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Sample records for eastern siberia larch

  1. Influence of topographic heterogeneity on the abandance of larch forest in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Kobayashi, H.

    2016-12-01

    In eastern Siberia, larches (Larix spp.) often exist in pure stands, constructing the world's largest coniferous forest, of which changes can significantly affect the earth's albedo and the global carbon balance. We have conducted simulation studies for this vegetation, aiming to forecast its structures and functions under changing climate (1, 2). In previous studies of simulating vegetation at large geographical scales, the examining area is divided into coarse grid cells such as 0.5 * 0.5 degree resolution, and topographical heterogeneities within each grid cell are just ignored. However, in Siberian larch area, which is located on the environmental edge of existence of forest ecosystem, abundance of larch trees largely depends on topographic condition at the scale of tens to hundreds meters. We, therefore, analyzed patterns of within-grid-scale heterogeneity of larch LAI as a function of topographic condition, and examined its underlying reason. For this analysis, larch LAI was estimated for each 1/112 degree from the SPOT-VEGETATION data, and topographic properties such as angularity and aspect direction were estimated form the ASTER-GDEM data. Through this analysis, we found that, for example, sign of correlation between angularity and larch LAI depends on hydrological condition on the grid cell. We then refined the hydrological sub-model of our vegetation model SEIB-DGVM, and validated whether the modified model can reconstruct these patterns, and examined its impact on the estimation of biomass and vegetation productivity of entire larch region. -- References --1. Sato, H., et al. (2010). "Simulation study of the vegetation structure and function in eastern Siberian larch forests using the individual-based vegetation model SEIB-DGVM." Forest Ecology and Management 259(3): 301-311.2. Sato, H., et al. (2016). "Endurance of larch forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia under warming trends." Ecology and Evolution

  2. Endurance of larch forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia under warming trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Iwahana, G.; Ohta, T.

    2015-12-01

    The larch (Larix spp.) forest in eastern Siberia is the world's largest coniferous forest. However, its existence depends on near-surface permafrost, which increases water availability for trees, and the boundary of the forest closely follows the permafrost zone. Therefore, the degradation of near-surface permafrost due to forecasted warming trends during the 21st century is expected to affect the larch forest in Siberia. However, predictions of how warming trends will affect this forest vary greatly, and many uncertainties remain about land-atmospheric interactions within the ecosystem. We developed an integrated land surface model to analyze how the Siberian larch forest will react to current warming trends. This model analyzed interactions between vegetation dynamics and thermo-hydrology and showed that, under climatic conditions predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios 2.6 and 8.5, annual larch net primary production (NPP) increased about 2 and 3 times, respectively, by the end of 21st century compared with that in the 20th century. Soil water content during larch growing season showed no obvious trend, even after decay of surface permafrost and accompanying sub-surface runoff. A sensitivity test showed that the forecasted warming and pluvial trends extended leafing days of larches and reduced water shortages during the growing season, thereby increasing productivity.

  3. Simulating topographic controls on the abundance of larch forest in eastern Siberia, and its consequences under changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Kobayashi, H.

    2017-12-01

    In eastern Siberia, larches (Larix spp.) often exist in pure stands, constructing the world's largest coniferous forest, of which changes can significantly affect the earth's albedo and the global carbon balance. Our previous studies tried to reconstruct this vegetation, aiming to forecast its structures and functions under changing climate (1, 2). In previous studies of simulating vegetation at large geographical scales, the examining area is divided into coarse grid cells such as 0.5 × 0.5 degree resolution, and topographical heterogeneities within each grid cell are just ignored. However, in Siberian larch area, which is located on the environmental edge of existence of forest ecosystem, abundance of larch trees largely depends on topographic condition at the scale of tens to hundreds meters. In our preliminary analysis, we found a quantitative pattern that topographic properties controls the abundance of larch forest via both drought and flooding stresses in eastern Siberia. We, therefore, refined the hydrological sub-model of our dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM, and validated whether the modified model can reconstruct the pattern, examined its impact on the estimation of biomass and vegetation productivity under the current and forecasted future climatic conditions. -- References --1. Sato, H., et al. (2010). "Simulation study of the vegetation structure and function in eastern Siberian larch forests using the individual-based vegetation model SEIB-DGVM." Forest Ecology and Management 259(3): 301-311. 2. Sato, H., et al. (2016). "Endurance of larch forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia under warming trends." Ecology and Evolution

  4. Modeling of larch forest dynamics under a changing climate in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, T.; Kumagai, T.; Iijima, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Maximov, T. C.; Hiyama, T.

    2017-12-01

    According to the projection by an earth system model under RCP8.5 scenario, boreal forest in eastern Siberia (near Yakutsk) is predicted to experience significant changes in climate, in which the mean annual air temperature is projected to be positive and the annual precipitation will be doubled by the end of 21st century. Since the forest in this region is underlain by continuous permafrost, both increasing temperature and precipitation can affect the dynamics of forest through the soil water processes. To investigate such effects, we adopted a newly developed terrestrial ecosystem dynamics model named S-TEDy (SEIB-DGVM-originated Terrestrial Ecosystem Dynamics model), which mechanistically simulates "the way of life" of each individual tree and resulting tree mortality under the future climate conditions. This model was first developed for the simulation of the dynamics of a tropical rainforest in the Borneo Island, and successfully reproduced higher mortality of large trees due to a prolonged drought induced by ENSO event of 1997-1998. To apply this model to a larch forest in eastern Siberia, we are developing a soil submodel to consider the effect of thawing-freezing processes. We will present a simulation results using the future climate projection.

  5. The eastern larch beetle in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner

    1986-01-01

    The eastern larch beetle (Dendroctonus simplex LeConte) exists throughout the range of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in interior Alaska where it has a 1-year life cycle. Beetles overwinter as adults in the bark of the trunk below snowline in infested trees. Tamarack trees that are slow growing because of repeated...

  6. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  7. Pest Risk Assessment of the Importation of Larch from Siberia and the Soviet Far East

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1991-01-01

    Several timber companies in the United States have expressed an interest in importing unprocessed larch logs from Siberia and the Soviet Far East. A variety of exotic forest pests, including insects, nematodes, and fungi, can be transported on or in logs. Many of these organisms can survive in transit and have a high potential to colonize suitable hosts near ports of...

  8. Larch Forests of Middle Siberia: Long-Term Trends in Fire Return Intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Dvinskaya, Mariya L.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65+degN). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRIs) were found to be 112 +/- 49 years (based on firescars) and 106 +/- 36 years (based on firescars and tree natality dates). FRIs were increased with latitude increase and observed to be about 80 years at 64N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (approx.71+degN). Northward FRIs increase correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Post- Little Ice Age (LIA) warming (after 1850) caused approximately a doubling of fire events (in comparison with a similar period during LIA). The data obtained support a hypothesis of climate-induced fire frequency increase. Keywords Fire ecology Fire history Fire frequency Siberian wildfires Larch forests Climate change

  9. Climate-Driven Changes Within the Larch Forest of Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, V.

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to the support of NASA's Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Focus Area programs, joint NASA/ Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences studies have been conducted throughout Siberia. The overall objective has been to obtain field and satellite measurements to examine carbon stocks and track changes in forests across this vast area. In this presentation, we discuss some of the finding from this 25+ year collaboration' i.e., observed climate-driven changes within larch communities in northern Siberia. Field measurements and satellite data, including Terra/MODIS, Landsat, GRACE and QuickBird were used for analysis of forest conditions. The following results will be discussed. (1). At the northern limit of larch (Larix gmelinii) range (i.e.,~72°N) tree mortality was observed during the cooling period from the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Post- Little Ice Age (LIA) trees re-establishment followed warming temperatures by the middle of the19th century. The current tree line has recovered to the pre-LIA line location although tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower. The mean rate of upward migration was found to be 0.35 m yr-1 (with a range of 0.21-0.58). (2) The migration of the "dark needle conifers" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata) into the southern margin zone of larch dominated forest was documented. Meanwhile, within the traditional DNC range decline and mortality of both Siberian pine and fir were observed and attributed, primarily, due to an increased drought. (3) Within Central Siberia larch growth is limited by early summer temperatures and available water from thawing permafrost. Larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), drought (SPEI; r = 0.68-0.82), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), previous year precipitation (r = 0.63) and soil water anomalies (r = 0.79). Larch TRW growth and Gross Primary Productivity

  10. Larch Forests of Middle Siberia: Long-Term Trends in Fire Return Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Dvinskaya, Mariya L.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2017-01-01

    Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65+°N). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRI) were found to be 112 ± 49 years (based on fire scars) and 106 ± 36 years (based on fire scars and tree natality dates). FRI were increased with latitude increase, and observed to be about 80 years at 64°N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle, and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (~71°+N). Northward FRI increase correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = − 0.95). Post Little Ice Age (LIA) warming (after 1850) caused approximately a doubling of fire events (in comparison with a similar period during LIA). The data obtained support a hypothesis of climate-induced fire frequency increase. PMID:28966554

  11. Larch Forests of Middle Siberia: Long-Term Trends in Fire Return Intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Dvinskaya, Mariya L.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65 + deg N). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRIs) were found to be 112 ± 49 years (based on fire scars) and 106 ± 36 years (based on fire scars and tree natality dates). FRI were increased with latitude increase and observed to be about 80 years at 64 deg N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (approximately 71 deg + N). Northward FRI increase correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Post Little Ice Age (LIA) warming (after 1850) caused approximately a doubling of fire events (in comparison with a similar period during LIA). The data obtained support a hypothesis of climate-induced fire frequency increase.

  12. Temporal and Spatial Wildfire Dynamics of Northern Siberia: Larch Forests and Insect Outbreak Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav; Antamoshkina, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45 - 73°N) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS data and field measurements for the period since 1996. In addition, fire return interval along the south-north transect was analyzed. Third, pest outbreak (Siberian silkmoth) impact on the wildfires was studied. Both, number of forest fires and burned area in Siberia increased during recent decades. Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index (SPEI) (r = -0.43). Within larch stands along the transect wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect. Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62°N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (66°33'N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands ( 71+°N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Siberian silkmoth outbreaks leads to an order of magnitude increase in burned area and fire frequency. Multiple fires turns former "dark needle conifer" taiga into grass and bush communities for decades.

  13. Phytoremediation of Excavation in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Zhmurova, T. M.

    2017-04-01

    The paper deals with prospects and applicability of phytoremediation technology in the conditions of Eastern Siberia as applied to gypsum stone extraction of Zalarinsky deposit in Irkutsk region. It analyses dust intensity for different technological processes of the deposit and evaluates the dust loading on the workers of the deposit. The selection of plantings that have potential to neutralize the dust loading produced by the plot “Severniy” is carried out.

  14. Climate-Induced Landslides within the Larch Dominant Permafrost Zone of Central Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Shushpanov, Alexandr S; Im, Sergei T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2017-01-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of Central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62000 km2. Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and GRACE satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68–0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with tmax > 0°C; r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of Central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes. PMID:29326754

  15. Climate-Induced Landsliding within the Larch Dominant Permafrost Zone of Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Shushpanov, Alexandr S.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62 000 km2. Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68-0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with t (max) > 0 deg C; r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes.

  16. Climate-Induced Landslides within the Larch Dominant Permafrost Zone of Central Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Shushpanov, Alexandr S; Im, Sergei T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of Central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62000 km 2 . Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and GRACE satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68-0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with t max > 0°C; r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of Central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes.

  17. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  18. [The intensity of phytodetrite decomposition in Larch Forest of the permafrost zone in central Siberia].

    PubMed

    Prokushkin, S G; Prokushkin, A S; Sorokin, N D

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of long-term investigations, quantitative assessment ofphytodetrite mineralization rates is provided. Their role in the biological cycle of larch stands growing in the permafrost zone of Central Evenkia is discussed. It is demonstrated that their destruction in the subshrub-sphagnum and cowberry-green moss larch stands is extremely slow, the plant litter contains the most cecalcitrant organic matter demonstrating the lowest decomposition coefficient of 0.03-0.04 year(-1), whereas fresh components of the plant litter have 3- to 4-fold higher values. An insignificant input of N and C from the analyzed mortmass to the soil has been registered. It has been revealed that the changes in N and C in the decomposition components are closely related to the quantitative dynamics (biomass) of microorganisms, such as hydrolytics and, especially, micromicetes.

  19. Understory vegetation mediates permafrost active layer dynamics and carbon dioxide fluxes in open-canopy larch forests of northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Loranty, Michael M; Berner, Logan T; Taber, Eric D; Kropp, Heather; Natali, Susan M; Alexander, Heather D; Davydov, Sergey P; Zimov, Nikita S

    2018-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are characterized by a broad range of plant functional types that are highly heterogeneous at small (~1-2 m) spatial scales. Climatic changes can impact vegetation distribution directly, and also indirectly via impacts on disturbance regimes. Consequent changes in vegetation structure and function have implications for surface energy dynamics that may alter permafrost thermal dynamics, and are therefore of interest in the context of permafrost related climate feedbacks. In this study we examine small-scale heterogeneity in soil thermal properties and ecosystem carbon and water fluxes associated with varying understory vegetation in open-canopy larch forests in northeastern Siberia. We found that lichen mats comprise 16% of understory vegetation cover on average in open canopy larch forests, and lichen abundance was inversely related to canopy cover. Relative to adjacent areas dominated by shrubs and moss, lichen mats had 2-3 times deeper permafrost thaw depths and surface soils warmer by 1-2°C in summer and less than 1°C in autumn. Despite deeper thaw depths, ecosystem respiration did not differ across vegetation types, indicating that autotrophic respiration likely dominates areas with shrubs and moss. Summertime net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was negative (i.e. net uptake) in areas with high shrub cover, while positive (i.e. net loss) in lichen mats and areas with less shrub cover. Our results highlight relationships between vegetation and soil thermal dynamics in permafrost ecosystems, and underscore the necessity of considering both vegetation and permafrost dynamics in shaping carbon cycling in permafrost ecosystems.

  20. Early and late seasonal carbon sequestration and allocation in larch trees growing on permafrost in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masyagina, Oxana; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Artyukhov, Aleksey; Udalova, Tatiana; Senchenkov, Sergey; Rublev, Aleksey

    2014-05-01

    Despite large geographic extent of deciduous conifer species Larix gmelinii, its seasonal photosynthetic activity and translocation of photoassimilated carbon within a tree remain poorly studied. To get better insight into productivity of larch trees growing on permafrost soils in Siberian larch biome we aimed to analyze dynamics of foliage parameters (i.e. leaf area, biomass, %N, %P etc.), seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity and apply whole tree labeling by 13CO2, which is powerful and effective tool for tracing newly developed assimilates translocation to tissues and organs of a tree (Kagawa et al., 2006; Keel et al., 2012). Experimental plot has been established in mature 105 year-old larch stand located within the continuous permafrost area near Tura settlement (Central Siberia, 64o17'13" N, 100o11'55" E, 148 m a.s.l.). Trees selected for experiments represented mean tree of the stand. Measurements of seasonal photosynthetic activity and foliar biomass sampling were arranged from early growing season (June 8, 2013) until yellowing and senescence of needles on September 17, 2013. Labeling by 13C in whole tree chamber was conducted by three pulses ([CO2]max ≤ 2,500 ppmv, 13CO2 (30% v/v)) at the early (June) and late (August) phase of growing season for different trees in 3 replicates each time. Both early season and late season labeling experiments demonstrated high rate of 13CO2 assimilation and respective enrichment of needle tissues by 13C: δ13C increased from -28.7 up to +670‰ just after labeling. However, there was distinct post-labeling dynamics of needle δ13C among two seasonal experiments. At the early season 13C depletion in labeled needles was slower, and δ13C approached after 40 days ca. +110 ‰ and remained constant till senescence. In the late season (August) needles were losing labeled C with much faster rate and approached only +1.5 ‰ upon senescence (28 days exposition). These findings suggest that in early season ca. 20% of

  1. Connecting overwintering success of eastern larch beetle to health of tamarack. Chapter 16

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Venette; Abigail J. Walter

    2012-01-01

    Michigan, Wisconsin, Maine, and Minnesota have experienced extensive mortality of tamarack (eastern larch) (Larix laricina). The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources reported tamarack mortality on 54,000 acres of Minnesota forests between 2001 and 2006 (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources 2006). Although the exact cause of tree mortality...

  2. A western larch-engelmann spruce spacing study in eastern Oregon: results after 10 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1984-01-01

    The 10-year growth response from a spacing study in an even-aged stand of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), thinned at age 10 to 9- and 15-foot spacings, was measured in eastern Oregon. Both basal area and total cubic volume increment per acre increased at the...

  3. Effects on eastern larch beetle of its natural attractant and synthetic pheromones in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner; Malcom M. Furniss; Thomas. Ward

    1981-01-01

    Traps baited with Seudenol + a-pinene caught 87 percent more eastern larch beetles, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, than did tamarack logs infested with females. Male beetles responded to the synthetic attractant in greater numbers than females. Male beetles were not attracted to frontalin, a principal attractant of the closely related Douglas-fir...

  4. Impacts of global warming on boreal larch forest in East Siberia: simulations with a coupled carbon cycle and fire regime model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.

    2005-12-01

    Boreal forest is one of the focal areas in the study of global warming and carbon cycle. In this study, a coupled carbon cycle and fire regime model was developed and applied to a larch forest in East Siberia, near Yakutsk. Fire regime is simulated with a cellular automaton (20 km x 20 km), in which fire ignition, propagation, and extinction are parameterized in a stochastic manner, including the effects of fuel accumulation and weather condition. For each grid, carbon cycle is simulated with a 10-box scheme, in which net biome production by photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and biomass burning are calculated explicitly. Model parameters were calibrated with field data of biomass, litter stock, and fire statistics; the carbon cycle scheme was examined with flux measurement data. As a result, the model successfully captured average carbon stocks, productivity, fire frequency, and biomass burning. To assess the effects of global warming, a series of simulations were performed using climatic projections based on the IPCC-SRES emission scenarios from 1990 to 2100. The range of uncertainty among the different climate models and emission scenarios was assessed by using multi-model projection data by CCCma, CCSR/NIES, GFDL, and HCCPR corresponding to the SRES A2 and B2 scenarios. The model simulations showed that global warming in the 21st century would considerably enhance the fire regime (e.g., cumulative burnt area increased by 80 to 120 percent), leading to larger carbon emission by biomass burning. The effect was so strong that growth enhancement by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and elongated growing period was cancelled out at landscape scale. In many cases, the larch forest was estimated to act as net carbon sources of 2 to 5 kg C m_|2 by the end of the 21st century, underscoring the importance of forest fire monitoring and management in this region.

  5. Intraseasonal carbon sequestration and allocation in larch trees growing on permafrost in Siberia after 13C labeling (two seasons of 2013-2014 observation).

    PubMed

    Masyagina, Oxana; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kirdyanov, Alexander; Artyukhov, Aleksey; Udalova, Tatiana; Senchenkov, Sergey; Rublev, Aleksey

    2016-12-01

    This research is an attempt to study seasonal translocation patterns of photoassimilated carbon within trees of one of the high latitudes widespread deciduous conifer species Larix gmelinii (Rupr. Rupr). For this purpose, we applied whole-tree labeling by 13 CO 2 , which is a powerful and effective tool for tracing newly developed assimilates translocation to tissues and organs of a tree. Experimental plot has been established in a mature 105-year-old larch stand located within the continuous permafrost area near Tura settlement (Central Siberia, 64°17'13″N, 100°11'55″E, 148 m a.s.l.). Measurements of seasonal photosynthetic activity and foliage parameters (i.e., leaf length, area, biomass, etc.), and sampling were arranged from early growing season (June 8, 2013; May 14, 2014) until yellowing and senescence of needles (September 17, 2013; September 14, 2014). Labeling by 13 C of the tree branch (June 2013, for 3 branch replicates in 3 different trees) and the whole tree was conducted at early (June 2014), middle (July 2014), and late (August 2013) phase of growing season (for different trees in 3 replicates each time) by three pulses [(CO 2 )max = 3000-4000 ppmv, 13 CO 2 (30 % v/v)]. We found at least two different patterns of carbon translocation associated with larch CO 2 assimilation depending on needle phenology. In early period of growing season (June), 13 C appearing in newly developed needles is a result of remobilized storage material use for growth purposes. Then approximately at the end of June, growth processes is switching to storage processes lasting to the end of growing season.

