectonic lines of weakness. However, although these ridges are parallel to fracture zone trends seen farther west, they are morphologically very different from any known fracture zone. Moreover, individual ridges are somewhat oblique to the tectonic spreading fabric around them, and so do not seem to follow actual fracture zone traces. The whole line of en-echelon ridges lies along part of the predicted trace of Fracture Zone 2 of Okal and Cazenave [15], and is probably its morphological expression. However, nowhere did we see a convincing 'conventional' fracture zone trace in or following the predicted position or orientation. We suggest instead that magma from an independent source has used lines of weakness along minor fracture zones to produce these en

  3. Molecular genetic studies of natives on Easter Island: evidence of an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool.

    PubMed

    Lie, B A; Dupuy, B M; Spurkland, A; Fernández-Viña, M A; Hagelberg, E; Thorsby, E

    2007-01-01

    Most archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island (Rapanui), and this view has been supported by the identification of Polynesian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in prehistoric skeletal remains. However, some evidence of an early South American contact also exists (the sweet potato, bottle gourd etc.), but genetic studies have so far failed to show an early Amerindian contribution to the gene pool on Easter Island. To address this issue, we analyzed mtDNA and Y chromosome markers and performed high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping of DNA harvested from previously collected sera of 48 reputedly nonadmixed native Easter Islanders. All individuals carried mtDNA types and HLA alleles previously found in Polynesia, and most men carried Y chromosome markers of Polynesian origin, providing further evidence of a Polynesian origin of the population of Easter Island. A few individuals carried HLA alleles and/or Y chromosome markers of European origin. More interestingly, some individuals carried the HLA alleles A*0212 and B*3905, which are of typical Amerindian origin. The genealogy of some of the individuals carrying these non-Polynesian HLA alleles and their haplotypic backgrounds suggest an introduction into Easter Island in the early 1800s, or earlier. Thus, there may have been an early European and Amerindian contribution to the Polynesian gene pool of Easter Island.

  4. Estimating Explosion and Tectonic Release Source Parameters of Underground Nuclear Explosions from Rayleigh and Love Wave Observations. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    ANMO -0.05 ANTO -0.01 BCAO -0.04 CHTO 0.29 GRFO 0.17 0.11 GUMO -0.20 -0.15 KAAO -0.11 0.18 KONO 0.15 0.31 MAIO 0.04 0.06 MAIO -0.21 -0.01 SHIO 0.15...CORRECTIONS YUCCA PAHUTE R Love R Love ANTO .007 a BCAO -0.18 -0.12 BOCO -0.05 -0.03 CTAO 0.08 0.09 GRFO -0.06 0.09 KONO 0.02 -0.03 MAIO -0.06 -0.10...that we can determine the maximum and minimum of the Rayleigh wave radiation patterns. Then, WýU U27 SHAGAN RIVER STATION CORRECTIONS N , // \\ ANTO

  5. Coastal Circulation and Sediment Dynamics in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i, Part IV, Measurements of Waves, Currents, Temperature, Salinity, and Turbidity, June-September 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Field, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Hanalei Bay, northern Kaua'i, Hawai'i, during the summer of 2006 to better understand coastal circulation, sediment dynamics, and the potential impact of a river flood in a coral reef-lined embayment during quiescent summer conditions. A series of bottommounted instrument packages were deployed in water depths of 10 m or less to collect long-term, high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity, and turbidity. These data were supplemented with a series of profiles through the water column to characterize the vertical and spatial variability in water column properties within the bay. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Pacific Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants, and other particles in coral reef settings. Information regarding the USGS study conducted in Hanalei Bay during the 2005 summer is available in Storlazzi and others (2006), Draut and others (2006) and Carr and others (2006). This report, the last part in a series, describes data acquisition, processing, and analysis for the 2006 summer data set.

  6. Numerical Modeling of 3D Seismic Wave Propagation around Yogyakarta, the Southern Part of Central Java, Indonesia, Using Spectral-Element Method on MPI-GPU Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarmaji; Rudianto, Indra; Eka Nurcahya, Budi

    2018-04-01

    A strong tectonic earthquake with a magnitude of 5.9 Richter scale has been occurred in Yogyakarta and Central Java on May 26, 2006. The earthquake has caused severe damage in Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java, Indonesia. The understanding of seismic response of earthquake among ground shaking and the level of building damage is important. We present numerical modeling of 3D seismic wave propagation around Yogyakarta and the southern part of Central Java using spectral-element method on MPI-GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) computer cluster to observe its seismic response due to the earthquake. The homogeneous 3D realistic model is generated with detailed topography surface. The influences of free surface topography and layer discontinuity of the 3D model among the seismic response are observed. The seismic wave field is discretized using spectral-element method. The spectral-element method is solved on a mesh of hexahedral elements that is adapted to the free surface topography and the internal discontinuity of the model. To increase the data processing capabilities, the simulation is performed on a GPU cluster with implementation of MPI (Message Passing Interface).

  7. Simulated Radar Characteristics of LBA Convective Systems: Easterly and Westerly Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate convection that occurred during the TRMM LBA field experiment in Brazil. Convection in this region can be categorized into two different regimes. Low-level easterly flow results in moderate to high CAPE and a drier environment. Convection is more intense like that seen over continents. Low-level westerly flow results in low CAPE and a moist environment. Convection is weaker and more widespread characteristic of oceanic or monsoon-like systems. The GCE model has been used to study both regimes n order to provide cloud datasets that are representative of both environments in support of TRMM rainfall and heating algorithm development. Two different cases are analyzed: Jan 26, 1999, an eastely regime case, and Feb 23, 1999, a westerly regime case. The Jan 26 case is an organized squall line, while the Feb 23 case is less organized with only transient lines. Radar signatures, including CFADs, from the two simulated cases are compared to each other and with observations. The microphysical processes simulated in the model are also compared between the two cases.

  8. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  9. Ecological Catastrophes and Disturbance Relicts: A Case Study from Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Caves are often considered buffered environments in terms of their ability to sustain near constant microclimatic conditions. However, environments within cave entrances are expected to respond most quickly to changing surface conditions. We cataloged a relict assemblage of at least 10 endemic arthropods likely restricted to caves and occurring primarily within cave entranceways. Of these animals, eight were considered new undescribed species. These endemic arthropods have persisted in Rapa Nui (Easter Island) caves despite a catastrophic ecological shift induced by island-wide deforestation, fire intolerance, and drought, as well as intensive livestock grazing and surface ecosystems dominated by invasive species. We consider these animals to be "disturbance relicts" - species whose distributions are now limited to areas that experienced minimal human disturbance historically. Today, these species represent one-third of the Rapa Nui's known endemic arthropods. Given the island's severely depauperate native fauna, these arthropods should be considered among the highest priority targets for biological conservation. In other regions globally, epigean examples of imperiled disturbance relicts persisting within narrow distributional ranges have been documented. As human activity intensifies, and habitat loss and fragmentation continues worldwide, additional disturbance relicts will be identified. We expect extinction debts, global climate change and interactions with invasive species will challenge the persistence of both hypogean and epigean disturbance relict species.

  10. Plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenplas, P.E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of important parts of `Plasma waves` by J.F. Denisse and J.L.Delcroix, Interscience-Wiley, 1963, itself a translation of `Theorie des Ondes dans les Plasmas`, Dunod, 1959. We shall, however, use S.I. units instead of cgs ones and adopt where necessary more modern notations. A rather complete overview of the complexity of waves in a hot magnetized plasma is given. The effects of collisions have been mostly neglected. 1 fig.

  11. Examining the Roles of the Easterly Wave Critical Layer and Vorticity Accretion During the Tropical Cyclogenesis of Hurricane Sandy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    meridional wind, v = 0). This location 1As in Dunkerton et al. (2009), the term cyclogenesis incorporates all of the dynamic and thermodynamic process that...Lagrangian circulation , and air is repeatedly moistened by convection and protected to some degree from dry air intrusion, which favors a predominantly... meridional component of the wind vector, p is the total pressure, ω is the pressure vertical velocity defined as ω = Dp Dt , and F represents friction and

  12. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  13. Reaction of water with MgO(100) surfaces: Part III. X-ray standing wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Kendelewicz, T.; Nelson, E. J.; Brown, G. E.

    1998-09-01

    Clean MgO(100) surfaces cleaved in vacuum and exposed to water vapor or bulk water were studied using the X-ray standing wave (XSW) technique in back reflection mode and surface sensitive, element specific O KLL and Mg KLL Auger electron yield detection. The effects of surface charging were mitigated, but not entirely eliminated, by using a low-energy electron flood gun. Simulation of the XSW signal showed that the effect of surface charging on the XSW data could be minimized with careful experimental design. We demonstrate that the XSW method can be applied to studies of insulating surfaces, and our results for MgO(100) surfaces exposed to water vapor or bulk water indicate the following: (1) the vacuum-cleaved clean surface undergoes no surface reconstruction or significant relaxation perpendicular to the surface; (2) Mg-OH distances on surfaces exposed to water vapor or bulk water measured perpendicular to the (100) surface are the same as in bulk MgO; and (3) the z-position of the surface Mg atoms does not change within the estimated error [±2% of the (200) spacing] after the surface is fully hydroxylated. Our results for the clean, vacuum-cleaved surface disagree with results from impact collision ion-scattering spectroscopy and surface-extended electron-loss fine structure for MgO(100), which indicate 15 and 17% inward relaxation, respectively, and they support results from low-energy electron diffraction, reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and photoelectron diffraction that show little, if any, relaxation or rumpling of the surface.

  14. Availability analysis of the traveling-wave maser amplifiers in the deep space network. Part 1: The 70-meter antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issa, T. N.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the reliability and availability analyses of the individual S- and X-band traveling-wave maser (TWM) assemblies and their operational configurations in the 70-meter antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are described. For the period 1990 through 1991, the TWM availability parameters for the Telemetry Data System are: mean time between failures (MTBF), 930 hr; mean time to restore services (MTTRS), 1.4 hr; and the average availability, 99.85 percent. In previously published articles, the performance analysis of the TWM assemblies was confined to the determination of the parameters specified above. However, as the mean down time (MDT) for the repair of TWM's increases, the levels of the TWM operational availabilities and MTTRS are adversely affected. A more comprehensive TWM availability analysis is presented to permit evaluation of both MTBF and MDT effects. Performance analysis of the TWM assemblies, based on their station monthly failure reports, indicates that the TWM's required MTBF and MDT levels of 3000 hr and 36 to 48 hr, respectively, have been achieved by the TWM's only at the Canberra Deep Space Station (DSS 43). The Markov Process technique is employed to develop suitable availability measures for the S- and X-band TWM configurations when each is operated in a two-assembly standby mode. The derived stochastic expressions allow for the evaluation of those configurations' simultaneous availability for the Antenna Microwave Subsystem. The application of these expressions to demonstrate the impact of various levels of TWM maintainability (or MDT) on their configurations' operational availabilities is presented for each of the 70-m antenna stations.

  15. Oscillation of Surface PM2.5 Concentration Resulting from an Alternation of Easterly and Southerly Winds in Beijing: Mechanisms and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaobin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Xiujuan; Xia, Xiangao; Miao, Shiguang; Li, Ziming; Cheng, Zhigang; Wen, Wei; Tang, Yixi

    2018-04-01

    We used simultaneous measurements of surface PM2.5 concentration and vertical profiles of aerosol concentration, temperature, and humidity, together with regional air quality model simulations, to study an episode of aerosol pollution in Beijing from 15 to 19 November 2016. The potential effects of easterly and southerly winds on the surface concentrations and vertical profiles of the PM2.5 pollution were investigated. Favorable easterly winds produced strong upward motion and were able to transport the PM2.5 pollution at the surface to the upper levels of the atmosphere. The amount of surface PM2.5 pollution transported by the easterly winds was determined by the strength and height of the upward motion produced by the easterly winds and the initial height of the upward wind. A greater amount of PM2.5 pollution was transported to upper levels of the atmosphere by upward winds with a lower initial height. The pollutants were diluted by easterly winds from clean ocean air masses. The inversion layer was destroyed by the easterly winds and the surface pollutants and warm air masses were then lifted to the upper levels of the atmosphere, where they re-established a multi-layer inversion. This region of inversion was strengthened by the southerly winds, increasing the severity of pollution. A vortex was produced by southerly winds that led to the convergence of air along the Taihang Mountains. Pollutants were transported from southern-central Hebei Province to Beijing in the boundary layer. Warm advection associated with the southerly winds intensified the inversion produced by the easterly winds and a more stable boundary layer was formed. The layer with high PM2.5 concentration became dee-per with persistent southerly winds of a certain depth. The polluted air masses then rose over the northern Taihang Mountains to the northern mountainous regions of Hebei Province.

  16. Frequency of Cholelithiasis and Biliary Pathology in the Easter Island Rapanui and Non-Rapanui Populations.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Eduardo; Contardo, Jorge; Cea, Jerson

    2016-01-01

    Chile is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of cholelithiasis worldwide, considering the Mapuche ethnicity as a risk factor for developing this pathology. Moreover, cholelithiasis is the main risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer, being the fifth cause of cancer death in Chile. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology among the population belonging to Rapanui ethnicity and non-Rapanui population living on Easter Island. In this retrospective case-control study, a total of 609 abdominal ultrasonographs performed consecutively in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period August 2012 to January 2015 were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of cholelithiasis and biliary pathology, adjusting for age, gender and referral diagnostic hypothesis. In the Rapanui population the frequency for cholelithiasis and biliary pathology was 6.4% and 13%, meanwhile for the non-Rapanui population it was 13% and 22% respectively. Compared to the non-Rapanui Chilean population, the Rapanui ethnicity presented an OR of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.95) for cholelithiasis and OR of 0.52 (95% CI: 0.33-0.82) for biliary pathology. We found statistically significant ethnic differences in the frequency of cholelithiasis and biliary disease among the population of Rapanui and non-Rapanui ethnicity, so that this could be a protective factor for the development of biliary pathology, given the Chilean population context. Other studies including community population to determine the real prevalence of cholelithiasis and analyze the protective role of Rapanui ethnicity on this disease are necessary.

  17. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    PubMed

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Diversity of deep-sea fishes of the Easter Island Ecoregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Erin E.; Sellanes, Javier; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Morales, Naiti; Gorny, Matthias; Berkenpas, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The Easter Island Ecoregion is in the center of the South Pacific gyre and experiences ultra-oligotrophic conditions that could make it highly susceptible to global change and anthropogenic activities, so it is imperative that these regions are characterized and studied so that conservation and sustainable management strategies can be developed. From the few studies from the region, we know that the coastal areas are relatively depauperate and have relatively high rates of endemism. Here, we present a brief report from the first video observations from this region of the deep-dwelling fishes from ROV exploration of benthic communities from 157 to 281 m and baited drop-camera videos from 150 to 1850 m. We observed a total of 55 fish species from the ROV and Drop-Cam surveys; nine could not be assigned family level or lower, 26 were observed in the ROV surveys, 29 were observed in the Drop-Cam surveys, nine were observed with both survey methods, at least six species are potentially new to science, and nine species were observed at deeper depths than previously reported. These new reports may be indicative of the unique oceanographic conditions in the area and the relative isolation of the communities that have provided opportunity for the evolution of new species and favorable conditions for range expansion. In contrast, these new reports may be indicative of the severe undersampling in the south Pacific at mesopelagic depths. The prevalence of potentially new species suggests that the region likely harbors a wealth of undiscovered biodiversity.

  19. Determination of lamb wave dispersion data in lossy anisotropic plates using time domain finite element analysis. Part I: theory and experimental verification.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Gordon; Hyslop, Jamie

    2006-02-01

    A theoretical and experimental approach for extraction of guided wave dispersion data in plate structures is described. Finite element modeling is used to calculate the surface displacement data (in-plane and out-of-plane) when the plate is subject to either symmetrical or antisymmetrical impulsive force stimulation at one or both of the parallel faces. Fourier transformation of the resultant space-time displacement histories is then employed to obtain phase velocity as a function of frequency. Experimental verification in the case of antisymmetrical stimulation is provided by means of a high-power Q-switched laser source that is used to excite guided waves in the plate. The subsequent out-of-plane displacement data were then obtained by means of a scanning laser vibrometer, and good agreement between theory and experiment is demonstrated. Examples of dispersion data are provided for aluminum, and excellent correlation between the data sets and conventional Rayleigh-Lamb theory for plate structures was obtained. This was then extended to lossy polymeric plates, in addition to both unpolarized and polarized piezoelectric ceramic plates, again with good agreement between the finite element modeling and optical experiments. The last set of results prepares the way for a detailed investigation of the nonhomogeneous piezoelectric composite waveguides described in a companion paper (Part II).

  20. Wave Forcing of Saturn's Equatorial Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schlinder, P. J.; Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based measurements and Cassini data from CIRS thermal-infrared spectra and radio-occultation soundings have characterized the spatial structure and temporal behavior of a 15-year equatorial oscillation in Saturn's stratosphere. The equatorial region displays a vertical pattern of alternating warm and cold anomalies and, concomitantly, easterly and westerly winds relative to the cloud-top winds, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 200 m/s. Comparison of the Cassini data over a four-year period has established that the pattern of mean zonal winds and temperatures descends at a rate of roughly I scale height over 4 years. This behavior is reminiscent of the equatorial oscillations in Earth's middle atmosphere. Here the zonal-mean spatial structure and descending pattern are driven by the absorption of vertically propagating waves. The maximum excursions in the pattern of easterly and westerly winds is determined by the limits of the zonal phase velocities of the waves. Here we report on the characterization of the waves seen in the temperature profiles retrieved from the Cassini radio-occultation soundings. The equatorial profiles exhibit a complex pattern of wavelike structure with dimensions one pressure scale height and smaller. We combine a spectral decomposition with a WKBJ analysis, where the vertical wavelength is assumed to vary slowly with the ambient static stability and doppler-shifted phase velocity of the wave. Use of the temperature and zonal wind maps from CIRS makes this approach viable. On Earth, the wave forcing associated with the equatorial oscillations generates secondary meridional circulations that affect the mean flow and planetary wave ducting well away from the equator. This may relate to the triggering of the recently reported mid-latitude storms on Saturn.

  1. Imaging of spatial distributions of the millimeter wave intensity by using the Visible Continuum Radiation from a discharge in a Cs-Xe mixture. Part II: Demonstration of application capabilities of the technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitlin, M. S.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Fedotov, A. E.; Tsvetkov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the second part of the review on a high-sensitive technique for time-resolved imaging and measurements of the 2D intensity profiles of millimeter-wave radiation by means of Visible Continuum Radiation emitted by the positive column of a medium-pressure Cs-Xe DC Discharge (VCRD method). The first part of the review was focused on the operating principles and fundamentals of this new technique [Plasma Phys. Rep. 43, 253 (2017)]. The second part of the review focuses on experiments demonstrating application of this imaging technique to measure the parameters of radiation at the output of moderate-power millimeter-wave sources. In particular, the output waveguide mode of a moderate-power W-band gyrotron with a pulsed magnetic field was identified and the relative powers of some spurious modes at the outputs of this gyrotron and a pulsed D-band orotron were evaluated. The paper also reviews applications of the VCRD technique for real-time imaging and nondestructive testing with a frame rate of higher than 10 fps by using millimeter waves. Shadow projection images of objects opaque and transparent for millimeter waves have been obtained using pulsed watt-scale millimeter waves for object illumination. Near video frame rate millimeter-wave shadowgraphy has been demonstrated. It is shown that this technique can be used for single-shot screening (including detection of concealed objects) and time-resolved imaging of time-dependent processes.

  2. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  3. What Role do Nor'Easters have on the Jamaica Bay Wetlands Sediment Budget?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. C.; Bentley, S. J.; Wang, H.; Smith, J.

    2017-12-01

    The wetlands of Jamaica Bay, located on the outskirts of Queens, New York, have lost over half their surface area in the last 50 years due both anthropogenic and natural causes, including channel dredging, urban drainage construction, and greater tidal amplitudes partially due to rising local sea levels. Superstorm Sandy made landfall in 2014 as a powerful coastal geomorphic agent, highlighting the vulnerability of that region to large cyclonic storms that are more commonly encountered along coastal reaches of southeastern North America. After this event, research aimed at quantifying the geomorphic impact of Superstorm Sandy and to evaluate the record of past documented major winter storms on Jamaica Bay's wetlands. 12 sediment cores were collected from the surface of remaining wetlands in August 2014 by the USGS Wetland and Aquatic Research Center; the cores have been analyzed for Pb-210/Cs-137 geochronology, organic content, and water content to establish chronology of mineral sediment supply to the wetlands over the past 120 years. Most cores were found to be organic-rich, marked with periodic cm-scale beds with increased mineral content. Historic storm data, dating as far back as the late 1800's, were used to identify hurricanes and major winter storms determined by the National Weather Service passing within 100 km of the study area. Likely storm-event deposits in each core were identified as layers with mineral content higher than the core mean plus one standard deviation, and were matched to historic events via radioisotope geochronology, incorporating age-model uncertainty. Overall, 22 out of the 35 defined storm layers match the timing of historic strong storms (within uncertainty ranging from 2 to 5 years) from 1894 to Superstorm Sandy in 2014. Our findings show that over multidecadal timescales, nor'easters and winter storms play a role in the vertical accretion of sediment in the Jamaica Bay wetlands, but are substantially less important than sediment

  4. Sediment Transport over a Dredge Pit, Sandy Point Southeast, west flank of the Mississippi River during Summer Upcoast Currents: a Coupled Wave, Current and Sediment Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichitehrani, N.; Li, C.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Sandy Point southeast, an elongated sand resource, was dredged in November 2012 to restore Pelican Island, Louisiana. Hydrodynamics and wave propagation patterns along with fluvial sediments from the Mississippi River influence the sediment and bottom boundary layer dynamics over Sandy Point. A state-of-the-art numerical model, Delft3D, was implemented to investigate current variations and wave transformation on Sandy Point as well as sediment transport pattern. Delft3d FLOW and WAVE modules were coupled and validated using WAVCIS and NDBC data. Sediment transport model was run by introducing both bed and river sediments, consisted of mainly mud and a small fraction of sand. A sediment transport model was evaluated for surface sediment concentration using data derived from satellite images. The model results were used to study sediment dynamics and bottom boundary layer characteristics focused on the Sandy Point area during summer. Two contrasting bathymetric configurations, with and without the Sandy Point dredge pit, were used to conduct an experiment on the sediment and bottom boundary layer dynamics. Preliminary model results showed that the presence of the Sandy Point pit has very limited effect on the hydrodynamics and wave pattern at the pit location. Sediments from the Mississippi River outlets, especially in the vicinity of the pit, get trapped in the pit under the easterly to the northeasterly upcoast current which prevails in August. We also examined the wave-induced sediment reworking and river-borne fluvial sediment over Sandy Point. The effect of wind induced orbital velocity increases the bottom shear stress compared to the time with no waves, relatively small wave heights (lower than 1.5 meters) along the deepest part of the pit (about 20 meters) causes little bottom sediment rework during this period. The results showed that in the summertime, river water is more likely the source of sedimentation in the pit.

  5. In vitro maturation of Drosophila melanogaster Spätzle protein with refolded Easter reveals a novel cleavage site within the prodomain.

    PubMed

    Ursel, Christian; Fandrich, Uwe; Hoffmann, Anita; Sieg, Torsten; Ihling, Christian; Stubbs, Milton T

    2013-08-01

    Dorsoventral patterning during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis is mediated by a well-defined gradient of the mature NGF-like ligand Spätzle. Easter, the ultimate protease of a ventrally-restricted serine protease cascade, plays a key role in the regulation of the morphogenic gradient, catalyzing the activation cleavage of proSpätzle. As a result of alternative splicing, proSpätzle exists in multiple isoforms, almost all of which differ only in their prodomain. Although this domain is unstructured in isolation, it has a stabilizing influence on the mature cystine knot domain and is involved in the binding to the Toll receptor. Here, we report the expression and refolding of Easter, and show that the renatured enzyme performs the activation cleavage of two Spätzle isoforms. We determine the affinity of the prodomain for the cystine knot domain, and show that Easter performs a previously unknown secondary cleavage in each prodomain.

  6. Analysis of the Interactions of Planetary Waves with the Mean Flow of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    During the winter period, large scale waves (planetary waves) are observed to propagate from the troposphere into the stratosphere. Such wave events have been recognized since the 1 950s. The very largest wave events result in major stratospheric warmings. These large scale wave events have typical durations of a few days to 2 weeks. The wave events deposit easterly momentum in the stratosphere, decelerating the polar night jet and warming the polar region. In this presentation we show the typical characteristics of these events via a compositing analysis. We will show the typical periods and scales of motion and the associated decelerations and warmings. We will illustrate some of the differences between major and minor warming wave events. We will further illustrate the feedback by the mean flow on subsequent wave events.

  7. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Hussain, Fozia; Wisløff, Helene

    2014-12-15

    Several Lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (Felis silvestris catus), among them Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum). Although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. We thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of Easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. The bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tentatively identified as steroidal glycoalkaloids of the solasodine-type, based on multiple-fragmentation ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The glycoalkaloids in the active fraction possessed trisaccharide chains, and at least 16 different congeners could be separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The two principal compounds were solasodine trisaccharides containing two hexose and one deoxy-hexose unit. In the remaining 14 analogues, one or two of the hydroxyl groups of the second hexose from the aglycone were acetylated. In addition, some of the analogues appeared to be carbonate esters. Esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in plants has only been reported once and was in accordance with higher antifungal activity of the acetylated versus the parent congener. Our pilot study shows that esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in Lilium species might be common resulting in an array of different analogues with largely unexplored structural variability and bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  9. Eliminating Unwanted Far-Field Excitation in Objective-Type TIRF. Part II. Combined Evanescent-Wave Excitation and Supercritical-Angle Fluorescence Detection Improves Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Brunstein, Maia; Hérault, Karine; Oheim, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Azimuthal beam scanning makes evanescent-wave (EW) excitation isotropic, thereby producing total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images that are evenly lit. However, beam spinning does not fundamentally address the problem of propagating excitation light that is contaminating objective-type TIRF. Far-field excitation depends more on the specific objective than on cell scattering. As a consequence, the excitation impurities in objective-type TIRF are only weakly affected by changes of azimuthal or polar beam angle. These are the main results of the first part of this study (Eliminating unwanted far-field excitation in objective-type TIRF. Pt.1. Identifying sources of nonevanescent excitation light). This second part focuses on exactly where up beam in the illumination system stray light is generated that gives rise to nonevanescent components in TIRF. Using dark-field imaging of scattered excitation light we pinpoint the objective, intermediate lenses and, particularly, the beam scanner as the major sources of stray excitation. We study how adhesion-molecule coating and astrocytes or BON cells grown on the coverslip surface modify the dark-field signal. On flat and weakly scattering cells, most background comes from stray reflections produced far from the sample plane, in the beam scanner and the objective lens. On thick, optically dense cells roughly half of the scatter is generated by the sample itself. We finally show that combining objective-type EW excitation with supercritical-angle fluorescence (SAF) detection efficiently rejects the fluorescence originating from deeper sample regions. We demonstrate that SAF improves the surface selectivity of TIRF, even at shallow penetration depths. The coplanar microscopy scheme presented here merges the benefits of beam spinning EW excitation and SAF detection and provides the conditions for quantitative wide-field imaging of fluorophore dynamics at or near the plasma membrane. PMID:24606929

  10. Natural and anthropogenic drivers of cultural change on Easter Island: Review and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí

    2016-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) is a remote Pacific island known for its megalithic statues, the moai, built by an ancient culture which disappearance is still debated. Theories claiming for either self-destruction (ecocide) of this ancient culture or an eventual genocide after the European contact have been the most popular. Anthropogenic drivers have been traditionally preferred as causes of this major cultural shift, whereas climatic changes have been dismissed or underrated. However, the latest findings suggest that the topic is more complex than formerly thought and demand a more holistic perspective. This paper reviews the main paleoclimatic, paleoecological, archaeological and historical evidence of the major Rapanui cultural shift leading to the end of the moai-building civilization and uses an integrated approach to analyze its timing and potential causes. The disappearance of the ancient Eastern Island culture that erected the moai was a dramatic cultural shift with significant changes in lifestyle, socio-political organization, religious performance, art and also in the geographical settlement of the cultural core of the Rapanui society. The ancient society, represented by the so called Ancient Cult (or moai cult) was centered on the Rano Raraku crater, to the east of the island, whose soft volcanic rocks (tuff) where suitable for moai carving. This society was replaced by the Birdman-Cult society, based on Rano Kao, to the westernmost end of the island. The assumed date for such shift is uncertain ranging between mid-16th and late-18th centuries. It is suggested that such geographical change, as well as the associated societal transformations, may have been the result of a combination of climatic, ecological and cultural drivers and events. The latest paleoecological reconstructions show that the Rano Raraku catchment was deforested by AD 1450 and the lake inside dried out by AD 1550 owing to an intense climatic drought. This would have caused a landscape

  11. Short Wave Part of Earth's Energy Budget at Top of Atmosphere During 2009-2017 from Radiometer IKOR-M Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherviakov, M.; Spiryakhina, A.; Surkova, Y.; Kulkova, E.; Shishkina, E.