  6. Soils of postpyrogenic larch stands in Central Siberia: Morphology, physicochemical properties, and specificity of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, V. V.; Dymov, A. A.; Prokushkin, A. S.

    2017-08-01

    Morphological features, physicochemical properties, and specific characteristics of the organic matter of cryozems (Cryosols) under postpyrogenic larch forests affected by fires 2, 6, 22, 55, and 116 years ago are considered. The morphological changes in the soils affected by fires are manifested by the burning of the upper organic horizons with preservation of pyrogenic features in the soils for more than a century after the fire. In the first years (2 and 6 years) after the fire, the acidity of the organic horizons and their base saturation become lower. The postpyrogenic soils are characterized by the smaller contribution of the organic horizons to the total pools of soil organic carbon. In the studied cryozems, the organic carbon content is correlated with the contents of oxalate-extractable iron and aluminum. A decrease in the content of water-soluble organic compounds in the soils is observed after the fires; gradually, their content increases upon restoration of the ground cover.

  7. Dissimilar responses of larch stands in northern Siberia to increasing temperatures-a field and simulation based study.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Mareike; Kruse, Stefan; Epp, Laura S; Kolmogorov, Alexei; Nikolaev, Anatoly N; Heinrich, Ingo; Jeltsch, Florian; Pestryakova, Lyudmila A; Zibulski, Romy; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-09-01

    Arctic and alpine treelines worldwide differ in their reactions to climate change. A northward advance of or densification within the treeline ecotone will likely influence climate-vegetation feedback mechanisms. In our study, which was conducted in the Taimyr Depression in the North Siberian Lowlands, w present a combined field- and model-based approach helping us to better understand the population processes involved in the responses of the whole treeline ecotone, spanning from closed forest to single-tree tundra, to climate warming. Using information on stand structure, tree age, and seed quality and quantity from seven sites, we investigate effects of intra-specific competition and seed availability on the specific impact of recent climate warming on larch stands. Field data show that tree density is highest in the forest-tundra, and average tree size decreases from closed forest to single-tree tundra. Age-structure analyses indicate that the trees in the closed forest and forest-tundra have been present for at least ~240 yr. At all sites except the most southerly ones, past establishment is positively correlated with regional temperature increase. In the single-tree tundra, however, a change in growth form from krummholz to erect trees, beginning ~130 yr ago, rather than establishment date has been recorded. Seed mass decreases from south to north, while seed quantity increases. Simulations with LAVESI (Larix Vegetation Simulator) further suggest that relative density changes strongly in response to a warming signal in the forest-tundra while intra-specific competition limits densification in the closed forest and seed limitation hinders densification in the single-tree tundra. We find striking differences in strength and timing of responses to recent climate warming. While forest-tundra stands recently densified, recruitment is almost non-existent at the southern and northern end of the ecotone due to autecological processes. Palaeo-treelines may therefore

  8. Larch Casebearer in Western Larch

    Treesearch

    Scott Tunnock; Roger B. Ryan

    1995-01-01

    The larch casebearer (Coleophora laricella (Hubner), a native of Europe, was introduced into North America in 1886. The insect, which probably entered on planting stock, now infests almost all species of larch and tamarack in the United States.

  9. Reconstructing the landscape structure of the Lena-Angara interfluve (south part of Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atutova, Zhanna

    2015-04-01

    Historical-geographical reconstructions of the landscape structure of territories developed in the remote past constitute the necessary element in the chain of research into the dynamics and the degree of transformation of geosystems caused by the influence of the natural regularities and anthropogenic factors. The objective of this study is to determine the specific features of the territory of the Lena-Angara interfluve in the late 19th - early 20th centuries in the interest of a subsequent different-time comparative analysis of the landscape situation. An analysis of the features inherent in the functioning of the geosystems of the Lena-Angara interfluve was made by using, as an example, an elevated plateau with the sources of the Kuda river as well as of the Ilga and Kuda rivers. The relief is represented by a tableland with narrow crests of the watersheds, heavily dissected by a dense network of the valleys of rivers. The denudation processes created planate table-shaped elevations and plateaus whose range of absolute altitudes varies between 400 and 1000 m. The analysis of the landscape structure showed that the study territory was the home for mountain-taiga dark-coniferous and deciduous classes of facies. Larch, spruce-larch and, in places, pine-larch subshrub-grass-moss forests grew within the basins of the Ilga and Kulenga rivers. The watershed spaces of the Ilga-Kuda interfluve, and also the slopes of the upper reaches of the Kuda river were occupied by Siberian stone pine and larch-spruce subshrub-moss groups of facies. In spite of the ubiquitous occurrence of taiga-forest ranges, most of them transformed to derivative groups of facies. Forest fires gave impetus to a widespread occurrence of coniferous/small-leaved complexes in burned-over areas. The study area was poorly populated at the period under investigation; therefore, cultivated lands occupied very small territories. The upper reaches of the Kulenga river included small tracts of arable land

  10. Historical earthquakes studies in Eastern Siberia: State-of-the-art and plans for future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziminovich, Ya. B.; Shchetnikov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Many problems in investigating historical seismicity of East Siberia remain unsolved. A list of these problems may refer particularly to the quality and reliability of data sources, completeness of parametric earthquake catalogues, and precision and transparency of estimates for the main parameters of historical earthquakes. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the current status of the studies of historical seismicity in Eastern Siberia, as well as analysis of existing macroseismic and parametric earthquake catalogues. We also made an attempt to identify the main shortcomings of existing catalogues and to clarify the reasons for their appearance in the light of the history of seismic observations in Eastern Siberia. Contentious issues in the catalogues of earthquakes are considered by the example of three strong historical earthquakes, important for assessing seismic hazard in the region. In particular, it was found that due to technical error the parameters of large M = 7.7 earthquakes of 1742 were transferred from the regional catalogue to the worldwide database with incorrect epicenter coordinates. The way some stereotypes concerning active tectonics influences on the localization of the epicenter is shown by the example of a strong М = 6.4 earthquake of 1814. Effect of insufficient use of the primary data source on completeness of earthquake catalogues is illustrated by the example of a strong M = 7.0 event of 1859. Analysis of the state-of-the-art of historical earthquakes studies in Eastern Siberia allows us to propose the following activities in the near future: (1) database compilation including initial descriptions of macroseismic effects with reference to their place and time of occurrence; (2) parameterization of the maximum possible (magnitude-unlimited) number of historical earthquakes on the basis of all the data available; (3) compilation of an improved version of the parametric historical earthquake catalogue for East Siberia with

  11. Influence of wildfires in the boreal forests of Eastern Siberia on atmospheric aerosol parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomshin, Oleg A.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

    2017-11-01

    The results of studies of the dynamics of forest fires in the boreal forests of Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) for 2001-2016 are presented. Variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT), aerosol index (AI) and total carbon monoxide content during May-September were studied depending on the different forest fire activity level. It is shown that the seasonal variations of AOT, AI and CO in the most fire-dangerous years differ significantly from the fire seasons when forest fire activity was medium or low.

  12. Informatics and computational method for inundation and land use study in Arctic Sea eastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Sugimoto, Atsuko

    2016-11-01

    Eastern Siberia, Russia is physically and socio-economically vulnerable to accelerated Arctic sea level rise due to low topography, high ecological value, harsh climatic conditions, erosion and flooding of coastal area and destruction of harbor constructions and natural coastal hazards. A 1 to 10m inundation land loss scenarios for surface water and sea level rise (SLR) were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography through remote sensing and GIS techniques by ASTER GDEM and Landsat OLI data. Results indicate that 10.82% (8072.70km2) and 29.73% (22181.19km2) of the area will be lost by flooding at minimum and maximum inundation levels, respectively. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the vegetation, wetland and the natural ecosystem. Improved understanding of the extent and response of SLR will help in preparing for mitigation and adaptation.

  13. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  14. Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Iso-Touru, T; Tapio, M; Vilkki, J; Kiseleva, T; Ammosov, I; Ivanova, Z; Popov, R; Ozerov, M; Kantanen, J

    2016-12-01

    Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, we scanned genomes from eight breeds for signatures of diversifying selection. Our population structure analysis indicated six distinct breed groups, the most divergent being the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. Selection signals were shared (experimental P-value < 0.01) with more than four breeds on chromosomes 6, 7, 13, 16 and 22. The strongest selection signals in the Yakutian cattle were found on chromosomes 7 and 21, where a miRNA gene and genes related to immune system processes are respectively located. In general, genomic regions indicating selection overlapped with known QTL associated with milk production (e.g. on chromosome 19), reproduction (e.g. on chromosome 24) and meat quality (e.g. on chromosome 7). The selection map created in this study shows that native cattle breeds and their genetic resources represent unique material for future breeding. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09‧36″N, 134°39‧22″E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

  16. Bacterial community in ancient permafrost alluvium at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia).

    PubMed

    Brouchkov, Anatoli; Kabilov, Marsel; Filippova, Svetlana; Baturina, Olga; Rogov, Victor; Galchenko, Valery; Mulyukin, Andrey; Fursova, Oksana; Pogorelko, Gennady

    2017-12-15

    Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa. Only three phyla, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, comprised >5% of the OTUs abundance and accounted for 99% of the total reads. OTUs pertaining to the top families (Chitinophagaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, Halomonadaceae) held >90% of reads. The abundance of Actinobacteria was less (0.7%), whereas members of other phyla (Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Fusobacteria, and Acidobacteria) constituted a minor fraction of reads. The bacterial community in the studied ancient alluvium differs from other permafrost sediments, mainly by predominance of Bacteroidetes (>52%). The diversity of this preserved bacterial community has the potential to cause effects unknown if prompted to thaw and spread with changing climate. Therefore, this study elicits further reason to study how reintroduction of these ancient bacteria could affect the surrounding ecosystem, including current bacterial species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Larch Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Jerome S. Beatty; Gregory M. Filip; Robert L. Mathiason

    1997-01-01

    Larch dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium laricis (Piper) St. John) is a common and damaging parasite of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) in the Pacific Northwest and southern British Columbia. Larch dwarf mistletoe occurs commonly throughout the range of western larch in British Columbia, northern and central Idaho, western Montana and east of the Cascades in...

  18. [The dynamics of the occupational morbidity rate in the Eastern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pankov, V A; Lakhman, O L; Perezhogin, A N; Tyutkina, G A; Kuleshova, M V; Smirnova, O V

    The dynamics and structure of the occupational morbidity rate in main branches of the industry in the Eastern Siberia for the 2000-2015 (on the example of the Irkutsk region) is presented in this paper. During the observation period there were noted the significant gain in the number of cases of occupational diseases registered in such different branches of industry as Coal and Lignite Mining, ship and aircraft building, and in some other branches (metallurgical production, air transport, pulp production, electric power distribution industry). In the structure of the occupational morbidity leading positions are occupied by diseases associated with the exposure to physical factors, industrial aerosols, physical overload and overexertion of certain organs and systems. The main reasons and factors contributing to the gain of the occupational morbidity rate are the imperfection of technological processes, working places, personal protective equipment and/or their lack, constructive defects of machines and equipment, the violation of safety regulations, regimen of the work and rest, insufficiently high level of medical and preventive maintenance, delayed making of decisions for the rational employment to the workers with the revealed early forms of occupational diseases. There pointed out priority directions of the prevention the implementation of which will allow to decline the level of the occupational morbidity rate. The main directions are the implementation of economically caused mechanisms of the interest in the preservation of workers ’ health; implementation of the regional aimed programs; the introduction of new processes, equipment and mechanisms meeting modern hygienic requirements; the assessment of occupational risk with the creation and implementation of the system of monitoring for the dynamics of working conditions and the state of the workers ’ health for the making corrective management solutions on the optimization and elevation of the efficacy

  19. Larch dwarf mistletoe not found on alpine larch

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Mathiasen; Brian W. Geils; Clinton E. Carlson; Frank G. Hawksworth

    1995-01-01

    Reports of larch dwarf mistletoe parasitizing alpine larch are based on two collections of this host/parasite combination made by J.R. Weir in Montana during the early 1900s. Examination of host material from these collections indicates that the host is western larch, not alpine larch as previously reported. Attempts to locate larch dwarf mistletoe on alpine larch were...

  20. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  1. Assessing mortality and regeneration of larch (Larix laricina) after a 1999-2004 landscape level outbreak of the larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) in Alaska (Project WC-EM-08-03)

    Treesearch

    Roger Burnside; Mark Schultz; Nicholas Lisuzzo; James Kruse

    2013-01-01

    Larch sawfly (LSF) (Pristiphora erichsonii) is an invasive defoliator in Alaska. Based on aerial survey data, this insect has impacted an estimated 600,000 to 700,000 acres of eastern larch (Larix laricina) stands in Alaska during a 6-year period between 1999 and 2004. Mortality of larch within the sawfly-defoliated area was 80 percent or more (...

  2. The peculiarities of food allergies in accordance with the level of injury of respiratory tract in children of Eastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Irina V; Smirnova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    To determine the course of food allergy in accordance with the level of respiratory tract injury in children of Eastern Siberia. We have examined 70 children aged 2-16 , who have food sensibilization. We divided them into 2 groups: group I (n = 32) with diseases of the upper and middle respiratory tract; and group II (n = 38) with diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Allergological medical history, clinical laboratory examination and immunological examination, including the determination of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE in blood serum. In cases where causal allergens were found, elimination diets were recommended. Onset of upper respiratory tract injury in group I was more often registered in children aged 0-1; in group II, it was in the 3-7 age group. Isolated food sensibilization was more often marked in group I as compared to group II. Atopic mechanisms of respiratory tract injuries were more often registered in group II children. In the course of the elimination diet, we marked positive dynamics in 100% of group I and in 75% of group II. The most frequent allergens that cause respiratory forms of food allergy are hen eggs, cow milk, nutritive cereals, vegetables and fruit. Indices of a humoral link of immunity in the examined patients were more often registered as normal or their level is increased. Timely etiotropic therapy in the majority of cases allows for a stabilization of allergic inflammation.

  3. Applying wavelet transforms to analyse aircraft-measured turbulence and turbulent fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer over eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunin, M. A.; Hiyama, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wavelet spectral method was applied to aircraft-based measurements of atmospheric turbulence obtained during joint Russian-Japanese research on the atmospheric boundary layer near Yakutsk (eastern Siberia) in April-June 2000. Practical ways to apply Fourier and wavelet methods for aircraft-based turbulence data are described. Comparisons between Fourier and wavelet transform results are shown and they demonstrate, in conjunction with theoretical and experimental restrictions, that the Fourier transform method is not useful for studying non-homogeneous turbulence. The wavelet method is free from many disadvantages of Fourier analysis and can yield more informative results. Comparison of Fourier and Morlet wavelet spectra showed good agreement at high frequencies (small scales). The quality of the wavelet transform and corresponding software was estimated by comparing the original data with restored data constructed with an inverse wavelet transform. A Haar wavelet basis was inappropriate for the turbulence data; the mother wavelet function recommended in this study is the Morlet wavelet. Good agreement was also shown between variances and covariances estimated with different mathematical techniques, i.e. through non-orthogonal wavelet spectra and through eddy correlation methods.

  4. Wildfires Dynamics in Siberian Larch Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Evgenii I.; Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45deg-73degN) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and Terra/MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and field measurements for the period 1996-2015. In addition, fire return interval (FRI) along the south-north transect was analyzed. Both the number of forest fires and the size of the burned area increased during recent decades (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index (The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) (r = 0.43). Within larch stands along the transect, wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect. Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62 N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (6633' N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands (about 71+ N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.95). Keywords: wildfires; drought index; larch stands; fire return interval; fire frequency; burned area; climate-induced trends in Siberian wildfires

  5. Cold related mortalities and protection against cold in Yakutsk, eastern Siberia: observation and interview study

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, G C; Ermakov, S P; Komarov, Y M; McDonald, C P; Keatinge, W R

    1998-01-01

    Objective To assess how effectively measures adopted in extreme cold in Yakutsk control winter mortality. Design Interviews to assess outdoor clothing and measure indoor temperatures; regressions of these and of delayed cause-specific mortalities on temperature. Setting Yakutsk, east Siberia, Russia. Subjects: All people aged 50-59 and 65-74 years living within 400 km of Yakutsk during 1989-95 and sample of 1002 men and women who agreed to be interviewed. Main outcome measures Daily mortality from all causes and from ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular, and respiratory disease. Results Mean temperature for October-March 1989-95 was −26.6°C. At 10.2°C people wore 3.30 (95% confidence interval 3.08 to 3.53) layers of clothing outdoors, increasing to 4.39 (4.13 to 4.66; P<0.0001) layers at −20°C. Thick coats, often of fur, replaced anoraks as temperature fell to −48.2°C. 82% of people went out each day when temperatures were 10.2°C to −20°C, but below −20°C the proportion fell steadily to 44% (35% to 53%) at −48.2°C (P<0.001), and overall shivering outdoors did not increase. Living room temperature was 17.9 (17.2 to 18.5)°C at 10.2°C outdoors, 19.6 (18.8 to 20.4)°C at −20°C, and 19.1 (18.6 to 19.6)°C at −48.2°C. Mortality from all causes and from ischaemic heart and respiratory disease was unaffected by the fall in temperature. Mortality from respiratory disease (daily deaths per million) rose from 4.7 (4.3 to 5.1) to 5.1 (4.4 to 5.7) (P=0.03), but this was offset by a fall in deaths from injury. Conclusions People in Yakutsk wore very warm clothing, and in extremely cold weather stayed indoors in warm housing, preventing the increases in mortality seen in winter in milder regions of the world. Only respiratory mortality rose, perhaps because of breathing cold air. Key messagesDeath rates from ischaemic heart, cerebrovascular, and respiratory disease and all causes have been shown to increase as air temperature fallsIn Yakutsk, Russia

  6. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    PubMed

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed.

  7. New Data on Vegetation and Climate Reconstruction in the Baikal-Patom Highland (Eastern Siberia) in the Last Glacial Maximum and Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, A.; Bezrukova, E. V.; Teten'kin, A. V.; Kuz'min, M. I.

    2018-02-01

    The first results of anthracological investigation for Eastern Siberia on the carbonaceous remains of woody and shrubby plants at the archaeological sites Kovrizhka III and IV in the lower reaches of the Vitim River are presented. The results of anthracological studies enabled us to obtain new data on changes in vegetation and climate along the lower reaches of the Vitim River. As a result, new data on human habitation in the lower reaches of the Vitim River in the last glacial maximum and early Holocene were obtained.

  8. Climate-Induced Larch Growth Response Within the Central Siberian Permafrost Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Il'ya A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: estimation of larch (Larix gmelinii) growth response to current climate changes. Location: permafrost area within the northern part of Central Siberia (approximately 65.8 deg N, 98.5 deg E). Method: analysis of dendrochronological data, climate variables, drought index SPEI, GPP (gross primary production) and EVI vegetation index (both Aqua/MODIS satellite derived), and soil water content anomalies (GRACE satellite measurements of equivalent water thickness anomalies, EWTA). Results: larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with previous year August precipitation (r = 0.63), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), soil water anomalies (r = 0.79), early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), May and June drought index (r = 0.68-0.82). There are significant positive trends of TRW since late 1980s and GPP since the year 2000. Mean TRW increased by about 50%, which is similar to post-Little Ice Age warming. TRW correlated with GPP and EVI of larch stands (r = 0.68-0.69). Main conclusions: within the permafrost zone of central Siberia larch TRW growth is limited by early summer temperatures, available water from snowmelt, water accumulated within soil in the previous year, and permafrost thaw water. Water stress is one of the limiting factors of larch growth. Larch TRW growth and GPP increased during recent decades.