    2017-12-01

    This report describes Earth's energy budget IKOR-M satellite program which has been started in Russia. The first satellite "Meteor-M" No 1 of this project was put into orbit in 2009. The IKOR-M radiometer is a satellite instrument which can measure reflected shortwave radiation (0.3-4.0 µm). It was created in Saratov University and installed on Russian meteorological satellites "Meteor-M" No 1 and No 2. IKOR-M designed for satellite monitoring of the outgoing short-wave radiation at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), which is one of the components of Earth's energy budget. Such measurements can be used to derive albedo and absorbed solar radiation at TOA. The basic products of data processing are given in the form of global maps of distribution outgoing short-wave radiation, albedo and absorbed solar radiation (ASR). Such maps were made for each month during observation period. The IKOR-M product archive is available online at all times. A searchable catalogue of data products is continually updated and users may search and download data products via the Earth radiation balance components research laboratory website (www.sgu.ru/structure/geographic/metclim/balans) as soon as they become available. Two series of measurements from two different IKOR-M are available. The first radiometer had worked from October 2009 to August 2014 and second - from August 2014 to the present. Therefore, there is a period when both radiometers work at the same time. Top-of-atmosphere fluxes deduced from the "Meteor-M" No 1 measurements in August 2014 show very good agreement with the fluxes determined from "Meteor-M" No 2. It was shown that the albedo and ASR data received from the radiometer IKOR-M can be used to detect El Nino in the Pacific Ocean. During the radiometer operation, there were two significant El Nino events. Spatial-temporal distribution of the albedo in the equatorial part of the Pacific Ocean was analyzed. Region with high albedo values of 35-40 % is formed in the region 180E

  12. Tropical waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation in the lower stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. J.; Angell, J. K.; Korshover, J.

    1976-01-01

    By means of spectrum analysis of 11 years of lower stratospheric daily winds and temperatures at Balboa, Ascension and Canton-Singapore, evidence is presented supporting the existence of two principal wave modes with periods of about 11-17 days (Kelvin waves) and about 4-5 days (mixed Rossby-gravity waves). The structure of the two wave modes, as well as the vertical eddy momentum flux by the waves, is shown to be related to the quasi-biennial cycle, although for the mixed Rossby-gravity waves this is obvious only at Ascension. In addition, the Coriolis term, suggested as a source of vertical easterly momentum flux for the mixed Rossby-gravity waves, is investigated and found to be of the same magnitude as the vertical eddy flux term. Finally, we have examined the mean meridional motion and the meridional eddy momentum flux for its possible association with the quasi- biennial variation.

  13. Some Fantasy Characters of Young Children: An Examination of Children's Beliefs in Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manosevitz, Martin; Prentice, Norman M.

    This study examined children's beliefs in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and the Tooth Fairy as well as the effects of parental encouragement or support of these fantasy characters upon the children's beliefs. Subjects were 60 children aged 4, 6 and 8 years and their parents. Measures included a parental questionnaire and child interviews. Partial…

  14. A high-resolution OGCM simulation of the Tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1985-1994 TOGA period. Part I: Long equatorial waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Delecluse, F.; Maes, C.; Levy, C.

    1995-01-01

    A high resolution oceanic general circulation model of the three topical oceans is used to investigate long equatorial wave activity in the Pacific Ocean during the 1985-1994 TOGA period. Zonal wind stress forcing and simulated dynamic height are interpreted using techniques previously applied to data. Kelvin and first Rossby waves are observed propagating during all the period. A seasonal cycle and interannual anomalies are computed for each long equatorial wave. The east Pacific basin is mainly dominated by seasonal cycle variations while strong interannual anomalies are observed west of the dateline. Long wave interannual anomalies are then compared to wave coefficients simulated by a simple wind-forced model. Our results outline the major role played by wind forcing on interannual time scales in generating long equatorial waves. However, near both eastern and western boundaries, some differences can be attributed to long wave reflections. A comparison to wave coefficients calculated from GEOSAT sea-level data gives some insight of the model behavior.

  15. Three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic field over the Easter-Nazca propagating rift near 25°S, 112°25‧W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere, Jean-Christophe; Gee, Jeff; Naar, David F.; Hey, Richard N.

    1989-12-01

    The Easter microplate boundary configuration is being reorganized by rift propagation. A Sea Beam survey of the Easter-Nazca spreading center, which forms the eastern boundary of the microplate, has revealed the presence of a young propagating rift growing northward (Naar and Hey, 1986). The tip of the propagating rift is associated with a high-amplitude positive magnetic anomaly. We have performed a three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic field over the propagating rift tip area. The magnetization solution suggests that the western and eastern pseudofaults strike 014° and 338°, respectively, and converge near the rift tip. These orientations yield a propagation to spreading rate ratio of 1.5, slightly higher than the estimate of Naar and Hey (1986). Using the revised estimate of the full spreading rate along the Easter-Nazca spreading center near 25°S (80 mm/yr) (D. F. Naar and R. N. Hey, unpublished manuscript, 1989), we obtain a propagation rate of 120 mm/yr. Within 27-30 km of the rift tip, the propagating rift curves by about 15° to the east toward the failing rift, probably as a result of the interaction between the two offset spreading centers. As at the Galapagos propagating rift, rift propagation appears to be a very orderly process along the Easter-Nazca spreading center. The magnetization distribution that we obtain exhibits a high at the propagating rift tip. At other large ridge axis discontinuities, similar magnetization highs have been interpreted as being the result of the eruption of highly differentiated basalts enriched in iron. The origin of the high magnetization zone in the case of the Easter-Nazca propagating rift near 25°S may be more complex. Preliminary rock magnetic measurements of basalts recovered in the vicinity of the propagating rift confirm the presence of highly magnetized basalts but suggest that the relationship between high magnetization intensities and high Fe content is not straightforward.

  16. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  17. Plane Evanescent Waves and Interface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppé, F.; Conoir, J. M.; El Kettani, M. Ech-Cherif; Lenoir, O.; Izbicki, J. L.; Duclos, J.; Poirée, B.

    The evanescent plane wave formalism is used to obtain the characteristic equation of the normal vibration modes of a plane elastic solid embedded in a perfect fluid. Simple drawings of the real and imaginary parts of complex wave vectors make quite clear the choice of the Riemann sheets on which the roots of the characteristic equation are to be looked for. The generalized Rayleigh wave and the Scholte - Stoneley wave are then described. The same formalism is used to describe Lamb waves on an elastic plane plate immersed in water. The damping, due to energy leaking in the fluid, is shown to be directly given by the projection of evanescence vectors on the interface. Measured values of the damping coefficient are in good agreement with those derived from calculations. The width of the angular resonances associated to Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves is also directly related to this same evanescence vectors projection, as well as the excitation coefficient of a given Lamb wave excited by a plane incident wave. This study shows clearly the strong correlation between the resonance point of view and the wave one in plane interface problems.

  18. Coupling of the quasi-biennial oscillation and the extratropical circulation in the stratosphere through planetary wave transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, Donal; Salby, Murry L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of tropical winds on the extratropical circulation are examined using calculations of eddy transport with tropical flow that is representative of the easterly and westerly phases of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). A dependence of extratropical circulation on tropical winds and the QBO is shown to originate in planetary wave transport. Also, the effects of low latitude flow on high latitude circulation and the behavior of the vortex in opposite phases of the QBO are examined.

  19. Rocket Observations of Kelvin Waves in the Upper Stratosphere over India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, M.; Reddy, C. A.; Ragrava Reddi, C.

    1985-09-01

    The upper atmospheric winds (20-40 km) at two Indian stations, Sriharikota Range (SHAR 13.7°N, 80.2°E) and Balasore (2 1.5°N, 86.93°E) during the years 1979-80 were analyzed for short scale vertical variations (6-16 km) of the zonal wind. The analysis involves high-pass filtering of the wind profiles to extract the short-scale wavelike perturbations and Fourier analysis of the wave disturbances.The results of the analysis are presented. The dominant vertical wavelengths are in the 6-12 km range in 67% of the observed cases, and the amplitudes are significantly larger during the easterly background wind. The amplitudes are systematically larger by about a factor of 2 at Sriharikota (13.7°N) than at 1Wasore (21.5°N). Corresponding wave perturbations are absent in the meridional wind in as much as 70% of the observations. These characteristics lead to the conclusion that the observed wavelike disturbances are the manifestation of Kelvin waves in the upper stratosphere. In some cases, the periods of the waves are inferred to be in the range of 4-8 days. The short vertical wavelengths, together with the shorter periods, indicate the possible dominance of zonal wavenumber 2 during many disturbance events.The observations of the wave activity in relation to the semiannual oscillation (SAO) and the annual oscillation (AO) show that 1) the more active periods correspond to the easterly phase of the SAO in the middle stratosphere and that 2) the wave activity persists for a longer duration when both the AO and SAO are in easterly phase.

  20. A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.

  1. A stress wave based approach to NDE of logs for assessing potential veneer quality: Part I—small-diameter ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Susan W. Willits; William Von Segen; Terry Black; Brian K. Brashaw; Roy F. Pellerin

    1999-01-01

    Longitudinal stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used in a variety of applications in the forest products industry. Recently, it has been shown that they can significantly aid in the assessment of log quality, particularly when they are used to predict performance of structural lumber obtained from a log. The purpose of the research...

  2. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An extensive set of ground-based measurements of the diurnal variation of medium frequency radio wave adsorption and virtual height is analyzed in terms of current understanding of the D- and lower E-region ion production and loss process. When this is done a gross discrepancy arises, the source of which is not known.

  3. Bringing (Century-Old) Technology into the Classroom, Part II: Teaching Vibrations and Waves, Electricity and Magnetism, and Optics with Antiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, John W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of two articles on using antique devices to teach introductory physics. As mentioned in the first article, students can more clearly see the physics required for the operation of antique devices than for modern-day technological devices. This article further discusses antiques used to teach vibrations and waves,…

  4. Antifungal activity and fungal metabolism of steroidal glycosides of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) by the plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2011-06-08

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr. is a plant pathogenic fungus and the causal organism of blossom blight of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.). Easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, compounds which may play a role in the plant-pathogen interaction of Easter lily. Five steroidal glycosides, including two steroidal glycoalkaloids and three furostanol saponins, were isolated from L. longiflorum and evaluated for fungal growth inhibition activity against B. cinerea, using an in vitro plate assay. All of the compounds showed fungal growth inhibition activity; however, the natural acetylation of C-6''' of the terminal glucose in the steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), increased antifungal activity by inhibiting the rate of metabolism of the compound by B. cinerea. Acetylation of the glycoalkaloid may be a plant defense response to the evolution of detoxifying mechanisms by the pathogen. The biotransformation of the steroidal glycoalkaloids by B. cinerea led to the isolation and characterization of several fungal metabolites. The fungal metabolites that were generated in the model system were also identified in Easter lily tissues infected with the fungus by LC-MS. In addition, a steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), was identified as both a fungal metabolite of the steroidal glycoalkaloids and as a natural product in L. longiflorum for the first time.

  5. The recruitment of patients to trials in head and neck cancer: a qualitative study of the EaStER trial of treatments for early laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D W; de Salis, I; Donovan, J L; Birchall, M

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to investigate the factors contributing to poor recruitment to the EaStER trial "Early Stage glottic cancer: Endoscopic excision or Radiotherapy" feasibility study. We performed a prospective qualitative assessment of the EaStER trial at three centres to investigate barriers to recruitment and implement changes. Methods used included semi-structured interviews, focus groups and audio-recordings of recruitment encounters. First, surgeons and recruiters did not all accept the primary outcome as the rationale for the trial. Surgeons did not always adhere to the trial eligibility criteria leading to variations between centres in the numbers of "eligible" patients. Second, as both treatments were considered equally successful, recruiters and patients focused on the pragmatics of the different trial arms, favouring surgery over radiotherapy. The lack of equipoise was reflected in the way recruiters presented trial information. Third, patient views, beliefs and preferences were not fully elicited or addressed by recruiters. Fourth, in some centres, logistical issues made trial participation difficult. This qualitative research identified several major issues that explained recruitment difficulties. While there was insufficient time to address these in the EaStER trial, several factors would need to be addressed to launch further RCTs in head and neck cancer. These include the need for clear ongoing agreement among recruiting clinicians regarding details in the study protocol; an understanding of the logistical issues hindering recruitment at individual centres; and training recruiters to enable them to explain the need for randomisation and the rationale for the RCT to patients.

  6. Internal inertia-gravity waves in the tropical lower stratosphere observed by the Arecibo radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maekawa, Y.; Kato, S.; Fukao, S.; Sato, T.; Woodman, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    A quasi-periodic wind oscillation with an apparent 20-50 hour period was observed at between 16 and 20 km in every experiment conducted during three periods from 1979 to 1981 with the Arecibo UHF radar. The wave disappeared near 20 km, where the mean zonal flow had easterly shear with height. This phenomenon is discussed in terms of wave absorption at a critical level, and it is suggested that the wave had a westward horizontal phase speed of 10-20 m/sec. On the basis of a relationship from f-plane theory in which the Doppler-shifted wave frequency approaches the Coriolis frequency at the critical level, an intrinsic period and horizontal wavelength at the wave-generated height of 20-30 hours and about 2000 km, respectively, are inferred.

  7. Diet and body shape changes of pāroko Kelloggella disalvoi (Gobiidae) from intertidal pools of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Vera-Duarte, J; Bustos, C A; Landaeta, M F

    2017-11-01

    This study assesses seasonal variation in the morphology and diet of juveniles and adults of the Easter Island endemic goby Kelloggella disalvoi from intertidal pools during September-October 2015 (spring) and June-July 2016 (winter), utilizing geometric morphometric and gut-content analyses. A set of 16 landmarks was digitized in 128 individuals. Shape changes related to size changes (i.e. allometry) were low (18·6%) and were seasonally similar. Body shape changes were mainly dorsoventral (44·2% of variance) and comprised posteroventral displacement of the premaxilla and bending of the body. The latter included vertical displacement of the anterior portion of the first and second dorsal fins and the entire base of the caudal fin. Diets mainly comprised developmental stages of harpacticoid copepods (from eggs to adults), ostracods, isopods, gastropods and bivalves. Also, trophic niche breadth remained constant throughout development and did not vary between seasons. Nonetheless, significant dietary differences were detected in specimens collected during spring (main prey items: harpacticoid copepods and copepod eggs) and winter (harpacticoid copepods and copepod nauplii). Finally, there was weak but significant covariation between diet and morphology: molluscivores were characterized by having an inferior mouth gape, whereas planktivores had an anteriorly directed premaxilla. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Impact of Interactive Aerosol on the African Easterly Jet in the NASA GEOS-5 Global Forecasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, O.; Lau, K. M.; da Silva, A.

    2010-01-01

    The real-time treatment of interactive realistically varying aerosol in a global operational forecasting system, as opposed to prescribed (fixed or climatologically varying) aerosols, is a very difficult challenge that only recently begins to be addressed. Experiment results from a recent version of the NASA GEOS-5 forecasting system, inclusive of interactive aerosol treatment, are presented in this work. Four sets of 30 5-day forecasts are initialized from a high quality set of analyses previously produced and documented to cover the period from 15 August to 16 September 2006, which corresponds to the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) observing campaign. The four forecast sets are at two different horizontal resolutions and with and without interactive aerosol treatment. The net impact of aerosol, at times in which there is a strong dust outbreak, is a temperature increase at the dust level and decrease in the near-surface levels, in complete agreement with previous observational and modeling studies. Moreover, forecasts in which interactive aerosols are included depict an African Easterly (AEJ) at slightly higher elevation, and slightly displace northward, with respect to the forecasts in which aerosols are not include. The shift in the AEJ position goes in the direction of observations and agrees with previous results.

  9. Making Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeClark, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity on waves that addresses the state standards and benchmarks of Michigan. Demonstrates waves and studies wave's medium, motion, and frequency. The activity is designed to address different learning styles. (YDS)

  10. Rossby wave activity in a two-dimensional model - Closure for wave driving and meridional eddy diffusivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchman, Matthew H.; Brasseur, Guy

    1988-01-01

    A parameterization of the effects of Rossby waves in the middle atmosphere is proposed for use in two-dimensional models. By adding an equation for conservation of Rossby wave activity, closure is obtained for the meridional eddy fluxes and body force due to Rossby waves. Rossby wave activity is produced in a climatological fashion at the tropopause, is advected by a group velocity which is determined solely by model zonal winds, and is absorbed where it converges. Absorption of Rossby wave activity causes both an easterly torque and an irreversible mixing of potential vorticity, represented by the meridional eddy diffusivity, K(yy). The distribution of Rossby wave driving determines the distribution of K(yy), which is applied to all of the chemical constituents. This provides a self-consistent coupling of the wave activity with the winds, tracer distributions and the radiative field. Typical winter stratospheric values for K(yy) of 2 million sq m/sec are obtained. Poleward tracer advection is enhanced and meridional tracer gradients are reduced where Rossby wave activity is absorbed in the model.

  11. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.

  12. First ground-based observations of mesopause temperatures above the Eastern-Mediterranean Part II: OH*-climatology and gravity wave activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüst, Sabine; Schmidt, Carsten; Bittner, Michael; Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we present an analysis of approximately four years of nightly temperature data, acquired with the OH-spectrometer GRIPS 10 (GRound based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer), which was installed in Tel Aviv (32.11°N, 34.8°E), Israel in November 2011 for routine measurements. As our instrument does not give any height information, we use TIMED-SABER data in order to answer the question concerning the height region our measurement technique exactly addresses. For the first time, we estimate the density of wave potential energy for periods between some minutes and some hours for this station. These values are typical for gravity waves. Since GRIPS measurements do not currently provide vertically resolved data, the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, which is needed for the estimation of potential energy density, is calculated using TIMED-SABER measurements. The monthly mean density of wave potential energy is presented for periods shorter and longer than 60 min. For the winter months (November, December, and January), the data base allows the calculation of a seasonal mean for the different years. This publication is the companion paper to Silber et al. (2016). Here, we focus on oscillations with shorter periods.

  13. Coarse, Intermediate and High Resolution Numerical Simulations of the Transition of a Tropical Wave Critical Layer to a Tropical Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Dunkerton, T. J.; Wang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from within the cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. The cyclonic critical layer is thought to be important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii) containment of moisture entrained by the developing flow and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii) confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv) a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v) maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the developing proto-vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. This genesis sequence and the overarching framework for describing how such hybrid wave-vortex structures become tropical depressions/storms is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "marsupial paradigm". Here we conduct the first multi-scale test of the marsupial paradigm in an idealized setting by revisiting the Kurihara and Tuleya problem examining the transformation of an easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex using the WRF model. An analysis of the evolving winds, equivalent potential temperature, and relative vertical vorticity is presented from coarse (28 km), intermediate (9 km) and high resolution (3.1 km) simulations. The results are found to support key elements of the marsupial paradigm by demonstrating the existence of rotationally dominant region with minimal strain/shear deformation near the center of the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave pouch and proto-vortex move together.

  14. Near Shore Wave Modeling and applications to wave energy estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, G.; Galanis, G.; Hayes, D.; Nikolaidis, A.; Kalogeri, C.; Adam, A.; Kallos, G.; Georgiou, G.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of the wave energy potential at the European coastline is receiving increased attention the last years as a result of the adaptation of novel policies in the energy market, the concernsfor global warming and the nuclear energy security problems. Within this framework, numerical wave modeling systems keep a primary role in the accurate description of wave climate and microclimate that is a prerequisite for any wave energy assessment study. In the present work two of the most popular wave models are used for the estimation of the wave parameters at the coastline of Cyprus: The latest parallel version of the wave model WAM (ECMWF version), which employs new parameterization of shallow water effects, and the SWAN model, classically used for near shore wave simulations. The results obtained from the wave models near shores are studied by an energy estimation point of view: The wave parameters that mainly affect the energy temporal and spatial distribution, that is the significant wave height and the mean wave period, are statistically analyzed,focusing onpossible different aspects captured by the two models. Moreover, the wave spectrum distribution prevailing in different areas are discussed contributing, in this way, to the wave energy assessmentin the area. This work is a part of two European projects focusing on the estimation of the wave energy distribution around Europe: The MARINA platform (http://www.marina-platform.info/ index.aspx) and the Ewave (http://www.oceanography.ucy.ac.cy/ewave/) projects.

  15. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. Results The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0–1.69D), and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°–89°). Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Conclusions Using WaveLight® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction. PMID:28553071

  16. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes.

    PubMed

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight ® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol in all cases. All patients had astigmatism corrected, and had at least 1 week of follow-up. Accuracy to desired refractive goal was assessed by postoperative refraction, aberration reduction via calculation of polynomials, and postoperative visions were analyzed as a secondary goal. The average difference of astigmatic power from manifest to measured was 0.5462D (with a range of 0-1.69D), and the average difference of axis was 14.94° (with a range of 0°-89°). Forty-seven of 50 eyes had a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%. Using WaveLight ® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea with accurate removal of astigmatism, and reduction of aberration polynomials. WaveLight ® Contoura successfully links the refractive correction layer and aberration repair layer using the Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism Protocol to demonstrate how aberration removal can affect refractive correction.

  17. Low temperature thermochronology in the Easter Alps. New data, interpretations and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate new and published low temperature thermochronological data of the Eastern Alps in terms of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution and the possible connection with deep seated lithospheric processes. In the Eastern Alps, the tectonic units that originate from the Penninic domain are buried beneath the Austroalpine nappe stack. Overthrusting of the Austroalpine nappes over the Penninic units occurred throughout the Cretaceous and lasted until the Eocene. During lateral tectonic extrusion in Oligocene to Miocene times the footwall penninic units exposed in the Tauern Window, were tectonically exhumed from below the Austroalpine hanging wall. This is well documented by Miocene to Pliocene zircon- and apatite fission track (ZFT, AFT) and (U-Th)/He data. However, the Austroalpine hanging wall shows a more complex age pattern. Late Cretaceous ZFT data reflect post-metamorphic exhumational cooling after Eo-Alpine metamorphism that goes along with an extensional phase that affected large parts of the Eastern Alps. Paleogene AFT and apatite (U-Th)/He data of the Austroalpine units to the east of the Tauern Window reflect exhumation of this area that supplied clastic material, the so-called Augenstein formation. Exhumation and erosion of the area left a probably hilly surface in Early Miocene times that was only moderately uplifted since then. These areas are well known for paleosurfaces exposed in the Gurktal- Kor- and Seckauer Alps to the east of the Tauern Window and in the central and eastern Northern Calcareous Alps. However, distinct parts of the Austroalpine hanging wall experienced substantial exhumation and surface uplift in the Miocene, contemporaneous to the exhumation of Penninic units and lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps. These areas are restricted to the south and northeast of the Tauern Window and are characterized by steep and rugged reliefs that contrast the hilly and moderately shaped reliefs of the

  18. Quantitative analysis of steroidal glycosides in different organs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2011-02-09

    The bulbs of the Easter lily ( Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) are regularly consumed in Asia as both food and medicine, and the beautiful white flowers are appreciated worldwide as an attractive ornamental. The Easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, a group of compounds that may be responsible for some of the traditional medicinal uses of lilies. Since the appearance of recent reports on the role steroidal glycosides in animal and human health, there is increasing interest in the concentration of these natural products in plant-derived foods. A LC-MS/MS method performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for the quantitative analysis of two steroidal glycoalkaloids and three furostanol saponins, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The highest concentrations of the total five steroidal glycosides were 12.02 ± 0.36, 10.09 ± 0.23, and 9.36 ± 0.27 mg/g dry weight in flower buds, lower stems, and leaves, respectively. The highest concentrations of the two steroidal glycoalkaloids were 8.49 ± 0.3, 6.91 ± 0.22, and 5.83 ± 0.15 mg/g dry weight in flower buds, leaves, and bulbs, respectively. In contrast, the highest concentrations of the three furostanol saponins were 4.87 ± 0.13, 4.37 ± 0.07, and 3.53 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight in lower stems, fleshy roots, and flower buds, respectively. The steroidal glycoalkaloids were detected in higher concentrations as compared to the furostanol saponins in all of the plant organs except the roots. The ratio of the steroidal glycoalkaloids to furostanol saponins was higher in the plant organs exposed to light and decreased in proportion from the aboveground organs to the underground organs. Additionally, histological staining of bulb scales revealed differential furostanol accumulation in the basal plate, bulb scale epidermal cells, and vascular bundles, with little or no staining in the mesophyll of the bulb scale. An understanding of the distribution of steroidal glycosides in the different

  19. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile).

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Z; De la Rosa, José M; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Pereira, Manuel F C; González-Pérez, José A; Calaforra, José M; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2016-08-26

    This study comprises an innovative approach based on the combination of chromatography (analytical pyrolysis and pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis (Py-CSIA)), light stable isotopes, microscopy and mineralogy analyses to characterize the internal layering of coralloid speleothems from the Ana Heva lava tube in Easter Island (Chile). This multidisciplinary proxy showed that the speleothems consist of banded siliceous materials of low crystallinity with different mineralogical compositions and a significant contribution of organic carbon. Opal-A constitutes the outermost grey layer of the coralloids, whereas calcite and amorphous Mg hydrate silicate are the major components of the inner whitish and honey-brown layers, respectively. The differences found in the mineralogical, elemental, molecular and isotopic composition of these distinct coloured layers are related to environmental changes during speleothem development. Stable isotopes and analytical pyrolysis suggested alterations in the water regime, pointing to wetter conditions during the formation of the Ca-rich layer and a possible increase in the amount of water dripping into the cave. The trend observed for δ(15)N values suggested an increase in the average temperature over time, which is consistent with the so-called climate warming during the Holocene. The pyrolysis compound-specific isotope analysis of each speleothem layer showed a similar trend with the bulk δ(13)C values pointing to the appropriateness of direct Py-CSIA in paleoenvironmental studies. The δ(13)C values for n-alkanes reinforced the occurrence of a drastic environmental change, indicating that the outermost Opal layer was developed under drier and more arid environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Detection of Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, David G.

    2005-10-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Waves and Methods for their Detection: 1. Gravitational waves in general relativity D. G. Blair; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair; Part II. Gravitational Wave Detectors: 4. Resonant-bar detectors D. G. Blair; 5. Gravity wave dewars W. O. Hamilton; 6. Internal friction in high Q materials J. Ferreirinko; 7. Motion amplifiers and passive transducers J. P. Richard; 8. Parametric transducers P. J. Veitch; 9. Detection of continuous waves K. Tsubono; 10. Data analysis and algorithms for gravitational wave-antennas G. V. Paalottino; Part III. Laser Interferometer Antennas: 11. A Michelson interferometer using delay lines W. Winkler; 12. Fabry-Perot cavity gravity-wave detectors R. W. P. Drever; 13. The stabilisation of lasers for interferometric gravitational wave detectors J. Hough; 14. Vibration isolation for the test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors N. A. Robertson; 15. Advanced techniques A. Brillet; 16. Data processing, analysis and storage for interferometric antennas B. F. Schutz; 17. Gravitational wave detection at low and very low frequencies R. W. Hellings.