  9. Larix P. Mill.: larch

    Treesearch

    Raymond C. Shearer

    2008-01-01

    The larches - Larix P. Mill. - of the world are usually grouped into 10 species that are widely distributed over much of the mountainous, cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Hora 1981; Krussmann 1985; Ostenfeld and Larsen 1930; Rehder 1940; Schmidt 1995). Some species dominate at the northern limits of boreal forests and others occur above subalpine forests (...

  10. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    PubMed

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  11. Growth of western larch after thinning from above and below to several density levels: 10-year results.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1980-01-01

    The 10-year growth of a 55-year-old, even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand after it was thinned from above and below to a wide range of stocking levels was measured in eastern Oregon. Basal area and volume growth increased as stand density increased for both thinning methods. Despite heavy infestations of the larch casebearer...

  12. High severity experimental burns in Siberian larch forests increase permafrost thaw and larch tree regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Davydov, S.; Zimov, N.; Mack, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Global change models predict increased fire activity in boreal forests as climate warms and dries. We hypothesized that fire-driven decreases in soil organic layer (SOL) depth will (1) increase permafrost thaw by reducing the insulating capacity of the SOL and (2) improve seedbed conditions for tree regeneration. Over time, these changes will lead to altered patterns of above- and belowground carbon (C) accumulation. To test these hypotheses, we conducted plot-level experimental burns in July 2012 in a low-density, mature larch stand near the Northeast Science Station in Cherskii, Siberia. Dried fuels of naturally occurring vegetation were added to plots to achieve four burn severity treatments based on residual SOL depths: control, low (> 8 cm), moderate (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). Pre-fire and during two growing seasons post-fire, we measured thaw depth, soil moisture, and soil temperature to determine severity effects on permafrost thaw. We also sowed larch seeds in fall 2012 and quantified germination rates the following growing season. By 1 wk post-fire, thaw depth was 15-25 cm deeper in plots burned at high severity (55 cm) compared to other treatments (30-40 cm). These differences in thaw depth with burn severity were maintained during the subsequent growing season and were associated with increased soil temperature and moisture. Larch regeneration was 10x higher on severely burned plots than those unburned. Our findings highlight the potential for increased fire severity to degrade permafrost and alter successional dynamics and patterns of C accumulation.

  13. Data report for onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic recordings in the Bering-Chukchi Sea, Western Alaska and eastern Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Allen, Richard M.; Stone, David B.; Wolf, Lorraine W.; Galloway, Brian K.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents fourteen deep-crustal wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction profiles recorded onland in western Alaska and eastern Siberia from marine air gun sources in the Bering-Chukchi Seas. During a 20-day period in August, 1994, the R/V Ewing acquired two long (a total of 3754 km) deep-crustal seismic-reflection profiles on the continental shelf of the Bering and Chukchi Seas, in a collaborative project between Stanford University and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The Ewing's 137.7 liter (8355 cu. in.) air gun array was the source for both the multichannel reflection and the wide-angle seismic data. The Ewing, operated by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, steamed northward from Nunivak Island to Barrow, and returned, firing the air gun array at intervals of either 50 m or 75 m. About 37,700 air gun shots were fired along the northward directed Lines 1 and 2, and more than 40,000 air gun shots were fired along the southward directed Line 3. The USGS and the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), deployed an array of twelve 3-component REFTEK and PDAS recorders in western Alaska and eastern Siberia which continuously recorded the air gun signals fired during the northward bound Lines 1 and 2. Seven of these recorders also continuously recorded the southward bound Line 3. These wide-angle seismic data were acquired to: (1) image reflectors in the upper to lower crust, (2) determine crustal and upper mantle refraction velocities, and (3) provide important constraints on the geometry of the Moho along the seismic lines. In this report, we describe the land recording of wide-angle data conducted by the USGS and the UAF, describe in detail how the wide-angle REFTEK and PDAS data were reduced to common receiver gather seismic sections, and illustrate the wide-angle seismic data obtained by the REFTEKs and PDAS's. Air gun signals were observed to ranges in excess of 400 km, and crustal and upper /mantle refractions indicate substantial

  14. Compositional variation of glauconites in Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary iron-ore deposits in South-eastern Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudmin, Maxim; Banerjee, Santanu; Mazurov, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    Glauconite occurs either as unaltered greenish or as altered brownish variety in Upper Cretaceous-Palaeocene sediments in the southeastern corner of Western Siberia. Studied section within the Bakchar iron-ore deposit includes Ipatovo, Slavgorod, Gan'kino and Lyulinvor formations, which are represented by sandstones, siltstones, claystones and oolitic ironstones of coastal-marine facies. The origin of unaltered glauconite is explained by the ;verdissement theory;. Transgressions during Lower Coniacian, Santonian and Campanian favored the formation of unaltered glauconites in dysoxic to anoxic conditions. Subaerial exposure of glauconite resulted in leaching of potassium, oxidation of iron and formation of iron hydroxides in Upper Coniacian, Maastrichtian and Palaeocene. Glauconite ultimately converts to leptochlorite and hydrogoethite by this alteration. Abundant microscopic gold inclusions, besides sulphides, sulphates, oxides and silicates characterize this glauconite. Mineral inclusions include precious, rare metals and non-ferrous metals. The concentration of gold in glauconite may be as high as 42.9 ppb. Abundant inclusions of various compositions in glauconites indicate enrichment of marine sediments in precious and non-precious metals. While major element composition of glauconites is affected by subaerial exposure, the broadly similar micro-inclusions in both altered and unaltered varieties are possibly related to the comparatively immobile nature of REE and trace elements.

  15. Natural and environmental vulnerability analysis through remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Evers, Mariele

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to understand natural and environmental vulnerability situation and its cause such as intensity, distribution and socio-economic effect in the Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia. This paper identifies, assess and classify natural and environmental vulnerability using landscape pattern from multidisciplinary approach, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. A model was developed by following thematic layers: land use/cover, vegetation, wetland, geology, geomorphology and soil in ArcGIS 10.2 software. According to numerical results vulnerability classified into five levels: low, sensible, moderate, high and extreme vulnerability by mean of cluster principal. Results are shows that in natural vulnerability maximum area covered by moderate (29.84%) and sensible (38.61%) vulnerability and environmental vulnerability concentrated by moderate (49.30%) vulnerability. So study area has at medial level vulnerability. The results found that the methodology applied was effective enough in the understanding of the current conservation circumstances of the river basin in relation to their environment with the help of remote sensing and GIS. This study is helpful for decision making for eco-environmental recovering and rebuilding as well as predicting the future development.

  16. Bark beetle Polygraphus proximus: a new aggressive far eastern invader on Abies species in Siberia and European Russia

    Treesearch

    Yuri Baranchikov; Evgeniy Akulov; Sergey Astapenko

    2011-01-01

    Polygraphus proximus Brandford (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is a common feeder on Far Eastern firs: Abies nephrolepis, A. hollophyll, and A. sachalinensis. Its native range occupies northeastern China, Korea, Japan, Kurile and Sakhalin Islands, and the southern part of the Russian Far East (Primorskiy and...

  17. [Nitrogen pool in northern taiga larch forests of Central Siberia].

    PubMed

    Shugaleĭ, L S; Vedrova, E F

    2004-01-01

    The pools of nitrogen in different blocks of forest ecosystems and its cycle in the soil are considered. It is shown that the bulk of nitrogen concentrates in the soil and dead organic matter (necromass) of an ecosystem. The nitrogen pool of forest litters and soils consists by 83-93% of the inert compounds that cannot be involved in the biological cycle. Mineralization of organic nitrogen-containing substances in the litters and soils usually yields ammonium as an end product. The amount of nitrogen mineralized over the growing season is partially expended for annual plant increment (30-65%) and immobilization (12-17%), with its large proportion being found in the soil.

  18. The iron source in phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (eastern Siberia): insights into hydrothermal-metasomatic leaching processes from Fe isotopes, microstructures, and mass balances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Timm; Svensen, Henrik; Weyer, Stefan; Polozov, Alexander; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    The Siberian iron-bearing phreatomagmatic pipes represent world class Fe-ore deposit, and 5-6 are currently mined in eastern Siberia. The pipes formed within the vast Tunguska Basin, cutting thick accumulations of carbonates (dolostones) and evaporites (anhydrite, halite, dolostone). These sediments were intruded by the sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps at 252 Ma, and sills and dykes are abundant throughout the basin. The pipes formed during sediment-magma interactions in the deep parts of the basin, and the degassing is believed to have triggered the end-Permian environmental crisis. A major problem with understanding the pipe formation is related to the source of iron. Available hypotheses state that the iron was leached from a Fe-enriched magmatic melt that incorporated dolostones. It is currently unclear how the magmatic, hydrothermal, and sedimentary processes interacted to form the deposits, as there are no actual constraints to pin down the iron source. We hypothesize two end-member scenarios to account for the magnetite enrichment and deposition, which is testable by analyzing Fe-isotopes of magnetite: 1) Iron sourced from dolerite magma through leaching and metasomatism by chloride brines. 2) Leaching of iron from sedimentary rocks (shale, dolostone) during magma-sediment interactions. We focus on understanding the Fe-isotopic architecture of the pipes in order constrain the source of the Fe and the mechanism that caused this significant Fe redistribution. We further evaluate possible fractionation during fast metasomatic ore-forming process that took place soon after pipe formation.

  19. The fluvial geochemistry of the rivers of Eastern Siberia: I. tributaries of the Lena River draining the sedimentary platform of the Siberian Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Youngsook; Tsoi, Mai-Yin; Zaitsev, Alexandr; Edmond, John M.

    1998-05-01

    The response of continental weathering rates to changing climate and atmospheric PCO 2 is of considerable importance both to the interpretation of the geological sedimentary record and to predictions of the effects of future anthropogenic influences. While comprehensive work on the controlling mechanisms of contemporary chemical and mechanical weathering has been carried out in the tropics and, to a lesser extent, in the strongly perturbed northern temperate latitudes, very little is known about the peri-glacial environments in the subarctic and arctic. Thus, the effects of climate, essentially temperature and runoff, on the rates of atmospheric CO 2 consumption by weathering are not well quantified at this climatic extreme. To remedy this lack a comprehensive survey has been carried out of the geochemistry of the large rivers of Eastern Siberia, the Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma, Anadyr, and numerous lesser streams which drain a pristine, high-latitude region that has not experienced the pervasive effects of glaciation and subsequent anthropogenic impacts common to western Eurasia and North America. The scale of the terrain sampled, in terms of area, is comparable to that of the continental United States or the Amazon/Orinoco and includes a similarly diverse range of geologic and climatic environments. In this paper the chemical fluxes from the western region, the very large, ancient, and geologically stable sedimentary basin, Precambrian to Quaternary, of the Siberian Platform will be presented and compared to published results from analogous terrains in the tropical basins of China. While the range in the chemical signatures of the various tributaries included here (˜60 sampled) is large, this mainly reflects lithology rather than the weathering environment. The areal chemical fluxes are comparable to those of the Chinese rivers, being dominated by the dissolution of carbonates and evaporites. The net consumption of atmospheric CO 2 by aluminosilicate

  20. Carbon Allocation of 13CO2-labeled Photoassimilate in Larix gmelinii Saplings - A Physiological Basis for Isotope Dendroclimatology in Eastern Siberia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Sugimoto, A.; Maximov, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    also relied on stored material in some cases. Carbon isotope chronology of recent 100 years shows that the latewood 13C contains stronger climate signal than the earlywood and is significantly correlated to July temperature and July precipitation, corresponding to the timing of carbon incorporation that constitutes latewood. The results suggest the need for separating earlywood and latewood for isotope dendroclimatological study in Siberia. References: 1) Kagawa A., Sugimoto A., & Maximov, T.C. (2006) 13CO2 pulse-labelling of photoassimilates reveals carbon allocation within and between tree rings. Plant, Cell and Environment 29, 1571-1584. 2) Kagawa A., Sugimoto A., & Maximov, T. C. (2006) Seasonal course of translocation, storage, and remobilization of 13C pulse-labeled photoassimilate in naturally growing Larix gmelinii saplings. New Phytologist 171, 793-804. 3) Kagawa A., Naito D., Sugimoto A. & Maximov T. C. (2003) Effects of spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture on widths and 13C values of eastern Siberian tree rings. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (D16), 4500, doi:10.1029/2002JD003019.

  1. Norilsk, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

    The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Fire Return Interval Within the Northern Boundary of the Larch Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Ranson, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests compose a large proportion of the forests of Russia (i.e., about 40% of forested areas). These forests range from the Yenisei ridge on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and from Lake Baikal on the south to the 73rd parallel in the north. Larch stands comprise the world s northern most forest at Ary-Mas (72 deg 28' N, 102 deg 15' E). Larch dominated forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Larch forms high closure stands as well as open forests, and is found mainly over permafrost, where other tree species barely survive. Wildfires are typical for this territory with the majority occurring as ground fires due to low crown closure. Due to the thin active layer in permafrost soils and a dense lichen-moss cover, ground fires may cause stand mortality. The vast areas of larch-dominant forests is generally considered as a "carbon sink"; however, positive long-term temperature trends at higher latitudes are expected to result in an increase of fire frequency, and thus may convert this area to a source for greenhouse gases. There are recent observations regarding the increase of fire frequency within non-protected territories. Surprisingly, there are few publications on fire chronoseqences for the huge forested territory between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Also there is a general understanding that bimodal (late spring -- early summer and late summer-beginning of fall) fire seasonal distribution in the south becomes uni-modal (late spring -- early summer) in the north. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wildfire history at the northern edge of the zone of larch dominance.

  3. Microbial respiration and DOC composition in leachates from Holocene and Pleistocene soils from the Kolyma River basin in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, K.; Schade, J. D.; Sobczak, W. V.; Holmes, R. M.; Zimov, N.; Bulygina, E. B.; Chandra, S.; Bunn, A. G.; Russell-Roy, L.; Seybold, E. C.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost is generally considered a long-term sink for carbon that remains locked away from the global carbon cycle. Anthropogenic climate change is likely to lead to thawing of permafrost and deepening of the soil active layer. Consequently, this carbon sink may become unlocked and available for bacterial decomposition, returning stored carbon to the active carbon cycle, with potentially severe consequences for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kolyma watershed, in the Eastern Siberian Arctic, is underlain by continuous permafrost, often referred to as Yedoma, which provides a unique environment to study potential consequences of permafrost thaw for carbon dynamics in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In order to predict the potential consequences of a major carbon input from thawing permafrost, we assessed the relative bioavailabilty of soil carbon by measuring rates of microbial consumption and changes in DOM composition in soil leachates. At two spatially distinct sample sites, soil was collected throughout the profile from the active layer and from permafrost, including soils from both Holocene and Pleistocene-era permafrost. To evaluate the rates of carbon processing and potential linkages to N and P cycles, we conducted a series of bottle experiments in which we measured biological oxygen demand as a proxy for carbon processing and assessed changes in the composition of dissolved organic carbon using spectral analyses. Experiments were conducted on leachate collected from each soil type. Each experiment included treatments in which leachates were enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus to determine whether carbon processing in soils was nutrient limited. We found substantial variation in oxygen consumption, with Yedoma soils generally exhibiting higher rates than Holocene soils, suggesting higher concentrations of labile carbon. We found no evidence of nutrient limitation of carbon processing in any soil leachates. Spectral slope analysis suggests that

  4. Driving Factors of Understory Evapotranspiration within a Siberian Larch Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobio, A.; Loranty, M. M.; Kropp, H.; Pena, H., III; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spawn, S.; Farmer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Amplified rates of climate change are causing alterations in vegetation productivity, hydrologic cycling, and wildfire severity and intensity in arctic ecosystems. Boreal larch forests in northeastern Siberia are a critical but understudied ecosystem that are affected by these modifications. These forests cover 2.5 million km2 with densities ranging from spare to thick. The current average canopy cover is at around 17% and is expected to increase with the observed increases in vegetation productivity and wildfire. These projected changes in forest density can alter the proportional contributions of over- and understory vegetation to whole ecosystem evapotranspiration. Low density boreal forests have much higher rates of understory evapotranspiration and can contribute as much as 80% to total ecosystem evapotranspiration, while the understory in high density forests is responsible for only around 15% of total ecosystem evapotranspiration. The objective of this research is to understand why there are changes in understory evapotranspiration with varying overstory density by looking at light levels, biomass, vegetation, and air and soil differences. To better learn about these differences in understory evapotranspiration in boreal larch forests the driving factors of evapotranspiration were measured within a burn scar with varying densities of high, medium, and low. Water fluxes were conducted using the static chamber technique under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, controlling factors of evapotranspiration such as photosynethically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture, moss cover, biomass, and leaf area index were measured or derived. In general, we found that low density areas have highest rates of evapotranspiration due to larger amount of biomass, and increased access to light, despite low levels of soil moisture. These results can help us understand how and why total ecosystem water exchange will change in boreal larch forests

  5. East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  6. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  7. Response of western larch to site preparation

    Treesearch

    R. T. Graham; A. E. Harvey; M. F. Jurgensen; D. S. Page-Dumroese; J. R. Tonn; T. B. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) regenerates and grows adequately on a variety of soils and sites. Mineral soil and burned-over surfaces are excellent for natural regeneration, but organic surfaces also provide adequate seedbeds. Planted western larch are aggressive root producers especially in moist soils. Best development occurs in soils with high organic...

  8. Variability in understory evapotranspiration with overstory density in Siberian larch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobio, A.; Loranty, M. M.; Kropp, H.; Pena, H., III; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Kholodov, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing rapidly in response to amplified rates of climate change. Increased vegetation productivity, altered ecosystem carbon and hydrologic cycling, and increased wildfire severity are among the key responses to changing permafrost and climate conditions. Boreal larch forests in northeastern Siberia are a critical but understudied ecosystem affected by these modifications. Understory vegetation in these ecosystems, which typically have low canopy cover, may account for half of all water fluxes. Despite the potential importance of the understory for ecosystem water exchange, there has been relatively little research examining variability in understory evapotranspiration in boreal larch forests. In particular, the water balance of understory shrubs and mosses is largely undefined and could provide insight on how understory vegetation and our changing climate interact. This is especially important because both observed increases in vegetation productivity and wildfire severity could lead to increases in forests density, altering the proportional contributions of over- and understory vegetation to whole ecosystem evapotranspiration. In order to better understand variability in understory evapotranspiration we measured in larch forests with differing overstory density and permafrost conditions that likely vary as a consequence of fire severity. We used the static chamber technique to measure fluxes across a range of understory vegetation types and environmental conditions. In general, we found that the understory vegetation in low density stands transpires more than that in high density stands. This tends to be correlated with a larger amount of aboveground biomass in the low density stands, and an increase in solar radiation, due to less shading by overstory trees. These results will help us to better understand water balances, evapotranspiration variability, and productivity changes associated with climate on understory vegetation. Additionally

  9. Introduced and Native Parasitoid Wasps Associated With Larch Casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Western Larch

    Treesearch

    M. Miller-Pierce; D. C. Shaw; A. Demarco; P. T. Oester

    2015-01-01

    The larch casebearer [Coleophora laricella (Hubner)], a non-native insect, continues to impact western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) through defoliation events in the Pacific Northwest. Biological control programs starting in the 1960s released seven species of parasitoid wasps to control C. laricella...

  10. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...-2011-0029, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118... Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-0917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background European larch... kill mature and immature species of the genus Larix (larch) and Pseudolarix (Golden larch). In parts of...

  11. Screening larch in vitro for resistance to Mycosphaerella laricina

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; Paula M. Pijut; D.D. Skilling

    1991-01-01

    Needle blight of larch caused by Mycosphaerella laricina seriously limits the productivity of susceptible trees in the north central and northeastern United States. Adventitious shoots, derived from cotyledon tissue culture, of selected European larch (Larix decidua) and a hybrid larch were inoculated in vitro with three isolates...

  12. Recovery of snow-bent young western larch

    Treesearch

    Wyman C. Schmidt; Jack A. Schmidt

    1979-01-01

    This paper illustrates how much, how long it takes, and the method in which young western larch responds to snow bend. A 13-year-old vigorous larch stand was flattened by a heavy, wet snow in June 1966 in northwestern Montana. We recorded photographically how two different crown classes (dominant and nondominant) of young larch subjected to four levels of snow beud (...

  13. Results after 20 years from a western larch levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1987-01-01

    The 20-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch stand in eastern Oregon, first thinned at age 33, showed that trees growing at low stand densities grew more rapidly in diameter than trees in high-density plots. Height growth was relatively uniform among density levels. Both basal-area and total cubic-volume increment...

  14. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato

  15. Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

  16. Toxicity of aerosols to larch casebearer larvae

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Lyon; Margaret E. May

    1970-01-01

    Six insecticides were tested in the laboratory as aerosols against larch casebeare1 larvae. Their toxicity was determined by both direct contact and residual contact on filter paper. All six were highly toxic at less than 1.05 µg/ cm2 (the equivalent of 1.5 oz./acre). In decreasing order of toxicity at LD90 (direct contact...

  17. Distribution and PGE mineralization in the formation of chromitite in ophiolite complexes (Ospina-Kitoi Kharanur and ultrabasic massifs of Eastern Sayan, Sousern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, Olga; Zhmodik, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    New study of PGE in restitic ultrabasic (Kharanur and Ospin-Kitoi) massifs from North and South branches (Dobretsov et al., 1985) of the ophiolite complexes in south-eastern part of the Eastern Sayan show their presence in chromitites of both branches belonging to the different geodynamic settings. Modern concepts model includes several mechanisms of podiform chromitite origin reflected in the chemistry of Cr-spinels (Arai, Yurimoto, 1994; Ballhaus, 1998; Uysal et al., 2009 et al.): 1) partial melting of upper mantle rocks, 2) mixing of primitive melts with melts enriched in SiO2, 3) melt-rock interaction. We estimated the types of interaction of mafic melts with mantle peridotites, with the formation of chromite bodies. For ore chrome spinelides from northern branch (Al2O3) melt = 8 - 14 wt%, (TiO2) melt = 0 - 0,4 wt%, (Fe/Mg) melt = 0,5 - 2,4; Southern branch (Al2O3) melt = 10 - 13 wt%, (TiO2) melt = 0,1 wt%, (Fe/Mg) melt = 0,3 - 1 (Kiseleva, 2014). There are two types of PGE distribution Os-Ir-Ru (I) and Pt-Pd (II). Type I chromitites (mid-Al#Cr-spinels) revealed only Os-Ir-Ru distributions; type II (low-Al#Cr spinelides) show both Os-Ir-Ru and (Pt-Pd) distributions (Kiseleva et al., 2012, 2014). PGE distribution in ultramafic peridotites and chromitites reflects PGE fractionation during partial melting (Barnes et al., 1985; Rehkämper et al., 1997). Processes bringing to extreme fractionation of PGE, may be associated with fluid-saturated supra subduction environment where melting degree near 20% and above is sufficient for the release of PGE from the mantle source (Dick, Bullen, 1984; Naldrett, 2010). Enrichment in PPGE together with a high content of IPGE in same chromite bodies is attributed to the second step of melting, and formation of S-enriched and saturated in PGE melts (Hamlyn, Keays, 1986; Prichard et al., 1996). For type I chromitites platinum group minerals (PGM) are presented by Os-Ir-Ru system. In type II chromitites PGM are represented by Os

  18. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  19. Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia.

    PubMed

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich

    2017-05-01

    We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.

  20. Environmental factors controlling forest evapotranspiration and surface conductance on a multi-temporal scale in growing seasons of a Siberian larch forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Megumi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kotani, Ayumi; Maximov, Trofim

    2010-12-01

    regulated Gs only on inter-seasonal to interannual scales. These SWCC results for D and θ roughly match previous findings in Siberia. The SWCC also suggested that the recent extremely high soil water has damaged the ecosystem of the eastern Siberian forest. Neither λE nor Gs followed the high θ in the last few years, although the richer soil moisture enhanced them on a long-term temporal scale under the usual soil moisture condition in Siberia.

  1. Bud gall midges - potential invaders on larches in North America

    Treesearch

    Yuri N. Baranchikov

    2007-01-01

    Larch bud gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) form a specialized group of gall insects inhabiting buds of larch (Larix) in the northern Palaearctic Region. Currently there are four described species in this group. Dasineura kellneri Henschel is found in Central Europe and infests Larix decidua; D....

  2. Epidemiology of Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Eastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Suk; Zhdanova, Svetlana N; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Platonov, Fyodor A; Osakovskiy, Vladimir L; Subbotina, Ekaterina L; Broytman, Oleg; Danilova, Al'bina P; Nikitina, Raisa S; Chepurnov, Alexander A; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Gajdusek, D Carleton; Savilov, Yevgeniy D; Garruto, Ralph M; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2010-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis is a disorder that starts, in most cases, as an acute meningoencephalitis. Survivors of the acute phase develop a slowly progressing neurologic syndrome characterized by dementia, dysarthria, and spasticity. An epidemic of this disease has been spreading throughout the Yakut Republic of the Russian Federation. Although clinical, neuropathologic, and epidemiologic data suggest infectious etiology, multiple attempts at pathogen isolation have been unsuccessful. Detailed clinical, pathologic, laboratory, and epidemiologic studies have identified 414 patients with definite Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in 15 of 33 administrative regions of the Yakut Republic between 1940 and 1999. All data are documented in a Registry. The average annual Viliuisk encephalomyelitis incidence rate at the height of the epidemic reached 8.8 per 100,000 population and affected predominantly young adults. The initial outbreak occurred in a remote isolated area of the middle reaches of Viliui River; the disease spread to adjacent areas and further in the direction of more densely populated regions. The results suggest that intensified human migration from endemic villages led to the emergence of this disease in new communities. Recent social and demographic changes have presumably contributed to a subsequent decline in disease incidence. Based on the largest known set of diagnostically verified Viliuisk encephalomyelitis cases, we demonstrate how a previously little-known disease that was endemic in a small indigenous population subsequently reached densely populated areas and produced an epidemic involving hundreds of persons.

  3. Opposing effects of fire severity on climate feedbacks in Siberian larch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Kropp, H.; Mack, M. C.; Bunn, A. G.; Davydov, S. P.; Erb, A.; Kholodov, A. L.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal larch forests in northeastern Siberia comprise nearly 25% of the continuous permafrost zone. Structural and functional changes in these ecosystems will have important climate feedbacks at regional and global scales. Like boreal ecosystems in North America, fire is an important determinant of landscape scale forest distribution, and fire regimes are intensifying as climate warms. In Siberian larch forests are dominated by a single tree species, and there is evidence that fire severity influences post-fire forest density via impacts on seedling establishment. The extent to which these effects occur, or persist, and the associated climate feedbacks are not well quantified. In this study we use forest stand inventories, in situ observations, and satellite remote sensing to examine: 1) variation in forest density within and between fire scars, and 2) changes in land surface albedo and active layer dynamics associated with forest density variation. At the landscape scale we observed declines in Landsat derived albedo as forests recovered in the first several decades after fire, though canopy cover varied widely within and between individual fire scars. Within an individual mid-successional fire scar ( 75 years) we observed canopy cover ranging from 15-90% with correspondingly large ranges of albedo during periods of snow cover, and relatively small differences in albedo during the growing season. We found an inverse relationship between canopy density and soil temperature within this fire scar; high-density low-albedo stands had cooler soils and shallower active layers, while low-density stands had warmer soils and deeper active layers. Intensive energy balance measurements at a high- and low- density site show that canopy cover alters the magnitude and timing of ground heat fluxes that affect active layer properties. Our results show that fire impacts on stand structure in Siberian larch forests affect land surface albedo and active layer dynamics in ways that

  4. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen,more » usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.« less

  5. Contradicting climate versus vegetation history in NE-Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, M.; Zech, R.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Siberia may play a key role for the climate on the entire Earth. The classical Milankovitch Theory suggests that changes in summer insolation due to the Earth' orbital parameters caused build-up of snow and ice over the extensive continental masses at high northern latitudes. Various positive feedback mechanisms, like surface albedo and sequestration/release of atmospheric carbon dioxide in/from frozen, organic-rich soils, could then be responsible for the onset of global glaciations. More recently, high northern latitudes have also gained a lot of attention due to the potential of their soils and peats to release large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. The Siberian ecosystems may turn into significant greenhouse gas sources as global warming continues and causes melting of permafrost and mineralisation of soil organic material that has been built up and stored over thousands of years. Quaternary scientists are therefore searching for long-term and continuous archives in order to reconstruct the Siberian climate and landscape history. A wide range of different analytical tools (e.g. different dating techniques, elemental composition, mineralogy, magnetic properties, grain size distribution, characterisation of organic matter and palynology) is used to infer palaeoclimatically and palaeoecologically relevant information. All of these methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. For instance, pollen analyses allow a high taxonomic differentiation, but variable pollination rates of different plant species, influx of long-distance transported pollen, and variable preservation of different pollen taxa have to be considered. Concerning the interpretation of pollen spectra in NE-Siberia, arboreal pollen, especially larch pollen, are traditionally considered to be ‘warm plant taxa', hence the occurrence of these pollen in archives is interpreted as reflecting warm interglacial or interstadial conditions. We have recently presented a multi

  6. Effects of fertilization on the growth and development of a Japanese larch plantation in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James N. Kochenderfer; H. Clay Smith; Jerry T. Crews

    1995-01-01

    The effects of fertilization on the growth and development of a Japanese larch plantation in central West Virginia were evaluated after 9 years. Mean height and diameter growth of the larch trees were greater on the unfertilized plots. Foliar and soil chemical analyses were used to examine this apparent anomaly. Japanese larch demonstrated an ability to grow well on a...

  7. Analysis of Terrestrial Carbon Stocks in a Small Catchment of Northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, K.; Natali, S.; Bunn, A. G.; Loranty, M. M.; Kholodov, A. L.; Schade, J. D.; Berner, L. T.; Spektor, V.; Zimov, N.; Alexander, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    As arctic terrestrial ecosystems comprise about one-third of the global terrestrial ecosystem carbon total, understanding arctic carbon cycling and the feedback of terrestrial carbon pools to accelerated warming is an issue of global concern. For this research, we examined above- and belowground carbon stocks in a larch-dominated catchment underlain by yedoma and located within the Kolyma River watershed in northeastern Siberia. We quantified carbon stocks in vegetation, active layer, and permafrost, and we assessed the correlation between plant and active layer carbon pools and four environmental correlates — slope, solar insolation, canopy density, and leaf area index ­— at 20 sites. Carbon in the active layer was approximately four times greater than aboveground carbon pools (972 g C m-2), and belowground carbon to 1 m depth was approximately 18 times greater than aboveground carbon pools. Canopy density and slope had a robust positive association with aboveground carbon pools, and soil moisture was positively related to %C in organic, thawed mineral and permafrost soil. Thaw depth was negatively correlated with moss cover and larch biomass, highlighting the importance of vegetation and surface characteristics on permafrost carbon vulnerability. These data suggest that landscape and ecosystem characteristics affect carbon accumulation and storage, but they also play an important role in stabilizing permafrost carbon pools.

  8. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  9. Demonstrating appropriate silviculture for sustainable forestry in central Siberia: a Russian - American partnership

    Treesearch

    J. C. Brissette; S. T. Eubanks; A. J. R. Gillespie; R. J. Lasko; A. V. Rykoff

    1997-01-01

    A joint Northeastern Forest Experiment Station - Eastern Region team is working with Russian counterparts on a Forests for the Future Initiative in the Krasnoyarsk region of central Siberia. Russian team members include scientists from the Sukachev Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, managers from a number of units of the Federal Forest Service of Russia, and...

  10. Circulation patterns governing October snowfalls in southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Wibig, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on early fall season in southern Siberia (50-60 N) and is purposed as a contribution to the discussion on the climatic relevance of October Eurasian snow cover. Analysis is based on the daily snow depth data from 43 stations from years 1980-2012, available in the database of All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information—World Data Centre. The snow cover season in southern Siberia starts in early autumn and the number of days with snowfall varies from less than 5 days in the southernmost zone along the parallel 50 N to more than 25 days in the northeastern part of the analyzed area. October snowfall in southern Siberia is associated with occurrence of negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP), usually spreading right over the place of recorded intense snowfall or extending eastward from it. Negative anomalies of air temperature at the 850 hPa geopotential level (T850) occurring with increased cyclonic activity are also observed. Negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions. Counterclockwise circulation around low-pressure systems transports cold Arctic air from the north or even colder Siberian polar air from the east, to the west, and northwest parts of cyclones, and induces negative anomalies of temperature. The pattern of T850 anomalies during heavy snowfalls in the eastern part of the southern Siberia is shifted counterclockwise in regard to SLP anomalies: the strongest negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions.

  11. Climate impact on the tree growth, vigor and productivity in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, V.; Im, S.; Petrov, I.; Dvinskaya, M.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate has an impact on the Siberian taiga forests. We analyzed GPP and NPP trends, growth index, and stands mortality within the Central Siberia (48°- 75°N/80°-115°E). Considered forests included larch-dominant (Larix sibirica, L. dahurica) and "dark needle conifer" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata) stands. GPP and NPP trends calculated based on the Terra/MODIS products. Growth index calculations based on dendrochronology data. Water stress analysis based on the gravimetric and microwave satellite data and MERRA-2 database. Analyzed variables included precipitation, air temperature, VPD, drought index SPEI, and root zone wetness. We found positive GPP trends within majority (>90%) of larch-dominant and DNC ranges, whereas NPP trends are positive on the <40% territory. Negative NPP trends correlated with growth index within key-sites. Siberian pine and fir growth index increase since late 1970th, turning to depression since late 1980th. Within permafrost zone larch growth correlated with sum of positive (t>+10C°) temperatures and vegetation period length. During recent years larch experience water stress in the beginning of vegetation period. Tree decline and mortality observed within DNC stands, and that phenomenon regularly coincided with zones of negative NPP trends. Mortality correlated with VPD, SPEI, and root zone moisture content. Bark beetles (including aggressive species Polygraphus proximus, similar to Dendroctonus ponderosae in American forests) attacked water-stressed trees. Geographically, mortality began on the margins of the DNC range (e.g., within the forest-steppe ecotone) and on terrain features with maximal water stress risk (narrow-shaped hilltops, convex steep south facing slopes, shallow well-drained soils). Currently, Siberian pine and fir decline observed within southern range of these species. In addition, air temperature and aridity increase promotes Siberian silkmoth (Dendrolimus sibiricus) outbreak that

  12. The folivore guild on larch (Larix decidua) in the alps

    Treesearch

    W. Baltensweiler

    1991-01-01

    The term "guild" describes a group of organisms that exploit the same class of resources in a similar manner (Root 1967, Mattson et al. 1988). This study focuses on six members of the folivore guild of subalpine larch, Larix deciduas, in Switzerland--five lepidopterans and one hymenopteran. From 1949 to 1979, Auer (1977) sampled...

  13. Larch Litter Removal Has No Significant Effect On Runoff

    Treesearch

    Richard S. Startz; David N. Tolsted

    1974-01-01

    Runoff was measured on paired litter-removed, litter-left plots in an 11-year-old European larch plantation. On five of the six pairs of plots, the plot with the litter left intact yielded more runoff. however, the differences were neither statistically nor hydrologically significant.

  14. Container configuration influences western larch and big sagebrush seedling development

    Treesearch

    Matthew Mehdi Aghai

    2012-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.), a woody shrub, and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.), a deciduous conifer, are among many western North American species that have suffered a decline in presence and natural regeneration across their native ranges. These species are economically, ecologically, and intrinsically valuable, therefore many current...

  15. Effects of larch defenses on xylophagous insect guilds

    Treesearch

    Galina I. Girs; Victor M. Yanovsky

    1991-01-01

    One of the best studies of a xylophage consortium is the case of larch insects by Isaev and Girs (1975). In their book, a basic theory was presented about host responses to xylophagous insects injury. According to their concept of "sliding resistance," different trunk-infesting insect species have different reactions to the tree's defenses and invade the...

  16. 76 FR 81359 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0029] European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... willkommi (Dasycypha), is a serious plant disease caused by a fungus that can kill mature and immature...

  17. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  18. Fire Effects on Microbial Enzyme Activities in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Bulygina, E. B.; Mann, P. J.; Natali, S.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic forest ecosystems are warming at an accelerated rate relative to lower latitudes, with global implications for C cycling within these regions. As climate continues to warm and dry, wildfire frequency and severity are predicted to increase, creating a positive feedback to climate warming. Increased fire activity will also influence the microenvironment experienced by soil microbes in disturbed soils. Because soil microbes regulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, it is important to understand microbial response to fires, particularly in the understudied larch forests in the Siberian Arctic. In this project, we created experimental burn plots in a mature larch forest in the Kolyma River watershed of Northeastern Siberia. Plots were burned at several treatments: control (no burn), low, moderate, and severe. After, 1 and 8 d post-fire, we measured soil organic layer depth, soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil moisture, and CO2 flux from the plots. Additionally, we leached soils and measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH4, NO3, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Furthermore, we measured extracellular activity of four enzymes involved in soil C and nutrient cycling (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and phenol oxidase). One day post-fire, LAP activity was similarly low in all treatments, but by 8 d post-fire, LAP activity was lower in burned plots compared to control plots, likely due to increased nitrogen content with increasing burn severity. Phosphatase activity decreased with burn severity 1 d post-fire, but after 8 d, moderate and severe burn plots exhibited increased phosphatase activity. Coupled with trends in LAP activity, this suggests a switch in nutrient limitation from N to phosphorus that is more pronounced with burn severity. β-glucosidase activity similarly decreased with burn

  19. Height growth to age 8 of larch species and hybrids in Wisconsin.

    Treesearch

    Don E. Riemenschneider; Hans Nienstaedt

    1983-01-01

    Height growth of tamarack; Siberian, European and Japanese larch; and hybrids between the European and Japanese larch were compared in an 8-year-old test in north-central Wisconsin. Hybrids were tallest and best reached 469 cm (15.4 feet) in mean height at age 8 years from seed. Hybrids exceeded European larch mean height by 12% and tamarack by 23%. Breeding...

  20. Vegetation, climate and lake changes over the last 7000 years at the boreal treeline in north-central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, Juliane; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Pestryakova, Luidmila A.