  1. Imaging of spatial distributions of the millimeter wave intensity by using visible continuum radiation from a discharge in a Cs–Xe mixture. Part I: Review of the method and its fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Gitlin, M. S., E-mail: gitlin@appl.sci-nnov.ru

    The first part of the review is presented which is dedicated to the time-resolved method of imaging and measuring the spatial distribution of the intensity of millimeter waves by using visible continuum (VC) emitted by the positive column (PC) of a dc discharge in a mixture of cesium vapor with xenon. The review focuses on the operating principles, fundamentals, and applications of this new technique. The design of the discharge tube and experimental setup used to create a wide homogeneous plasma slab with the help of the Cs–Xe discharge at a gas pressure of 45 Torr are described. The millimeter-wavemore » effects on the plasma slab are studied experimentally. The mechanism of microwave-induced variations in the VC brightness and the causes of violation of the local relation between the VC brightness and the intensity of millimeter waves are discussed. Experiments on the imaging of the field patterns of horn antennas and quasi-optical beams demonstrate that this technique can be used for good-quality imaging of millimeter-wave beams in the entire millimeter-wavelength band. The method has a microsecond temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of about 2 mm. Energy sensitivities of about 10 μJ/cm{sup 2} in the Ka-band and about 200 μJ/cm{sup 2} in the D-band have been demonstrated.« less

  2. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part A: Interval Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Steller, Robert; Diehl, John

    2007-02-01

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohaymore » serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.« less

  3. Final Data Report: P- and S-Wave Velocity Logging Borings C4993, C4996, and C4997 Part B: Overall Logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, John; Steller, Robert

    2007-03-20

    Insitu borehole P- and S-wave velocity measurements were collected in three borings located within the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) boundaries at the Hanford Site, southeastern Washington. Geophysical data acquisition was performed between August and October of 2006 by Rob Steller, Charles Carter, Antony Martin and John Diehl of GEOVision. Data analysis was performed by Rob Steller and John Diehl, and reviewed by Antony Martin of GEOVision, and report preparation was performed by John Diehl and reviewed by Rob Steller. The work was performed under subcontract with Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division with Marty Gardner as Battelle’s Technical Representative and Alan Rohaymore » serving as the Technical Administrator for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This report describes the field measurements, data analysis, and results of this work.« less

  4. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  5. Calculation of wave-functions with frozen orbitals in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. Part I. Application of the Huzinaga equation.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, György G

    2013-04-05

    Mixed quantum mechanics/quantum mechanics (QM/QM) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods make computations feasible for extended chemical systems by separating them into subsystems that are treated at different level of sophistication. In many applications, the subsystems are covalently bound and the use of frozen localized orbitals at the boundary is a possible way to separate the subsystems and to ensure a sensible description of the electronic structure near to the boundary. A complication in these methods is that orthogonality between optimized and frozen orbitals has to be warranted and this is usually achieved by an explicit orthogonalization of the basis set to the frozen orbitals. An alternative to this approach is proposed by calculating the wave-function from the Huzinaga equation that guaranties orthogonality to the frozen orbitals without basis set orthogonalization. The theoretical background and the practical aspects of the application of the Huzinaga equation in mixed methods are discussed. Forces have been derived to perform geometry optimization with wave-functions from the Huzinaga equation. Various properties have been calculated by applying the Huzinaga equation for the central QM subsystem, representing the environment by point charges and using frozen strictly localized orbitals to connect the subsystems. It is shown that a two to three bond separation of the chemical or physical event from the frozen bonds allows a very good reproduction (typically around 1 kcal/mol) of standard Hartree-Fock-Roothaan results. The proposed scheme provides an appropriate framework for mixed QM/QM and QM/MM methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Oblique propagation of monsoon gravity waves during the northern hemisphere 2007 summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurairajah, Brentha; Siskind, David E.; Bailey, Scott M.; Carstens, Justin N.; Russell, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2017-05-01

    We present a combination of satellite observation and high-resolution model output to understand monsoon convection as a source of high-latitude mesospheric gravity waves (GWs). The GWs generated over the Northern Hemisphere (NH) monsoon region during the 2007 summer and the role of the winds in focusing these GWs toward the high-latitude middle atmosphere are analyzed using the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry/Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (SABER/TIMED) satellite temperature data and the high-resolution Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System-Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (NOGAPS/ALPHA) model results. In the NH, above the stratosphere, the monsoon GW Momentum Flux (GWMF) exhibits a poleward tilt that follows the slanted structure of the easterly jet. The correlation coefficients (>0.5) between the time series of NH tropical stratospheric GWMF and the global winds also have a slanted structure that coincide with the easterly jet, confirming the modeling theory that stratospheric monsoon GWs are refracted into the summer easterly jet and can reach the high-latitude mesosphere. Since Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are sensitive indicators of changes in the polar summer mesosphere, we compared the time series of tropical stratospheric GWMF to the PMC occurrence frequency (OF) obtained from the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size/Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite data to assess the influence of this wave focusing in the mesosphere. There is a significant positive correlation between the high-latitude PMC OF and the tropical stratospheric GWMF suggesting a definite influence of monsoon GWs on the high-latitude mesosphere. The disagreement in correlation at the end of the PMC season is attributed to the enhancement of the quasi 5 day planetary wave dominating over the influence of monsoon GWs on PMCs.

  7. The influence of land surface properties on Sahel climate. Part 1: Desertification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Shukla, Jagadish

    1993-01-01

    This is a general circulation model sensitivity study of the physical mechanisms of the effects of desertification on the Sahel drought. The model vegetation types were changed in the prescribed desertification area, which led to changes in the surface characteristics. The model was integrated for three months (June, July, August) with climatological surface conditions (control) and desertification conditions (anomaly) to examine the summer season response to the changed surface conditions. The control and anomaly experiments consisted of five pairs of integrations with different initial conditions and/or sea surface temperature boundary conditions. In the desertification experiment, the moisture flux convergence and rainfall were reduced in the test area and increased to the immediate south of this area. The simulated anomaly dipole pattern was similar to the observed African drought patterns in which the axis of the maximum rainfall shifts to the south. The circulation changes in the desertification experiment were consistent with those observed during sub-Saharan dry years. The tropical easterly jet was weaker and the African easterly jet was stronger than normal. Further, in agreement with the observations, the easterly wave disturbances were reduced in intensity but not in number. Descending motion dominated the desertification area. The surface energy budget and hydrological cycle were also changed substantially in the anomaly experiment.

  8. CYCLOTRON-WAVE INSTABILITIES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Interactions of waves on electron streams or plasmas are studied for several geometric configurations of finite cross section in a finite magnetic...velocity parallel to the magnetic field. It is further assumed that either macroscopic neutrality exists or static spacecharge forces are negligible. For...the most part the quasi-static analysis is used. For the case of two drifting streams cyclotron waves act to giveinstabilities which are either

  9. A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain injury. Part II: Effects on function.

    PubMed

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Sacher, Y; Kibrik, O; Milanese, S; Gordon, S; Galea, M P

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) occurs as a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Management of clinically significant NHO remains variable. Complications of mature NHO include limitation of mobility. The effect of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on range of motion at hip and knee, and function in patients with TBI with chronic NHO was investigated. A series of single-case studies applying ESWT to chronic NHO at the hip or knee of 11 patients with TBI were undertaken at a rehabilitation hospital. Participants received four applications of high-energy EWST delivered to the affected hip or knee over a period of 8 weeks. Two-weekly follow- up assessments were carried out; final assessments were made 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Range of motion (ROM) and Functional Reach (FR) or Modified Functional Reach (MFR) were measured. Application of high-energy ESWT was associated with significant improvement in ROM (flexion) of the NHO-affected knee (Tau = 0.833, 95% CI 0.391-1.276, p = 0.002) and significant improvement of FR (Overall Tau 0.486, 95% CI 0.141-0.832, p = 0.006); no significant improvement in hip ROM or MFR. ESWT may improve mobility and balance of patients with TBI who have chronic NHO.

  10. Evaluation of coating thickness by thermal wave imaging: A comparative study of pulsed and lock-in infrared thermography - Part I: Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Ranjit; Kim, Wontae

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates the possibilities of evaluating non-uniform coating thickness using thermal wave imaging method. A comparative study of pulsed thermography (PT) and lock-in thermography (LIT) based on evaluating the accuracy of predicted coating thickness is presented. In this study, a transient thermal finite element model was created in ANSYS 15. A single square pulse heating for PT and a sinusoidal heating at different modulation frequencies for LIT were used to stimulate the sample according to the experimental procedures. The response of thermally excited surface was recorded and data processing with Fourier transform was carried out to obtain the phase angle. Then calculated phase angle was correlated with the coating thickness. The method demonstrated potential in the evaluation of coating thickness and was successfully applied to measure the non-uniform top layers ranging from 0.1 mm to 0.6 mm; within an accuracy of 0.0003-0.0023 mm for PT and 0.0003-0.0067 mm for LIT. The simulation model enabled a better understanding of PT and LIT and provided a means of establishing the required experimental set-up parameters. This also led to optimization of experimental configurations, thus limiting the number of physical tests necessary.

  11. Gravitational Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  12. A Multi-Scale Analysis of Tropical Cyclogenesis Within the Critical Layer of Tropical Easterly Waves in the Atlantic and Western North Pacific Sectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA), dropwindsonde capability, a Doppler wind lidar , and the ability to collect flight-level data] flew aircraft research...ELDORA Electra Doppler Radar ECMWF European Center for Medium-range Weather Prediction Forecasts ER Equatorial Rossby ERA-40 ECMWF Reanalysis Data...2006) use Dual Doppler radar and rain gauge data to evaluate the performance of the TRMM TMI V6 rainfall algorithm. They 23 conclude that: “In

  13. Synoptic scale convection and wave activity over tropical Africa and the Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Ademe

    The objective of this research is to investigate synoptic scale convection and its association with wave disturbances over eastern Atlantic and tropical Africa. Analyses of convection highlight a significant peak periodicity in 2-6 day time scale over the Atlantic and most of tropical North Africa. The 2-6 day convective variance is the same order of magnitude over West and East Africa and accounts for 25%-35% of the total variance. However, dynamical measures of the African easterly wave (AEW) activity showed marked differences, variances over the West being more than the East. The explanation for this is that AEWs are initiated by convective precursors in the east and grow as they propagate westwards along the African easterly jet. Results show two major regions of synoptic time scale convection that are important for AEW initiation: the Darfur mountains (˜20°E) and the Ethiopian highlands (35°-40°E), with the former being more consistent and coherent. This study also shows the presence of eastward moving convective structures over tropical Africa, which are associated with Kelvin waves. The Kelvin waves originate in the Pacific and propagate across Africa. An important aspect of the Kelvin wave activity is its impact on convection and rainfall and its interaction with AEWs. Analysis of July-September 1987 weather events showed that convection and rainfall increase in association with Kelvin waves over tropical Africa. This event also suggested a series of AEWs initiated in association with Kelvin convection over tropical Africa. Spectral analysis of convection indicates a significant 3-4 day periodicity over Central Sudan, a region not known for wave disturbances. Two key factors that are associated with this variance are: (a) convective variability over equatorial Congo, and (b) upper level easterly waves that originate over Bay of Bengal-Southeast Asia. Results show the presence of a dipole pattern between the equatorial and East African convection that

  14. The basic reproduction number R0 and effectiveness of reactive interventions during dengue epidemics: the 2002 dengue outbreak in Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Fuentes, R; Olea, A; Aguilera, X; Nesse, H; Hyman, J M

    2013-01-01

    We use a stochastic simulation model to explore the effect of reactive intervention strategies during the 2002 dengue outbreak in the small population of Easter Island, Chile. We quantified the effect of interventions on the transmission dynamics and epidemic size as a function of the simulated control intensity levels and the timing of initiation of control interventions. Because no dengue outbreaks had been reported prior to 2002 in Easter Island, the 2002 epidemic provided a unique opportunity to estimate the basic reproduction number R0 during the initial epidemic phase, prior to the start of control interventions. We estimated R0 at 27.2 (95%CI: 14.8, 49.3). We found that the final epidemic size is highly sensitive to the timing of start of interventions. However, even when the control interventions start several weeks after the epidemic onset, reactive intervention efforts can have a significant impact on the final epidemic size. Our results indicate that the rapid implementation of control interventions can have a significant effect in reducing the epidemic size of dengue epidemics.

  15. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  16. A New Barrier to Dispersal Trapped Old Genetic Clines That Escaped the Easter Microplate Tension Zone of the Pacific Vent Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Plouviez, Sophie; Faure, Baptiste; Le Guen, Dominique; Lallier, François H.; Bierne, Nicolas; Jollivet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of deep-sea hydrothermal vent species has uncovered several genetic breaks between populations inhabiting northern and southern latitudes of the East Pacific Rise. However, the geographic width and position of genetic clines are variable among species. In this report, we further characterize the position and strength of barriers to gene flow between populations of the deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus. Eight allozyme loci and DNA sequences of four nuclear genes were added to previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Our data confirm the presence of two barriers to gene flow, one located at the Easter Microplate (between 21°33′S and 31°S) recently described as a hybrid zone, and the second positioned between 7°25′S and 14°S with each affecting different loci. Coalescence analysis indicates a single vicariant event at the origin of divergence between clades for all nuclear loci, although the clines are now spatially discordant. We thus hypothesize that the Easter Microplate barrier has recently been relaxed after a long period of isolation and that some genetic clines have escaped the barrier and moved northward where they have subsequently been trapped by a reinforcing barrier to gene flow between 7°25′S and 14°S. PMID:24312557

  17. A new barrier to dispersal trapped old genetic clines that escaped the Easter Microplate tension zone of the Pacific vent mussels.

    PubMed

    Plouviez, Sophie; Faure, Baptiste; Le Guen, Dominique; Lallier, François H; Bierne, Nicolas; Jollivet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of deep-sea hydrothermal vent species has uncovered several genetic breaks between populations inhabiting northern and southern latitudes of the East Pacific Rise. However, the geographic width and position of genetic clines are variable among species. In this report, we further characterize the position and strength of barriers to gene flow between populations of the deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus. Eight allozyme loci and DNA sequences of four nuclear genes were added to previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Our data confirm the presence of two barriers to gene flow, one located at the Easter Microplate (between 21°33'S and 31°S) recently described as a hybrid zone, and the second positioned between 7°25'S and 14°S with each affecting different loci. Coalescence analysis indicates a single vicariant event at the origin of divergence between clades for all nuclear loci, although the clines are now spatially discordant. We thus hypothesize that the Easter Microplate barrier has recently been relaxed after a long period of isolation and that some genetic clines have escaped the barrier and moved northward where they have subsequently been trapped by a reinforcing barrier to gene flow between 7°25'S and 14°S.

  18. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  19. Calcium waves.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  20. Pressure wave injuries to the nervous system caused by high-energy missile extremity impact: Part II. Distant effects on the central nervous system--a light and electron microscopic study on pigs.

    PubMed

    Suneson, A; Hansson, H A; Seeman, T

    1990-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if distant effects could be detected within the central nervous system after impact of a high-energy missile in the left thigh of young pigs. Pressure transducers implanted in various parts of the body of the animal, including the brain, recorded a short-lasting burst of oscillating pressure waves with high frequencies and large amplitudes, traversing the body tissue with a velocity of about that of sound in water (1,460 m/s). The distance between the point of impact and the brain and cervical spinal cord is in the range of 0.5 m. Macroscopic examination revealed that there was no gross brain tissue disruption or visible blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Light microscopic examination demonstrated myelin invaginations in the largest axons and shrinkage of axoplasm. Electron microscopic examination revealed a reduction in the number of microtubules, especially in the larger axons in the brainstem. Disintegration of Nissl substance, i.e., chromatolysis, was noticed after 48 hr in many Purkinje nerve cells in the cerebellum, concomitantly with the appearance of an increased frequency of association between lamellar bodies and mitochondria. Changes could also be observed in the cervical spinal cord and, at reduced frequency and extent, in the optic nerve and in other parts of the brain. These effects were evident within a few minutes after the trauma and persisted even 48 hr after the extremity injury. It is concluded that distant effects, likely to be caused by the oscillating high-frequency pressure waves, appear in the central nervous system after a high-energy missile extremity impact.

  1. Models for Convectively Coupled Tropical Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majda, A. J.

    2001-05-01

    quantitative features mentioned above are retained wave structure and quantitative features mentioned above are retained for O(1000) km. A detailed analysis of the temporal development of instability of these convectively coupled waves is presented here. In the first stage of instability, a high CAPE region generates deep convection and front-to-rear ascending flow with enhanced vertical shear in a stratiform wake region. Thus, these intermediate models may be useful prototypes for studying the parametrization of upscale convective momentum transport due to organized convection [4], [3]. In the second stage of instability, detailed analysis of the CAPE budget establishes that the effects of the second baroclinic mode in the stratiform wake produce new CAPE, which regenerates the first half of the wake cycle. Finally, since these convectively coupled stratiform waves do not require a barotropic mean flow, a barotropic mean flow which alters the surface fluxes, is added to study the effect of their stability. These effects of a barotropic mean flow are secondary; an easterly mean flow enhances instability of the eastward propagating convectively coupled waves and diminishes the instability of the westward propagating waves through a WISHE mechanism. Finally, new models for treating the equatorial wave guide [1], [8] which are intermediate between full meriodonal resolution and the equatorial long wave approximation will be discussed. If time permits, the use of these models in efficient numerical schemes which allow for cloud resolving modeling [7], but also include large scale interaction in the equatorial wave guide will be outlined [8].}

  2. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 2: changes in spermatid organelles associated with development of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis is a long process whereby haploid spermatids derived from the meiotic divisions of spermatocytes undergo metamorphosis into spermatozoa. It is subdivided into distinct steps with 19 being identified in rats, 16 in mouse and 8 in humans. Spermiogenesis extends over 22.7 days in rats and 21.6 days in humans. In this part, we review several key events that take place during the development of spermatids from a structural and functional point of view. During early spermiogenesis, the Golgi apparatus forms the acrosome, a lysosome-like membrane bound organelle involved in fertilization. The endoplasmic reticulum undergoes several topographical and structural modifications including the formation of the radial body and annulate lamellae. The chromatoid body is fully developed and undergoes structural and functional modifications at this time. It is suspected to be involved in RNA storing and processing. The shape of the spermatid head undergoes extensive structural changes that are species-specific, and the nuclear chromatin becomes compacted to accommodate the stream-lined appearance of the sperm head. Microtubules become organized to form a curtain or manchette that associates with spermatids at specific steps of their development. It is involved in maintenance of the sperm head shape and trafficking of proteins in the spermatid cytoplasm. During spermiogenesis, many genes/proteins have been implicated in the diverse dynamic events occurring at this time of development of germ cells and the absence of some of these have been shown to result in subfertility or infertility. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A Survey of Synoptic Waves over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan-Ming; Thorncroft, Chris D.; Kiladis, George N.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the pronounced wave-to-wave variability in African easterly wave (AEW) circulation, the three-dimensional structure of synoptic waves over West Africa is revisited with an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) approach to isolate the dominant wave pattern. In this talk we present results of EOF analyses conducted with brightness temperature (Tb) derived from satellite observation and meridional wind at multiple levels from reanalysis data to examine the characteristics and variability of synoptic waves. The structure of waves is extracted by projecting the wind fields and Tb onto the principle components associated with EOF patterns of appropriately filtered parameters. The Tb EOF shows a confined AEW circulation centered around 7.5°N and a distinct evolution of convection within the wave in line with previous research. However, in striking contrast to the confined flow pattern in the Tb EOF, the EOF of 700-hPa meridional wind is distinguished by a meridionally broad AEW circulation. While the peak in circulation is centered around 10°N, there is marked cross-equatorial flow that is associated with an antisymmetric geopotential signature across the equator. This suggests the presence of a mixed Rossby-gravity wave (MRG) structure consistent with Matsuno's shallow water theory. Granted that the vast majority of studies on MRGs focus on the central and western Pacific region, this "hybrid" between AEWs and MRGs over West Africa and Atlantic sector has received little attention and more work regarding the nature and causes of its wave structure and behavior is needed. In addition, an upper-level synoptic wave is captured by EOFs of 200-hPa meridional wind. The kinematic fields reveal a continental-scale wave straddling the equator that resembles an MRG. This upper-level MRG appears to develop in situ over the Horn of Africa and intensifies as it moves across the continent. The associated lower-level structure shows an AEW-like circulation but with a

  4. Jupiter Wave

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-13

    Scientists spotted a rare wave in Jupiter North Equatorial Belt that had been seen there only once before in this false-color close-up from NASA Hubble Telescope. In Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt, scientists spotted a rare wave that had been seen there only once before. It is similar to a wave that sometimes occurs in Earth's atmosphere when cyclones are forming. This false-color close-up of Jupiter shows cyclones (arrows) and the wave (vertical lines). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19659

  5. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 1: background to spermatogenesis, spermatogonia, and spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermatogenesis, a study of germ cell development, is a long, orderly, and well-defined process occurring in seminiferous tubules of the testis. It is a temporal event whereby undifferentiated spermatogonial germ cells evolve into maturing spermatozoa over a period of several weeks. Spermatogenesis is characterized by three specific functional phases: proliferation, meiosis, and differentiation, and it involves spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Germ cells at steps of development form various cellular associations or stages, with 6, 12, and 14 specific stages being identified in human, mouse, and rat, respectively. The stages evolve over time in a given area of the seminiferous tubule forming a cycle of the seminiferous epithelium that has a well-defined duration for a given species. In this part, we discuss the proliferation and meiotic phase whereby spermatogonia undergo several mitotic divisions to form spermatocytes that undergo two meiotic divisions to form haploid spermatids. In the rat, spermatogonia can be subdivided into several classes: stem cells (A(s)), proliferating cells (A(pr), A(al)), and differentiating cells (A(1)-A(4), In, B). They are dependent on a specific microenvironment (niche) contributed by Sertoli, myoid, and Leydig cells for proper development. Spermatogonia possess several surface markers whereby they can be identified from each other. During meiosis, spermatocytes undergo chromosomal pairing, synapsis, and genetic exchange as well as transforming into haploid cells following meiosis. The meiotic cells form specific structural entities such as the synaptonemal complex and sex body. Many genes involved in spermatogonial renewal and the meiotic process have been identified and shown to be essential for this event. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  7. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  8. Third Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Third Wave is a Christian charity based in Derby (England) that offers training in vocational skills, preindustrial crafts, horticultural and agricultural skills, environmental education, and woodland survival skills to disadvantaged people at city and farm locations. Third Wave employs a holistic approach to personal development in a community…

  9. Quasi-biennial modulation of planetary-wave fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.; Baldwin, Mark P.

    1991-01-01

    Using 25 years of National Meteorological Center (NMC) data for 1964-88 the relation between tropical and extratropical quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs) was examined for zonally averaged quantities and planetary-wave Eliassen-Palm fluxes in the Northern Hemisphere winter. The extratropical QBO discussed by Holton and Tan (1980) existed in both temporal halves of the dataset. Autocorrelation analysis demonstrated that it was an important mode of interannual variability in the extratropical winter stratosphere. Correlation with the tropics was strongest when 40-mb equatorial winds were used to define the tropical QBO. Easterly phase at 40 mb implied a weaker than normal polar night jet and warmer than normal polar temperature and vice versa. An opposite relationship was obtained using 10-mb equatorial winds. The association between tropical and extratropical QBOs was observed in about 90 percent of the winters and was statistically significant. It is shown that planetary-wave Eliassen-Palm fluxes were generally consistent with the extratropical QBO. These fluxes were more (less) convergent in the midlatitude (subtropical) upper stratosphere in the 40-mb east (= easterly) phase category relative to the west category.

  10. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  11. A special MJO event with a double Kelvin wave structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Li, Tim

    2017-04-01

    The second Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event during the field campaign of the Dynamics of the MJO/Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year 2011 (DYNAMO/CINDY2011) exhibi ted an unusual double rainband structure. Using a wavenumber-frequency spectral filtering method, we unveil that this double rainband structure arises primarily from the Kelvin wave component. The zonal phase speed of the double rainbands is about 7.9 degree per day in the equatorial Indian Ocean, being in the range of convectively coupled Kelvin wave phase speeds. The convection and circulation anomalies associated with the Kelvin wave component are characterized by two anomalous convective cells, with low-level westerly (easterly) and high (low) pressure anomalies to the west (east) of the convective centers, and opposite wind and pressure anomalies in the upper troposphere. Such a zonal wind-pressure phase relationship is consistent with the equatorial free-wave dynamics. While the free-atmospheric circulation was dominated by the first baroclinic mode vertical structure, moisture and vertical motion in the boundary layer led the convection. The convection and circulation structures derived based on the conventional MJO filter show a different characteristic. For example, the phase speed is slower (about 5.9 degree per day), and there were no double convective branches. This suggests that MJO generally involves multi-scales and it is incomplete to extract its signals by using the conventional filtering technique.

  12. Scattering of plane evanescent waves by cylindrical shells and wave vector coupling conditions for exciting flexural waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2002-05-01

    The coupling of sound to buried targets can be associated with acoustic evanescent waves when the sea bottom is smooth. To understand the excitation of flexural waves on buried shells by acoustic evanescent waves, the partial wave series for the scattering is found for cylindrical shells at normal incidence in an unbounded medium. The formulation uses the simplifications of thin-shell dynamics. In the case of ordinary waves incident on a shell, a ray formulation is available to describe the coupling to subsonic flexural waves [P. L. Marston and N. H. Sun, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 777-783 (1995)]. When the incident wave is evanescent, the distance between propagating plane wavefronts is smaller than the ordinary acoustical wavelength at the same frequency and the coupling condition for the excitation of flexural waves on shells or plates is modified. Instead of matching the flexural wave number with the propagating part of the acoustic wave number only at the coincidence frequency, a second low-frequency wave number matching condition is found for highly evanescent waves. Numerical evaluation of the modified partial-wave-series appropriate for an evanescent wave is used to investigate the low-frequency coupling of evanescent waves with flexural wave resonances of shells.

  13. Wave Information Studies of US Coastlines: Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes: Lake Superior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    to an elevation of 10 m for input into the wave model. 10 PART III: WAVE MODEL 16. The wave model used in this study, DWAVE , was developed by Dr...available from the Wave Information Study (WIS) Project Office. 17. DWAVE is a FORTRAN computer code that simulates wave growth, dissipation, and piopagation...partitioned in a directional spectrum within DWAVE . As seen there, each frequency-direction increment is envisioned as a "bin," and these "bins" are

  14. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  15. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  16. ASTER Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-10-06

    The pattern on the right half of this image of the Bay of Bengal is the result of two opposing wave trains colliding. This ASTER sub-scene, acquired on March 29, 2000, covers an area 18 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (9 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The visible and near-infrared bands highlight surface waves due to specular reflection of sunlight off of the wave faces. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02662

  17. Impact waves and detonation. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R

    1929-01-01

    Among the numerous thermodynamic and kinetic problems that have arisen in the application of the gaseous explosive reaction as a source of power in the internal combustion engine, the problem of the mode or way by which the transformation proceeds and the rate at which the heat energy is delivered to the working fluid became very early in the engine's development a problem of prime importance. The work of Becker here given is a notable extension of earlier investigations, because it covers the entire range of the explosive reaction in gases - normal detonation and burning.

  18. Standing wave compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  19. On the wave number 2 eastward propagating quasi 2 day wave at middle and high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Pedatella, N. M.; Dou, Xiankang; Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The temperature and wind data sets from the ensemble data assimilation version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model + Data Assimilation Research Testbed (WACCM + DART) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) are utilized to study the seasonal variability of the eastward quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) with zonal wave number 2 (E2) during 2007. The aliasing ratio of E2 from wave number 3 (W3) in the synoptic WACCM data set is a constant value of 4 × 10-6% due to its uniform sampling pattern, whereas the aliasing is latitudinally dependent if the WACCM fields are sampled asynoptically based on the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) sampling. The aliasing ratio based on SABER sampling is 75% at 40°S during late January, where and when W3 peaks. The analysis of the synoptic WACCM data set shows that the E2 is in fact a winter phenomenon, which peaks in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere at high latitudes. In the austral winter period, the amplitudes of E2 can reach 10 K, 20 m/s, and 30 m/s for temperature, zonal, and meridional winds, respectively. In the boreal winter period, the wave perturbations are only one third as strong as those in austral winter. Diagnostic analysis also shows that the mean flow instabilities in the winter upper mesosphere polar region provide sources for the amplification of E2. This is different from the westward QTDWs, whose amplifications are related to the summer easterly jet. In addition, the E2 also peaks at lower altitude than the westward modes.

  20. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations withmore » phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.« less

  1. VLF wave-wave interaction experiments in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D. C. D.

    1978-01-01

    VLF wave-wave interaction experiments were carried out by injecting various forms of VLF pulses into the magnetosphere from a 21.2 km dipole antenna at Siple, Antarctica. The injected signals propagate along a geomagnetic field line and often interact strongly with energetic electrons trapped in the radiation belts near the equator. Signals may be amplified and trigger emissions. These signals may then interact with one another through these energetic electrons. This report is divided into three parts. In the first part, simulations of VLF pulses propagating in the magnetosphere are carried out. In the second part, it is found for the first time that a 10 ms gap in a triggering wave can induce emission, which may then interact with the post-gap signals. In the third part, sideband triggering is reported for the first time.

  2. A multimodal wave spectrum-based approach for statistical downscaling of local wave climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hegermiller, Christie; Antolinez, Jose A A; Rueda, Ana C.; Camus, Paula; Perez, Jorge; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of wave climate by bulk wave parameters is insufficient for many coastal studies, including those focused on assessing coastal hazards and long-term wave climate influences on coastal evolution. This issue is particularly relevant for studies using statistical downscaling of atmospheric fields to local wave conditions, which are often multimodal in large ocean basins (e.g. the Pacific). Swell may be generated in vastly different wave generation regions, yielding complex wave spectra that are inadequately represented by a single set of bulk wave parameters. Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric systems and local wave conditions is complicated by variations in arrival time of wave groups from different parts of the basin. Here, we address these two challenges by improving upon the spatiotemporal definition of the atmospheric predictor used in statistical downscaling of local wave climate. The improved methodology separates the local wave spectrum into “wave families,” defined by spectral peaks and discrete generation regions, and relates atmospheric conditions in distant regions of the ocean basin to local wave conditions by incorporating travel times computed from effective energy flux across the ocean basin. When applied to locations with multimodal wave spectra, including Southern California and Trujillo, Peru, the new methodology improves the ability of the statistical model to project significant wave height, peak period, and direction for each wave family, retaining more information from the full wave spectrum. This work is the base of statistical downscaling by weather types, which has recently been applied to coastal flooding and morphodynamic applications.

  3. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    reflected waves. With use of developed algorithms of head wave conversion in time sections a work of studying of refracting boundaries in Siberia have been executed. Except for the research by method of refracting waves, the conversion of head waves in time sections, applied to seismograms of reflected wave method, allows to obtain information about refracting horizons in upper part of section in addition to reflecting horizons data. Recovery method of wave field coherent components is the basis of the engineering seismology on the level of accuracy and detail. In seismic microzoning resonance frequency of the upper part of section are determined on the basis of this method. Maps of oscillation amplification and result accuracy are constructed for each of the frequencies. The same method makes it possible to study standing wave field in buildings and constructions with high accuracy and detail, realizing diagnostics of their physical state on set of natural frequencies and form of self-oscillations, examined with high detail. The method of standing waves permits to estimate a seismic stability of structure on new accuracy level.

  4. Understanding "Human" Waves: Exploiting the Physics in a Viral Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Roca, Chantal

    2018-01-01

    Waves are a relevant part of physics that students find difficult to grasp, even in those cases in which wave propagation kinematics can be visualized. This may hinder a proper understanding of sound, light or quantum physics phenomena that are explained using a wave model. So-called "human" waves, choreographed by people, have proved to…

  5. Wind growth and wave breaking in higher-order spectral phase resolved wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, R.; Walker, D. T.

    2016-02-01

    Wind growth and wave breaking are a integral parts of the wave evolution. Higher-OrderSpectral models (HoS) describing the non-linear evolution require empirical models for these effects. In particular, the assimilation of phase-resolved remotesensing data will require the prediction and modeling of wave breaking events.The HoS formulation used in this effort is based on fully nonlinear model of O. Nwogu (2009). The model for wave growth due to wind is based on the early normal and tangential stress model of Munk (1947). The model for wave breaking contains two parts. The first part initiates the breaking events based on the local wave geometry and the second part is a model for the pressure field, which acting against the surface normal velocity extracts energy from the wave. The models are tuned to balance the wind energy input with the breaking wave losses and to be similarfield observations of breaking wave coverage. The initial wave field, based on a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum for 10 meter wind speed of 5-15 m/s, defined over a region of up to approximate 2.5 km on a side with the simulation running for several hundreds of peak wave periods. Results will be presented describing the evolution of the wave field.Sponsored by Office of Naval Research, Code 322

  6. Manta rays in the Marquesas Islands: first records of Manta birostris in French Polynesia and most easterly location of Manta alfredi in the Pacific Ocean, with notes on their distribution.

    PubMed

    Mourier, J

    2012-11-01

    Based on direct observations of free-ranging specimens, the giant manta ray Manta birostris is reported from the Marquesas Islands, the first sighting in French Polynesia. Sightings of its sister species, the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, are also reported at the most easterly location in the Pacific Ocean. Preliminary individual identification as well as notes on their distribution are also reported. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. A mid-shelf, mean wave direction climatology for southeastern Australia, and its relationship to the El Niño - Southern Oscillation since 1878 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Ian D.

    2005-11-01

    Coastal systems behave on timescales from days to centuries. Shelf and coastal wave climatological data from the Tasman Sea are only available for the past few decades. Hence, the records are too short to investigate inter- and multidecadal variability and their impact on coastal systems. A method is presented to hindcast monthly mid-shelf mean wave direction (MWD) for southeastern Australia, based on the monthly, trans-Tasman mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) difference between northern NSW (Yamba) and the north island of New Zealand (Auckland). The MSLP index is calibrated to instrumental (Waverider buoy) MWD data for the Sydney shelf and coast. Positive/negative trans-Tasman MSLP difference is significantly correlated to southerly/easterly Sydney MWD, and to long/short mean wave periods. The 124-year Sydney annual (MWD) time series displays multidecadal variability, and identifies a significant period of more southerly annual MWD during 1884 to 1914 than in the period since 1915. The Sydney MWD is significantly correlated to the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). The correlation with the SOI is enhanced during periods when the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) is in its negative state and warm SST anomalies occur in the southwest Pacific region. The Sydney MWD was found to be associated with Pacific basin-wide climate fluctuations associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Southerly/easterly Sydney MWD is correlated with low/high MSLP anomalies over New Zealand and the central Pacific Ocean. Southerly/easterly Sydney MWD is also correlated with cool/warm SST anomalies in the southwest Pacific, particularly in the eastern Coral Sea and Tasman Sea. Copyright

  8. Nonparaxial wave beams and packets with general astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, A. P.; Plachenov, A. B.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present exact solutions of the wave equation involving an arbitrary wave form with a phase closely similar to the general astigmatic phase of paraxial wave optics. Special choices of the wave form allow general astigmatic beamlike and pulselike waves with a Gaussian-type unrestricted localization in space and time. These solutions are generalizations of the known Bateman-type waves obtained from the connection existing between beamlike solutions of the paraxial parabolic equation and relatively undistorted wave solutions of the wave equation. As a technical tool, we present a full description of parametrizations of 2×2 symmetric matrices with positive imaginary part, which arise in the theory of Gaussian beams.

  9. Coarse, intermediate and high resolution numerical simulations of the transition of a tropical wave critical layer to a tropical storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.; Dunkerton, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent work has hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from within the cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis. The cyclonic critical layer is thought to be important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii) containment of moisture entrained by the developing flow and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii) confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv) a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v) maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the developing proto-vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. This genesis sequence and the overarching framework for describing how such hybrid wave-vortex structures become tropical depressions/storms is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "marsupial paradigm". Here we conduct the first multi-scale test of the marsupial paradigm in an idealized setting by revisiting the Kurihara and Tuleya problem examining the transformation of an easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex using the WRF model. An analysis of the evolving winds, equivalent potential temperature, and relative vertical vorticity is presented from coarse (28 km), intermediate (9 km) and high resolution (3.1 km) simulations. The results are found to support key elements of the marsupial paradigm by demonstrating the existence of a rotationally dominant region with minimal strain/shear deformation near the center of the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave pouch and proto-vortex move together

  10. Intermediate and high resolution numerical simulations of the transition of a tropical wave critical layer to a tropical storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.; Dunkerton, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work has hypothesized that tropical cyclones in the deep Atlantic and eastern Pacific basins develop from the cyclonic Kelvin cat's eye of a tropical easterly wave critical layer located equatorward of the easterly jet axis that typifies the trade wind belt. The cyclonic critical layer is thought to be important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i) a region of cyclonic vorticity and weak deformation by the resolved flow, (ii) containment of moisture entrained by the developing flow and/or lofted by deep convection therein, (iii) confinement of mesoscale vortex aggregation, (iv) a predominantly convective type of heating profile, and (v) maintenance or enhancement of the parent wave until the developing proto-vortex becomes a self-sustaining entity and emerges from the wave as a tropical depression. This genesis sequence and the overarching framework for describing how such hybrid wave-vortex structures become tropical depressions/storms is likened to the development of a marsupial infant in its mother's pouch, and for this reason has been dubbed the "marsupial paradigm". Here we conduct the first multi-scale test of the marsupial paradigm in an idealized setting by revisiting the problem of the transformation of an easterly wave-like disturbance into a tropical storm vortex using the WRF model. An analysis of the evolving winds, equivalent potential temperature, and relative vertical vorticity is presented from coarse (28 km) and high resolution (3.1 km) simulations. The results are found to support key elements of the marsupial paradigm by demonstrating the existence of a vorticity dominant region with minimal strain/shear deformation within the critical layer pouch that contains strong cyclonic vorticity and high saturation fraction. This localized region within the pouch serves as the "attractor" for an upscale "bottom up" development process while the wave pouch and proto-vortex move together. Implications of these findings are

  11. Making WAVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindes, Victoria A.; Hom, Keri; Brookshaw, Keith

    About 46% of high school graduates enrolled in California State Universities need remedial courses in both math and English to prepare them for college level. These students typically earned B averages in their high school math and English classes. In order to address this issue, Shasta College launched Operation WAVES (Win by Achieving Valuable…

  12. Internal Waves, South China Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-06-24

    STS007-05-245 (18-24 June 1983) --- A rare view of internal waves in the South China Sea. Several different series of internal waves are represented in the 70mm frame, exposed with a handheld camera by members of the STS-7 astronaut crew aboard the Earth-orbiting Challenger. The land area visible in the lower left is part of the large island of Hainan, China.

  13. Analysing the floral elements of the lost tree of Easter Island: a morphometric comparison between the remaining ex-situ lines of the endemic extinct species Sophora toromiro.

    PubMed

    Püschel, Thomas A; Espejo, Jaime; Sanzana, María-José; Benítez, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Sophora toromiro (Phil) Skottsb. is a species that has been extinct in its natural habitat Easter Island (Rapa Nui) for over 50 years. However, seed collections carried out before its extinction have allowed its persistence ex-situ in different botanical gardens and private collections around the world. The progenies of these diverse collections have been classified in different lines, most of them exhibiting high similarity as corroborated by molecular markers. In spite of this resemblance observed between the different lines, one of them (Titze) has dissimilar floral elements, thus generating doubts regarding its species classification. The floral elements (wing, standard and keel) belonging to three different S. toromiro lines and two related species were analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This method was applied in order to quantify the floral shape variation of the standard, wing, and keel between the different lines and control species. Geometric morphometrics analyses were able to distinguish the floral elements at both intra (lines) and inter-specific levels. The present results are on line with the cumulative evidence that supports the Titze line as not being a proper member of the S. toromiro species, but probably a hybridization product or even another species of the Edwardsia section. The reintroduction programs of S. toromiro should consider this information when assessing the authenticity and origin of the lines that will be used to repopulate the island.

  14. Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Ory, Nicolas Christian; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Thiel, Martin

    2017-05-15

    An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey. Sixteen (80%) of the scad had ingested one to five microplastics, mainly blue polyethylene fragments that were similar in colour and size to blue copepod species consumed by the same fish. These results suggest that planktivorous fish, as a consequence of their feeding behaviour as visual predators, are directly exposed to floating microplastics. This threat may be exacerbated in the clear oceanic waters of the subtropical gyres, where anthropogenic litter accumulates in great quantity. Our study highlights the menace of microplastic contamination on the integrity of fragile remote ecosystems and the urgent need for efficient plastic waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Alan C.; Rumpf, Benno

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we state and review the premises on which a successful asymptotic closure of the moment equations of wave turbulence is based, describe how and why this closure obtains, and examine the nature of solutions of the kinetic equation. We discuss obstacles that limit the theory's validity and suggest how the theory might then be modified. We also compare the experimental evidence with the theory's predictions in a range of applications. Finally, and most importantly, we suggest open challenges and encourage the reader to apply and explore wave turbulence with confidence. The narrative is terse but, we hope, delivered at a speed more akin to the crisp pace of a Hemingway story than the wordjumblingtumbling rate of a Joycean novel.

  16. Rings and Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-30

    Saturn A ring is decorated with several kinds of waves. NASA Cassini spacecraft has captured a host of density waves, a bending wave, and the edge waves on the edge of the Keeler gap caused by the small moon Daphnis.

  17. Nonlinear Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    in Multi- dimensions II, P.M. Santini and A.S. Fokas, preprint INS#67, 1986. The Recursion Operator of the Kadomtsev - Petviashvili Equation and the...solitons, multidimensional inverse problems, Painleve equations , direct linearizations of certain nonlinear wave equations , DBAR problems, Riemann...the Navy is (a) the recent discovery that many of the equations describing ship hydrodynamics in channels of finite depth obey nonlinear equations

  18. Standing wave tube electro active polymer wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Philippe; Wattez, Ambroise; Ardoise, Guillaume; Melis, C.; Van Kessel, R.; Fourmon, A.; Barrabino, E.; Heemskerk, J.; Queau, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 4 years SBM has developed a revolutionary Wave Energy Converter (WEC): the S3. Floating under the ocean surface, the S3 amplifies pressure waves similarly to a Ruben's tube. Only made of elastomers, the system is entirely flexible, environmentally friendly and silent. Thanks to a multimodal resonant behavior, the S3 is capable of efficiently harvesting wave energy from a wide range of wave periods, naturally smoothing the irregularities of ocean wave amplitudes and periods. In the S3 system, Electro Active Polymer (EAP) generators are distributed along an elastomeric tube over several wave lengths, they convert wave induced deformations directly into electricity. The output is high voltage multiphase Direct Current with low ripple. Unlike other conventional WECs, the S3 requires no maintenance of moving parts. The conception and operating principle will eventually lead to a reduction of both CAPEX and OPEX. By integrating EAP generators into a small scale S3, SBM achieved a world first: direct conversion of wave energy in electricity with a moored flexible submerged EAP WEC in a wave tank test. Through an extensive testing program on large scale EAP generators, SBM identified challenges in scaling up to a utility grid device. French Government supports the consortium consisting of SBM, IFREMER and ECN in their efforts to deploy a full scale prototype at the SEMREV test center in France at the horizon 2014-2015. SBM will be seeking strategic as well as financial partners to unleash the true potentials of the S3 Standing Wave Tube Electro Active Polymer WEC.

  19. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...marching, finite-difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction... CMS -Wave can be used in either on a half- or full-plane mode, with primary waves propagating from the seaward boundary toward shore. It can

  20. Three-dimensional freak waves and higher-order wave-wave resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, S. I.; Ivonin, D. V.; Dulov, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    period October 14 - November 6, 2009 almost continuously. Antenna of 6 resistance wave gauges (a pentagon with one center gauge) is used to gain information on wave directions. Wave conditions vary from perfect still to storms with significant wave heights up to Hs = 1.7 meters and wind speeds 15m/s. Measurements with frequency 10Hz for dominant frequencies 0.1 - 0.2Hz fixed 40 freak wave events (criterium H/Hs > 2) and showed no dependence on Hs definitely. Data processing within frequency quasi-spectra approach and directional spectra reconstructions found pronounced features of essentially three-dimensional anomalous waves. All the events are associated with dramatic widening of instant frequency spectra in the range fp - f5w and stronger directional spreading. On the contrary, the classic Benjamin-Feir modulations show no definite links with the events and can be likely treated as dynamically neutral part of wave field. The apparent contradiction with the recent study (Saprykina, Dulov, Kuznetsov, Smolov, 2010) based on the same data collection can be explained partially by features of data processing. Physical roots of the inconsistency should be detailed in further studies. The work was supported by the Russian government contract 11.G34.31.0035 (signed 25 November 2010), Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant 11-05-01114-a, Ukrainian State Agency of Science, Innovations and Information under Contract M/412-2011 and ONR grant N000141010991. Authors gratefully acknowledge continuing support of these foundations.

  1. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-03-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal

  2. Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    an elevation of 10 m for input into the wave model. 10 PART III: WAVE MODEL 18. The wave model used in this study, DWAVE , was developed by Dr. Donald...from the Wave Information Study (WIS) Project Office. 19. DWAVE is a FORTRAN computer code that simulates wave growth, dissipation, and propagation...partitioned in a directional spectrum within DWAVE . As seen there, each frequency-direction increment is envisioned as a "bin," and these "bins" are centered

  3. Gravity Waves and Mesospheric Clouds in the Summer Middle Atmosphere: A Comparison of Lidar Measurements and Ray Modeling of Gravity Waves Over Sondrestrom, Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrard, Andrew J.; Kane, Timothy J.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted gravity wave ray-tracing experiments within an atmospheric region centered near the ARCLITE lidar system at Sondrestrom, Greenland (67N, 310 deg E), in efforts to understand lidar observations of both upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric clouds during August 1996 and the summer of 2001. The ray model was used to trace gravity waves through realistic three-dimensional daily-varying background atmospheres in the region, based on forecasts and analyses in the troposphere and stratosphere and climatologies higher up. Reverse ray tracing based on upper stratospheric lidar observations at Sondrestrom was also used to try to objectively identify wave source regions in the troposphere. A source spectrum specified by reverse ray tracing experiments in early August 1996 (when atmospheric flow patterns produced enhanced transmission of waves into the upper stratosphere) yielded model results throughout the remainder of August 1996 that agreed best with the lidar observations. The model also simulated increased vertical group propagation of waves between 40 km and 80 km due to intensifying mean easterlies, which allowed many of the gravity waves observed at 40 km over Sondrestrom to propagate quasi-vertically from 40-80 km and then interact with any mesospheric clouds at 80 km near Sondrestrom, supporting earlier experimentally-inferred correlations between upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric cloud backscatter from Sondrestrom lidar observations. A pilot experiment of real-time runs with the model in 2001 using weather forecast data as a low-level background produced less agreement with lidar observations. We believe this is due to limitations in our specified tropospheric source spectrum, the use of climatological winds and temperatures in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and missing lidar data from important time periods.

  4. The relationship between significant wave height and Indian Ocean Dipole in the equatorial North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chen; Wang, Dongxiao; Yang, Lei; Luo, Yao; Zhou, Fenghua; Priyadarshana, Tilak; Yao, Jinglong

    2018-05-01

    Based on reanalysis data, we find that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) plays an important role in the variability of wave climate in the equatorial Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Significant wave height (SWH) in the equatorial NIO, especially over the waters southeast to Sri Lanka, exhibits strong interannual variations. SWH anomalies in the waters southeast to Sri Lanka correlate well with dipole mode index (DMI) during both summer and autumn. Negative SWH anomalies occur over the oceanic area southeast to Sri Lanka during positive IOD events and vary with different types of IOD. During positive prolonged (unseasonable) IOD, the SWH anomalies are the strongest in autumn (summer); while during positive normal IOD, the SWH anomalies are weak in both summer and autumn. Strong easterly wind anomalies over the southeast oceanic area of Sri Lanka during positive IOD events weaken the original equatorial westerly wind stress, which leads to the decrease in wind-sea waves. The longer wave period during positive IOD events further confirms less wind-sea waves. The SWH anomaly pattern during negative IOD events is nearly opposite to that during positive IOD events.

  5. The relationship between significant wave height and Indian Ocean Dipole in the equatorial North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chen; Wang, Dongxiao; Yang, Lei; Luo, Yao; Zhou, Fenghua; Priyadarshana, Tilak; Yao, Jinglong

    2018-06-01

    Based on reanalysis data, we find that the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) plays an important role in the variability of wave climate in the equatorial Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Significant wave height (SWH) in the equatorial NIO, especially over the waters southeast to Sri Lanka, exhibits strong interannual variations. SWH anomalies in the waters southeast to Sri Lanka correlate well with dipole mode index (DMI) during both summer and autumn. Negative SWH anomalies occur over the oceanic area southeast to Sri Lanka during positive IOD events and vary with different types of IOD. During positive prolonged (unseasonable) IOD, the SWH anomalies are the strongest in autumn (summer); while during positive normal IOD, the SWH anomalies are weak in both summer and autumn. Strong easterly wind anomalies over the southeast oceanic area of Sri Lanka during positive IOD events weaken the original equatorial westerly wind stress, which leads to the decrease in wind-sea waves. The longer wave period during positive IOD events further confirms less wind-sea waves. The SWH anomaly pattern during negative IOD events is nearly opposite to that during positive IOD events.

  6. Influence of the sudden stratospheric warming on quasi-2-day waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) on a quasi-2-day wave (QTDW) with westward zonal wave number 3 (W3) is investigated using the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The summer easterly jet below 90 km is strengthened during an SSW, which results in a larger refractive index and thus more favorable conditions for the propagation of W3. In the winter hemisphere, the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux diagnostics indicate that the strong instabilities at middle and high latitudes in the mesopause region are important for the amplification of W3, which is weakened during SSW periods due to the deceleration or even reversal of the winter westerly winds. Nonlinear interactions between the W3 and the wave number 1 stationary planetary wave produce QTDW with westward zonal wave number 2 (W2). The meridional wind perturbations of the W2 peak in the equatorial region, while the zonal wind and temperature components maximize at middle latitudes. The EP flux diagnostics indicate that the W2 is capable of propagating upward in both winter and summer hemispheres, whereas the propagation of W3 is mostly confined to the summer hemisphere. This characteristic is likely due to the fact that the phase speed of W2 is larger, and therefore its waveguide has a broader latitudinal extension. The larger phase speed also makes W2 less vulnerable to dissipation and critical layer filtering by the background wind when propagating upward.

  7. Intraseasonal and Interannual Variability of the Quasi-Two Day Wave in the Northern Hemisphere Summer Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, J. P.; Coy, L.; Singer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses global synoptic meteorological fields from a high-altitude data assimilation system to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the quasi-2 day wave (Q2DW) and migrating diurnal tide during the Northern Hemisphere summers of 2007, 2008, and 2009. By applying a 2-dimensional fast Fourier transform to meridional wind and temperature fields, we are able to identify Q2DW source regions and to diagnose propagation of Q2DW activity into the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. We find that Q2DW is comprised primarily of westward propagating zonal wavenumber 3 and wavenumber 4 components that originate from within baroclinically unstable regions along the equatorward flank of the summer midlatitude easterly jet. Amplitude variations of wavenumbers 3 and 4 tend to be anti-correlated throughout the summer, with wavenumber 3 maximizing in July and wavenumber 4 maximizing in late June and early August. Monthly mean Q2DW amplitudes between 30 50N latitude are largest when diurnal tidal amplitudes are smallest and vice versa. However, there is no evidence of any rapid amplification of the Q2DW via nonlinear interaction with the diurnal tide. Instead, variations of Q2DW amplitudes during July are closely linked to variations in the strength and location of the easterly jet core from one summer to the next, with a stronger jet producing larger Q2DW amplitudes. Linear instability model calculations based on the assimilated wind fields find fast growing zonal wavenumber 3 and 4 modes with periods near 2 days in the vicinity of the easterly jet.

  8. Self-similar gravity wave spectra resulting from the modulation of bound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Guillaume; Semin, Benoît; Cazaubiel, Annette; Haudin, Florence; Humbert, Thomas; Lepot, Simon; Bonnefoy, Félicien; Berhanu, Michaël; Falcon, Éric

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally study the properties of nonlinear surface gravity waves in a large-scale basin. We consider two different configurations: a one-dimensional (1D) monochromatic wave forcing, and a two-dimensional (2D) forcing with bichromatic waves satisfying resonant-wave interaction conditions. For the 1D forcing, we find a discrete wave-energy spectrum dominated at high frequencies by bound waves whose amplitudes decrease as a power law of the frequency. Bound waves (e.g., to the carrier) are harmonics superimposed on the carrier wave propagating with the same phase velocity as the one of the carrier. When a narrow frequency random modulation is applied to this carrier, the high-frequency part of the wave-energy spectrum becomes continuous with the same frequency-power law. Similar results are found for the 2D forcing when a random modulation is also applied to both carrier waves. Our results thus show that all these nonlinear gravity wave spectra are dominated at high frequencies by the presence of bound waves, even in the configuration where resonant interactions occur. Moreover, in all these configurations, the power-law exponent of the spectrum is found to depend on the forcing amplitude with the same trend as the one found in previous gravity wave turbulence experiments. Such a set of bound waves may thus explain this dependence that was previously poorly understood.

  9. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  10. Determination of green, blue and yellow artificial food colorants and their abuse in herb-coloured green Easter beers on tap.

    PubMed

    Stachová, Ivana; Lhotská, Ivona; Solich, Petr; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2016-07-01

    Beer is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages worldwide. For consumer acceptance, significant factors are its taste, flavour and colour. This study determines selected synthetic green, blue and yellow food colorants in popular Easter herb-coloured green beers on tap produced in breweries on Holy Thursday. The abuse of beer colouring with Tartrazine (E 102), Quinoline yellow (E 104), Sunset yellow (E 110), Patent blue (E 131), Indigo carmine (E 132), Brilliant blue FCF (E 133), Green S (E 142) and Fast green FCF (E 143) was assessed in 11 green beer samples purchased in local restaurants. HPLC was used for the separation and detection of artificial colorants with diode-array detection and a Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm column with guard pre-column Chromolith CN 5 × 4.6 mm. Separation was performed in gradient elution with mobile phase containing methanol-aqueous 2% ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. The study showed that eight beers (70%) marketed in the Czech Republic contained artificial colorants (Tartrazine and Brilliant blue FCF). The concentration of colorants found in analysed green herb-coloured beers ranged from 1.58 to 3.49 mg l(-)(1) for Tartrazine, 0.45-2.18 mg l(-)(1) for Brilliant blue, while Indigo carmine was detected only once at concentration 2.36 mg l(-)(1). Only three beers showed no addition of the synthetic colorants. However, the levels of artificial colorants found in beers marketed in the Czech region were very low and did not show a serious risk for consumers' health.

  11. Effects of Regional Climate Change on the Wave Conditions in the Western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreier, N.; Fröhle, P.

    2017-12-01

    The local wave climate in the Western Baltic Sea is mainly generated by the local wind field over the area. Long-term changes of the local wind conditions that are induced e.g. by regional climate change, directly affect the local wave climate and other local wind driven coastal processes like e.g. the longshore sediment transport. The changes of the local wave climate play an important role for the safe functional and structural design of new, or the adaption of existing, coastal protection structures as well as for the assessment of long-term morphological changes of the coastline. In this study, the wave model SWAN is used for the calculation of hourly wave conditions in the Western Baltic Sea between 1960 and 2100. Future wind conditions from two regional climate models (Cosmo-CLM and REMO) that have been forced by different future greenhouse gas emission scenarios used within AR4 (A1B, B1) and AR5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of IPCC are used as input for the wave model. The changes of the average wave conditions are analyzed from comparisons between the 30 years averages for the future (e.g. 2071-2100) and the reference period 1971-2000. Regarding the emission scenarios A1B and B1, a significant change of the 30 years averages of significant wave height at westerly wind exposed locations with predominant higher values up to +10% is found (cf. Fig. 1). In contrast, the change of the 30 years averages of significant wave height is more weak at easterly wind exposed locations, resulting in higher and lower values between -5% to +5%. Moreover, more wave events from W-NW and fewer events from N-NE can be expected, due to changes of the frequency of occurrence of the 30 years averages of mean wave direction. The changes of extreme wave heights are analyzed based on methods of extreme value analysis and the time series of wave parameters at selected locations nearby the German Baltic Sea coast. No robust changes of the significant wave heights with a return period of 200

  12. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  13. Detecting Earthquakes--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, C.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Basic concepts associated with seismic wave propagation through the earth and the location of seismic events were explained in part 1 (appeared in January 1983 issue). This part focuses on the construction of a student seismometer for detecting earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions anywhere on the earth's surface. (Author/JN)

  14. Gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedson, A. James

    1994-01-01

    Scintillations (high frequency variations) observed in the radio signal during the occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan (Hinson and Tyler, 1983) provide information concerning neutral atmospheric density fluctuations on scales on hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. Those seen at altitudes higher than 25 km above the surface were interpreted by Hinson and Tyler as being caused by linear, freely propagating (energy-conserving) gravity waves, but this interpretation was found to be inconsistent with the scintillation data below the 25-km altitude level. Here an attempt is made to interpret the entire scintillation profile between the surface and the 90-km altitude level in terms of gravity waves generated at the surface. Numerical calculations of the density fluctuations caused by two-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, finite-amplitude gravity waves propagating vertically through Titan's atmosphere are performed to produce synthetic scintillation profiles for comparison with the observations. The numerical model accurately treats the effects of wave transience, nonlinearity, and breakdown due to convective instability in the overturned part of the wave. The high-altitude scintillation data were accurately recovered with a freely propagating wave solution, confirming the analytic model of Hinson and Tyler. It is found that the low-altitude scintillation data can be fit by a model where a component of the gravity waves becomes convectively unstable and breaks near the 15 km level. The large-scale structure of the observed scintillation profile in the entire altitude range between 5 and 85 km can be simulated by a model where the freely propagating and breaking waves are forced at the surface simultaneously. Further analysis of the Voyager 1 Titan low-altitude scintillation data, using inversion theory appropriate for strong scattering, could potentially remove some of the ambiguities remaining in this analysis and allow a better determination of the strength and source of

  15. Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.