    2016-09-01

    Palaeoecological investigations in the larch forest-tundra ecotone in northern Siberia have the potential to reveal Holocene environmental variations, which likely have consequences for global climate change because of the strong high-latitude feedback mechanisms. A sediment core, collected from a small lake (radius ∼100 m), was used to reconstruct the development of the lake and its catchment as well as vegetation and summer temperatures over the last 7100 calibrated years. A multi-proxy approach was taken including pollen and sedimentological analyses. Our data indicate a gradual replacement of open larch forests by tundra with scattered single trees as found today in the vicinity of the lake. An overall trend of cooling summer temperature from a ∼2 °C warmer-than-present mid-Holocene summer temperatures until the establishment of modern conditions around 3000 years ago is reconstructed based on a regional pollen-climate transfer function. The inference of regional vegetation changes was compared to local changes in the lake's catchment. An initial small water depression occurred from 7100 to 6500 cal years BP. Afterwards, a small lake formed and deepened, probably due to thermokarst processes. Although the general trends of local and regional environmental change match, the lake catchment changes show higher variability. Furthermore, changes in the lake catchment slightly precede those in the regional vegetation. Both proxies highlight that marked environmental changes occurred in the Siberian forest-tundra ecotone over the course of the Holocene.

  1. Testing aerially applied Orthene for control of larch casebearer.

    Treesearch

    John S. Hard; Stanley Meso; Michael Haskett

    1979-01-01

    Orthene was tested in a randomized block experiment to determine efficacy against larch casebearer. Needlemining larval populations were sprayed in September 1976 by helicopter with 0.5 lb Orthene/gal water/acre (560 g a.i/9.3 l/ha). Spray deposit was sampled with Kromekote cards. Plot mean larval populations, spray deposit, and defoliation index were analyzed to...

  2. Examining the response of larch needle carbohydrates to climate using compound-specific δ13C and concentration analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Saurer, Matthias; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.; Bryukhanova, Marina V.; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Churakova Sidorova, Olga V.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the dynamics of concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of individual carbohydrates in leaves in response to climatic and physiological factors. Improved knowledge of the isotopic ratio in sugars will enhance our understanding of the tree ring isotope ratio and will help to decipher environmental conditions in retrospect more reliably. Carbohydrate samples from larch (Larix gmelinii) needles of two sites in the continuous permafrost zone of Siberia with differing growth conditions were analysed with the Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA). We compared concentrations and carbon isotope values (δ13C) of sucrose, fructose, glucose and pinitol combined with phenological data. The results for the variability of the needle carbohydrates show high dynamics with distinct seasonal characteristics between and within the studied years with a clear link to the climatic conditions, particularly vapour pressure deficit. Compound-specific differences in δ13C values as a response to climate were detected. The δ13C of pinitol, which contributes up to 50% of total soluble carbohydrates, was almost invariant during the whole growing season. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of compound-specific needle carbohydrate isotope variability, identifies involved mechanisms and shows the potential of such results for linking tree physiological responses to different climatic conditions.

  3. Effect of Fertilization on Western Spruce Budworm Feeding in Young Western Larch Stands

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Talerico; Michael Montgomery; [Tech. Coords

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of fertilization of young western larch stands on western spruce budworm feeding in Montana. Various combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium resulted in nearly double the amount of feeding by western spruce budworm larvae, with nitrogen eliciting the most response. Larch growth response to fertilization can be negated by...

  4. Cone and seed production of western larch in response to girdling and nitrogen fertilization - an update

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Jonalea R. Tonn; Theresa B. Jain

    1995-01-01

    Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) is a sporadic cone and seed producer. Because the species is such an important component of the -Northern Rocky Mountain forests, methods of increasing seed production are needed. Girdling, fertilizing, and a combination of the two were used on 75-year-old western larch in northern Idaho. Girdling at the base of the live crown...

  5. Droughts and Excessive Moisture Events in Southern Siberia in the Late XXth - Early XXIst Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazanova, A. A.; Voropay, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years much research has been devoted to global and regional climate changes. Special attention was paid to climate extremes, such as droughts and excessive moisture events. In this study the moisture and aridity of Southern Siberia are estimated using web-GIS called “CLIMATE”. The system “CLIMATE” is part of a hardware and software cloud storage complex for data analysis of various climatic data sets, with algorithms for searching, extracting, processing, and visualizing the data. The ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data for Southern Siberia (50-65°N, 60-120°E) from 1979 to 2010 with a grid cell of 0.75×0.75° is used. Some hydrothermal conditions are estimated using the so-called Ped index (Si), which is a normalized indicator of the ratio of air temperature to precipitation. The mountain regions of Eastern Siberia are becoming more and more arid each month during the last 30 years. In Western Siberia, aridity increases in May and decreases in June, in the other months positive and negative trends are found. The greatest differences between the trends of the aridity index (Si), air temperature, and precipitation are observed in July.

  6. Potential sources of Southern Siberia aerosols by data of AERONET site in Tomsk, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukurov, K. A.; Shukurova, L. M.

    2017-11-01

    For all days of measurements in 2002-2015 of volume concentration of aerosols at the AERONET Tomsk/Tomsk-22 station an array of 10-day backward trajectories of air parcels arriving in Tomsk into seven layers of the troposphere with heights in the range of 0.5-5.0 km is calculated using the trajectory model NOAA HYSPLIT_4. For the three fractions of the aerosol with particle sizes < 1.0 μm, 1.0-2.5 μm, 2.5-5.0 μm and their sum (< 5.0 μm), the field of capacity of the potential sources of aerosols of these fractions for southern Siberia is determined by the CWT (concentration weighted trajectory) method using the backward trajectory array. The analysis is carried out taking into account the processes both the scavenging of the aerosols with precipitation and the dry deposition. Trajectories arriving at different heights were analyzed taking into account the weight coefficients proportional to the backward light scattering coefficients of an aerosols at corresponding heights for warm and cold seasons in Western Siberia. The most capable (in unit of volume concentration μm3 /μm2 ) potential sources of these fractions for southern Siberia are located above North Africa, Eastern Siberia, Central Asia and the Dzhungarian desert in the Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.

  7. CYP2C19 polymorphism frequency in Russian patients in Central Russia and Siberia with acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaev, Karin B; Zelenskaya, Elena M; Barbarash, Olga L; Ganyukov, Vladimir I; Apartsin, Konstantin A; Saraeva, Natalya O; Nikolaev, Konstantin Y; Ryzhikova, Kristina A; Lifshits, Galina I; Sychev, Dmitry A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of CYP2C19*2, *3 allelic variants, associated with poor response to clopidogrel, and CYP2C19*17, associated with excessive response to clopidogrel, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from Siberia and Moscow regions of Russia. Patients and methods The study included 512 ACS patients who were subsequently treated with coronary arterial stenting. The subjects assigned were from the cities of Central (Novosibirsk, Kemerovo), Eastern (Irkutsk), Northern (Surgut) Siberia regions and from Moscow region. The mean age of patients enrolled was 63.9±10.9 years. Among the assigned subjects, the proportion of men accounted for 80% and women 20%. Results According to the results obtained in the present study, from 16% up to 27.5% of patients in different regions of Russia have at least one CYP2C19 “poor metabolizer” (PM) allele variant affecting clopidogrel metabolism and, therefore, suppressing its antiplatelet activity. CYP2C19*17 allele variant was identified with the frequency of 15.4% up to 33.3%. The study revealed the presence of statistically significant differences in CYP2C19*3 allele frequency between the Russian ethnic group patients from Eastern and Central Siberia (p=0.001; odds ratio=1.05 [95% confidence interval 1.01–1.09]). Conclusion The study revealed statistically significant differences between the allele frequencies in Eastern and Central Siberia, which can probably be caused by a considerable number of Buryats inhabiting Eastern Siberia. PMID:28442925

  8. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  9. Fire Effects on Microbial Dynamics and C, N, and P Cycling in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Mann, P. J.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic forest ecosystems are warming at an accelerated rate relative to lower latitudes, with global implications for C cycling within these regions. As climate continues to warm and dry, wildfire frequency and severity are predicted to increase, creating a positive feedback to climate warming. Because soil microbes regulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, it is important to understand microbial response to fires, particularly in the understudied larch forests in the Siberian Arctic. In this project, we created experimental burn plots in a mature larch forest in the Kolyma River watershed of Northeastern Siberia. Plots were burned at several treatments: control (no burn), low, moderate, and severe. After 1 day, 8 days and 1 year post-fire, we measured CO2 flux from the plots, and measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NH4, NO3, PO4, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from soil leachates. Furthermore, we measured extracellular activity of four enzymes involved in soil C and nutrient cycling (leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and phenol oxidase). Both 1 day and 8 days post-fire DOC, TDN, NH4, and PO4 all increased with burn severity, but by 1 year they were similar to control plots. The aromaticity and molecular weight of DOM decreased with fire severity. One day post-fire we observed a spike in phenol oxidase activity in the severe burns only, and a decline in β-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. By 8 days post-fire all enzyme activities were at the level of the control plots. 1 year post-fire LAP, β-glucosidase, and phosphatase all decreased with fire severity, parallel to a decrease in CO2 flux by fire severity. Ratios of enzymatic activity 1 year post-fire reflect a switch of resource allocation from P acquiring to N acquiring activities in more severe fires. Our results show an immediate microbial response to the short-term effects

  10. Occurrence and genetic variability of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes ticks from different regions of Western Siberia, Russia and Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Tkachev, Sergey E; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Babkin, Igor V; Livanova, Natalia N; Livanov, Stanislav G; Panov, Victor V; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Tantsev, Alexey K; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-01-01

    Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia. A total of 1958 Ixodes persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks and their hybrids from Novosibirsk and Omsk provinces, Altai Republic (Russia) and East Kazakhstan province (Kazakhstan) were analyzed for the presence of KEMV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. It was observed that the KEMV distribution area in Western Siberia was wider than originally thought and included Northern and Northeastern Altai in addition to the Omsk and Novosibirsk provinces. For the first time, this virus was found in Kazakhstan. The occurrence of KEMV was statistically lower than TBEV in most locations in Western Siberia. KEMV was found both in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks and in their hybrids. Notably, KEMV variants observed in the 2010s were genetically different from those isolated in the 1960s, which indicated the ongoing process of evolution of the Kemerovo virus group. Moreover, the possibility of reassortment for KEMV was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ongoing climatic extreme dynamics in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic extremes are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate Extremes, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation extreme dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic extremes. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All extreme indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature extremes is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature extreme distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature extremes. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature extremes. Changes in daily precipitation extremes

  12. The Impact of Increasing Fire Frequency on Forest Transformations in the Zabaikal Region, Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Shvetsov, E.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Zabaikal region of southern Siberia is characterized by some of the highest fire activity in Russia. There has been a significant increase of fire frequency and burned area in the region over the last two decades due to a combination of high anthropogenic pressure, decreased funding to the forestry sector, and increased fire danger, which was associated with higher frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Central and southern parts of the Zabaikal region where population density is higher and road network is relatively more developed are the most disturbed by fires. Larch stands cover the largest proportion of fire-disturbed lands in the region, while the less common pine and birch stands are characterized by higher fire frequency. About 13% (3.9 M ha) of the total forest area in the Zabaikal region was burned more than once in the 20 years from 1996 to 2015, with many sites burned multiple times. Repeat disturbances led to inadequate tree regeneration on all but the moistest sites. Pine stands on dry soils, which are common in the forest-steppe zone, were the most vulnerable. After repeat burns and over large burned sites we observed transformation of the forests to steppe ecosystems. The most likely causes of insufficient forest regeneration are soil overheating, dominance of tall grasses, and lack of nearby seed sources. Extensive tree plantations have potential to mitigate negative fire impacts; however, due to high fire hazard in the recent decade about half of the plantation area has been burned. Changes in the SWVI index were used to assess postfire reforestation based on a combination of satellite and field data. In the southwestern part of the Zabaikal region, we estimated that reforestation had been hampered over 11% of the forest land area. Regional climate models project increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation across Siberia by the end of the 21st century, with changes in the Zabaikal region projected to be more than twice the

  13. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2007-05-01

    The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri-Siberia

  14. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    PubMed

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  15. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Crubézy, Eric; Amory, Sylvain; Keyser, Christine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Bodner, Martin; Gibert, Morgane; Röck, Alexander; Parson, Walther; Alexeev, Anatoly; Ludes, Bertrand

    2010-01-25

    The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

  16. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today. PMID:20100333

  17. Recent (1977-1980) releases of imported larch casebearer parasites for biological control.

    Treesearch

    Roger B. Ryan

    1981-01-01

    Releases of Diadegma laricinellum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Dicladocerus westwoodii, Dicladocerus japonicus, Chrysocharis laricinellae, Elachertus argissaj, Necremnus metalarus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Agathis pumila (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of the larch casebearer in...

  18. Skyline logging productivity under alternative harvesting prescriptions and levels of utilization in larch-fir stands

    Treesearch

    Rulon B. Gardner

    1980-01-01

    Larch-fir stands in northwest Montana were experimentally logged to determine the influence of increasingly intensive levels of utilization upon rates of yarding production, under three different silvicultural prescriptions. Variables influencing rate of production were also identified.

  19. Site index, height growth, normal yields and stocking levels for larch in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran

    1985-01-01

    Even-aged stands of larch in Oregon and Washington have cubic volume yields similar to yields from larch in Idaho and Montana. Site index values derived from the heights of the single tallest tree on 1/5-acre plots at an age at breast height of 50 years range from 50 to 110 feet. These values have the same index to productivity as the site index values of 30 to 90 feet...

  20. Growth and Hydrologic Influence of European Larch and Red Pine 10 Years After Planting

    Treesearch

    Alfred Ray Harris; Richard S. Sartz

    1972-01-01

    Ten years after planting, European larch and red pine diameters averaged 11.2 and 9.6 cm, and heights averaged 9.7 and 5.1 m. Litter on the larch plots was twice as heavy as on the pine and unplanted conrtol plots. Organic carbon content of the top 5 cm of soil appeared to reflect vegetation differences, but soil bulk density did not. The amount of water depleted by...

  1. Ionospheric effects of sudden stratospheric warmings in eastern Siberia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, A. S.; Chernigovskaya, M. A.; Perevalova, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric effects observed in Russia's Asia region during sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) in the winters 2008/2009 and 2012/2013 corresponding to both extreme solar minimum and moderate solar maximum conditions have been examined. To detect the ionospheric effects which must have been induced by the SSWs, we have carried out a joint analysis of total electron content (TEC) global ionospheric maps (GIM), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, EOS Aura) measurements of vertical temperature profiles, as well as NCEP/NCAR and UKMO Reanalysis data. It has been revealed for the first time that during strong SSWs the amplitude of diurnal variation of TEC decreases nearly by half in the mid-latitude ionosphere. Besides, the intensity of TEC deviations from the background level increases during SSWs. It has also revealed that during SSW peak the midday TEC maximum considerably decreases, and the night/morning TEC increases compared to quiet days. The pattern of TEC response to SSW is shown to be identical for both quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions.

  2. Forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange in eastern Siberia

    Treesearch

    D.Y. Hollinger; F.M. Kelliher; E.-D. Schulze; G. Bauer; A., et al. Arneth

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the daily exchange of C02 between undisturbed Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr forest and the atmosphere at a remote Siberian site during July and August of 1993. Our goal was to measure and partition total C02 exchanges into aboveground and belowground components by measuring forest and...

  3. Wildfires Dynamics in Mid-Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Ranson. K. J.; Dvinskaya, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    The longterm wildfire dynamics, including fire return interval (FRI), in Siberian larch communities were examined. A wildfire chronology encompassing the 15th through the 20th centuries was developed from analyzing tree stem fire scars. Two methods were used to calculate the time interval between fires: 1) direct counting of annual tree growth rings between stem fire scars and 2) the next earlier fire date was estimated from growth ring analysis and added to the first estimate. Average FRI determined from stem fire scar dating was 82 plus or minus 7 using Method I or 95 plus or minus 7 when age of the next earlier fire was inferred from observed larch regeneration structure (Method II). FRI was also found to be dependent on site topography. FRI on north-east facing slopes was 86 plus or minus 11 years (105 plus or minus 12). FRI on south-west facing slopes was significantly less at 61 plus or minus 8 (73 plus ot minus 8) years. Flat terrain showed little difference between methods 68 plus or minus 14 (70 plus or minus 13). This was also the case for bogs, but FRI was much longer; 139 plus or minus 17 (138 plus ot minus 18). The maximum number of annual fires occurred with periods of 36 and 82 years on average. The temporal trend in the FRI decreased from 101 years in the 19 th century to 65 years in the 20th century. The effect of post-fire forest recovery on depth to permafrost was also estimated. After initial melting from increased local temperatures permafrost depth decreased at a rate of 0.3 cm/yr on average as forest canopies developed.

  4. Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

    2013-11-01

    Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies

  5. Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

  6. Palaeodistribution modelling of European vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum using modern analogues from Siberia: Prospects and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janská, Veronika; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Divíšek, Jan; Anenkhonov, Oleg; Korolyuk, Andrey; Lashchinskyi, Nikolai; Culek, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We modelled the European distribution of vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using present-day data from Siberia, a region hypothesized to be a modern analogue of European glacial climate. Distribution models were calibrated with current climate using 6274 vegetation-plot records surveyed in Siberia. Out of 22 initially used vegetation types, good or moderately good models in terms of statistical validation and expert-based evaluation were computed for 18 types, which were then projected to European climate at the LGM. The resulting distributions were generally consistent with reconstructions based on pollen records and dynamic vegetation models. Spatial predictions were most reliable for steppe, forest-steppe, taiga, tundra, fens and bogs in eastern and central Europe, which had LGM climate more similar to present-day Siberia. The models for western and southern Europe, regions with a lower degree of climatic analogy, were only reliable for mires and steppe vegetation, respectively. Modelling LGM vegetation types for the wetter and warmer regions of Europe would therefore require gathering calibration data from outside Siberia. Our approach adds value to the reconstruction of vegetation at the LGM, which is limited by scarcity of pollen and macrofossil data, suggesting where specific habitats could have occurred. Despite the uncertainties of climatic extrapolations and the difficulty of validating the projections for vegetation types, the integration of palaeodistribution modelling with other approaches has a great potential for improving our understanding of biodiversity patterns during the LGM.

  7. The Effect of Soil Manganese on Japanese Larch (Larix Leptolepis Sieb. and Zucc.) Seedlings in the Greenhouse

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; William E. Sharpe; Pamela J. Edwards

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of 9 year old Japanese larch trees and soil subjected to appliitions of triple ambient annual nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposftfon revealed elevated available soil and foliar manganese (Mn) levels and decreased growth compared to controls. A greenhouse study was conducted in which Japanese larch seedlings were grown in geld collected soil...

  8. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  9. Tree-ring evidence for the historical absence of cyclic larch budmoth outbreaks in the Tatra Mountains

    Treesearch

    Oliver Konter; Jan Esper; Andrew Liebhold; Tomas Kyncl; Lea Schneider; Elisabeth Düthorn; Ulf Buntgen

    2015-01-01

    The absence of larch budmoth outbreaks and subsequent consequences on tree rings together with a distinct climate–growth relationship enhance the dendroclimatic potential of larch ring width data from the Tatra Mountains. Regular population oscillations are generally considered to arise from trophic interactions, though it is unclear how such cycles are...