  16. ASTER Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The pattern on the right half of this image of the Bay of Bengal is the result of two opposing wave trains colliding. This ASTER sub-scene, acquired on March 29, 2000, covers an area 18 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (9 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The visible and near-infrared bands highlight surface waves due to specular reflection of sunlight off of the wave faces.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels

  17. Seismic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianyun; Wu, Ru-Shan

    A seismic wave is a mechanical disturbance or energy packet that can propagate from point to point in the Earth. Seismic waves can be generated by a sudden release of energy such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, or chemical explosion. There are several types of seismic waves, often classified as body waves, which propagate through the volume of the Earth, and surface waves, which travel along the surface of the Earth. Compressional and shear waves are the two main types of body wave and Rayleigh and Love waves are the most common forms of surface wave.

  18. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, George V.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is very well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis of modern

  19. Global Simulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K.; Gallagher, D. L.; Kozyra, J. U.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the effects of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves on ring current (RC) ion and radiation belt (RB) electron dynamics strongly depend on such particle/wave characteristics as the phase-space distribution function, frequency, wave-normal angle, wave energy, and the form of wave spectral energy density. The consequence is that accurate modeling of EMIC waves and RC particles requires robust inclusion of the interdependent dynamics of wave growth/damping, wave propagation, and particles. Such a self-consistent model is being progressively developed by Khazanov et al. [2002 - 2007]. This model is based on a system of coupled kinetic equations for the RC and EMIC wave power spectral density along with the ray tracing equations. We will discuss the recent progress in understanding EMIC waves formation mechanisms in the inner magnetosphere. This problem remains unsettled in spite of many years of experimental and theoretical studies. Modern satellite observations by CRRES, Polar and Cluster still do not reveal the whole picture experimentally since they do not stay long enough in the generation region to give a full account of all the spatio-temporal structure of EMIC waves. The complete self-consistent theory taking into account all factors significant for EMIC waves generation remains to be developed. Several mechanisms are discussed with respect to formation of EMIC waves, among them are nonlinear modification of the ionospheric reflection by precipitating energetic protons, modulation of ion-cyclotron instability by long-period (Pc3/4) pulsations, reflection of waves from layers of heavy-ion gyroresonances, and nonlinearities of wave generation process. We show that each of these mechanisms have their attractive features and explains certain part experimental data but any of them, if taken alone, meets some difficulties when compared to observations. We conclude that development of a refined nonlinear theory and further correlated analysis

  20. Ice Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Waves - May 21st, 2001 Description: Along the southeastern coast of Greenland, an intricate network of fjords funnels glacial ice to the Atlantic Ocean. During the summer melting season, newly calved icebergs join slabs of sea ice and older, weathered bergs in an offshore slurry that the southward-flowing East Greenland Current sometimes swirls into stunning shapes. Exposed rock of mountain peaks, tinted red in this image, hints at a hidden landscape. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  1. Waves and Tsunami Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frashure, K. M.; Chen, R. F.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Micozzi, N.; Cramer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrating wave processes quantitatively in the classroom using standard classroom tools (such as Slinkys and wave tanks) can be difficult. For example, waves often travel too fast for students to actually measure amplitude or wavelength. Also, when teaching propagating waves, reflections from the ends set up standing waves, which can confuse…

  2. Full wave description of VLF wave penetration through the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Shklyar, David

    2010-05-01

    Of the many problems in whistler study, wave propagation through the ionosphere is among the most important, and the most difficult at the same time. Both satellite and ground-based investigations of VLF waves include considerations of this problem, and it has been in the focus of research since the beginning of whistler study (Budden [1985]; Helliwell [1965]). The difficulty in considering VLF wave passage through the ionosphere is, after all, due to fast variation of the lower ionosphere parameters as compared to typical VLF wave number. This makes irrelevant the consideration in the framework of geometrical optics, which, along with a smooth variations of parameters, is always based on a particular dispersion relation. Although the full wave analysis in the framework of cold plasma approximation does not require slow variations of plasma parameters, and does not assume any particular wave mode, the fact that the wave of a given frequency belongs to different modes in various regions makes numerical solution of the field equations not simple. More specifically, as is well known (e.g. Ginzburg and Rukhadze [1972]), in a cold magnetized plasma, there are, in general, two wave modes related to a given frequency. Both modes, however, do not necessarily correspond to propagating waves. In particular, in the frequency range related to whistler waves, the other mode is evanescent, i.e. it has a negative value of N2 (the refractive index squared). It means that one of solutions of the relevant differential equations is exponentially growing, which makes a straightforward numerical approach to these equations despairing. This well known difficulty in the problem under discussion is usually identified as numerical swamping (Budden [1985]). Resolving the problem of numerical swamping becomes, in fact, a key point in numerical study of wave passage through the ionosphere. As it is typical of work based on numerical simulations, its essential part remains virtually hidden

  3. Internal Ocean Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1

  4. The quasi 2 day wave activities during 2007 austral summer period as revealed by Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Pedatella, N. M.; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao; Chen, Tingdi

    2016-03-01

    The quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) observed during 2007 austral summer period is well reproduced in an reanalysis produced by the data assimilation version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM + Data Assimilation Research Testbed) developed at National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). It is found that the QTDW peaked 3 times from January to February but with different zonal wave numbers. Diagnostic analysis shows that the mean flow instabilities, refractive index, and critical layers of QTDWs are fundamental for their propagation and amplification, and thus, the temporal variations of the background wind are responsible for the different wave number structures at different times. The westward propagating wave number 2 mode (W2) grew and maximized in the first half of January, when the mean flow instabilities related to the summer easterly jet were enclosed by the critical layers of the westward propagating wave number 3 (W3) and wave number 4 (W4) modes. This prevented W3 and W4 from approaching and extracting energy from the unstable region. The W2 decayed rapidly thereafter due to the recession of critical layer and thus the lack of additional amplification by the mean flow instability. The W3 peaked in late January, when the instabilities were still encircled by the critical layer of W4. The attenuation of W3 afterward was also due to the disappearance of critical layer and thus the lack of overreflection. Finally, the W4 peaked in late February when both the instability and critical layer were appropriate.

  5. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    PubMed

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  6. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Kobayashi, Naoki; Fukao, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the probable excitation source is atmospheric turbulence in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to thermospheric wave activity.

  7. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the backgroundmore » wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.« less

  8. Wave interference: mechanics of the standing wave component and the illusion of "which way" information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudgins, W. R.; Meulenberg, A.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Two adjacent coherent light beams, 180° out of phase and traveling on adjacent, parallel paths, remain visibly separated by the null (dark) zone from their mutual interference pattern as they merge. Each half of the pattern can be traced to one of the beams. Does such an experiment provide both "which way" and momentum knowledge? To answer this question, we demonstrate, by examining behavior of wave momentum and energy in a medium, that interfering waves interact. Central to the mechanism of interference is a standing wave component resulting from the combination of coherent waves. We show the mathematics for the formation of the standing wave component and for wave momentum involved in the waves' interaction. In water and in open coaxial cable, we observe that standing waves form cells bounded "reflection zones" where wave momentum from adjacent cells is reversed, confining oscillating energy to each cell. Applying principles observed in standing waves in media to the standing wave component of interfering light beams, we identify dark (null) regions to be the reflection zones. Each part of the interference pattern is affected by interactions between other parts, obscuring "which-way" information. We demonstrated physical interaction experimentally using two beams interfering slightly with one dark zone between them. Blocking one beam "downstream" from the interference region removed the null zone and allowed the remaining beam to evolve to a footprint of a single beam.

  9. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic.

    PubMed

    Ziskin, Marvin C

    2013-01-01

    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New concept for a toxicity assay based on multiple indexes from the wave shape of damped metabolic oscillation induced in living yeast cells (part II): application to analytical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Suzuki, M

    2007-10-01

    An ideal toxicity assay should utilize multiple indexes obtained from transient changes of metabolic activities. Here, we demonstrate the possibility for a novel toxicity bioassay using the damped glycolytic oscillation phenomenon occurring in starved yeast cells. In a previous study, the phenomenon was characterized in detail. Under optimum conditions to induce the phenomenon, the wave shapes of the damped glycolytic oscillations were changed by the instantaneous addition of both glucose and chemicals and by changing the chemical concentration. We estimated the changes in the oscillation wave shapes as six indexes, i.e., the number of wave cycles, maximum amplitude, oscillation frequency, attenuation coefficient, initial peak height, and non-steady-state time. These index changes were obtained from several kinds of chemicals. The chemicals, especially those for acids (0.01-100 mM HCl and 0.01-50 mM citric acid), bases (0.001-50 mM KOH), heavy metal ions (1-1,000 mg L(-1); Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+)), respiratory inhibitors (3-500 mg L(-1) NaN(3)), dissolved oxygen removers (10-300 mg L(-1) NaSO(3)), surfactants (10-200 mg L(-1) benzalkonium chloride), and aldehyde (10-1,000 mg L(-1) acetaldehyde), showed characteristic patterns depending on each chemical and its concentration. These significant results demonstrate the possibilities of new methods for both toxicity qualification and quantification.

  11. The generation of a zonal-wind oscillation by nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Lucy

    2003-11-01

    Nonlinear interactions of internal gravity waves give rise to numerous large-scale phenomena that are observed in the atmosphere, for example the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). This is an oscillation in zonal wind direction which is observed in the equatorial stratosphere; it is characterized by alternating regimes of easterly and westerly shear that descend with time. In the past few decades, a number of theories have been developed to explain the mechanism by which the QBO is generated. These theories are all based on ``quasi-linear'' representations of wave-mean-flow interactions. In this presentation, a fully nonlinear numerical simulation of the QBO is described. A spectrum of gravity waves over a range of phase speeds is forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagates upwards in a density-stratified shear flow. As a result of the absorption and reflection of the waves at their critical levels, regions of large shear develop in the background flow and propagate downwards with time.

  12. Gravitational-wave astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Press, W. H.; Thorne, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    The significance of experimental evidence for gravitational waves is considered for astronomy. Properties, generation, and astrophysical sources of the waves are discussed. Gravitational wave receivers and antennas are described. A review of the Weber experiment is presented.

  13. Waves at Navigation Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    upgrades the Coastal Modeling System (CMS) wave models CMS-Wave, a phase- averaged spectral wave model, and BOUSS-2D, a Boussinesq type nonlinear wave...developing WaveNet and TideNet, two Web-based tool systems for wind and wave data access and processing, which provide critical data for USACE project...practical applications, resulting in optimization of navigation system to improve safety, reliability and operations with innovative infrastructures

  14. Surface elastic wave detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The potential applications of acoustic surface wave technology to multiplex communication systems such as data-bus, are examined. The goals are primarily to characterize certain aspects of surface wave trapped delay lines, surface wave modulation techniques, and surface wave applications that are relevant to the evaluation of surface wave devices in multiplex systems. The results indicate that there is a potential for the application of surface wave technology in data-bus type systems.

  15. Capturing the flow beneath water waves.

    PubMed

    Nachbin, A; Ribeiro-Junior, R

    2018-01-28

    Recently, the authors presented two numerical studies for capturing the flow structure beneath water waves (Nachbin and Ribeiro-Junior 2014 Disc. Cont. Dyn. Syst. A 34 , 3135-3153 (doi:10.3934/dcds.2014.34.3135); Ribeiro-Junior et al. 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 812 , 792-814 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.820)). Closed orbits for irrotational waves with an opposing current and stagnation points for rotational waves were some of the issues addressed. This paper summarizes the numerical strategies adopted for capturing the flow beneath irrotational and rotational water waves. It also presents new preliminary results for particle trajectories, due to irrotational waves, in the presence of a bottom topography.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Waving Goodbye

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-30

    Before NASA's Cassini entered its Grand Finale orbits, it acquired unprecedented views of the outer edges of the main ring system. For example, this close-up view of the Keeler Gap, which is near the outer edge of Saturn's main rings, shows in great detail just how much the moon Daphnis affects the edges of the gap. Daphnis creates waves in the edges of the gap through its gravitational influence. Some clumping of ring particles can be seen in the perturbed edge, similar to what was seen on the edges of the Encke Gap back when Cassini arrived at Saturn in 2004. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 3 degrees above the ring plane. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 18,000 miles (30,000 kilometers) from Daphnis and at a Sun-Daphnis-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 69 degrees. Image scale is 581 feet (177 meters) per pixel. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Jan. 16, 2017. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21329

  17. Focusing Leaky Waves: A Class of Electromagnetic Localized Waves with Complex Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuscaldo, Walter; Comite, Davide; Boesso, Alessandro; Baccarelli, Paolo; Burghignoli, Paolo; Galli, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    Localized waves, i.e., the wide class of limited-diffraction, limited-dispersion solutions to the wave equation are generally characterized by real wave numbers. We consider the role played by localized waves with generally complex "leaky" wave numbers. First, the impact of the imaginary part of the wave number (i.e., the leakage constant) on the diffractive (spatial broadening) features of monochromatic localized solutions (i.e., beams) is rigorously evaluated. Then general conditions are derived to show that only a restricted class of spectra (either real or complex) allows for generating a causal localized wave. It turns out that backward leaky waves fall into this category. On this ground, several criteria for the systematic design of wideband radiators, namely, periodic radial waveguides based on backward leaky waves, are established in the framework of leaky-wave theory. An effective design method is proposed to minimize the frequency dispersion of the proposed class of devices and the impact of the "leakage" on the dispersive (temporal broadening) features of polychromatic localized solutions (i.e., pulses) is accounted for. Numerical results corroborate the concept, clearly highlighting the advantages and limitations of the leaky-wave approach for the generation of localized pulses at millimeter-wave frequencies, where energy focusing is in high demand in modern applications.

  18. On Wave Processes in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1998-01-01

    This grant was awarded by NASA/MSFC to The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) to investigate the physical processes responsible for heating and wind acceleration in the solar atmosphere, and to construct theoretical, self-consistent and time-dependent solar wind models based on the momentum deposition by finite amplitude and nonlinear Alfven waves. In summary, there are three main goals of the proposed research: (1) Calculate the wave energy spectra and wave energy fluxes carried by magnetic non- magnetic waves. (2) Find out which mechanism dominates in supplying the wave energy to different parts of the solar atmosphere. (3) Use the results obtained in (1) and (2) to construct theoretical, self-consistent and time- dependent models of the solar wind. We have completed the first goal by calculating the amount of non-radiative energy generated in the solar convection zone as acoustic waves and as magnetic tube waves. To calculate the amount of wave energy carried by acoustic waves, we have used the Lighthill-Stein theory for sound generation modified by Musielak, Rosner, Stein & Ulmschneider (1994). The acoustic wave energy fluxes for stars located in different regions of the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram have also been computed. The wave energy fluxes carried by longitudinal and transverse waves along magnetic flux tubes have been calculated by using both analytical and numerical methods. Our analytical approach is based a theory developed by Musielak, Rosner & Ulmschnelder and Musielak, Rosner, Gall & Ulmschneider, which allows computing the wave energy fluxes for linear tube waves. A numerical approach has been developed by Huang, Musielak & Ulmschneider and Ulmschneider & Musielak to compute the energy fluxes for nonlinear tube waves. Both methods have been used to calculate the wave energy fluxes for stars located in different regions of the HR diagram (Musielak, Rosner & Ulmschneider 1998; Ulmschneider, Musielak & Fawzy 1998). Having obtained the

  19. Numerical simulation of wave interactions during sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, N. M.; Koval, A. V.; Pogoreltsev, A. I.; Savenkova, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    Parameterizations of normal atmospheric modes (NAMs) and orographic gravity waves (OGWs) are implemented into the mechanistic general circulation model of the middle and upper atmosphere (MUA). Numerical experiments of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are performed for climatological conditions typical for January and February using meteorological reanalysis data from the UK MET Office in the MUA model averaged over the years 1992-2011 with the easterly phase of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The simulation shows that an increase in the OGW amplitudes occurs at altitudes higher than 30 km in the Northern Hemisphere after SSW. The OGW amplitudes have maximums at altitudes of about 50 km over the North American and European mountain systems before and during SSW, as well as over the Himalayas after SSW. At high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, significant (up to 50-70%) variations in the amplitudes of stationary planetary waves (SPWs) are observed during and after the SSW. Westward travelling NAMs have local amplitude maximums not only in the Northern Hemisphere, but also in the Southern Hemisphere, where there are waveguides for the propagation of these modes. Calculated variations of SPW and NAM amplitudes correspond to changes in the mean temperature and wind fields, as well as the Eliassen-Palm flux and atmospheric refractive index for the planetary waves, during SSW. Including OGW thermal and dynamical effects leads to an increase in amplitude (by 30-70%) of almost all SPWs before and during SSW and to a decrease (up to 20-100%) after the SSW at middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

  20. Nonlinear Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-23

    square roots in the above equations correpond to the positive real parts. To obtain the time dependence of the scattering data e make use of (7.2). Hence...2.14), by the time x goes to - o, contains information about q(x) for all real x, and it is apparently difficult to extract the asymptotics at - 0...I LItak(e..eieadVbahnCnrl rwHill. imple the noise level usually A-weighted) at L. r ranek ied.)., t rrd Cmrll. N, w York. I9. of time . In this way

  1. New concept for a toxicity assay based on multiple indexes from the wave shape of damped metabolic oscillation induced in living yeast cells (part I): characterization of the phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Suzuki, M

    2007-10-01

    The damped glycolytic oscillation phenomenon occurring in starved cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NBRC 0565) was characterization for application to a toxicity bioassay. S. cerevisiae was grown under semi-anaerobic conditions. The transient oscillations were observed photometrically as the time course of the fluorescent intensity of reduced pyridine nucleotide resulting from instantaneous addition of glucose to a cell suspension. In this study, simple and reproducible conditions inducing damped oscillations were obtained by modifying a literature method. For estimation of the wave shapes of the damped oscillations we used six indexes. To investigate the total reproducibility as the averaged relative standard deviation (RSD(av)) for the six indexes obtained from the wave shapes, the damped oscillations were induced under the optimum conditions and the RSD(av) values were calculated as 14% in a buffer cell suspension (n = 62) and 22% in a water cell suspension (n = 78). Finally, the effects of glucose concentration on the six indexes were examined, and all the indexes changed when the glucose concentration was changed. Excellent correlations were obtained between the index of oscillation-state time and the concentration of glucose in a buffer cell suspension (r = 0.9985, 0.5-250 mmol L(-1), 10 points) and in a water cell suspension (r = 0.9989, 2.5 micromol L(-1)-250 mmol L(-1), 12 points), respectively.

  2. Pressure wave injuries to the nervous system caused by high-energy missile extremity impact: Part I. Local and distant effects on the peripheral nervous system--a light and electron microscopic study on pigs.

    PubMed

    Suneson, A; Hansson, H A; Seeman, T

    1990-03-01

    Pigs were used for studies of effects on the peripheral nervous tissue of pressure waves induced by impact and passage through the left thigh of high-energy missiles. The short-lasting pressure waves were demonstrated to move close to the speed of sound and to have a spectrum of high frequencies and large amplitudes. The sciatic nerve in the contralateral leg showed no hemorrhage or major deformation. Both immediately after the missile impact and after 48 hr the myelin sheaths in the contralateral sciatic nerve showed deformation. Myelin was bulging into the axon, dislocating the axoplasm. The nodes of Ranvier could be exposed to an increased extent. Electron microscopic examination revealed decreased number of microtubules immediately after the trauma, persisting even after 48 hr in the largest axon. Schwann cells showed, especially after 48 hr, signs of damage and swelling. Similar changes, although less extensive, were noticed in the phrenic nerves as well as in unmyelinated axons in both sciatic and phrenic nerves. It is concluded that a high-energy missile hit in the thigh of a pig, caused structurally demonstrable dislocations of myelin sheaths, and disarrangement of cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum in axons as well as other signs of damage. The changes may interfere with the normal functions of peripheral and autonomic nerves.

  3. Ocean waves monitor system by inland microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. C.; Bouchette, F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Microseisms are continuous ground oscillations which have been wildly introduced for decades. It is well known that the microseismicity in the frequency band from 0.05 to about 1 Hz partly results from ocean waves, which has been first explained by Longuet-Higgins [1950]. The generation mechanism for such a microseismicity is based on nonlinear wave-wave interactions which drive pressure pulses within the seafloor. The resulting ground pressure fluctuations yield ground oscillations at a double frequency (DF) with respect to that of current ocean waves. In order to understand the characteristics of DF microseisms associated with different wave sources, we aim to analyze and interpret the spectra of DF microseisms by using the simple spectrum method [Rabinovich, 1997] at various inland seismometer along the Taiwan coast. This is the first monitoring system of ocean waves observed by inland seismometers in Taiwan. The method is applied to identify wave sources by estimating the spectral ratios of wave induced microseisms associated with local winds and typhoons to background spectra. Microseism amplitudes above 0.2 Hz show a good correlation with wind-driven waves near the coast. Comparison of microseism band between 0.1 and 0.2 Hz with buoys in the deep sea shows a strong correlation of seismic amplitude with storm generated waves, implying that such energy portion originates in remote regions. Results indicate that microseisms observed at inland sites can be a potential tool for the tracking of typhoon displacements and the monitoring of extreme ocean waves in real time. Real- time Microseism-Ocean Waves Monitoring Website (http://mwave.droppages.com/) Reference Rabinovich, A. B. (1997) "Spectral analysis of tsunami waves: Separation of source and topography effects," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, p. 12,663-12,676. Longuet-Higgins, M.S. (1950) "A theory of origin of microseisms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A. 243, pp. 1-35.

  4. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  5. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  6. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    , particularly in the lee of headlands, or even more prevalent and more energized than swell. This study is part of the WRCP-JCOMM COWCLIP (Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project) effort.

  7. Wave equations in conformal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan-Juan; Wang, Xue-Jing; He, You-Biao; Yang, Si-Jiang; Li, Zhong-Heng

    2018-05-01

    We study the wave equation governing massless fields of all spins (s = 0, 1 2, 1, 3 2 and 2) in the most general spherical symmetric metric of conformal gravity. The equation is separable, the solution of the angular part is a spin-weighted spherical harmonic, and the radial wave function may be expressed in terms of solutions of the Heun equation which has four regular singular points. We also consider various special cases of the metric and find that the angular wave functions are the same for all cases, the actual shape of the metric functions affects only the radial wave function. It is interesting to note that each radial equation can be transformed into a known ordinary differential equation (i.e. Heun equation, or confluent Heun equation, or hypergeometric equation). The results show that there are analytic solutions for all the wave equations of massless spin fields in the spacetimes of conformal gravity. This is amazing because exact solutions are few and far between for other spacetimes.

  8. A Comparison Between Internal Waves Observed in the Southern Ocean and Lee Wave Generation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikurashin, M.; Benthuysen, J.; Naveira Garabato, A.; Polzin, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    Direct observations in the Southern Ocean report enhanced internal wave activity and turbulence in a few kilometers above rough bottom topography. The enhancement is co-located with the deep-reaching fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, suggesting that the internal waves and turbulence are sustained by near-bottom flows interacting with rough topography. Recent numerical simulations confirm that oceanic flows impinging on rough small-scale topography are very effective generators of internal gravity waves and predict vigorous wave radiation, breaking, and turbulence within a kilometer above bottom. However, a linear lee wave generation theory applied to the observed bottom topography and mean flow characteristics has been shown to overestimate the observed rates of the turbulent energy dissipation. In this study, we compare the linear lee wave theory with the internal wave kinetic energy estimated from finestructure data collected as part of the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES). We show that the observed internal wave kinetic energy levels are generally in agreement with the theory. Consistent with the lee wave theory, the observed internal wave kinetic energy scales quadratically with the mean flow speed, stratification, and topographic roughness. The correlation coefficient between the observed internal wave kinetic energy and mean flow and topography parameters reaches 0.6-0.8 for the 100-800 m vertical wavelengths, consistent with the dominant lee wave wavelengths, and drops to 0.2-0.5 for wavelengths outside this range. A better agreement between the lee wave theory and the observed internal wave kinetic energy than the observed turbulent energy dissipation suggests remote breaking of internal waves.

  9. Equatorial atmospheric Kelvin waves during El Niño episodes and their effect on stratospheric QBO.

    PubMed

    Das, Uma; Pan, C J

    2016-02-15

    Equatorial atmospheric Kelvin waves are investigated during a positive El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode using temperature data retrieved from GPS Radio Occultation (RO) observations of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC during the period from August 2006 to December 2013. Enhanced Kelvin wave amplitudes are observed during the El Niño episode of 2009-2010 and it is also observed that these amplitudes correlate with the Niño 3.4 index and also with outgoing longwave radiation and trade wind index. This study indicates that the enhanced equatorial atmospheric Kelvin wave amplitudes might be produced by geophysical processes that were involved in the onset and development of the El Niño episode. Further, easterly winds above the tropopause during this period favored the vertically upward propagation of these waves that induced a fast descending westerly regime by the end of 2010, where the zero-wind line is observed to take only 5 months to descend from 10 to 50 hPa. The current study presents observational evidence of enhanced Kelvin wave amplitudes during El Niño that has affected the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) through wave-mean flow interactions. Earlier El Niño episodes of 1987 and 1998 are also qualitatively investigated, using reanalysis data. It is found that there might have been an enhancement in the equatorial Kelvin wave amplitudes during almost all El Niño episodes, however, an effect of a fast descending westerly is observed in the QBO only when the ambient zonal winds in the lower stratosphere favor the upward propagation of the Kelvin waves and consequently they interact with the mean flow. This study indicates that the El Niño and QBO are not linearly related and wave mean flow interactions play a very important role in connecting these two geophysical phenomena. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ocean wave characteristic in the Sunda Strait using Wave Spectrum Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmayani, R.; Ningsih, N. S.; Adiprabowo, S. R.; Nurfitri, S.

    2018-03-01

    The wave characteristics including significant wave height and direction, seas and swell in the Sunda Strait are analyzed seasonally to provide marine weather information. This is crucial for establishing secured marine activities between islands of Sumatera and Java. Ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are simulated for one year (July 1996–June 1977) by using SWAN numerical model. The ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are divided into three areas of interest; southern, centre and northern part of the Sunda Strait. Despite a weaker local wind, the maximum significant wave height is captured at the southern part with its height of 2.6 m in November compared to other seasonally months. This is associated with the dominated swell from the Indian Ocean contributes on wave energy toward the Sunda Strait. The 2D spectrum analysis exhibits the monthly wave characteristic at southern part that is dominated by seas along the year and swell propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Sunda Strait during December to February (northwest monsoon), May, and November. Seas and swell at northern part of the Sunda Strait are apprehended weaker compared to other parts of the Sunda Strait due to its location is farther from the Indian Ocean.

  11. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  12. Rotational waves in geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  13. Modified fundamental Airy wave.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2014-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of the fundamental Airy wave are obtained; the intensity distribution is the same as that for a point electric dipole situated at the origin and oriented normal to the propagation direction. The propagation characteristics of the modified fundamental Airy wave are determined. These characteristics are the same as those for the fundamental Gaussian wave provided that an equivalent waist is identified for the Airy wave. In general, the waves are localized spatially with the peak in the propagation direction.

  14. Wave disc engine apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  15. Waves at Navigation Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    upgrades the Coastal Modeling System’s (CMS) wave model CMS-Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wave model, and BOUSS-2D, a Boussinesq -type nonlinear wave...nearshore wave processes in practical applications. These capabilities facilitate optimization of innovative infrastructure for navigation systems to...navigation systems . The advanced models develop probabilistic engineering design estimates for rehabilitation of coastal structures to evaluate the

  16. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  17. Rogue waves in the Davey-Stewartson I equation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yasuhiro; Yang, Jianke

    2012-09-01

    General rogue waves in the Davey-Stewartson-I equation are derived by the bilinear method. It is shown that the simplest (fundamental) rogue waves are line rogue waves which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. It is also shown that multirogue waves describe the interaction of several fundamental rogue waves. These multirogue waves also arise from the constant background and then decay back to it, but in the intermediate times, interesting curvy wave patterns appear. However, higher-order rogue waves exhibit different dynamics. Specifically, only part of the wave structure in the higher-order rogue waves rises from the constant background and then retreats back to it, and this transient wave possesses patterns such as parabolas. But the other part of the wave structure comes from the far distance as a localized lump, which decelerates to the near field and interacts with the transient rogue wave, and is then reflected back and accelerates to the large distance again.

  18. Global QBO in circulation and ozone. Part 2: A simple mechanistic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, K. K.; Yang, H.

    1994-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation is relatively well understood, the problem of how the equatorially confined quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wave forcing can induce a signal in the extratropics of comparable or larger magnitude remains unsolved. A simple mechanistic model is constructed to provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that the phenomenon of extratropical QBO is mainly caused by an anomalous seasonal circulation induced by an anomalous Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux divergence. The anomaly in E-P flux divergence may be caused in turn by the relative poleward and downward shift of the region of irreversible mixing (breaking) of the extratropical planetary waves during the easterly phase of the equatorial QBO as compared to its westerly phase. The hemispheric nature of the anomaly wave forcing in solstice seasons (viz., no wave breaking in the summer hemisphere) induces a global circulation anomaly that projects predominantly into the first few zonal Hough modes of Plumb. Such a global QBO circulation pattern, although difficult to measure directly, is reflected in the distribution of stratospheric tracers transported by it. Our model produces a global pattern of QBO anomaly in column ozone that appears to account for much of the unfiltered interannual variability in the column ozone observed by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard the Nimbus satellite. Furthermore, the model produces the characteristic spectrum of the observation with peaks at periods of 20 and 30 months.

  19. Global QBO in circulation and ozone. Part 2: A simple mechanistic model

    SciTech Connect

    Tung, K.K.; Yang, H.

    1994-10-01

    Although the phenomenon of equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation is relatively well understood, the problem of how the equatorially confined quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) wave forcing can induce a signal in the extratropics of comparable or larger magnitude remains unsolved. A simple mechanistic model is constructed to provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that the phenomenon of extratropical QBO is mainly caused by an anomalous seasonal circulation induced by an anomalous Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux divergence. The anomaly in E-P flux divergence may be caused in turn by the relative poleward and downward shift of the region of irreversible mixing (breaking) of themore » extratropical planetary waves during the easterly phase of the equatorial QBO as compared to its westerly phase. The hemispheric nature of the anomaly wave forcing in solstice seasons (viz., no wave breaking in the summer hemisphere) induces a global circulation anomaly that projects predominantly into the first few zonal Hough modes of Plumb. Such a global QBO circulation pattern, although difficult to measure directly, is reflected in the distribution of stratospheric tracers transported by it. Our model produces a global pattern of QBO anomaly in column ozone that appears to account for much of the unfiltered interannual variability in the column ozone observed by the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument aboard the Nimbus satellite. Furthermore, the model produces the characteristic spectrum of the observation with peaks at periods of 20 and 30 months.« less

  20. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  1. Wave-ice interaction, observed and modelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The need for wide-spread, up-to-date sea state predictions and observations in the emerging ice-free Arctic will further increase as the region will open up to marine operations. Wave models for arctic regions have to capture the additional wave physics associated with wave-ice interactions, and different prediction schemes have to be tested against observations. Here we present examples of spatial wave field parameters obtained from TerraSAR-X StripMap swaths in the southern Beaufort Sea taken as part of the "Arctic Sea State and Boundary Layer DRI". Fetch evolution of the significant wave height and length in open waters, and dominant wave lengths and the high frequency cut-off of the wave spectrum in ice are readily extracted from the SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data. A surprising result is that wave evolution in off-ice wind conditions is more rapidly than the fetch evolution in off-land cases, suggesting seeding of the wave field within the ice-covered region.

  2. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  3. Electromagnetic cyclotron waves in the solar wind: Wind observation and wave dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, L. K., E-mail: lan.jian@nasa.gov; Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771; Moya, P. S.

    2016-03-25

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and α-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  4. Standing Waves in a Nonuniform Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A recent note in this journal presented a demonstration of standing waves along a cord consisting of two parts having different material densities, showing different sized wavelengths in each part. A generalization of that experiment to a continuously varying linear mass density is to vibrate a strip of material with gradually varying width (mass…

  5. Is ENSO part of an Indo-Pacific phenomenon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieners, Claudia; de Ruijter, Wilhelmus; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    for SD-ENSO influence, Warm Pool El Niño's are not. From the MSSA and a composite analysis we find evidence for two (possibly interrelated) physical mechanisms by which the SD might influence ENSO. In the first one, there is subsidence above the cool SD, leading to westerly winds in the Indian Ocean and inducing enhanced convection above Indonesia. The resulting inflow from the West Pacific (an easterly wind) favours the creation of a large Pacific Warm Water Volume that can be released into the East Pacific in boreal spring/summer following the cool SD event. In the second mechanism, the cool SD favours a strong zonal wind variability above the West Pacific on intraseasonal time scales, part of which can be attributed to SD influence on the Madden-Julian oscillation. This intraseasonal variability (westerly wind bursts...) can trigger warm Kelvin waves that might initiate El Niño.

  6. On wave-CISK and the evaporation-wind feedback for the Madden-Julian oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirtman, B.; Vernekar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of Kelvin wave-CISK and the evaporation-wind (E-W) feedback are proposed as a possible mechanism for the Madden-Julian oscillation. A very simple single vertical mode model has been employed to examine the effects of both these processes on moist Kelvin waves. The effects of wave-induced moisture convergence is parameterized by reducing the moist static stability, and CISK occurs when the moist static stability becomes negative. The E-W feedback in the presence of mean easterlies leads to unstable Kelvin modes. The presence of mean westerlies leads to decaying Kelvin modes. When CISK and the E-W feedback work in concert, an unstable Kelvin mode develops that has phase speeds of propagation between 5 m/s and 10 m/s for a large range of parameter values. On the other hand, the E-W feedback mechanism alone, in the case when CISK is not operating, produces the phase speeds of the observed Madden-Julian oscillation for only a very limited range of parameter values.

  7. Ozone and stratospheric height waves for opposite phases of the QBO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, Kingtse C.; Nogues-Paegle, Julia

    1994-01-01

    The stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) provides an important source of interannual variations in the Northern Hemisphere. O'sullivan and Salby (1990) related extra-tropical eddy transport with the phase of the tropical QBO. When the tropical wind is easterly, the zero wind line is shifted into the winter hemisphere. Enhanced wave activity in middle latitudes acts to weaken the polar vortex. When the tropical wind is in the westerly phase the situation reverses. Heights at 30 mb and ozone configurations are contrasted in this paper for these two QBO phases. When the winter vortex deforms due to the amplification of planetary waves 1 and 2, extends westward and equatorward, the complementary band of low vorticity air spirals in toward the pole from lower latitudes. Sometimes, these planetary waves break (Juckes and McIntyre, 1987) and an irreversible mixing of air takes place between high and mid-latitudes. Global ozone patterns, as obtained form satellite observations, appear to be affected by planetary wave breaking (Leovy et al. 1985). This mixing results on regions with uniform ozone and potential vorticity. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), Newman and Randel (1988) using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data and the NMC analyses have found strong spatial correlation between the October mean temperature in the lower stratosphere and total ozone for the 1979 through 1986 years. Recently Nogues-Paegle et al.(1992) analyzed SH ozone and height data from 1986 to 1989. They found that leading empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) for both ozone and 50 mb heights exhibit zonal wave 1 and 2 and that the correlations between ozone and 50 mb principal components (PCs) are high. The results were found to be consistent with a linear planetary wave advecting a passive tracer. In this paper, the dominant patterns of variability for 30 mb NMC heights and TOMS total ozone are obtained for the winter to summer transition (January to May) in the Northern

  8. Twisted gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    In general relativity (GR), linearized gravitational waves propagating in empty Minkowski spacetime along a fixed spatial direction have the property that the wave front is the Euclidean plane. Beyond the linear regime, exact plane waves in GR have been studied theoretically for a long time and many exact vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations are known that represent plane gravitational waves. These have parallel rays and uniform wave fronts. It turns out, however, that GR also admits exact solutions representing gravitational waves propagating along a fixed direction that are nonplanar. The wave front is then nonuniform and the bundle of rays is twisted. We find a class of solutions representing nonplanar unidirectional gravitational waves and study some of the properties of these twisted waves.

  9. Ultrasound shear wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shigong; Wu, Junru

    2000-05-01

    Shear wave propagation properties including phase velocity and attenuation coefficient are indispensable information in materials characterization and nondestructive evaluation. A computer controlled scanning shear-wave ultrasonic imaging system has been developed. It consists of a pair of focusing broadband pvdf transducers of central frequency of 50 MHz immersed in distilled water. Shear waves in a solid specimen are generated by mode-conversion. When ultrasonic waves generated by one of the pvdf transducers impinge upon a solid specimen from water with angle of incidence of θ that is greater than θcr, the critical angle of the longitudinal wave in the solid, only shear waves can propagate in the solid and longitudinal waves become evanescent waves. The shear waves pass through the specimen and received by the other pvdf transducer. Meanwhile, the specimen was scanned by a stepped motor of a step of 10 μm. The system was used to generated shear waves amplitude and phase velocity images of bone specimen of 1280 μm and they are compared with their longitudinal wave counterparts. The results have shown shear wave images can provide additional shear modulus and shear viscous information that longitudinal waves can't provide. The lateral resolution of 60 μm was achieved using shear wave imaging technique applied in bone sample.

  10. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  11. An Extreme-ultraviolet Wave Generating Upward Secondary Waves in a Streamer-like Solar Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Song, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves, spectacular horizontally propagating disturbances in the low solar corona, always trigger horizontal secondary waves (SWs) when they encounter the ambient coronal structure. We present the first example of upward SWs in a streamer-like structure after the passing of an EUV wave. This event occurred on 2017 June 1. The EUV wave happened during a typical solar eruption including a filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection (CME), and a C6.6 flare. The EUV wave was associated with quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) wave trains and a type II radio burst that represented the existence of a coronal shock. The EUV wave had a fast initial velocity of ∼1000 km s‑1, comparable to high speeds of the shock and the QFP wave trains. Intriguingly, upward SWs rose slowly (∼80 km s‑1) in the streamer-like structure after the sweeping of the EUV wave. The upward SWs seemed to originate from limb brightenings that were caused by the EUV wave. All of the results show that the EUV wave is a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave, likely triggered by the flare impulses. We suggest that part of the EUV wave was probably trapped in the closed magnetic fields of the streamer-like structure, and upward SWs possibly resulted from the release of slow-mode trapped waves. It is believed that the interplay of the strong compression of the coronal shock and the configuration of the streamer-like structure is crucial for the formation of upward SWs.

  12. Guided solitary waves.

    PubMed

    Miles, J

    1980-04-01

    Transversely periodic solitary-wave solutions of the Boussinesq equations (which govern wave propagation in a weakly dispersive, weakly nonlinear physical system) are determined. The solutions for negative dispersion (e.g., gravity waves) are singular and therefore physically unacceptable. The solutions for positive dispersion (e.g., capillary waves or magnetosonic waves in a plasma) are physically acceptable except in a limited parametric interval, in which they are complex. The two end points of this interval are associated with (two different) resonant interactions among three basic solitary waves, two of which are two-dimensional complex conjugates and the third of which is one-dimensional and real.

  13. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 1: the effect of higher-order corneal aberrations on refractive astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate how higher-order corneal aberrations can cancel out, modify, or induce lower-order corneal astigmatism. Patients and methods Six representative eyes are presented that show different scenarios in which higher-order aberrations interacting with corneal astigmatism can affect the manifest refraction. WaveLight® Contoura ablation maps showing the higher-order aberrations are shown, as are results of correction with full measured correction using the LYRA (Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism) Protocol. Results Higher-order corneal aberrations such as trefoil, quadrafoil, and coma can create ovalization of the central cornea, which can interact with the ovalization caused by lower-order astigmatism to either induce, cancel out, or modify the manifest refraction. Contoura processing successfully determines the linkage of these interactions resulting in full astigmatism removal. Purely lenticular astigmatism appears to be rare, but a case is also demonstrated. The author theorizes that all aberrations require cerebral compensatory processing and can be removed, supported by the facts that full removal of aberrations and its linkage with lower-order astigmatism with the LYRA Protocol has not resulted in worse or unacceptable vision for any patients. Conclusion Higher-order aberrations interacting with lower-order astigmatism is the main reason for the differences between manifest refraction and Contoura measured astigmatism, and the linkage between these interactions can be successfully treated using Contoura and the LYRA Protocol. Lenticular astigmatism is relatively rare. PMID:28553069

  14. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 1: the effect of higher-order corneal aberrations on refractive astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Motwani, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate how higher-order corneal aberrations can cancel out, modify, or induce lower-order corneal astigmatism. Six representative eyes are presented that show different scenarios in which higher-order aberrations interacting with corneal astigmatism can affect the manifest refraction. WaveLight ® Contoura ablation maps showing the higher-order aberrations are shown, as are results of correction with full measured correction using the LYRA (Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism) Protocol. Higher-order corneal aberrations such as trefoil, quadrafoil, and coma can create ovalization of the central cornea, which can interact with the ovalization caused by lower-order astigmatism to either induce, cancel out, or modify the manifest refraction. Contoura processing successfully determines the linkage of these interactions resulting in full astigmatism removal. Purely lenticular astigmatism appears to be rare, but a case is also demonstrated. The author theorizes that all aberrations require cerebral compensatory processing and can be removed, supported by the facts that full removal of aberrations and its linkage with lower-order astigmatism with the LYRA Protocol has not resulted in worse or unacceptable vision for any patients. Higher-order aberrations interacting with lower-order astigmatism is the main reason for the differences between manifest refraction and Contoura measured astigmatism, and the linkage between these interactions can be successfully treated using Contoura and the LYRA Protocol. Lenticular astigmatism is relatively rare.

  15. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  16. Experimental investigation of gravity wave turbulence and of non-linear four wave interactions..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Using the large basins of the Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France), non-linear interactions of gravity surface waves are experimentally investigated. In a first part we study statistical properties of a random wave field regarding the insights from the Wave Turbulence Theory. In particular freely decaying gravity wave turbulence is generated in a closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonl-inear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, non-linear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated. In a second part, resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin are studied. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory. L. Deike, B. Miquel, P. Gutiérrez, T. Jamin, B. Semin, M. Berhanu, E. Falcon and F. Bonnefoy, Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 781, 196 (2015) F. Bonnefoy, F. Haudin, G. Michel, B. Semin, T. Humbert, S. Aumaître, M. Berhanu and E. Falcon, Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves, Journal of Fluid Mechanics (Rapids) 805, R3 (2016)

  17. Parts Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Lou; Fuqua, Debbie

    Designed to address the skills that an auto parts specialist must master in order to be effective in the market place, this manual consists of 13 units of instruction. Covered in the units are orientation; human relations; communications; safety; parts and systems identification; stocking, shipping, and receiving; inventory control; cataloging and…

  18. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  19. Coastal Wave Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Directional wave spectra analysis from a cross-shore array of acoustic Doppler profilers, accepted paper, 12th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting, 30 October – 4 November 2011, Hilo , Hawaii .

  20. Wave-current interaction in Willapa Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of wave-current interaction in an inlet-estuary system. The three-dimensional, fully coupled, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system was applied in Willapa Bay (Washington State) from 22 to 29 October 1998 that included a large storm event. To represent the interaction between waves and currents, the vortex-force method was used. Model results were compared with water elevations, currents, and wave measurements obtained by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. In general, a good agreement between field data and computed results was achieved, although some discrepancies were also observed in regard to wave peak directions in the most upstream station. Several numerical experiments that considered different forcing terms were run in order to identify the effects of each wind, tide, and wave-current interaction process. Comparison of the horizontal momentum balances results identified that wave-breaking-induced acceleration is one of the leading terms in the inlet area. The enhancement of the apparent bed roughness caused by waves also affected the values and distribution of the bottom shear stress. The pressure gradient showed significant changes with respect to the pure tidal case. During storm conditions the momentum balance in the inlet shares the characteristics of tidal-dominated and wave-dominated surf zone environments. The changes in the momentum balance caused by waves were manifested both in water level and current variations. The most relevant effect on hydrodynamics was a wave-induced setup in the inner part of the estuary.

  1. Submarine ground water discharge and fate along the coast of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai‘i: Part I: time-series measurements of currents, waves, salinity and temperature: November, 2005-July, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Logan, Joshua B.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2007-01-01

    The impending development for the west Hawai‘i coastline adjacent to Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park (KAHO) may potentially alter coastal hydrology and water quality in the marine waters of the park. Water resources are perhaps the most significant natural and cultural resource component in the park, and are critical to the health and well being of six federally listed species. KAHO contains ecosystems of brackish anchialine pools, two 11-acre fishponds, and 596 acres of coral reef habitats, all fed by groundwater originating upslope. The steep gradients on high islands, combined with typically porous substrates and high rainfall levels at upper elevations, make these settings especially vulnerable to shifts in submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and its entrained nutrients and pollutants. Little is known about the magnitude, rate, frequency, and variability of SGD and its influence on contaminant loading to Hawaiian coastal environments. Recent studies show that groundwater flux through the park is vital to many ecosystem components including anchialine ponds and wetland biota. The function of these ecosystems may be vulnerable to changes in groundwater flow stemming from natural changes (climate and sea level) and land use (groundwater pumping and contamination). Oki and others (1999) showed that increased groundwater withdrawals for urban development since 1978 likely decreased groundwater flux to the coast by 50%. During this same time, the quality of groundwater has been vulnerable to increases in contaminant and nutrient/fertilizer additions associated with industrial, commercial and residential use upslope from KAHO (Oki and others, 1999). High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature and salinity were collected in the marine portion of the park from November, 2005, through July, 2006, to establish baseline information on the magnitude, rate, frequency, and variability of SGD. These data are intended to help

  2. Very High Density of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells in Perfusion by Alternating Tangential Flow or Tangential Flow Filtration in WAVE Bioreactor™—Part II: Applications for Antibody Production and Cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Clincke, Marie-Françoise; Mölleryd, Carin; Samani, Puneeth K; Lindskog, Eva; Fäldt, Eric; Walsh, Kieron; Chotteau, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    A high cell density perfusion process of monoclonal antibody (MAb) producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was developed in disposable WAVE Bioreactor™ using external hollow fiber (HF) filter as cell separation device. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) and alternating tangential flow (ATF) systems were compared and process applications of high cell density perfusion were studied here: MAb production and cryopreservation. Operations by perfusion using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) with ATF or TFF and by fed-batch were compared. Cell densities higher than 108 cells/mL were obtained using UF TFF or UF ATF. The cells produced comparable amounts of MAb in perfusion by ATF or TFF, MF or UF. MAbs were partially retained by the MF using ATF or TFF but more severely using TFF. Consequently, MAbs were lost when cell broth was discarded from the bioreactor in the daily bleeds. The MAb cell-specific productivity was comparable at cell densities up to 1.3 × 108 cells/mL in perfusion and was comparable or lower in fed-batch. After 12 days, six times more MAbs were harvested using perfusion by ATF or TFF with MF or UF, compared to fed-batch and 28× more in a 1-month perfusion at 108 cells/mL density. Pumping at a recirculation rate up to 2.75 L/min did not damage the cells with the present TFF settings with HF short circuited. Cell cryopreservation at 0.5 × 108 and 108 cells/mL was performed using cells from a perfusion run at 108 cells/mL density. Cell resuscitation was very successful, showing that this system was a reliable process for cell bank manufacturing. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 29:768–777, 2013 PMID:23436783

  3. Defect induced guided waves mode conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandowski, Tomasz; Kudela, Pawel; Malinowski, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with analysis of guided waves mode conversion phenomenon in fiber reinforced composite materials. Mode conversion phenomenon may take place when propagating elastic guided waves interact with discontinuities in the composite waveguide. The examples of such discontinuities are sudden thickness change or delamination between layers in composite material. In this paper, analysis of mode conversion phenomenon is based on full wave-field signals. In the full wave-field approach signals representing propagation of elastic waves are gathered from dense mesh of points that span over investigated area of composite part. This allow to animate the guided wave propagation. The reported analysis is based on signals resulting from numerical calculations and experimental measurements. In both cases defect in the form of delamination is considered. In the case of numerical research, Spectral Element Method (SEM) is utilized, in which a mesh is composed of 3D elements. Numerical model includes also piezoelectric transducer. Full wave-field experimental measurements are conducted by using piezoelectric transducer for guided wave excitation and Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) for sensing.

  4. Subtropical tropospheric wave forcing of planetary wave 2 in the prephase of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming Event in January 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, D. H. W.; Schneidereit, A.; Grams, C. M.; Quinting, J. F.; Keller, J. H.; Wolf, G. A.; Teubler, F.; Riemer, M.; Romppainen-Martius, O.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric forcing of planetary wavenumber 2 is examined in the prephase of the major stratospheric sudden warming event in January 2009 (MSSW 2009). Because of a huge increase in Eliassen-Palm fluxes induced mainly by wavenumber 2, easterly angular momentum is transported into the Arctic stratosphere, deposited, and then decelerates the polar night jet. In agreement with earlier studies, the results reveal that the strongest eddy heat fluxes, associated with wavenumber 2, occur at 100hPa during the prephase of MSSW 2009 in ERA-Interim. In addition, moderate conditions of the cold phase of ENSO (La Niña) contribute to the eddy heat flux anomaly. It is shown that enhanced tropospheric wave forcing over Alaska and Scandinavia is caused by tropical processes in two ways. First, in a climatological sense, La Niña contributes to an enhanced anticyclonic flow over both regions. Second, the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) has an indirect influence on the Alaskan ridge by enhancing eddy activity over the North Pacific. This is manifested in an increase in cyclone frequency and associated warm conveyor belt outflow, which contribute to the maintenance and amplification of the Alaskan anticyclone. The Scandinavian ridge is maintained by wave trains emanating from the Alaskan ridge propagating eastward, including an enhanced transport of eddy kinetic energy. The MSSW2009 is an extraordinary case of how a beneficial phasing of La Niña and MJO conditions together with multi scale interactions enhances tropospheric forcing for wavenumber 2-induced zonal mean eddy heat flux in the lower stratosphere.

  5. Laboratory study of spectral waves over a muddy bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxeiner, E.; Dalrymple, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    performed at these locations to track changing spectral energy, as previous studies have hypothesized mechanisms of energy transfer between waves of different frequencies. This study is part of a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI), which includes on computational, laboratory and field studies of wave damping in nearshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Louisiana.

  6. Diffusion Driven Combustion Waves in Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldushin, A. P.; Matkowsky, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtration of gas containing oxidizer, to the reaction zone in a porous medium, due, e.g., to a buoyancy force or to an external pressure gradient, leads to the propagation of Filtration combustion (FC) waves. The exothermic reaction occurs between the fuel component of the solid matrix and the oxidizer. In this paper, we analyze the ability of a reaction wave to propagate in a porous medium without the aid of filtration. We find that one possible mechanism of propagation is that the wave is driven by diffusion of oxidizer from the environment. The solution of the combustion problem describing diffusion driven waves is similar to the solution of the Stefan problem describing the propagation of phase transition waves, in that the temperature on the interface between the burned and unburned regions is constant, the combustion wave is described by a similarity solution which is a function of the similarity variable x/square root of(t) and the wave velocity decays as 1/square root of(t). The difference between the two problems is that in the combustion problem the temperature is not prescribed, but rather, is determined as part of the solution. We will show that the length of samples in which such self-sustained combustion waves can occur, must exceed a critical value which strongly depends on the combustion temperature T(sub b). Smaller values of T(sub b) require longer sample lengths for diffusion driven combustion waves to exist. Because of their relatively small velocity, diffusion driven waves are considered to be relevant for the case of low heat losses, which occur for large diameter samples or in microgravity conditions, Another possible mechanism of porous medium combustion describes waves which propagate by consuming the oxidizer initially stored in the pores of the sample. This occurs for abnormally high pressure and gas density. In this case, uniformly propagating planar waves, which are kinetically controlled, can propagate, Diffusion of oxidizer decreases

  7. ENSO-Related Variability in Wave Climate Drives Greater Erosion Potential on Central Pacific Atolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific over a periodic time scale of 2-7 years. Despite the importance of this climate mode in forcing storm generation and trade wind variability, its impact on the wave climate incident on central Pacific atolls has not been addressed. We used the NOAA Wavewatch III CFSR reanalysis hindcasts (1979-2007) to examine the influence of ENSO on sediment mobility and transport at Kwajalein Atoll (8.8°N, 167.7°E). We found that during El Nino event years, easterly trade winds incident on the atoll weakened by 4% compared to normal years and 17% relative to La Nina event years. Despite this decrease in wind strength, significant wave heights incident on the atoll were 3-4% greater during El Nino event years. Using machine learning to partition these waves revealed that the greater El Nino wave heights originated mainly from greater storm winds near the atoll. The southeastern shift in tropical cyclone genesis location during El Nino years forced these storm winds and contributed to the 7% and 16% increases in annual wave energy relative to normal and La Nina years, respectively. Using nested SWAN and XBeach models we determined that the additional wave energy during El Nino event years significantly increased potential sediment mobility at Kwajalein Atoll and led to greater net offshore transport on its most populous island. The larger storm waves likely deplete ocean-facing beaches and reef flats of sediment, but increase the supply of sediment to the atoll lagoon across open reef platforms that are not supporting islands. We discuss further explicit modelling of storms passing over the atoll to elucidate the confounding role of storm surge on the net erosional/depositional effects of these waves. Extrapolating our results to recent Wavewatch III forecasts leads us to conclude that climate change-linked increases in wave height and storm wave energy will increase erosion on

  8. Changes in Pacific Northwest Heat Waves and Associated Synoptic/Mesoscale Drivers Under Anthropogenic Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, M.; Mass, C.

    2014-12-01

    Though western Oregon and Washington summers are typically mild due to the influence of the nearby Pacific Ocean, this region occasionally experiences heat waves with temperatures in excess of 35ºC. These heat waves can have a substantial impact on this highly populated region, particularly since the population is unaccustomed to and generally unprepared for such conditions. A comprehensive evaluation is needed of past and future heat wave trends in frequency, intensity, and duration. Furthermore, it is important to understand the physical mechanisms of Northwest heat waves and how such mechanisms might change under anthropogenic global warming. Lower-tropospheric heat waves over the west coast of North America are the result of both synoptic and mesoscale factors, the latter requiring high-resolution models (roughly 12-15 km grid spacing) to simulate. Synoptic factors include large-scale warming due to horizontal advection and subsidence, as well as reductions in large-scale cloudiness. An important mesoscale factor is the occurrence of offshore (easterly) flow, resulting in an adiabatically warmed continental air mass spreading over the western lowlands rather than the more usual cool, marine air influence. To fully understand how heat waves will change under AGW, it is necessary to determine the combined impacts of both synoptic and mesoscale effects in a warming world. General Circulation Models (GCM) are generally are too coarse to simulate mesoscale effects realistically and thus may provide unreliable estimates of the frequency and magnitudes of West Coast heat waves. Therefore, to determine the regional implications of global warming, this work made use of long-term, high-resolution WRF simulations, at 36- and 12-km resolution, produced by dynamically downscaling GCM grids. This talk will examine the predicted trends in Pacific Northwest heat wave intensity, duration, and frequency during the 21st century (through 2100). The spatial distribution in the

  9. Coronal partings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Igor F.; Dumin, Yurii V.

    2016-02-01

    The basic observational properties of "coronal partings"-the special type of quasi-one-dimensional magnetic structures, identified by a comparison of the coronal X-ray and EUV images with solar magnetograms-are investigated. They represent the channels of opposite polarity inside the unipolar large-scale magnetic fields, formed by the rows of magnetic arcs directed to the neighboring sources of the background polarity. The most important characteristics of the partings are discussed. It can be naturally assumed that-from the evolutionary and spatial points of view-the partings can transform into the coronal holes and visa versa. The classes of global, intersecting, and complex partings are identified.

  10. Alfven Simple Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.; Burrows, R.

    2009-12-01

    Multi-dimensional Alfvén simple waves in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated using Boillat's formalism. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function ǎrphi which is a function of the space and time variables. The simple wave ansatz requires that the wave normal and the normal speed of the wave front depend only on the phase function ǎrphi. This leads to an implicit equation for the phase function, and a generalisation of the concept of a plane wave. We obtain examples of Alfvén simple waves, based on the right eigenvector solutions for the Alfvén mode. The Alfvén mode solutions have six integrals, namely that the entropy, density, magnetic pressure and the group velocity (the sum of the Alfvén and fluid velocity) are constant throughout the wave. The eigen-equations require that the rate of change of the magnetic induction B with ǎrphi throughout the wave is perpendicular to both the wave normal n and B. Methods to construct simple wave solutions based on specifying either a solution ansatz for n(ǎrphi) or B(ǎrphi) are developed.