  10. Inhibition of melanin production by a combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Scholten, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to find botanicals containing polyphenolic compounds with the capacity to inhibit melanin biosynthesis, we identified a novel combination of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) extract, standardized to 80% taxifolin, and pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum) extract, containing 20% punicalagins, that demonstrates a synergistic reduction of melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells. The combination of Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts (1:1) produced a 2-fold reduction in melanin content compared to Siberian larch or pomegranate extracts alone with no corresponding effect on cell viability. Siberian larch and pomegranate fruit extracts inhibited expression of melanocyte specific genes, tyrosinase (Tyr), microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), and melanosome structural proteins (Pmel17 and Mart1) but did not inhibit tyrosinase enzyme activity. These results suggest that the mechanism of inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by Siberian larch and pomegranate extracts, alone and in combination, is through downregulation of melanocyte specific genes and not due to inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Last Glacial Ecosystems of North Siberia: Permafrost-Sealed Evidence from Fossiliferous Cryolithic Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Multi-proxy palaeoecology and geoarchaeology records released from degrading permafrost in the Yana River Basin and the tributary valleys (66-67°N) confirm the past existence of natural conditions for sustainment of the Pleistocene megafauna as well as the last glacial peopling of this sub-polar area. Well-preserved and taxonomically diverse large fossil fauna skeletal remains sealed in the Pleistocene colluvial and alluvial-plain formations in intact geological positions 10-20 m above the present river and scattered on gravelly river banks after their erosion from the primary geo-contexts attest to a high biotic potential of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 3-2) sub-Arctic forest-tundra. Pollen records from the ancient interstratified boggy sediments and megafauna coprolites (14C-dated to 41-38 ka BP) show a predominance of the Siberian larch, dwarf birch and willow in the local vegetation cover accompanied by grassy communities during the mid-Last Glacial stage not dissimilar from the present northern taiga forest. Articulated and humanly used/worked fauna bones (mammoth, rhinoceros, horse, bison and reindeer among other species) point to co-existence of the large animals with the Upper Palaeolithic people within the mosaic open riverine ecosystems of the late Last Ice Age. The time-trangressive macro-lithic stone industry produced from pre-selected river gravel cobbles document some specific ways of human environmental adjustment to past periglacial settings. Geomorphology and hydrogeology indices of field mappings in congruence with the long-term statistical meteorology data illustrate a steadily increasing annual temperature trend in the broader Yana-Adycha Basins (current MAT -14.5°C) that triggers accelerated permafrost thaw across the Verkhoyansk Region of NE Siberia, particularly the lowlands, similarly as in the Indigirka and Kolyma Basins further East. The regional fluvial discharge is most dynamic during late spring due to the cumulative effects of snow

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of greening and browning between and within bioclimatic zones in northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Victoria V.; Esau, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Studies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have found broad changes in vegetation productivity in high northern latitudes in the past decades, including increases in NDVI (‘greening’) in tundra regions and decreases (‘browning’) in forest regions. The causes of these changes are not well understood but have been attributed to a variety of factors. We use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite data for 2000-2014 and focus on northern West Siberia—a hot spot of extensive landcover change due to rapid resource development, geomorphic change, climate change and reindeer grazing. The region is relatively little-studied in terms of vegetation productivity patterns and trends. This study examines changes between and within bioclimatic sub-zones and reveals differences between forest and treeless areas and differences in productivity even down to the tree species level. Our results show that only 18% of the total northern West Siberia area had statistically significant changes in productivity, with 8.4% increasing (greening) and 9.6% decreasing (browning). We find spatial heterogeneity in the trends, and contrasting trends both between and within bioclimatic zones. A key finding is the identification of contrasting trends for different species within the same bioclimatic zone. Browning is most prominent in areas of denser tree coverage, and particularly in evergreen coniferous forest with dark (Picea abie, Picea obovata) or light (Pinus sylvestris) evergreen and evergreen-majority mixed forests. In contrast, low density deciduous needle-leaf forest dominated by larch (Larix sibirica), shows a significant increase in productivity, even while neighboring different species show productivity decrease. These results underscore the complexity of the patterns of variability and trends in vegetation productivity, and suggest the need for spatially and thematically detailed studies to better understand the response of different

  13. History of Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) since 130 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Stefanie; Litt, Thomas; Sánchez-Goñi, Maria-Fernanda; Petit, Rémy J.

    2015-09-01

    Retrospective studies focussing on forest dynamics using fossil and genetic data can provide important keys to prepare forests for the future. In this study we analyse the impact of past climate and anthropogenic changes on Larix decidua Mill. (European larch) populations based on a new range-wide fossil compilation encompassing the last 130 ka and on recently produced genetic data (nuclear, mitochondrial). Results demonstrate that during the last 130 ka L. decidua persisted close to its current distribution range and colonized vast areas outside this range during the first two early Weichselian interstadials (c. 87-109 ka and c. 83-78 ka), reaching a distributional maxima in the north-central European lowlands. Some fossil sites point to notably rapid responses to some abrupt climate events (Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and Heinrich Events). Combined fossil and genetic data identify at least six MIS 2 refuges and postglacial recolonization pathways. The establishment of extant L. decidua forests dates back to the first two millennia of the Holocene (c. 11.5-9.5 ka) and the onset of anthropogenic impact was inferred since the late Neolithic (c. 6 ka), with major changes occurring since the Bronze Age (c. 4 ka). During the last 300 years human-induced translocations resulted in recent admixture of populations originating from separate refuges. Altogether, the results of this study provide valuable clues for developing sustainable conservation and management strategies targeting ancient genetic lineages and for studying evolutionary issues.

  14. Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city

  15. Within-Range Translocations and Their Consequences in European Larch

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Stefanie; Liepelt, Sascha; Gerber, Sophie; Petit, Rémy J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to biological invasions, translocations of individuals within a species range are understudied, due to difficulties in systematically detecting them. This results in limited knowledge about the corresponding processes and uncertainties regarding the status of extant populations. European larch, a forest tree whose fragmented native distribution is restricted to the Alps and to other Central European mountains, has been massively planted for at least 300 years. Here we focus on the genetic characterization of translocations having taken place within its native range. Microsatellite variation at 13 nuclear loci and sequence data of two mitochondrial DNA fragments were analyzed on the basis of a comprehensive range-wide population sample. Two complementary methods (Geneclass and Structure) were used to infer translocation events based on nuclear data whereas mitochondrial data were used for validation of these inferences. Using Geneclass, we found translocation events in a majority of populations. Additional cases of translocation and many instances of admixture were identified using Structure, thanks to the clear-cut ancestral genetic structure detected in this species. In particular, a strong divide between Alpine and Central European populations, also apparent at mitochondrial markers, helped uncover details on translocation events and related processes. Translocations and associated admixture events were found to be heterogeneously distributed across the species range, with a particularly high frequency in Central Europe. Furthermore, translocations frequently involved multiple geographic sources, some of which were over-represented. Our study illustrates the importance of range-wide investigations for tracing translocations back to their origins and for revealing some of their consequences. It provides some first clues for developing suitable conservation and management strategies. PMID:26000791

  16. A multi-taxon approach reveals the effect of management intensity on biodiversity in Alpine larch grasslands.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Fontana, Veronika; Spitale, Daniel

    2014-07-15

    In the Alps, larch grasslands form one of the most pleasing aspects of the landscape. However, their effectiveness in contributing to biodiversity conservation may depend on the intensity of their management. We used a multi-taxon approach to evaluate the effects of the intensification of management practices and those of abandonment on the biodiversity of the main autotrophic organisms hosted in this habitat, including vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. The study was carried out in the eastern part of South Tyrol, in the Italian Alps, where the diversity patterns of these three organismal groups were compared among intensively managed, extensively managed, and abandoned stands. The management intensity was found to strongly influence the biodiversity of the organisms, with a general pattern indicating the best conditions in extensively managed stands. Both abandonment and management intensification were detrimental to biodiversity through different mechanisms that led to species loss or to major shifts in species composition. However, the most negative effects were related to management intensification, mainly due to the high nitrogen supply, providing evidence for the increasing impact of eutrophication on Alpine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Seeley Lake larch: Living link to indian and frontier history

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Arno

    2010-01-01

    Western Montana’s Big Blackfoot River was once the gateway to a magnificent forest and the conduit that fed an immense sawmill. Epic log drives once choked the waterway full of timber each spring. The Big Blackfoot drainage was known for its majestic, centuries-old ponderosa pine and western larch trees. Although stately old ponderosas were widely distributed across...

  18. Susceptibility of larch, hemlock, Sitka spruce, and Douglas-fir to Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Gary Chastagner; Kathy Riley; Marianne Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The recent determination that Phytophthora ramorum is causing bleeding stem cankers on Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lam.) Carrière) in the United Kingdom (Forestry Commission 2012, Webber et al. 2010), and that inoculum from this host appears to have resulted in disease and canker development on other conifers, including...

  19. Geographic variation, genetic structure, and conservation unit designation in the Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli).

    Treesearch

    R. Steven Wagner; Mark P. Miller; Charles M. Crisafulli; Susan M. Haig

    2005-01-01

    The Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli Burns, 1954) is an endemic species in the Pacific northwestern United States facing threats related to habitat destruction. To facilitate development of conservation strategies, we used DNA sequences and RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNA) to examine differences among populations of this...

  20. Guide to understory burning in ponderosa pine-larch-fir forests in the Intermountain West

    Treesearch

    Bruce M. Kilgore; George A. Curtis

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the objectives, prescriptions, and techniques used in prescribed burning beneath the canopy of ponderosa pine stands, and stands of ponderosa pine mixed with western larch, Douglas-fir, and grand fir. Information was derived from 12 districts in two USDA Forest Service Regions and seven National Forests in Montana and Oregon.

  1. Preliminary guidelines for prescribed burning under standing timber in western larch/douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Rodney A. Norum

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines are offered for safe, effective fire treatments in western larch/Douglas-fir forests. Describes procedures for estimating and limiting the scorching of tree crows. Provides a method for predicting percentage of the forest floor that will be burned down to mineral soil.

  2. Nursery cultural practices to achieve targets: A case study in western larch irrigation

    Treesearch

    Anthony S. Davis; Robert F. Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Nursery cultural practices are used to help growers achieve pre-determined size and physiological targets for seedlings. In that regard, irrigation is used to accelerate or slow growth and as a trigger for changing growth phase. In a case study highlighting the effects of irrigation on seedling development, western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedlings were grown...

  3. Performance of red pine and Japanese larch planted on anthracite coal-breaker refuse

    Treesearch

    Miroslaw M. Czapowskyj

    1973-01-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis (Sieb. and Zucc.) Gord.) seedlings were planted on coal-breaker refuse with all combinations of two levels of lime, two levels of fertilizer, and four mulch treatments. The site was highly unfavorable as a medium for tree growth, and the 4-year results show...

  4. Stratification requirements for germination of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seed.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorenson

    1990-01-01

    A northeast Washington collection of western larch seeds was stratified for 0,10, 20, 40, and 80 days and incubated at 55, 64, and 73 °F. The germination percentage of filled seeds and speed and uniformity of germination were improved by long stratification, particularly at the lowest incubation temperature. Stratified seeds were also nursery sown in early April and...

  5. Larch sawfly, Pristiphora ericltsortii (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) and its parasitoids from Alaska

    Treesearch

    James A. Richmond; Richard A. Werner; Arnold T. Drooz

    1995-01-01

    The larch sawfly and four parasitoids were reared in the laboratory from cocoons collected in Alaska for two consecutive years. Emergence of adult sawflies exceeded thirty percent each year. The number of parasitoids emerging was four times greater from the 1993 collection than from the subsequent year. Twelve Tritneptis klugii (Ratzeburg) emerged...

  6. Site treatments influence development of a young mixed-species western larch stand

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. Cole; Wyman C. Schmidt

    1986-01-01

    Four treatments, all combinations of leaving or removing residual trees and shrubs or scarifying or not scarifying seedbeds, were evaluated for species differences in growth, vigor, and expression of dominance. Western larch was the dominant species in regeneration and growth but had begun to lose some of its advantage by age 25, particularly on scarified areas where...

  7. Ecological impacts and management strategies for western larch in the face of climate-change

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 185,000 forest inventory and ecological plots from both USA and Canada were used to predict the contemporary distribution of western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) from climate variables. The random forests algorithm, using an 8-variable model, produced an overall error rate of about 2.9 %, nearly all of which consisted of predicting presence at...

  8. Significance of phytohormones in Siberian larch-bud gall midge interaction

    Treesearch

    Rida M. Matrenina

    1991-01-01

    Interrelations of the bud gall midge and the Siberian larch are of scientific and practical interest because of the bud gall midge's role as a plant endoparasite. We know that attack by the gall midge sets off a reaction in the entire plant. Invasion by the insect results in a certain interaction between physiological mechanisms of the insect and the plant which...

  9. Biology and behavior of a larch bud moth, Zeiraphera sp., in Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Werner

    1980-01-01

    A possibly new species or subspecies of larch bud moth of the genus Zeiraphera, closely related to Z. improbana (Walker), was found associated with tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch, stands in interior Alaska. An outbreak occurred during 1975 and 1976 over an area of 240 000 ha (590,000 acres)....

  10. Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

  11. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Jiří; Capek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Santrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A; Richter, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH 4 + using an array of 15 N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling.

  12. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland☆

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Jiří; Čapek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A.; Richter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4+ using an array of 15N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  13. Peculiarities of the atmospheric blocking events over the Siberia and Russian Far East region during summertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antokhina, Olga Yu.; Devjatova, Elena V.; Mordvinov, Vladimir I.

    2017-11-01

    We study the atmospheric blocking event evolution peculiarities over the Siberia and Far Eastern region (Russia) during summertime. Compared are two methods to identify blockings: from the 500 hPa (Z500) isobaric surface height distribution, and from the potential temperature at the dynamic tropopause (PV-θ) for every July 1979 through 2016. We revealed the situations, where blockings are identified only in one of the characteristics. Blocking identification by the PV-θ characteristics is complicated in the cases, when its cyclonic part appears to be filled with air masses of the southern origin, due to which there is no meridional gradient reversal in the PV-θ region. In the Z500 region, the difficulties to identify blocking events may arise in those cases, when the baric field fails to adapt to rapid changes in the temperature field associated with the air mass advection. For example, such events often occur over the ocean surface. We performed a synoptic analysis for several blocking events from the data on the velocity field dynamics at 850 hPa and PV-θ supplemented by the analysis of the observational rainfall data at the stations during those events. Distinguished were several stages of the blocking evolution over the Siberia and Far Eastern region that involved air masses from the East Asian summer monsoon region: 1. The formation of a blocking over Western Siberia; 2. Cold inflow on the blocking eastern periphery, the East Asian summer monsoon front activation, and a cyclone formation (east of Lake Baikal), in whose system the monsoon air was actively involved. Such monsoon cyclones, as a rule, are deep long-living formations, and they bring abnormal precipitations; 3. The formation of a ridge or anticyclone east of the monsoon cyclone, caused by the advection of the same monsoon flow, whose part is involved in a cyclone system. In general, the East Asian summer monsoon influence comes to the effects of regeneration and intensification of the blocking

  14. Warmth and friendship abound in Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, K.

    1978-08-01

    Despite the harsh climate, 20,000,000 people occupy 6,500,000 square kilometers of land, which contains approximately 60% of all the known fuel resources of the Soviet Union. More than 12% of the world's coal reserves are concentrated in Central Siberia between the Kuznetsk basin and the Yenisei, in an area no more than two percent of the land surface. It is for this reason and knowing that many technological advances in mining had been made in this area that, in discussion with the Soviet Coal Ministry, it was agreed that a WORLD COAL Editor, in pursuant to the agreement made betweenmore » the Soviet coal magazine UGOL and WORLD COAL should visit surface openpit, deep mines and coal preparation plants and prepare this article in the issue specially devoted to Russian coal mining achievements. The trip was undertaken in the short summer months around July when the climate is unbelievably like that of the Mediterranean. Four main areas were visited, Novokusnetsk, Mezdurechensk, Irkutsk and Cheremhovo.« less

  15. Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia.

    PubMed

    Krause, Johannes; Orlando, Ludovic; Serre, David; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Hänni, Catherine; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Pääbo, Svante

    2007-10-18

    Morphological traits typical of Neanderthals began to appear in European hominids at least 400,000 years ago and about 150,000 years ago in western Asia. After their initial appearance, such traits increased in frequency and the extent to which they are expressed until they disappeared shortly after 30,000 years ago. However, because most fossil hominid remains are fragmentary, it can be difficult or impossible to determine unambiguously whether a fossil is of Neanderthal origin. This limits the ability to determine when and where Neanderthals lived. To determine how far to the east Neanderthals ranged, we determined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from hominid remains found in Uzbekistan and in the Altai region of southern Siberia. Here we show that the DNA sequences from these fossils fall within the European Neanderthal mtDNA variation. Thus, the geographic range of Neanderthals is likely to have extended at least 2,000 km further to the east than commonly assumed.

  16. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  17. Linking tree demography to climate change feedbacks: fire, larch forests, and carbon pools of the Siberian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Loranty, M. M.; Natali, S.; Pena, H., III; Ludwig, S.; Spektor, V.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.; Mack, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Fire severity is increasing in larch forests of the Siberian Arctic as climate warms, and initial fire impacts on tree demographic processes could be an especially important determinant of long-term forest structure and carbon (C) dynamics. We hypothesized that (1) larch forest regrowth post-fire is largely determined by residual soil organic layer (SOL) depth because of the SOL's role as a seedbed and thermal regulator, and (2) changes in post-fire larch recruitment impact C accumulation through stand density impacts on understory microclimate and permafrost thaw. We tested these hypotheses by (1) experimentally creating a soil burn severity gradient in a Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) forest near Cherskiy, Russia and (2) quantifying C pools across a stand density gradient within a 75-year old fire scar. From 2012-2015, we added larch seeds to plots burned at different severities and monitored recruitment along with permafrost and active layer (i.e., subject to annual freeze-thaw) conditions (SOL depth, temperature, moisture, and thaw depth). Across the density gradient, we inventoried larch trees and harvested ground-layer vegetation to estimate aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools and sampled belowground C pools (soil, fine roots, and coarse roots) in the organic + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil. Larch recruits were rare in unburned and low severity plots, but a total of 6 new germinants m-2 were tallied in moderate and high severity plots during the study. Seedling survival for > 1 year was only 40 and 25% on moderate and high severity treatments, respectively, but yielded net larch recruitment of 2 seedlings m-2, compared to 0.3 seedlings m-2 on low severity plots. Density of both total and established recruits increased with decreasing residual SOL depth, which correlated with increased soil temperature, moisture, and thaw depth. At 75-year post-fire, total C pools increased with increased larch density, largely due to

  18. Use of Larch Light Rings for an Evaluation of Volcanic Explosivity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurskaya, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions lead to a global short-term drop in air temperature, including a shortening of the growing season. A reaction to these short-term climatic changes is the formation of light rings (LRs) in Siberian larches growing in the Siberian Subarctic area. The relationships between mass formation (and spatial spread) of LRs and the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) are shown based on an analysis of larch cores collected at 18 points in the northern forest-tundra from 67°32' to 167°40' N. The eruptions with VEI = 6 and higher statistically differ from weaker eruptions by the number of LRs and their spatial distribution. The doubtful dates of several strong eruptions are discussed.

  19. Study on adsorption and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jia, Youngfeng

    2010-08-01

    Field experiments at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology were conducted to study the adsorption, accumulation, and remediation of heavy metals by poplar and larch grown in artificially contaminated soil. The soil was spiked with a combination of Cd, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 1.5, 100, and 200 mg.kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the biomass of poplar (Populus canadensis Moench) was lower by 26.0% in the soil spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, and Zn, compared with the control. Concentrations of Cd in poplar leaf and Cu in poplar roots in the treated soil were 4.11 and 14.55 mg kg(-1), respectively, which are much greater than in corresponding controls. The migration of heavy metals in woody plant body was in the order Cd > Zn > Cu. Poplar had higher metal concentrations in aboveground tissues and a higher biomass compared with larch of the same age and therefore is potentially more suitable for remediation. In the heavy metal-polluted soil of this study, phytoremediation by poplar may take 56 and 245 years for Cd and Cu, respectively, for meeting the soil standards of heavy metals, and the corresponding phytoremediation times by larch would take 211 and 438 years. The research findings could be used as a basis to develop ecological engineering technologies for environmental control and remediation of pollution caused by heavy metals in soils.