  11. Sand-wave movement on Little Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A 1-x-1.5-km area on Little Georges Bank (centered at 41?08?N., 68?04?W.) was mapped three times during a ten-month period by sidescan sonar and echo-sounding techniques to assess the morphology and mobility of sand waves on Georges Bank. Sand-wave amplitudes in the survey area ranged from 1-11 m although most were 5-7 m. Wavelengths were not constant as the crests were sinuous and in places, even bifurcated. The sand waves are asymmetrical with their steepest sides facing northwest; however, gradients of their steep sides mostly are 4?-10? which is well below the angle of repose for sand in water. Sand waves tended to have greater relief and a sharper asymmetry during the survey in September than during those in June or April. During the survey period the sand waves moved but the direction and rate of motion was variable. Even along an individual sand wave some parts moved as much as 60 m between surveys while other parts apparently remained stationary. The sand waves were asymmetrical, but movement was not consistently in the direction that the steep sides faced. Along the same sand wave, parts moved to the northwest while other parts moved to the southeast. Despite the complex pattern of sand motion, the mean displacement of the sand waves was below the resolution of the survey technique; to resolve it, a longer survey is needed.

  12. Body-wave traveltime and amplitude shifts from asymptotic travelling wave coupling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the sensitivity of finite-frequency body-wave traveltimes and amplitudes to perturbations in 3-D seismic velocity structure relative to a spherically symmetric model. Using the approach of coupled travelling wave theory, we consider the effect of a structural perturbation on an isolated portion of the seismogram. By convolving the spectrum of the differential seismogram with the spectrum of a narrow window taper, and using a Taylor's series expansion for wavenumber as a function of frequency on a mode dispersion branch, we derive semi-analytic expressions for the sensitivity kernels. Far-field effects of wave interactions with the free surface or internal discontinuities are implicitly included, as are wave conversions upon scattering. The kernels may be computed rapidly for the purpose of structural inversions. We give examples of traveltime sensitivity kernels for regional wave propagation at 1 Hz. For the direct SV wave in a simple crustal velocity model, they are generally complicated because of interfering waves generated by interactions with the free surface and the Mohorovic??ic?? discontinuity. A large part of the interference effects may be eliminated by restricting the travelling wave basis set to those waves within a certain range of horizontal phase velocity. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  13. A Method of Poisson's Ration Imaging Within a Material Part

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention, longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to display the data.

  14. Method of Poisson's ratio imaging within a material part

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of displaying the Poisson's ratio image of a material part. In the present invention longitudinal data is produced using a longitudinal wave transducer and shear wave data is produced using a shear wave transducer. The respective data is then used to calculate the Poisson's ratio for the entire material part. The Poisson's ratio approximations are then used to displayed the image.

  15. Patterns in the Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coco, G.; Guza, R. T.; Garnier, R.; Lomonaco, P.; Lopez De San Roman Blanco, B.; Dalrymple, R. A.; Xu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Edge waves, gravity waves trapped close to the shoreline by refraction, can in some cases form a standing wave pattern with alongshore periodic sequence of high and low runup. Nonlinear mechanisms for generation of edge waves by monochromatic waves incident on a planar beach from deep water have been elaborated theoretically and in the lab. Edge waves have been long considered a potential source for alongshore periodic morphological patterns in the swash (e.g., beach cusps), and edge-wave based predictions of cusp spacing compare qualitatively well with many field observations. We will discuss the extension of lab observations and numerical modeling to include incident waves with significant frequency and directional bandwidth. Laboratory experiments were performed at the Cantabria Coastal and Ocean Basin. The large rectangular basin (25 m cross-shore by 32 m alongshore) was heavily instrumented, had reflective sidewalls, and a steep concrete beach (slope 1:5) with a constant depth (1m) section between the wavemaker and beach. With monochromatic, normally incident waves we observed the expected, previously described subharmonic observations. Edge wave vertical heights at the shoreline reached 80cm, and edge wave uprushes exceeded the sloping beach freeboard. When frequency and frequency-directional spread are increased, the excited edge wave character changes substantially. In some cases, subharmonic excitation is suppressed completely. In other cases, edge waves are excited intermittently and unpredictably. The spatially and temporally steady forcing required for strong, persistent subharmonic instability is lacking with even modestly spread (direction and frequency) incident waves. An SPH numerical model is capable of reproducing aspects of the observations. It seems unlikely to us that subhamonic edge waves alone are responsible for most cusp formation on natural beaches. The steady incident wave forcing needed to initiate subharmonic growth, and to maintain

  16. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 3: developmental changes in spermatid flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet and interaction of sperm with the zona pellucida and egg plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    Spermiogenesis constitutes the steps involved in the metamorphosis of spermatids into spermatozoa. It involves modification of several organelles in addition to the formation of several structures including the flagellum and cytoplasmic droplet. The flagellum is composed of a neck region and middle, principal, and end pieces. The axoneme composed of nine outer microtubular doublets circularly arranged to form a cylinder around a central pair of microtubules is present throughout the flagellum. The middle and principal pieces each contain specific components such as the mitochondrial sheath and fibrous sheath, respectively, while outer dense fibers are common to both. A plethora of proteins are constituents of each of these structures, with each playing key roles in functions related to the fertility of spermatozoa. At the end of spermiogenesis, a portion of spermatid cytoplasm remains associated with the released spermatozoa, referred to as the cytoplasmic droplet. The latter has as its main feature Golgi saccules, which appear to modify the plasma membrane of spermatozoa as they move down the epididymal duct and hence may be partly involved in male gamete maturation. The end product of spermatogenesis is highly streamlined and motile spermatozoa having a condensed nucleus equipped with an acrosome. Spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and eventually penetrate the zona pellucida and bind to the egg plasma membrane. Many proteins have been implicated in the process of fertilization as well as a plethora of proteins involved in the development of spermatids and sperm, and these are high lighted in this review. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Excitation Location and Seasonal Variation of Transoceanic Infragravity Waves Observed at an Absolute Pressure Gauge Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Yamashita, M.

    2018-01-01

    An array of 10 absolute pressure gauges (APGs) deployed in deep water 50 km east of Aogashima, an island in southern Japan, observed several isolated signals in the infragravity wave (IGW) frequency band (0.002-0.03 Hz) during boreal summer, whereas relatively high IGW energy persisted during boreal winter. The isolated IGW shows dispersion with a delay time of 4-5 days as a function of frequency. Here we estimate the excitation locations of IGWs for the two seasons with estimated incoming direction of IGW, calculation of transoceanic IGW trajectories and propagation times, and spatiotemporal variations of significant wave heights from WAVEWATCH III. In boreal summer, the isolated IGWs are primarily caused by IGW energies excited at the shoreline of South America, based on the following three observations: IGWs observed at the array originated from the east: the easterly ray path from the array reaches South America: and an event-like IGWs were observed at the array when a storm approaches eastward to the shoreline of South America, in which the observed delay time of 4-5 days was also supported by the frequency-dependent calculation of IGW propagation times. In boreal winter, the incessant IGWs consist of transoceanic IGW energies leaked from the shoreline, primarily from North America, and secondly from South America and the western Aleutian Islands.

  18. Primordial standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João

    2018-03-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial fluctuations (scalar and tensor) might have been standing waves at their moment of creation, whether or not they had a quantum origin. We lay down the general conditions for spatial translational invariance, and isolate the pieces of the most general such theory that comply with, or break translational symmetry. We find that, in order to characterize statistically translationally invariant standing waves, it is essential to consider the correlator ⟨c0(k )c0(k')⟩ in addition to the better known ⟨c0(k )c0†(k')⟩ [where c0(k ) are the complex amplitudes of traveling waves]. We then examine how the standard process of "squeezing" (responsible for converting traveling waves into standing waves while the fluctuations are outside the horizon) reacts to being fed primordial standing waves. For translationally invariant systems only one type of standing wave, with the correct temporal phase (the "sine wave"), survives squeezing. Primordial standing waves might therefore be invisible at late times—or not—depending on their phase. Theories with modified dispersion relations behave differently in this respect, since only standing waves with the opposite temporal phase survive at late times.

  19. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  20. Subsonic leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M

    2002-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces close to the border of the existence domain of these modes. The real and complex roots of the secular equation are computed for interface waves at the boundary between water and a binary isotropic alloy of gold and silver with continuously variable composition. The change of composition of the alloy allows one to cross a critical velocity for the existence of leaky waves. It is shown that, contrary to popular opinion, the critical velocity does not coincide with the phase velocity of bulk waves in liquid. The true threshold velocity is found to be smaller, the correction being of about 1.45%. Attention is also drawn to the fact that using the real part of the complex phase velocity as a velocity of leaky waves gives only approximate value. The most interesting feature of the waves under consideration is the presence of energy leakage in the subsonic range of the phase velocities where, at first glance, any radiation by harmonic waves is not permitted. A simple physical explanation of this radiation with due regard for inhomogeneity of radiated and radiating waves is given. The controversial question of the existence of leaky Rayleigh waves at a water/ice interface is reexamined. It is shown that the solution considered previously as a leaky wave is in fact the solution of the bulk-wave-reflection problem for inhomogeneous waves.

  1. Acoustic-gravity waves, theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama; Farrell, William E.; Munk, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) propagate in the ocean under the influence of both the compressibility of sea water and the restoring force of gravity. The gravity dependence vanishes if the wave vector is normal to the ocean surface, but becomes increasingly important as the wave vector acquires a horizontal tilt. They are excited by many sources, including non-linear surface wave interactions, disturbances of the ocean bottom (submarine earthquakes and landslides) and underwater explosions. In this introductory lecture on acoustic-gravity waves, we describe their properties, and their relation to organ pipe modes, to microseisms, and to deep ocean signatures by short surface waves. We discuss the generation of AGW by underwater earthquakes; knowledge of their behaviour with water depth can be applied for the early detection of tsunamis. We also discuss their generation by the non-linear interaction of surface gravity waves, which explains the major role they play in transforming energy from the ocean surface to the crust, as part of the microseisms phenomenon. Finally, they contribute to horizontal water transport at depth, which might affect benthic life.

  2. SAO and Kelvin Waves in the EuroGRIPS GCMS and the UK Meteorological Offices Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amodei, M.; Pawson, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Lahoz, W.; Langematz, U.; Li, Ding Min; Simon, P.

    2000-01-01

    westerlies between 10 hPa and 50 hPa. The importance of the role played by subgrided gravity waves is more and more recognized. Actually, the EUGCM which includes a parametrization of gravity waves with a non-zero phase speed is able to simulate. with however some unrealistic features, clear easterly to westerly transitions as well as westerlies downward propagations. Thermal damping is also important in the westerlies forcing in the stratosphere. The model ARPEGE-climat shows more westerlies in the stratosphere than tile other three models probably due to the use of a simplified scheme to predict the ozone distribution in the middle atmosphere.

  3. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  4. Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Anna; Lafortune, Stephane; Manukian, Vahagn

    2018-04-01

    Periodic and localized travelling waves such as wave trains, pulses, fronts and patterns of more complex structure often occur in natural and experimentally built systems. In mathematics, these objects are realized as solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, dynamic properties and bifurcations of those solutions are of interest. In particular, their stability is important for applications, as the waves that are observable are usually stable. When the waves are unstable, further investigation is warranted of the way the instability is exhibited, i.e. the nature of the instability, and also coherent structures that appear as a result of an instability of travelling waves. A variety of analytical, numerical and hybrid techniques are used to study travelling waves and their properties. This article is part of the theme issue `Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics'.

  5. Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, Anna; Lafortune, Stephane; Manukian, Vahagn

    2018-04-13

    Periodic and localized travelling waves such as wave trains, pulses, fronts and patterns of more complex structure often occur in natural and experimentally built systems. In mathematics, these objects are realized as solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, dynamic properties and bifurcations of those solutions are of interest. In particular, their stability is important for applications, as the waves that are observable are usually stable. When the waves are unstable, further investigation is warranted of the way the instability is exhibited, i.e. the nature of the instability, and also coherent structures that appear as a result of an instability of travelling waves. A variety of analytical, numerical and hybrid techniques are used to study travelling waves and their properties.This article is part of the theme issue 'Stability of nonlinear waves and patterns and related topics'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Obtaining Parts

    Science.gov Websites

    The Cosmic Connection Parts for the Berkeley Detector Suppliers: Scintillator Eljen Technology 1 obtain the components needed to build the Berkeley Detector. These companies have helped previous the last update. He estimates that the cost to build a detector varies from $1500 to $2700 depending

  7. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  8. Linear Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.

    2002-08-01

    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  9. Internal Waves, Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This photograph, taken in sunglint conditions, captures open ocean internal waves which are diffracting around shoals south of the Seychelle islands (4.5S, 55.5E) and recombining to form interference patterns. The clouds to the north of the waves cover two of the Seychelle islands: Silhouette and Mahe. Mahe is the main island of the archipelago. The small rocky island surrounded by reef around which the waves diffract is Platte Island.

  10. Millimeter Wave Nonreciprocal Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-03

    measures microwave magnetic field patterns of magnetostatic waves in LPE -YIG thin films has been developed. The probe’s sensing element is either a...Morgenthaler, "Workshop on Application of Garnet and Ferrite Thin Films to Microwave Devices," Session FC, Third Joint Intermag - Magnetism and...thin films Li... millimeter waves magnetostati c waves i A TRAC" =CmE4 F*91040 eEp y mnenu -d Dfenvely by Noek n.m--) The Microwave and Quantum

  11. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  12. Cosmological gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    1988-01-01

    A cosmological background of gravitational waves would alter the propagation of radiation, inducing redshift fluctuations, apparent source position deflections, and luminosity variations. By comparing these astrophysical effects with observations, it is possible to deduce upper limits on the energy density present in gravitational waves. Emphasis is placed on microwave background anisotropy from the redshift deviations and galaxy clustering correlation functions from the angular deviations. Many of the gravitational wave effects are shown to be generalizations of the gravitational lensing formalism.

  13. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    a phase-averaged spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model and its interface in the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). Ambrose...applications of the Boussinesq (BOUSS-2D) wave model that provides more rigorous calculations for design and performance optimization of integrated...navigation systems . Together these wave models provide reliable predictions on regional and local spatial domains and cost-effective engineering solutions

  14. Ocean-atmosphere dynamics during Hurricane Ida and Nor'Ida: An application of the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Zambon, Joseph B.; He, Ruoying

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system was used to investigate atmosphere–ocean–wave interactions in November 2009 during Hurricane Ida and its subsequent evolution to Nor’Ida, which was one of the most costly storm systems of the past two decades. One interesting aspect of this event is that it included two unique atmospheric extreme conditions, a hurricane and a nor’easter storm, which developed in regions with different oceanographic characteristics. Our modeled results were compared with several data sources, including GOES satellite infrared data, JASON-1 and JASON-2 altimeter data, CODAR measurements, and wave and tidal information from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) and the National Tidal Database. By performing a series of numerical runs, we were able to isolate the effect of the interaction terms between the atmosphere (modeled with Weather Research and Forecasting, the WRF model), the ocean (modeled with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)), and the wave propagation and generation model (modeled with Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)). Special attention was given to the role of the ocean surface roughness. Three different ocean roughness closure models were analyzed: DGHQ (which is based on wave age), TY2001 (which is based on wave steepness), and OOST (which considers both the effects of wave age and steepness). Including the ocean roughness in the atmospheric module improved the wind intensity estimation and therefore also the wind waves, surface currents, and storm surge amplitude. For example, during the passage of Hurricane Ida through the Gulf of Mexico, the wind speeds were reduced due to wave-induced ocean roughness, resulting in better agreement with the measured winds. During Nor’Ida, including the wave-induced surface roughness changed the form and dimension of the main low pressure cell, affecting the intensity and direction of the winds. The combined wave age- and wave steepness

  15. Internal Wave-Convection-Mean Flow Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, D.; Couston, L. A.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a series of simulations of Boussinesq fluid with a nonlinear equation of state which in thermal equilibrium is convective in the bottom part of the domain, but stably stratified in the upper part of the domain. The stably stratified region supports internal gravity waves, which are excited by the convection. The convection can significantly affected by the stably stratified region. Furthermore, the waves in the stable region can interact nonlinearly to drive coherent mean flows which exhibit regular oscillations, similar to the QBO in the Earth's atmosphere. We will describe the dependence of the mean flow oscillations on the properties of the convection which generate the internal waves. This provides a novel framework for understanding mean flow oscillations in the Earth's atmosphere, as well as the atmospheres of giant planets.

  16. Surfing surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  17. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  18. Oblique nonlinear whistler wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Pandey, Vinay S.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by satellite observation of large-amplitude whistler waves propagating in oblique directions with respect to the ambient magnetic field, a recent letter discusses the physics of large-amplitude whistler waves and relativistic electron acceleration. One of the conclusions of that letter is that oblique whistler waves will eventually undergo nonlinear steepening regardless of the amplitude. The present paper reexamines this claim and finds that the steepening associated with the density perturbation almost never occurs, unless whistler waves have sufficiently high amplitude and propagate sufficiently close to the resonance cone angle.

  19. Internal waves, Andaman Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-236-044 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- These internal waves in the Andaman Sea, west of Burma, were photographed from 115 nautical miles above Earth by the crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour during the Space Radar Laboratory 2 (SRL-2) mission. The internal waves smooth out some of the capillary waves at the surface in bands and travel along the density discontinuity at the bottom of the mixed layer depth. There is little evidence of the internal waves at the surface. They are visible in the Space Shuttle photography because of sunglint, which reflects off the water.

  20. Wave climate of the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Victor; Dobrolyubov, Sergey; Myslenkov, Stanislav; Korablina, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of the SWAN spectral wave model for the White Sea with using unstructured grid was presented. The main area of the Barents Sea was added to calculation region because it produces swell which incomes to the White Sea from the outside. Spatial resolution of unstructured grid is 500 m-5 km for the White Sea and 10-20 km for the Barents sea. NCEP/CFSR (~0.3°) input wind forcing was used. The results of the numerical modeling include wind wave fields for the White Sea with time step of 3 hours from 1979 to 2010. Spatial extreme value analysis of significant wave heights was performed. The storm situations, when the significant wave height exceeded 3 and 4 meters, were identified for the 32-year period. It allowed to analyze the variability of wind wave climate in the White Sea. The storminess of the White Sea tended to increase from 1979 to 1991, then decreased to minimum at 2000 and increased again till 2010. This work showed the following results. For example, in the Voronka (part of the White Sea) the synoptic situations with a wave height of more than 2 m (50-60 cases) took place about three times more than in the Basin (part of the White Sea), with heights of more than 3 m (25-40 cases) five or six times more. Cases with wave heights greater than 5 m in the Basin is extremely rare, while in the Voronka they occur 10 times a year. The significant wave height of a possible one time in 100 years is up to 7 meters in the Basin, up to 13 m in the Voronka, up to 3 m in the Onega Bay. In May, the smallest wavelength occurs in the Onega Bay, and is only 25 m. In the Basin wavelength is increased to 50 m. The longer wavelengths observed in the Voronka - 100 m. In November in the Basin (especially in the western part) and in the Voronka wavelength greatly increased to 75 and 200 m, respectively. In May, in the Onega Bay, Basin and Gorlo (part of the White Sea) swell height does not exceed 1 m. Only in the Voronka, it increases up to 3 meters. By November

  1. Contribution of non-resonant wave-wave interactions in the dynamics of long-crested sea wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michel

    2017-04-01

    durations ranging from a few wave periods to 1000 periods), with the aim of highlighting the capabilities and limitations of the GKE-PAE models. Different situations are considered by varying the relative water depth, the initial steepness of the wave field, and the shape of the initial wave spectrum, including arbitrary forms. References: Annenkov S.Y., Shrira V.I. (2006) Role of non-resonant interactions in the evolution of nonlinear random water wave fields. J. Fluid Mech., 561, 181-207. Badulin S.I., Pushkarev A.N., Resio D., Zakharov V.E. (2005) Self-similarity of wind-driven seas. Nonlin. Proc. Geophys., 12, 891-946. Gramstad O., Stiassnie M. (2013) Phase-averaged equation for water waves. J. Fluid Mech., 718, 280- 303. Hasselmann K. (1962) On the non-linear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum. Part 1. General theory. J. Fluid Mech., 12, 481-500. Zakharov V.E. (1968) Stability of periodic waves of finite amplitude on the surface of a deep fluid. J. App. Mech. Tech. Phys., 9(2), 190-194.

  2. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  3. A surface wave reflector in Southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, S.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.

    2009-12-01

    Surface waves at short periods (<35s) are affected severely by heterogeneities in the crust and the uppermost mantle. When the scale of heterogeneity is sufficiently large, its effect can be studied in a deterministic way using conventional concepts of reflection and refraction. A well-known example is surface wave refraction at continental margin. We present a case study to investigate the composition of surface wave coda in a deterministic approach. A long duration of surface wave coda with a predominant period of 20s is observed during various strong earthquakes around Japan. The coda shows an unambiguous propagation direction, implying a deterministic nature. Beamforming and particle motion analysis suggest that the surface wave later arrivals could be explained by Love wave reflections by a point reflector located at offshore southeast to Kyushu. The reflection demonstrates a seemingly incidence-independent favorable azimuth in emitting strength. In additional to beamforming, we use a new regional crustal velocity model to perform a grid-search ray-tracing with the assumption of point reflector to further constrain to location of coda generation. Because strong velocity anomalies exist near the zone of interest, we decide to use a network shortest-path ray-tracing method, instead of analytical methods like shooting and bending, to avoid the problems like convergence, shadow zone, and smooth model assumption. Two geological features are found to be related to the formation of the coda. The primary one is the intersection between the Kyushu-Palau Ridge and the Nankai Trough at offshore southeast to Kyushu (hereafter referred as "KPR-NT"), which may act as a point reflector. There is a strong Love wave phase velocity anomaly at KPR-NT but not other parts of the ridge, implying that topography is irrelevant. Rayleigh wave phase velocity does not experience a strong anomaly there, which is consistent to the absence of Rayleigh wave reflections implied by the

  4. An Apparatus for Constructing an Electromagnetic Plane Wave Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho; Loures, Marcus Vinicius Russo; Amado, William

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on an activity aimed at building an electromagnetic wave. This was part of a class on the concept of mass offered to a group of 20 pre-service Brazilian physics teachers. The activity consisted of building a plane wave using an apparatus in which it is possible to fit some rods representing electric and magnetic fields into…

  5. GNSS Wave Glider: First results from Loch Ness and demonstration of its suitability for determining the marine geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, N. T.; Morales Maqueda, M.; Williams, S. D.; Foden, P.; Martin, I.; Pugh, J.

    2013-12-01

    We report on a first deployment of a GNSS Wave Glider designed for precise, unmanned, autonomous, mobile self-propelled sea level and sea state measurement in the open ocean. The Wave Glider, equipped with a dual frequency GPS+GLONASS receiver, was deployed in Loch Ness, Scotland, autonomously travelling 32 km in a north-easterly direction along the length of the loch in 26 hours, propelled by energy generated from waves of typical amplitude only 100-150 mm and frequency on the order 0.5-1 Hz. The Wave Glider GNSS data were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS+GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations at either end of the loch. The PPP heights of the loch's surface revealed a clear geoid gradient of about 30 mm/km (i.e. just under 1 m over the whole length of the loch), very similar to both the EGM2008 and OSGM02 geoid models, demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. After applying a low pass filter, the GNSS heights showed local deviations from both EGM2008 and OSGM02, potentially caused by omission errors or a lack of gravity data over Loch Ness. In addition to dual frequency GNSS data, the Wave Glider also recorded inclinometer data, bathymetry, and surface currents, which, in combination with tide gauge and wind data, were used to further control and interpret the GNSS time series.

  6. Dynamical response of the summer MLT to tropospheric global warming: Results from a mechanistic GCM with resolved gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, E.

    2009-04-01

    The sensitivity of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) to climate variability of the troposphere is largely controlled by the generation, propagation, and dissipation of gravity waves (GWs). Conventional climate models cannot fully describe this sensitivity since GWs must be parameterized by invoking strong assumptions. Since the Eliassen-Palm flux (EPF) of low-frequency inertia GWs is negligible, the main contribution to the EPF divergence at high latitudes of the MLT is due to mid- and high-frequency GWs with periods of a few hours or less. In order to resolve at least a good portion of these waves in a GCM, a high spatial resolution from the boundary layer to the lower thermosphere is required. Furthermore, both the generation and dissipation of resolved GWs is expected to depend strongly on the details of the parameterization of turbulence. The present study proposes a new formulation of the Kuehlungsborn mechanistic general circulation model (KMCM) with high spatial resolution and Smagorinsky-type horizontal and vertical diffusion coefficients that are both scaled by the Richardson criterion. This model version allows for an explicit and self-consistent simulation of the gravity-wave drag in the MLT. A sensitivity experiment is conducted in which the main changes associated with tropospheric global warming are imposed by the differential heating, i.e., reduced static stability in the lower troposphere along with a reduced equator-to-pole temperature difference and enhanced latent heating in the intertropical convergence zone. These changes result in both a stronger Lorenz energy cycle and enhanced gravity-wave activity in the upper troposphere at middle latitudes. The altered gravity-wave sources result in the following remote effects in the summer MLT: downward shift of the residual circulation, as well as lower temperatures and reduced easterlies below the mesopause. These changes are consistent with enhanced turbulent diffusion and dissipation below

  7. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  8. Coronal "wave": Magnetic Footprint Of A Cme?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attrill, Gemma; Harra, L. K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Demoulin, P.; Wuelser, J.

    2007-05-01

    We propose a new mechanism for the generation of "EUV coronal waves". This work is based on new analysis of data from SOHO/EIT, SOHO/MDI & STEREO/EUVI. Although first observed in 1997, the interpretation of coronal waves as flare-induced or CME-driven remains a debated topic. We investigate the properties of two "classical" SOHO/EIT coronal waves in detail. The source regions of the associated CMEs possess opposite helicities & the coronal waves display rotations in opposite senses. We observe deep dimmings near the flare site & also widespread diffuse dimming, accompanying the expansion of the EIT wave. We report a new property of these EIT waves, namely, that they display dual brightenings: persistent ones at the outermost edge of the core dimming regions & simultaneously diffuse brightenings constituting the leading edge of the coronal wave, surrounding the expanding diffuse dimmings. We show that such behaviour is consistent with a diffuse EIT wave being the magnetic footprint of a CME. We propose a new mechanism where driven magnetic reconnections between the skirt of the expanding CME & quiet-Sun magnetic loops generate the observed bright diffuse front. The dual brightenings & widespread diffuse dimming are identified as innate characteristics of this process. In addition we present some of the first analysis of a STEREO/EUVI limb coronal wave. We show how the evolution of the diffuse bright front & dimmings can be understood in terms of the model described above. We show that an apparently stationary part of the bright front can be understood in terms of magnetic interchange reconnections between the expanding CME & the "open" magnetic field of a low-latitude coronal hole. We use both the SOHO/EIT & STEREO/EUVI events to demonstrate that through successive reconnections, this new model provides a natural mechanism via which CMEs can become large-scale in the lower corona.

  9. Re-radiation of acoustic waves from the A0 wave on a submerged elastic shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahyi, A. C.; Cao, Hui; Raju, P. K.; Überall, Herbert

    2005-07-01

    We consider evacuated thin semi-infinite shells immersed in a fluid, which may be either of cylindrical shape with a hemispherical shell endcap, or formed two-dimensionally by semi-infinite parallel plates joined together by a semi-cylinder. The connected shell portions are joined in a manner to satisfy continuity but with a discontinuous radius of curvature. Acoustic waves are considered incident along the axis of symmetry (say the z axis) onto the curved portion of the shell, where they, at the critical angle of coincidence, generate Lamb and Stoneley-type waves in the shell. Computations were carried out using a code developed by Cao et al. [Chinese J. Acoust. 14, 317 (1995)] and was used in order to computationally visualize the waves in the fluid that have been re-radiated by the shell waves a the critical angle. The frequency range was below that of the lowest Lamb wave, and only the A0 wave (and partly the S0 wave) was observed to re-radiate into the fluid under our assumptions. The results will be compared to experimental results in which the re-radiated waves are optically visualized by the Schardin-Cranz schlieren method. .

  10. Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…

  11. The influence of orographic waves and quasi-biennial oscillations on vertical ozone flux in the model of general atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Koval, Andrey V.; Pogoreltsev, Alexander I.; Savenkova, Elena N.

    2017-11-01

    A parameterization of the dynamical and thermal effects of orographic gravity waves (OGWs) and assimilation quasibiennial oscillations (QBOs) of the zonal wind in the equatorial lower atmosphere are implemented into the numerical model of the general circulation of the middle and upper atmosphere MUAM. The sensitivity of vertical ozone fluxes to the effects of stationary OGWs at different QBO phases at altitudes up to 100 km for January is investigated. The simulated changes in vertical velocities produce respective changes in vertical ozone fluxes caused by the effects of the OGW parameterization and the transition from the easterly to the westerly QBO phase. These changes can reach 40 - 60% in the Northern Hemisphere at altitudes of the middle atmosphere.

  12. The tropical tropopause inversion layer: variability and modulation by equatorial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilch Kedzierski, Robin; Matthes, Katja; Bumke, Karl

    2016-09-01

    The tropical tropopause layer (TTL) acts as a transition layer between the troposphere and the stratosphere over several kilometers, where air has both tropospheric and stratospheric properties. Within this region, a fine-scale feature is located: the tropopause inversion layer (TIL), which consists of a sharp temperature inversion at the tropopause and the corresponding high static stability values right above, which theoretically affect the dispersion relations of atmospheric waves like Rossby or inertia-gravity waves and hamper stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). Therefore, the TIL receives increasing attention from the scientific community, mainly in the extratropics so far. Our goal is to give a detailed picture of the properties, variability and forcings of the tropical TIL, with special emphasis on small-scale equatorial waves and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO).We use high-resolution temperature profiles from the COSMIC satellite mission, i.e., ˜ 2000 measurements per day globally, between 2007 and 2013, to derive TIL properties and to study the fine-scale structures of static stability in the tropics. The situation at near tropopause level is described by the 100 hPa horizontal wind divergence fields, and the vertical structure of the QBO is provided by the equatorial winds at all levels, both from the ERA-Interim reanalysis.We describe a new feature of the equatorial static stability profile: a secondary stability maximum below the zero wind line within the easterly QBO wind regime at about 20-25 km altitude, which is forced by the descending westerly QBO phase and gives a double-TIL-like structure. In the lowermost stratosphere, the TIL is stronger with westerly winds. We provide the first evidence of a relationship between the tropical TIL strength and near-tropopause divergence, with stronger (weaker) TIL with near-tropopause divergent (convergent) flow, a relationship analogous to that of TIL strength with relative vorticity in the

  13. Impact of wave mixing on the sea ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynders, Stefanie; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Madec, Gurvan; Nurser, George; Feltham, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    As information on surface waves in ice-covered regions becomes available in ice-ocean models, there is an opportunity to model wave-related processes more accurate. Breaking waves cause mixing of the upper water column and present mixing schemes in ocean models take this into account through surface roughness. A commonly used approach is to calculate surface roughness from significant wave height, parameterised from wind speed. We present results from simulations using modelled significant wave height instead, which accounts for the presence of sea ice and the effect of swell. The simulations use the NEMO ocean model coupled to the CICE sea ice model, with wave information from the ECWAM model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The new waves-in-ice module allows waves to propagate in sea ice and attenuates waves according to multiple scattering and non-elastic losses. It is found that in the simulations with wave mixing the mixed layer depth (MLD) under ice cover is reduced, since the parameterisation from wind speed overestimates wave height in the ice-covered regions. The MLD change, in turn, affects sea ice concentration and ice thickness. In the Arctic, reduced MLD in winter translates into increased ice thicknesses overall, with higher increases in the Western Arctic and decreases along the Siberian coast. In summer, shallowing of the mixed layer results in more heat accumulating in the surface ocean, increasing ice melting. In the Southern Ocean the meridional gradient in ice thickness and concentration is increased. We argue that coupling waves with sea ice - ocean models can reduce negative biases in sea ice cover, affecting the distribution of nutrients and, thus, biological productivity and ecosystems. This coupling will become more important in the future, when wave heights in a large part of the Arctic are expected to increase due to sea ice retreat and a larger wave fetch. Therefore, wave mixing constitutes a possible

  14. Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.

  15. Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.

    Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into anmore » acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Lastly, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.« less

  16. Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; ...

    2017-11-15

    Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into anmore » acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Lastly, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.« less

  17. Forest response to heat waves at the dry timberline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakir, D.; Rotenberg, E.; Tatrinov, F.; Ogee, J.; Maseyk, K.

    2012-04-01

    Predictions of climate change consistently indicate continuous warming and drying for the entire Mediterranean basin and other regions during the next century. Investigating forest functioning at the current dry and hot "timberline" has therefore implications for predicting future forest distribution. In such investigations we should consider the forest adjustments to extreme conditions both at the long-term average climate basis, as at the time-scale of episodic extreme events, such as heat waves and droughts. Investigating both aspects in a 45-yr old semi-arid pine forest at the dry timberline (<300 mm annual rainfall) we observe adjustments that improve carbon-, nitrogen- and water- use efficiencies. An important aspect in the ecosystem sustainability is its ability to rapidly recover from extreme conditions, both at the short-term and the seasonal scale. A remarkable example is provided by the episodes (usually 2-4 days) of Easterly dry and hot air that are common in spring (so-called "Hamsin" events). During these events air temperature increases and relative humidity decreases within hours by 10˚C and 40%, respectively. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and photosynthesis (GPP) sharply decline, predominantly in response to the drastic increase in vapor pressure deficit (up to 6kPa), but then show full recovery to the pre-stress values within 24 h past the event. Similarly, following 5-6 months of seasonal drought, the forest resumes high photosynthetic activity within ~5 days following the first rain episode of about 10 mm in the fall. We show that these transient responses are useful in partitioning between the ecosystem responses to short-term atmosphere-driven stress and longer-term soil moisture stress. An ecosystem model (MuSICA) was used to test our understandings of underlying processes, and our ability to account for such differential responses.

  18. National Organizations Raising Public Consciousness. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Statements of seven national organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, Spina Bifida Association of America, National Easter Seal Society, International Association of Parents of the Deaf, American Foundation for the Blind, Down's Syndrome Congress, and the National Society for Autistic Children) about raising community awareness of issues…

  19. Joined-Up Reflections: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    The author drew the 2008 Easter conference to a close. During the final address, the author chose to focus on the domain of perimeter and area both because it is a topic accessible to teachers of all ages and because learners display considerable confusion between them. The core difficulty seems to lie in the necessity to attend either to the…

  20. Oceanic-wave-measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, J. F.; Miles, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Barometer mounted on bouy senses wave heights. As wave motion raises and lowers barometer, pressure differential is proportional to wave height. Monitoring circuit samples barometer output every half cycle of wave motion and adds magnitudes of adjacent positive and negative peaks. Resulting output signals, proportional to wave height, are transmitted to central monitoring station.

  1. Space-time properties of wind-waves: a new look at directional wave distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckler, Fabien; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Benetazzo, Alvise; Fedele, Francesco; Bergamasco, Filippo; Dulov, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Few accurate observed directional wave spectra are available in the literature at spatial scales ranging between 0.5 and 5.0 m. These intermediate wave scales, relevant for air-sea fluxes and remote sensing are also expected to feed back on the dominant wave properties through wave generation. These wave scales can be prolifically investigated using the well-known optical stereo methods that provides, from a couple of synchronized images, instantaneous representation of wave elevations over a given sea surface. Thus, two stereo systems (the so-called Wave Acquisition Stereo Systems, WASS) were deployed on top of the deep-water platform at Katsiveli, in the Black Sea, in September 2011 and 2013. From image pairs taken by the couple of synchronized high-resolution cameras, ocean surfaces have been reconstructed by stereo-triangulation. Here we analyze sea states corresponding to mean wind speeds of 11 to 14 m/s, and young wave ages of 0.35 to 0.42, associated to significant wave heights of 0.3 to 0.55m. As a result, four 12 Hz time evolutions of sea surface elevation maps with areas about 10 x 10 m2 have been obtained for sequence durations ranging between 15 and 30 minutes, and carefully validated with nearby capacitance wave gauges. The evolving free surfaces elevations were processed into frequency-wavenumber-direction 3D spectra. We found that wave energy chiefly follows the dispersion relation up to frequency of 1.6Hz and wavenumber of 10 rad/m, corresponding to wavelength of about 0.5 m. These spectra also depict well the energy contribution from non-linear waves, which is quantified and compared to theory. A strong bi-modality of the linear spectra was also observed, with the angle of the two maxima separated by about 160 degrees. Furthermore, spectra also exhibit the bimodality of the non-linear part. Integrated over positive frequencies to obtain wavenumber spectra unambiguous in direction, the bimodality of the spectra is partially hidden by the energy from

  2. Earthquake early warning using P-waves that appear after initial S-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As measures for underprediction for large earthquakes with finite faults and overprediction for multiple simultaneous earthquakes, Hoshiba (2013), Hoshiba and Aoki (2015), and Kodera et al. (2016) proposed earthquake early warning (EEW) methods that directly predict ground motion by computing the wave propagation of observed ground motion. These methods are expected to predict ground motion with a high accuracy even for complicated scenarios because these methods do not need source parameter estimation. On the other hand, there is room for improvement in their rapidity because they predict strong motion prediction mainly based on the observation of S-waves and do not explicitly use P-wave information available before the S-waves. In this research, we propose a real-time P-wave detector to incorporate P-wave information into these wavefield-estimation approaches. P-waves within a few seconds from the P-onsets are commonly used in many existing EEW methods. In addition, we focus on P-waves that may appear in the later part of seismic waves. Kurahashi and Irikura (2013) mentioned that P-waves radiated from strong motion generation areas (SMGAs) were recognizable after S-waves of the initial rupture point in the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) (the Tohoku-oki earthquake). Detecting these P-waves would enhance the rapidity of prediction for the peak ground motion generated by SMGAs. We constructed a real-time P-wave detector that uses a polarity analysis. Using acceleration records in boreholes of KiK-net (band-pass filtered around 0.5-10 Hz with site amplification correction), the P-wave detector performed the principal component analysis with a sliding window of 4 s and calculated P-filter values (e.g. Ross and Ben-Zion, 2014). The application to the Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) showed that (1) peaks of P-filter that corresponded to SMGAs appeared in several stations located near SMGAs and (2) real-time seismic intensities (Kunugi et al

  3. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  4. Colliding impulsive gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nutku, Y.; Halil, M.

    1977-11-28

    We formulate the problem of colliding plane gravitational waves with two polarizations as the harmonic mappings of Riemannian manifolds and construct an exact solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations describing the interaction of colliding impulsive gravitational waves which in the limit of collinear polarization reduces to the solution of Khan and Penrose.

  5. Supergranular waves revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfellner, Jan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    Solar supergranules remain a mysterious phenomenon, half a century after their discovery. One particularly interesting aspect of supergranulation is its wave-like nature detected in Fourier space. Using SDO/HMI local helioseismology and granulation tracking, we provide new evidence for supergranular waves. We also discuss their influence on the evolution of the network magnetic field using cork simulations.

  6. Gravitational waves from inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-09-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  7. The Relativistic Wave Vector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2009-01-01

    The Lorentz transformation applies directly to the kinematics of moving particles viewed as geometric points. Wave propagation, on the other hand, involves moving planes which are extended objects defined by simultaneity. By treating a plane wave as a geometric object moving at the phase velocity, novel results are obtained that illustrate the…

  8. Thermal-Wave Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosencwaig, Allan

    1982-01-01

    Thermal features of and beneath the surface of a sample can be detected and imaged with a thermal-wave microscope. Various methodologies for the excitation and detection of thermal waves are discussed, and several applications, primarily in microelectronics, are presented. (Author)

  9. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  10. A diffusion approximation for ocean wave scatterings by randomly distributed ice floes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a continuum approach using a diffusion approximation method to solve the scattering of ocean waves by randomly distributed ice floes. In order to model both strong and weak scattering, the proposed method decomposes the wave action density function into two parts: the transmitted part and the scattered part. For a given wave direction, the transmitted part of the wave action density is defined as the part of wave action density in the same direction before the scattering; and the scattered part is a first order Fourier series approximation for the directional spreading caused by scattering. An additional approximation is also adopted for simplification, in which the net directional redistribution of wave action by a single scatterer is assumed to be the reflected wave action of a normally incident wave into a semi-infinite ice cover. Other required input includes the mean shear modulus, diameter and thickness of ice floes, and the ice concentration. The directional spreading of wave energy from the diffusion approximation is found to be in reasonable agreement with the previous solution using the Boltzmann equation. The diffusion model provides an alternative method to implement wave scattering into an operational wave model.

  11. Evidence of Boundary Reflection of Kelvin and First-Mode Rossby Waves from Topex/Poseidon Sea Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1996-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data lead to new opportunities to investigate some theoretical mechanisms suggested to be involved in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Pacific ocean. In particular, we are interested in studying the western boundary reflection, a process crucial for the delayed action oscillator theory, by using the TOPEX/POSEIDON data from November 1992 to May 1995. We first projected the sea level data onto Kelvin and first-mode Ross waves. Then we estimated the contribution of wind forcing to these waves by using a single baroclinic mode simple wave model forced by the ERS-1 wind data. Wave propagation was clearly observed with amplitudes well explained by the wind forcing in the ocean interior. Evidence of wave reflection was detected at both the western and eastern boundaries of the tropical Pacific ocean. At the eastern boundary, Kelvin waves were seen to reflect as first-mode Rossby waves during the entire period. The reflection efficiency (in terms of wave amplitude) of the South American coasts was estimated to be 80% of that of an infinite meridional wall. At the western boundary, reflection was observed in April-August 1993, in January-June 1994, and, later, in December 1994 to February 1995. Although the general roles of these reflection events in the variability observed in the equatorial Pacific ocean are not clear, the data suggest that the reflections in January-June 1994 have played a role in the onset of the warm conditions observed in late 1994 to early 1995. Indeed, during the January-June 1994 period, as strong downwelling first-mode Rossby waves reflected into downwelling Kelvin waves, easterly wind and cold sea surface temperature anomalies located near the date line weakened and eventually reversed in June-July 1994. The presence of the warm anomalies near the date line then favored convection and westerly wind anomalies that triggered strong downwelling Kelvin waves propagating throughout the basin

  12. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  13. SQUARE WAVE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Leavitt, M.A.; Lutz, I.C.

    1958-08-01

    An amplifier circuit is described for amplifying sigmals having an alternating current component superimposed upon a direct current component, without loss of any segnnent of the alternating current component. The general circuit arrangement includes a vibrator, two square wave amplifiers, and recombination means. The amplifier input is connected to the vibrating element of the vibrator and is thereby alternately applied to the input of each square wave amplifier. The detailed circuitry of the recombination means constitutes the novelty of the annplifier and consists of a separate, dual triode amplifier coupled to the output of each square wave amplifier with a recombination connection from the plate of one amplifier section to a grid of one section of the other amplifier. The recombination circuit has provisions for correcting distortion caused by overlapping of the two square wave voltages from the square wave amplifiers.

  14. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function Z is obtained within an ;interaction representation; and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for Z. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the N-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency. Some of the main results which are developed here in detail have been tested numerically in a recent work.

  15. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  16. Particle Acceleration by Cme-driven Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1999-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Peak particle intensities are a strong function of CME speed, although the intensities, spectra, and angular distributions of particles escaping the shock are highly modified by scattering on Alfven waves produced by the streaming particles themselves. Element abundances vary in complex ways because ions with different values of Q/A resonate with different parts of the wave spectrum, which varies with space and time. Just recently, we have begun to model these systematic variations theoretically and to explore other consequences of proton-generated waves.

  17. Gravitational-wave stochastic background from cosmic strings.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Xavier; Mandic, Vuk; Creighton, Jolien

    2007-03-16

    We consider the stochastic background of gravitational waves produced by a network of cosmic strings and assess their accessibility to current and planned gravitational wave detectors, as well as to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), cosmic microwave background (CMB), and pulsar timing constraints. We find that current data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are sensitive to areas of parameter space of cosmic string models complementary to those accessible to pulsar, BBN, and CMB bounds. Future more sensitive LIGO runs and interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to explore substantial parts of the parameter space.

  18. Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes. Lake Michigan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    winds to an elevation of 10 m for input into the wave model. 9 PART III: WAVE MODEL 18. The wave model used in this study, DWAVE , was developed by Dr...available from the WIS Project Office. 19. DWAVE is a FORTRAN computer code that simulates wave growth, dissipation, and propagation in deep water. The...spectrum within DWAVE . As seen there, each frequency-direction increment is envisioned as a "bin," and these "bins" are centered on specified

  19. THz-wave sensing via pump and signal wave detection interacted with evanescent THz waves.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Takuya; Kaneko, Naoya; Suizu, Koji; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige

    2013-09-15

    We report a novel sensing technique that uses an evanescent terahertz (THz) wave, without detecting the THz wave directly. When a THz wave generated by Cherenkov phase matching via difference frequency generation undergoes total internal reflection, the evanescent THz wave is subject to a phase change and an amplitude decrease. The reflected THz wave, under the influence of the sample, interferes with the propagating THz wave and the changing electric field of the THz wave interacts with the electric field of the pump waves. We demonstrate a sensing technique for detecting changes in the electric field of near-infrared light, transcribed from changes in the electric field of a THz wave.

  20. Axisymmetric Density Waves in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Matthew; Nicholson, Philip

    2018-04-01

    Density waves in Saturn's rings are typically tightly wrapped spiral patterns generated by resonances with either Saturn's moons or structures inside the planet. However, between the Barnard and Bessel Gaps in the Cassini Division (i.e. between 120,240 and 120,300 km), there are density variations that appear to form an axisymmetric density wave, which consists of concentric regions of varying density that propagate radially through the rings. Such a wave requires some process that forces ring particles at all longitudes to pass through pericenter at the same time, and so cannot be generated by satellite resonances. Instead this particular wave appears to be excited by interference between a nearby satellite resonance and normal mode oscillations on the inner edge of the Barnard Gap. Similar axisymmetric waves may exist within the Dawes ringlet and the outermost part of the B ring, which are also just interior to resonantly confined edges that exhibit a large number of normal modes. These waves may therefore provide new insights into how resonant perturbations near an edge can propagate through a disk of material.

  1. Large-amplitude hydromagnetic waves in collisionless relativistic plasma - Exact solution for the fast-mode magnetoacoustic wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.

    1983-01-01

    An exact nonlinear solution is found to the relativistic kinetic and electrodynamic equations (in their hydromagnetic limit) that describes the large-amplitude fast-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagating normal to the magnetic field in a collisionless, previously uniform plasma. It is pointed out that a wave of this kind will be generated by transverse compression of any collisionless plasma. The solution is in essence independent of the detailed form of the particle momentum distribution functions. The solution is obtained, in part, through the method of characteristics; the wave exhibits the familiar properties of steepening and shock formation. A detailed analysis is given of the ultrarelativistic limit of this wave.

  2. ENSO's far reaching connection to Indian cold waves.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, J V; Behera, Swadhin K; Annamalai, H; Ratna, Satyaban B; Rajeevan, M; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-11-23

    During boreal winters, cold waves over India are primarily due to transport of cold air from higher latitudes. However, the processes associated with these cold waves are not yet clearly understood. Here by diagnosing a suite of datasets, we explore the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of these cold waves. Two types of cold waves are identified based on observed minimum surface temperature and statistical analysis. The first type (TYPE1), also the dominant one, depicts colder than normal temperatures covering most parts of the country while the second type (TYPE2) is more regional, with significant cold temperatures only noticeable over northwest India. Quite interestingly the first (second) type is associated with La Niña (El Niño) like conditions, suggesting that both phases of ENSO provide a favorable background for the occurrence of cold waves over India. During TYPE1 cold wave events, a low-level cyclonic anomaly generated over the Indian region as an atmospheric response to the equatorial convective anomalies is seen advecting cold temperatures into India and maintaining the cold waves. In TYPE2 cold waves, a cyclonic anomaly generated over west India anomalously brings cold winds to northwest India causing cold waves only in those parts.

  3. Speeding up tsunami wave propagation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    Trans-oceanic wave propagation is one of the most time/CPU consuming parts of the tsunami modeling process. The so-called Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package, developed at PMEL NOAA USA (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA), is widely used to evaluate the tsunami parameters. However, it takes time to simulate trans-ocean wave propagation, that is up to 5 hours CPU time to "drive" the wave from Chili (epicenter) to the coast of Japan (even using a rather coarse computational mesh). Accurate wave height prediction requires fine meshes which leads to dramatic increase in time for simulation. Computation time is among the critical parameter as it takes only about 20 minutes for tsunami wave to approach the coast of Japan after earthquake at Japan trench or Sagami trench (as it was after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011). MOST solves numerically the hyperbolic system for three unknown functions, namely velocity vector and wave height (shallow water approximation). The system could be split into two independent systems by orthogonal directions (splitting method). Each system can be treated independently. This calculation scheme is well suited for SIMD architecture and GPUs as well. We performed adaptation of MOST package to GPU. Several numerical tests showed 40x performance gain for NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU vs. single core of Intel i7 processor. Results of numerical experiments were compared with other available simulation data. Calculation results, obtained at GPU, differ from the reference ones by 10^-3 cm of the wave height simulating 24 hours wave propagation. This allows us to speak about possibility to develop real-time system for evaluating tsunami danger.

  4. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 - 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along the

  5. Ambient seismic wave field

    PubMed Central

    NISHIDA, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    The ambient seismic wave field, also known as ambient noise, is excited by oceanic gravity waves primarily. This can be categorized as seismic hum (1–20 mHz), primary microseisms (0.02–0.1 Hz), and secondary microseisms (0.1–1 Hz). Below 20 mHz, pressure fluctuations of ocean infragravity waves reach the abyssal floor. Topographic coupling between seismic waves and ocean infragravity waves at the abyssal floor can explain the observed shear traction sources. Below 5 mHz, atmospheric disturbances may also contribute to this excitation. Excitation of primary microseisms can be attributed to topographic coupling between ocean swell and seismic waves on subtle undulation of continental shelves. Excitation of secondary microseisms can be attributed to non-linear forcing by standing ocean swell at the sea surface in both pelagic and coastal regions. Recent developments in source location based on body-wave microseisms enable us to estimate forcing quantitatively. For a comprehensive understanding, we must consider the solid Earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere as a coupled system. PMID:28769015

  6. Progressive wave expansions and open boundary problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, T.; Hariharan, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we construct progressive wave expansions and asymptotic boundary conditions for wave-like equations in exterior domains, including applications to electromagnetics, compressible flows and aero-acoustics. The development of the conditions will be discussed in two parts. The first part will include derivations of asymptotic conditions based on the well-known progressive wave expansions for the two-dimensional wave equations. A key feature in the derivations is that the resulting family of boundary conditions involves a single derivative in the direction normal to the open boundary. These conditions are easy to implement and an application in electromagnetics will be presented. The second part of the paper will discuss the theory for hyperbolic systems in two dimensions. Here, the focus will be to obtain the expansions in a general way and to use them to derive a class of boundary conditions that involve only time derivatives or time and tangential derivatives. Maxwell's equations and the compressible Euler equations are used as examples. Simulations with the linearized Euler equations are presented to validate the theory.

  7. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.

  8. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where dmore » = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.« less

  9. Porous medium acoustics of wave-induced vorticity diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T. M.; Sahay, P. N.

    2011-02-01

    A theory for attenuation and dispersion of elastic waves due to wave-induced generation of vorticity at pore-scale heterogeneities in a macroscopically homogeneous porous medium is developed. The diffusive part of the vorticity field associated with a viscous wave in the pore space—the so-called slow shear wave—is linked to the porous medium acoustics through incorporation of the fluid strain rate tensor of a Newtonian fluid in the poroelastic constitutive relations. The method of statistical smoothing is then used to derive dynamic-equivalent elastic wave velocities accounting for the conversion scattering process into the diffusive slow shear wave in the presence of randomly distributed pore-scale heterogeneities. The result is a simple model for wave attenuation and dispersion associated with the transition from viscosity- to inertia-dominated flow regime.

  10. Propagation and Dissipation of MHD Waves in Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.

    2006-11-01

    bholadwivedi@gmail.com In view of the landmark result on the solar wind outflow, starting between 5 Mm and 20 Mm above the photosphere in magnetic funnels, we investigate the propagation and dissipation of MHD waves in coronal holes. We underline the importance of Alfvén wave dissipation in the magnetic funnels through the viscous and resistive plasma. Our results show that Alfvén waves are one of the primary energy sources in the innermost part of coronal holes where the solar wind outflow starts. We also consider compressive viscosity and thermal conductivity to study the propagation and dissipation of long period slow longitudinal MHD waves in polar coronal holes. We discuss their likely role in the line profile narrowing, and in the energy budget for coronal holes and the solar wind. We compare the contribution of longitudinal MHD waves with high frequency Alfvén waves.

  11. Wave propagation problem for a micropolar elastic waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. A.; Murashkin, E. V.; Radayev, Y. N.

    2018-04-01

    A propagation problem for coupled harmonic waves of translational displacements and microrotations along the axis of a long cylindrical waveguide is discussed at present study. Microrotations modeling is carried out within the linear micropolar elasticity frameworks. The mathematical model of the linear (or even nonlinear) micropolar elasticity is also expanded to a field theory model by variational least action integral and the least action principle. The governing coupled vector differential equations of the linear micropolar elasticity are given. The translational displacements and microrotations in the harmonic coupled wave are decomposed into potential and vortex parts. Calibrating equations providing simplification of the equations for the wave potentials are proposed. The coupled differential equations are then reduced to uncoupled ones and finally to the Helmholtz wave equations. The wave equations solutions for the translational and microrotational waves potentials are obtained for a high-frequency range.

  12. Standing Waves in an Elastic Spring: A Systematic Study by Video Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues Ventura, Daniel; Simeão de Carvalho, Paulo; Adriano Dias, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The word "wave" is part of the daily language of every student. However, the physical understanding of the concept demands a high level of abstract thought. In physics, waves are oscillating variations of a physical quantity that involve the transfer of energy from one point to another, without displacement of matter. A wave can be…

  13. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  14. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, B. Utkin

    2011-10-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  15. Nonlinear whistler waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J. W.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Artemyev, A.; Drake, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Chorus waves observed in the Earth inner magnetosphere sometimes exhibit significantly distorted (nonharmonic) parallel electric field waveform. In spectrograms these waveform features show up as overtones of chorus wave. In this work we show that the chorus wave parallel electric field is distorted due to finite temperature of electrons. The distortion of the parallel electric field is described analytically and reproduced in the numerical fluid simulations. Due to this effect the chorus energy is transferred to higher frequencies making possible efficient scattering of low ( a few keV) energy electrons.

  16. Demonstration of Shear Waves, Lamb Waves, and Rayleigh Waves by Mode Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Introduces an experiment that can be demonstrated in the classroom to show that shear waves, Rayleigh waves, and Lamb waves can be easily generated and observed by means of mode conversion. (Author/CS)

  17. Flight Demonstration Of Low Overpressure N-Wave Sonic Booms And Evanescent Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Smolka, James W.; Murray, James E.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    The recent flight demonstration of shaped sonic booms shows the potential for quiet overland supersonic flight, which could revolutionize air transport. To successfully design quiet supersonic aircraft, the upper limit of an acceptable noise level must be determined through quantitative recording and subjective human response measurements. Past efforts have concentrated on the use of sonic boom simulators to assess human response, but simulators often cannot reproduce a realistic sonic boom sound. Until now, molecular relaxation effects on low overpressure rise time had never been compared with flight data. Supersonic flight slower than the cutoff Mach number, which generates evanescent waves, also prevents loud sonic booms from impacting the ground. The loudness of these evanescent waves can be computed, but flight measurement validation is needed. A novel flight demonstration technique that generates low overpressure N-waves using conventional military aircraft is outlined, in addition to initial quantitative flight data. As part of this demonstration, evanescent waves also will be recorded.

  18. Flight Demonstration Of Low Overpressure N-Wave Sonic Booms And Evanescent Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haering, Edward A.; Smolka, James W.; Murray, James E.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2006-05-01

    The recent flight demonstration of shaped sonic booms shows the potential for quiet overland supersonic flight, which could revolutionize air transport. To successfully design quiet supersonic aircraft, the upper limit of an acceptable noise level must be determined through quantitative recording and subjective human response measurements. Past efforts have concentrated on the use of sonic boom simulators to assess human response, but simulators often cannot reproduce a realistic sonic boom sound. Until now, molecular relaxation effects on low overpressure rise time had never been compared with flight data. Supersonic flight slower than the cutoff Mach number, which generates evanescent waves, also prevents loud sonic booms from impacting the ground. The loudness of these evanescent waves can be computed, but flight measurement validation is needed. A novel flight demonstration technique that generates low overpressure N-waves using conventional military aircraft is outlined, in addition to initial quantitative flight data. As part of this demonstration, evanescent waves also will be recorded.

  19. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  20. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuationsmore » lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.« less