  20. The Effects of Permafrost Thaw on Organic Matter Quality and Availability Along a Hill Slope in Northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. T.; Spawn, S.; Ludwig, S.; Schade, J. D.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate warming and permafrost thaw in northeastern Siberia are expected to change the quantity and quality of organic matter (OM) transported through watersheds, releasing previously frozen carbon (C) to biologically available pool. Hill slopes have shown to influence the distribution of OM, resulting in a downhill accumulation of available C and nutrients relative to uphill. Here we examine how future permafrost thaw will change OM quality and availability along a hill slope in a larch-dominated watershed. We collected soils from the thawed organic and mineral layers, and 1m deep permafrost cores for dissolved organic C (DOC) and total dissolved N (TDN), C composition from measures of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), DOC lability from biodegradable DOC (BDOC) incubations, C and nutrient availability from extracellular-enzyme assays (EEA's), and microbial respiration from aerobic soil incubations. Here we show that organic soils (O), in comparison to mineral soils (M) and permafrost (P) are the most abundant source of C (avg O DOC: 51.6mg/L), exhibiting low molecular complexity (avg O SUVA254: 4.05) and high quality. Evidence suggests permafrost OM may be an equally abundant, and more labile source of C than mineral soils (highest P DOC: 16.1 mg/L, lowest P SUVA254: 6.32; median M DOC: 18.5 mg/L, median M SUVA254: 24.0). Furthermore, we demonstrate that there may be a positive relationship in the rate of C mineralization and distance downhill, showing 15-30% greater CO2 production/gC downhill relative to uphill. Evidence also supports a similar relationship in permafrost DOC content and molecular complexity, showing more DOC of a lower complexity further downhill. This indicates DOC transport may have been occurring through the active layer and downhill during ice-rich permafrost formation, and may supply a labile source of carbon to lowland areas and adjacent stream networks upon thaw.

  1. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    bufo, and a small part of this assemblage included Eastern Palaearctic taxa (e.g. Salamandrella, Tylototriton, Bufotes viridis). For several taxa (e.g. Mioproteus, Hyla, Bombina, Rana temporaria), the Western Siberian occurrences represented their most eastern Eurasian records. The most diverse collection of fossil remains was found in the Middle Miocene. Less diversity has been registered towards the Early Pleistocene, potentially due to the progressive cooling of the climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The results of our study showed higher-amplitude changes of precipitation development in Western Siberia from the Early Miocene to the Pliocene, than previously assumed. PMID:28348925

  2. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Vasilyan, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    included Eastern Palaearctic taxa (e.g. Salamandrella , Tylototriton , Bufotes viridis ). For several taxa (e.g. Mioproteus, Hyla, Bombina , Rana temporaria ), the Western Siberian occurrences represented their most eastern Eurasian records. The most diverse collection of fossil remains was found in the Middle Miocene. Less diversity has been registered towards the Early Pleistocene, potentially due to the progressive cooling of the climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The results of our study showed higher-amplitude changes of precipitation development in Western Siberia from the Early Miocene to the Pliocene, than previously assumed.

  3. Industrial Development of Siberia and the Soviet Far East.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    21 (This argument is perhaps unintentionally fed by the central leadership’s emphasis on investing in renovation and technical reequipment of...Malov, "Po programme ’ energia ’," Pravda, May 12, 1982, p. 2. " M. Matafonov, "Open up Siberia’s Treasure Houses," Sotsialisticheskaia industriia

  4. Forest fire plumes sampled above Siberia during YAK-AEROSIB/POLARCAT airborne campaigns: properties and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, J.-D.; Nedelec, P.; Stohl, A.; Arshinov, M. Yu.; Belan, B. D.; Ciais, P.

    2009-04-01

    The composition of the Siberian troposphere remains highly unknown due to a lack of measurements in this area. Siberia is a key region for a quantified understanding of many land-atmosphere exchange processes. As an example, Siberian forest fire emissions are a major extratropical source of CO to the atmosphere. Fire-emitted trace gases and particles are subject to long-range transport and may contribute to pollution of nearby Arctic. However, establishing precise top-down estimates of sources strengths based on satellite or surface network measurements for species such as CO is limited by models' ability to represent sub-grid-scale dynamics associated to the wildfire (pyroconvection) and the injection height of the plume. In an experimental effort to address this issue and to increase our knowledge of the properties of the Siberian troposphere, CO, O3, CO2 and fine particles were measured onboard a research aircraft in the frame of the YAK-AEROSIB project, partially as a contribution to the Summer 2008 POLARCAT programme. Two large scale transects were established over Northern and Central Siberia between 7 and 21 July 2008. The aircraft flight pattern consisted of ramp ascents and descents so as to sample as many vertical profiles as possible. Very high CO concentrations were observed at various altitudes, essentially in Eastern Siberia near Yakutsk and Chokurdakh. The highest concentrations (up to 600ppb) were observed between 2 and 5 km (flight ceiling being at 7km) in very thin layers (few hundreds of m thick). A Lagrangian modelling analysis (FLEXPART) revealed that the aircraft sampled fire plumes from regional fire emissions, east of Yakutsk, after about 2 days of transport. The observed fire plumes are also characterized by anomalies in O3 and excess particle concentrations. These data provide new constraints on our understanding of forest fire plume transport. They also constitute a critical testbench for the models used to assess pyrogenic emissions and

  5. Lower Troposphere Stratification and Pollutant Transport over Siberia in April 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, J.; Nedelec, P.; Ramonet, M.; Golitsyn, G. S.; Belan, B. D.; Granberg, I. G.; Arshinov, M. Y.; Athier, G.; Boumard, F.; Cousin, J.; Ciais, P.

    2006-12-01

    In-situ airborne measurement of trace gases CO2, CO and O3 were performed during an intensive campaign over Central and Eastern Siberia, as part of the YAK-AEROSIB project. The campaign took place in April 11-14, 2006. At that time, the region was a weak source of CO2 (<1 gC m-2 d-1) but a number of fires occurred (http://maps.geog.umd.edu) south of the flight track, over north-eastern China. A total of 26 vertical profiles were collected from the ground level up to 7 km along a flight track of 5000 km between Novossibirsk and Yakutsk. The signature of local and more remote pollution sources was observed, associated with layers of elevated CO2 and CO concentrations, typically higher than 390 ppm and 250 ppb respectively. In most layers, a positive correlation between CO2 and CO is observed. The spatial extent of these layers can be tracked coherently on profiles up to 800 km apart. Layers are encountered above 3500 m, but they are more marked above 5000 m. This agrees well with a previously established climatology of ozone and water vapour layers in the troposphere from the MOZAIC programme. The representation of such layers in current chemistry transport is challenging, due to the model's limited vertical resolution and vertical mixing parameterization. The CO vertical distribution indicated a high variability near the surface (140-300 ppbv), more stable, but still variable concentrations between 1 and 4 km (120-200 ppbv) and surprisingly elevated CO values aloft, reaching up to 250 ppbv in the Eastern part of the flight track. High ozone values were occasionally found in the free troposphere (50-60 ppbv) with one intrusion of stratospheric air and one occurrence of active photochemistry in the Kemerovo area. Elsewhere, the lack of correlation between CO and ozone suggests the presence of aged air masses, without active photochemistry. Systematic back-trajectories calculated for each profile pointed out to zonal flow conditions, bringing pollution from Europe to

  6. Fire-induced surface forcing of the Siberian larch forests since 2000 in the context of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.; Loboda, T. V.; He, T.; Zhang, Y.; Liang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Siberian larch forests are a major component of the global boreal biome with wildfire being the most important disturbance agent. However, due to their unique characteristics and remote location, coupled with a limited record of remotely sensed datasets, we know little about the post-fire albedo dynamics in the region as well as the associated climatic impact, especially over a relatively longer temporal span at the regional scale. This is unfortunate as it has been suggested that the fire-induced albedo changes may have a pivotal role in controlling the net climatic impact of the boreal forests. Utilizing a 30-m 24-year stand age distribution map of the Siberian larch forests, combined with the full record of the MODIS albedo product, this study quantified the surface forcing induced by stand-replacing fires in the Siberian larch forests over 2001-2015. The results show that the larch forests experienced stand-replacing fires in the region has a cooling effect lasting for more than 25 years, and the magnitude of the cooling (-9.60 ± 0.03 Wm-2) is much larger than previously expected. Due to the strong cooling of stand-replacing fires, coupled with their wide distribution, the net surface forcing of the Siberian larch forests between 2001 and 2013 is negative (-0.78 Wm-2). In contrast, the forests that did not experience stand-replacing fires since 2000 show a warming effect, which is largely attributable to a lengthening of snow-free duration in the region. These results together indicate that wildfire may play a much bigger role in modulating the climatic impact of the Siberian larch forests than we previously thought, but this role is likely weakened by the considerable warming in the region, thus needs to be evaluated in the context of global climate change.

  7. [Genetic diversity of larch at the north of Primorskii Krai and distribution limits of Larix olgensis A. Henry].

    PubMed

    Polezhaeva, M A; Semerikov, V L; Pimenova, E A

    2013-05-01

    The genetic diversity of four mtDNA fragments and five microsatellite loci of ctDNA was examined in six larch samples from the territory of the Sikhote-Alin Nature Reserve (northern Primor'e). In order to identify possible species-specific differences between the samples, the latter were collected at transects along the shore of the Sea of Japan and at different distances from the sea. Based on a number of morphological characters, some authors suggest that Olgan larch grows in the shoreline part of the reserve and, moving inland, it is replaced by Gmelin larch. According to the other data, the northern border of the Olgan larch range does not reach the reserve territory. The data obtained were compared to those obtained previously for three samples from the south of Primor'e, including those for the locus classicus of Olgan larch. In the examined larch accessions (186, for mtDNA and 200, for ctDNA), a total of five mitotypes and 52 chlorotypes were recovered. According to the results of the AMOVA test, the proportion of variations accounted for the differences among all Larix samples examined over both types of markers was higher (N(ST) = 0.435, for mtDNA and R(ST) = 0.041, for ctDNA) than that for the differences among the samples within the reserve (N(ST) = 0.079, for mtDNA and R(ST) = 0.005, for ctDNA). No differences were detected between the groups of shoreline and continental populations.

  8. Evaluation of in-feed larch sawdust anti-inflammatory effect in sows.

    PubMed

    Tzika, E D; Tassis, P D; Papatsiros, V G; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Siochu, A; Bauer, R; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C; Franz, C

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory activity of larch sawdust as feed supplement in lactating sows' diet and its possible effect on the prevalence of Postpartum Dysgalactia Syndrome under field conditions. In a Greek farrow-to-finish pig farm, fifteen sows were randomly and equally allocated to a negative control group (NC group), a positive control group (PC group), and a treatment group (LT group). The animals of the first two groups received 99% basic diet and 1% corn starch, while LT group animals received 99% basic diet and 1% larch sawdust. The whole trial period lasted 35 days (7 days prior to farrow - day of weaning). At parturition day, animals of the PC group received 2 ml of an anti-inflammatory drug intramuscularly (meloxicam, Metacam®, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica), while the animals of both other groups, received 2 ml of normal saline. Results showed insignificant differences among experimental groups for parameters such as post-partum rectal temperature and piglets performance. On the contrary, a significant increase of mean milk lactation index was observed in LT and PC groups on the 4th day of lactation period, when compared with NC group (p=0.014). Additionally, mean IL-6 concentrations in blood in the LT group showed a tendency for reduction when compared with those found in NC, and insignificant difference (p>0.05) when compared with those observed in PC group 24 hours postpartum. Moreover, the respective TNFα mean level in the LT group at 24 and 72 hours after parturition was similar to that found in PC group, respectively) and significantly lower than that determined in the NC group (p=0.003, p=0.024. The results suggest a possible anti-inflammatory effect of larch sawdust in sows.

  9. Manipulation of host plant biomass allocation and resource regulation by the larch bud gall midge

    Treesearch

    Yuri N. Baranchikov

    1991-01-01

    Intensive herbivory may influence the resources available to the next generation of herbivore in three ways: quantity may decrease, be unchanged, or increase. There are now two good examples of the last possibility. One of them concerns Monochamus beetles on firs in Siberia (Isaev et al. 1984), and the other a galling sawfly on willow in Arizona (...

  10. Reanalysis Data Evaluation to Study Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes are strongly pronounced in Siberia by significant warming in the 2nd half of 20th century and recent extreme events such as 2010 heat wave and 2013 flood in Russia's Far East. To improve our understanding of observed climate extremes and to provide to regional decision makers the reliable scientifically based information with high special and temporal resolution on climate state, we need to operate with accurate meteorological data in our study. However, from available 231 stations across Siberia only 130 of them present the homogeneous daily temperature time series. Sparse, station network, especially in high latitudes, force us to use simulated reanalysis data. However those might differ from observations. To obtain reliable information on temperature extreme "hot spots" in Siberia we have compared daily temperatures form ERA-40, ERA Interim, JRA-25, JRA-55, NCEP/DOE, MERRA Reanalysis, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX gridded datasets with observations from RIHMI-WDC/CDIAC dataset for overlap period 1981-2000. Data agreement was estimated at station coordinates to which reanalysis data were interpolated using modified Shepard method. Comparison of averaged over 20 year annual mean temperatures shows general agreement for Siberia excepting Baikal region, where reanalyses significantly underestimate observed temperature behavior. The annual temperatures closest to observed one were obtained from ERA-40 and ERA Interim. Furthermore, t-test results show homogeneity of these datasets, which allows one to combine them for long term time series analysis. In particular, we compared the combined data with observations for percentile-based extreme indices. In Western Siberia reanalysis and gridded data accurately reproduce observed daily max/min temperatures. For East Siberia, Lake Baikal area, ERA Interim data slightly underestimates TN90p and TX90p values. Results obtained allows regional decision-makers to get required high spatial resolution (0,25°×0

  11. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  12. New genetic lineage within the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus found in Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Tkachev, Sergey E; Chicherina, Galina S; Golovljova, Irina; Belokopytova, Polina S; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Zadora, Oksana V; Glupov, Victor V; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a causative agent of a severe neurological disease. There are three main TBEV subtypes: the European (TBEV-Eu), Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), and Siberian (TBEV-Sib). Currently, three lineages within TBEV-Sib have been recorded. In this study, the genetic and biological characteristics of a new original strain, TBEV-2871, isolated in the Novosibirsk province of Western Siberia, Russia were investigated. The strain has low neuroinvasiveness in mice. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that TBEV-2871 belongs to TBEV-Sib, but does not cluster with any of the TBEV-Sib lineages. The TBEV-2871 strain has 88-89% nucleotide sequence identity with the other TBEV-Sib strains, 84-86% nucleotide sequence identity with the TBEV-FE and TBEV-Eu subtypes and is genetically close to the subtype division border. The TBEV-2871 polyprotein sequence includes 43 unique amino acid substitutions, 30 of which are recorded at positions that are conserved among all TBEV subtypes. Strain TBEV-2871 and two similar but not identical isolates found in Kemerovo province, Western Siberia are separated into a new lineage tentatively named Obskaya after the name of Ob riber, in the vicinity of which the TBEV-2871 was first found. A molecular evolution investigation demonstrated that within TBEV-Sib, the Obskaya lineage likely separated 1535years ago, which is even earlier than the Baltic lineage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Warm Arctic-cold Siberia: comparing the recent and the early 20th-century Arctic warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Zolina, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The Warm Arctic-cold Siberia surface temperature pattern during recent boreal winter is suggested to be triggered by the ongoing decrease of Arctic autumn sea ice concentration and has been observed together with an increase in mid-latitude extreme events and a meridionalization of tropospheric circulation. However, the exact mechanism behind this dipole temperature pattern is still under debate, since model experiments with reduced sea ice show conflicting results. We use the early twentieth-century Arctic warming (ETCAW) as a case study to investigate the link between September sea ice in the Barents-Kara Sea (BKS) and the Siberian temperature evolution. Analyzing a variety of long-term climate reanalyses, we find that the overall winter temperature and heat flux trend occurs with the reduction of September BKS sea ice. Tropospheric conditions show a strengthened atmospheric blocking over the BKS, strengthening the advection of cold air from the Arctic to central Siberia on its eastern flank, together with a reduction of warm air advection by the westerlies. This setup is valid for both the ETCAW and the current Arctic warming period.

  14. Surface forcing of non-stand-replacing fires in Siberian larch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2018-04-01

    Wildfires are the dominant disturbance agent in the Siberian larch forests. Extensive low- to mediate-intensity non-stand-replacing fires are a notable property of fire regime in these forests. Recent large scale studies of these fires have focused mostly on their impacts on carbon budget; however, their potential impacts on energy budget through post-fire albedo changes have not been considered. This study quantifies the post-fire surface forcing for Siberian larch forests that experienced non-stand-replacing fires between 2001 and 2012 using the full record of MODIS MCD43A3 albedo product and a burned area product developed specifically for the Russian forests. Despite a large variability, the mean effect of non-stand-replacing fires imposed through albedo is a negative forcing which lasts for at least 14 years. However, the magnitude of the forcing is much smaller than that imposed by stand-replacing fires, highlighting the importance of differentiating between the two fire types in the studies involving the fire impacts in the region. The results of this study also show that MODIS-based summer differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) provides a reliable metric for differentiating non-stand-replacing from stand-replacing fires with an overall accuracy of 88%, which is of considerable importance for future work on modeling post-fire energy budget and carbon budget in the region.

  15. Growth characteristics of natural and planted Dahurian larch in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2018-04-01

    Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) is the dominant species in both natural and planted forests in northeast China, which is situated in the southernmost part of the global boreal forest biome and is undergoing great climatically induced changes. Published studies (1965-2015) on tree above-ground growth of Dahurian larch forests in northeast China were collected in this study and critically reviewed, and a comprehensive growth data set was developed from 122 sites, which are distributed between 40.85 and 53.47° N in latitude, between 118.20 and 133.70° E in longitude and between 130 and 1260 m in altitude. The data set is composed of 743 entries and includes growth data (mean tree height, mean diameter at breast height (DBH), mean tree volume and/or stand volume) and associated information, i.e., geographical location (latitude, longitude, altitude, aspect and slope), climate (mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP)), stand description (origin, stand age, stand density and canopy density) and sample regime (observation year, plot area and plot number). It provides a quantitative reference for plantation management practices and boreal forest growth prediction under future climate change. The data set is freely available for noncommercial scientific applications, and the DOI for the data is https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.880984.

  16. Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  17. Growth and yield of western larch: 15-year results of a levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1982-01-01

    The 15-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand in northeastern Oregon, first thinned at age 33, showed that trees growing at lower stand densities grew more rapidly in diameter but did not grow faster in height than trees in high density plots. Both basal area and...

  18. Container volume and growing density influence western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) seedling development during nursery culture and establishment

    Treesearch

    Matthew M. Aghai; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Larch tree species (Larix Mill.) are both ecologically and commercially valuable in their native range and are the focus of many restoration, afforestation, and commercial reforestation efforts in the boreal forests of the northern hemisphere. Land use change, shifting climate, and poor natural regeneration are making it increasingly difficult to establish the species...

  19. Growth and yield of western larch in response to several density levels and two thinning methods: 15-year results.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1986-01-01

    The 15-year growth response from a levels-of-growing-stock study in an even-aged western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) stand, first thinned from above and below at age 55, was measured in northeastern Oregon. Basal area and volume growth increased with stand density for both thinning methods, whereas diameter growth decreased. Attacks of the...

  20. Synthesis of nickel-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes with controllable porous structure for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Huang, Zhanhua; Liu, Shouxin

    2015-11-01

    Ni-incorporated larch-based carbon membranes have been synthesized by introducing the Ni(NO3)2 into the liquefied larch using liquefied larch sawdust as precursors and F127 as the soft template. The porous structure can be tailored by the amount of Ni(NO3)2, and the Ni and NiO nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm incorporated in the carbon frameworks. The increase in Ni(NO3)2 content can lead to the formation of disordered porous structure and shrinkage of carbon frameworks. The Ni-incorporated carbon membranes with largest pores possess highest gas permeation for N2, CO2, and O2 of 37.5, 19.8, and 55.5 m3 cm/m2 h kPa, which is larger than that of the pure carbon membranes, respectively. However, the poor ordered porous structure caused by adding large amount of Ni(NO3)2 can reduce the gas separation performance, which is attributed to the weaken of the molecular sieve function. The results indicate that the incorporation of few nanoparticles into larch-based carbon membranes can improve molecular sieve function.

  1. Growth and yield of western larch under controlled levels of stocking in the Blue Mountains of Oregon.

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran; K.W. Seidel

    1999-01-01

    Repeated thinning to five growing-stock levels resulted in widely differing tree sizes and volumes per acre after 30 years. Largest trees but the least cubic-volume yield per acre were produced in the heaviest thinning level, whereas highest board-foot yields were found in intermediate thinning levels. Partial defoliation by larch casebearer (Coleophora...

  2. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of adventitious root development in hybrid larch (Larix kaempferi × Larix olgensis).

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Sun, Xiaomei; Xie, Yunhui; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Shougong

    2014-11-26

    Hybrids of larch (Larix kaempferi × Larix olgensis) are important afforestation species in northeastern China. They are routinely propagated via rooted stem cuttings. Despite the importance of rooting, little is known about the regulation of adventitious root development in larch hybrids. 454 GS FLX Titanium technology represents a new method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model species. This method can be used to identify differentially expressed genes, and then two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analyses can be used to analyze their corresponding proteins. In this study, we analyzed semi-lignified cuttings of two clones of L. kaempferi × L. olgensis with different rooting capacities to study the molecular basis of adventitious root development. We analyzed two clones; clone 25-5, with strong rooting capacity, and clone 23-12, with weak rooting capacity. We constructed four cDNA libraries from 25-5 and 23-12 at two development stages. Sequencing was conducted using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. A total of 957832 raw reads was produced; 95.07% were high-quality reads, and were assembled into 45137 contigs and 61647 singletons. The functions of the unigenes, as indicated by their Gene Ontology annotation, included diverse roles in the molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular component categories. We analyzed 75 protein spots (-fold change ≥ 2, P ≤ 0.05) by 2D-DIGE, and identified the differentially expressed proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. A joint analysis of transcriptome and proteome showed genes related to two pathways, polyamine synthesis and stress response, might play an important role on adventitious root development. These results provide fundamental and important information for research on the molecular mechanism of adventitious root development. We also demonstrated for the first time the combined

  3. Perspectives on Fire Research Collaboration in Siberia: What Have We Learned; Why Does It Matter; and Where Do We Go from Here?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    My first experience of the vast taiga forests of Russia, and my first chance to meet and work with Russian fire researchers, was at a 1993 conference and field experiment planned jointly by Johann G. Goldammer from Germany and Valentin V. Furyaev from Russia. This meeting was the beginning of a long and fruitful collaboration among US, Canadian, and Russian fire scientists. We all became increasingly aware of the global signifiance of the circumpolar boreal zone, and of the need for better information on the extent and effects of boreal fires. Wildfires are the dominant disturbance regime in the Russian boreal zone, burning 10 to 20 million hectares per year. These fires are a significant source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and aerosols. Our research team published some of the first remote-sensing based estimates of the extent of fire in Russia and of the potential variability in emissions that could result from different burning conditions. Through a series of 20 prescribed burns we were able to mimic a wide range of burning conditions and obtain information on the impacts on soils, vegetation, and fuel consumption. Based on these experimental fires, we have modeled the effects of weather and fuels on fuel consumption and other factors, and related fire characteristics to emissions, carbon stocks, and soil and vegetation processes. For the past 10 years, we have focused on the ecosystem effects of fires of varying severity in the Scots pine and mixed larch forests of central Siberia, on improved remote-sensing based estimates of burned area and fire effects, and on relating fire weather indices to fire potential and fuel consumption. Logging is an increasingly important disturbance in Russia’s forests, and logged sites, with their high fuel loads seem particularly susceptible to fire. We are currently studying interactions between logging and fire, with an emphasis on the differences in fuel consumption, emissions, and carbon stocks when fires burn in

  4. Aerosol transport over Siberia: analysis of the summer 2013 YAK-AEROSIB aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Penner, Johannes; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Arshinov, Mikhail; Chernov, Dimitry; Kozlov, Valery; Paris, Jean Daniel; Pruvost, Arnaud; Belan, Boris; Nedelec, Philippe; Pelon, Jacques; Law, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    Transport and transformation of aerosols related to forest fires and Eastern Asia anthropogenic emissions have been identified as very important questions to understand the Arctic climate. Two aircraft campaigns have been conducted over Siberia in summer 2012 and 2013 with in-situ measurements by aerosol spectrometers and also by a 532 nm backscatter lidar in 2013. The aerosol data can be also combined with CO measurements measured on-board the aircraft to identify the aerosol pollution sources. The analysis of the transport processes has been performed with the FLEXPART Lagrangian model run either in the forward or backward mode. While the 2012 campaign is characterized by anticyclonic conditions and strong forest fire emissions, the 2013 campaign corresponds to upward lifting of Northern China emissions. Comparisons with satellite data obtained with the CALIPSO mission for the two summer periods will be presented to identify the spatial extent and the temporal evolution of the pollution plumes and also to test the ability of the satellite data to derive the aerosol types. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  5. Trace element fractionation and transport in boreal rivers and soil porewaters of permafrost-dominated basaltic terrain in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Dupré, B.

    2006-07-01

    The chemical status of ˜40 major and trace elements (TE) and organic carbon (OC) in pristine boreal rivers draining the basaltic plateau of Central Siberia (Putorana) and interstitial solutions of permafrost soils was investigated. Water samples were filtered in the field through progressively decreasing pore size (5 μm → 0.22 μm → 0.025 μm → 10 kDa → 1 kDa) using cascade frontal filtration technique. Most rivers and soil porewaters exhibit 2-5 times higher than the world average concentration of dissolved (i.e., <0.22 μm) iron (0.03-0.4 mg/L), aluminum (0.03-0.4 mg/L), OC (10-20 mg/L) and various trace elements that are usually considered as immobile in weathering processes (Ti, Zr, Ga, Y, REEs). Ultrafiltration revealed strong relationships between concentration of TE and that of colloidal Fe and Al. According to their partition during filtration and association with colloids, two groups of elements can be distinguished: (i) those weakly dependent on ultrafiltration and that are likely to be present as truly dissolved inorganic species (Li, Na, K, Si, Mn, Mo, Rb, Cs, As, Sb) or, partially (20-30%) associated with small size Fe- and Al-colloids (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) and to small (<1-10 kDa) organic complexes (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and (ii) elements strongly associated with colloidal iron and aluminum in all ultrafiltrates largely present in 1-100 kDa fraction (Ga, Y, REEs, Pb, V, Cr, Ti, Ge, Zr, Th, U). TE concentrations and partition coefficients did not show any detectable variations between different colloidal fractions for soil porewaters, suprapermafrost flow and surface streams. TE concentration measurements in river suspended particles demonstrated significant contribution (i.e., ⩾30%) of conventionally dissolved (<0.22 μm) forms for usually "immobile" elements such as divalent transition metals, Cd, Pb, V, Sn, Y, REEs, Zr, Hf, Th. The Al-normalized accumulation coefficients of TE in vegetation litter compared to basalts achieve 10-100 for B, Mn, Zn

  6. Multilingual Education in South Siberia: National Schools in the Republics of Altai and Tyva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    Subtractive bilingualism is widespread throughout Siberia, with indigenous youth often more proficient in Russian than in their non-Russian local languages. Siberia's national schools, which are secondary schools offering instruction in local languages of Russia, provide critical institutional support for minority languages. The goal of this…

  7. Tree-ring variation in western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt. ) exposed to sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, C.A.; Kincaid, W.B.; Nash, T.H. III

    1984-12-01

    Tree-ring analysis of western larch (Larix occidentialis Nutt) demonstrated both direct and indirect affects of sulfur dioxide emissions from the lead/zinc smelter at Trail, B.C. Tree cores were collected from 5 stands known to have been polluted and from 3 control stands. Age effects were removed by fitting theoretical growth curves, and macrocliate was modeled using the average of the controls and two laged values thereof. Separate analyses were performed for years before and after installation of two tall stacks, for drought and nondrought years, and for years prior to initiation of smelting. Regression analyses revealed a negative effect onmore » annual growth that diminished with increasing distance from the smelter and during drought years. Furthermore, chronology statistics suggested an increase in sensitivity to climate that persisted decades beyond implementation of pollution controls, which reduced emissions 10-fold. 38 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.« less

  8. A Holocene molluscan succession from floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River (Lake Baikal region), Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dustin; Preece, Richard C.; Shchetnikov, Alexander A.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Dlussky, Konstantin G.

    2008-05-01

    Floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River near Basovo in south-central Siberia have yielded the most detailed Holocene molluscan succession yet reported from the entire eastern Palaearctic. Over 72,500 shells from at least 28 species of terrestrial and 23 species of freshwater mollusc have been recovered, an abundance and diversity far higher than previously reported from the region. The molluscan assemblages are dominated by land snails, especially members of the genus Vallonia, represented by five species including Vallonia tenuilabris and two poorly known species Vallonia kamtschatica and Vallonia cf. chinensis. Other noteworthy species recovered include Gastrocopta theeli, Carychium pessimum, Vertigo extima (southernmost record), Vertigo microsphaera and the first Asian records of three other taxa ( Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo genesii and Vertigo parcedentata). Illustrations are provided for the critical species, since opinions differ about the status of various taxa and the correct names that should be used. The molluscan assemblages show clear successional trends during the early to mid-Holocene, reflecting episodes of dryness/wetness on the floodplain. Drier conditions at ca 6350 14C yr BP coincide with major changes in the archaeological record seen at other sites in the region but it remains unclear whether the two are linked. A prominent charcoal-rich horizon dated to ca 2800 14C yr BP marks a burning event in the catchment, which resulted in a two-fold increase in sediment accumulation rate. Remains of small mammals occurred throughout the sequence including a tooth of Microtus cf. maximowiczii, possibly the first occurrence of Ungar vole west of Lake Baikal. The faunal analyses have been integrated with a detailed pedological study of the sedimentary profile and a chronology was obtained by means of 12 AMS radiocarbon dates. This study provides the first detailed palaeoecological information relating to Holocene molluscan assemblages from the Cis

  9. [Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Kur'ina, I V; Preĭs, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established.

  10. Origin of carbon released from ecosystems affected by permafrost degradation in Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandois, L.; Hoyt, A.; Xu, X.; Hatte, C.; Teisserenc, R.; Tananaev, N.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost soils and peatlands store half of the soil organic carbon stock worldwide, and are rapidly evolving as a result of permafrost thaw. Determining the origin (permafrost or recent photosynthesis) of carbon which is released to surface waters and the atmosphere is crucial to assess Arctic ecosystems' potential feedback to climate change. In order to evaluate it, we investigated the stable and radioactive content of carbon in solid organic matter, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and dissolved CO2 and CH4 in a discontinuous permafrost area of Siberia affected by permafrost degradation (Igarka, Graviyka catchment (67°27'11''N, 86°32'07''E)). We collected samples from the active layer, permafrost, surface water and bubbles from thermokarst lakes. We further investigated DOM and dissolved CO2 and CH4 in porewater profiles, streams and the catchment outlet. In thermokarst lakes, DOM of surface water as well as CO2 and CH4 from bubbles from lake sediments predominantly originate from modern carbon. In two locations, CO2 and CH4 from bubbles have relatively low 14C contents, with ages greater than 700 yr BP, but still younger that what was previously reported in Eastern Siberia. In all samples the Δ14C of CH4 and CO2 were strongly correlated, with CH4 being consistently older than CO2, indicating strong interrelation between CO2 and CH4 cycles. In our study, permafrost influenced CO2 and CH4 is found in small ponds where palsa collapse and the resulting bank erosion has mobilized sequestered carbon. In peatland porewater, the Δ14C of DOM, CO2 and CH4 increases with depth (DOM: 1385 ±45 yr BP at 2m), indicating a contribution from Holocene peatlands affected by permafrost. In deep layers, CO2 reduction is the dominant pathway of CH4 production, whereas acetate fermentation dominates in thermokarst lakes. In summary, the majority of dissolved CO2 and CH4 analyzed from thermokarst lakes and degraded peatlands is modern and originates from recently fixed carbon

  11. Volume and weight characteristics of a typical Douglas-fir/ western larch stand, Coram Experimental Forest, Montana

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An over-mature Douglas-fir/western larch stand on the Coram Experimental Forest in Montana averaged about 7,300 ft3/acre (511 rn3/ha) of wood over 3 inches (7.62 cm) in diameter, and an additional 57 tons/acre (128/ha) of fine material, before harvest. After logging, using three different cutting methods and four different levels of utilization, wood residues ranged...

  12. Spatial variations in larch needle and soil δ15N at a forest-grassland boundary in northern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Lei; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Tsukuura, Akemi; Kitayama, Asami; Lopez Caceres, M Larry; Mijidsuren, Byambasuren; Saraadanbazar, Ariunaa; Tsujimura, Maki

    2017-03-01

    The spatial patterns of plant and soil δ 15 N and associated processes in the N cycle were investigated at a forest-grassland boundary in northern Mongolia. Needles of Larix sibirica Ledeb. and soils collected from two study areas were analysed to calculate the differences in δ 15 N between needle and soil (Δδ 15 N). Δδ 15 N showed a clear variation, ranging from -8 ‰ in the forest to -2 ‰ in the grassland boundary, and corresponded to the accumulation of organic layer. In the forest, the separation of available N produced in the soil with 15 N-depleted N uptake by larch and 15 N-enriched N immobilization by microorganisms was proposed to cause large Δδ 15 N, whereas in the grassland boundary, small Δδ 15 N was explained by the transport of the most available N into larch. The divergence of available N between larch and microorganisms in the soil, and the accumulation of diverged N in the organic layer control the variation in Δδ 15 N.

  13. Diversity of mitochondrial DNA lineages in South Siberia.

    PubMed

    Derenko, M V; Grzybowski, T; Malyarchuk, B A; Dambueva, I K; Denisova, G A; Czarny, J; Dorzhu, C M; Kakpakov, V T; Miścicka-Sliwka, D; Woźniak, M; Zakharov, I A

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the origin and evolution of aboriginal populations of South Siberia, a comprehensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis (HVR1 sequencing combined with RFLP typing) of 480 individuals, representing seven Altaic-speaking populations (Altaians, Khakassians, Buryats, Sojots, Tuvinians, Todjins and Tofalars), was performed. Additionally, HVR2 sequence information was obtained for 110 Altaians, providing, in particular, some novel details of the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. The total sample revealed 81% East Asian (M*, M7, M8, M9, M10, C, D, G, Z, A, B, F, N9a, Y) and 17% West Eurasian (H, U, J, T, I, N1a, X) matrilineal genetic contribution, but with regional differences within South Siberia. The highest influx of West Eurasian mtDNAs was observed in populations from the East Sayan and Altai regions (from 12.5% to 34.5%), whereas in populations from the Baikal region this contribution was markedly lower (less than 10%). The considerable substructure within South Siberian haplogroups B, F, and G, together with the high degree of haplogroup C and D diversity revealed there, allows us to conclude that South Siberians carry the genetic imprint of early-colonization phase of Eurasia. Statistical analyses revealed that South Siberian populations contain high levels of mtDNA diversity and high heterogeneity of mtDNA sequences among populations (Fst = 5.05%) that might be due to geography but not due to language and anthropological features.

  14. Conditions and development case studies for mountainous deposits in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talgamer, B. L.; Franchuk, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article contains the materials on deposits development intensification under challenging climatic and mining conditions, including mountainous areas of Siberia. The exploitation case studies for mountainous deposits all over the world and in Russia have been described. The authors have been set out the factors impeding the development of such deposits, and the extent of mining and transportation equipment performance degradation is also indicated. There have been stated the characteristics and the description of one of the newly mountainous gold ore deposits in Siberia which is being developed at an altitude of 2684m. A number of specific factors concerning its development have also been introduced as well as the description of mining technologies engineered by Irkutsk National Research Technical University (IRNRTU) specialists. The depth and principal dimensions of the open pit together with the mining and transportation equipment and facilities have been justified. The prime cost analysis of mineral extraction has been made, which results showed the substantial growth in expenditures for the transportation of the overburden rocks and ores. In view of the above mentioned research, there appeared the necessity for the search of new and the enhancement of current transport vehicles and communications.

  15. Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on ectomycorrhizae community structure in hybrid larch and its parents grown in volcanic ash soil: The role of phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaona; Agathokleous, Evgenios; Qu, Laiye; Fujita, Saki; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamai, Yutaka; Mao, Qiaozhi; Koyama, Akihiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2018-03-15

    With the rapid industrial development and modern agricultural practices, increasing nitrogen (N) deposition can cause nutrient imbalance in immature volcanic ash soil commonly found in Japan. Larch species, widely distributed in northeast Eurasia, are associated with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi which play a critical role in nutrient acquisition for their hosts. In this study, we investigated species richness and diversity of ECM fungi associated with a hybrid larch (F 1 ) and its parents, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii var. japonica) and Japanese larch (L. kaempferi), under simulated N deposition (0 and 100kgha -1 yr -1 ) with/without phosphorous (P) (0 and 50kgha -1 yr -1 ). Seedlings planted in immature volcanic ash with low nutrient availability were subjected to the N and P treatments for fifteen months. We found that response of ECM community structure to the increased nutrient availability depended on host genotypes. Nutrient addition significantly affected ECM structure in Japanese larch, but no such significant effect was found for Dahurian larch. Effects of the nutrient addition to ECM fungal community in F 1 were intermediate. F 1 was tolerant to high N loading, which was due to consistent, relatively high association with Suillus sp. and Hebeloma sp. F 1 showed heterosis in relative biomass, which was most apparent under high N treatments. This co-variation of ECM fungal community structure and F 1 biomass in response to N loading suggest that ECM community structure might play an important role in host growth. The present findings indicate effects of N deposition on ECM fungal community structure can depend on larch species, thus it is challenging to predict general trends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some

  17. Peatland classification of West Siberia based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentieva, I.; Glagolev, M.; Lapshina, E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in peatlands for prediction of environmental changes requires an understanding of its geographical distribution. West Siberia Plain is the biggest peatland area in Eurasia and is situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. West Siberian taiga mires are important globally, accounting for about 12.5% of the global wetland area. A number of peatland maps of the West Siberia was developed in 1970s, but their accuracy is limited. Here we report the effort in mapping West Siberian peatlands using 30 m resolution Landsat imagery. As a first step, peatland classification scheme oriented on environmental parameter upscaling was developed. The overall workflow involves data pre-processing, training data collection, image classification on a scene-by-scene basis, regrouping of the derived classes into final peatland types and accuracy assessment. To avoid misclassification peatlands were distinguished from other landscapes using threshold method: for each scene, Green-Red Vegetation Indices was used for peatland masking and 5th channel was used for masking water bodies. Peatland image masks were made in Quantum GIS, filtered in MATLAB and then classified in Multispec (Purdue Research Foundation) using maximum likelihood algorithm of supervised classification method. Training sample selection was mostly based on spectral signatures due to limited ancillary and high-resolution image data. As an additional source of information, we applied our field knowledge resulting from more than 10 years of fieldwork in West Siberia summarized in an extensive dataset of botanical relevés, field photos, pH and electrical conductivity data from 40 test sites. After the classification procedure, discriminated spectral classes were generalized into 12 peatland types. Overall accuracy assessment was based on 439 randomly assigned test sites showing final map accuracy was 80%. Total peatland area was estimated at 73.0 Mha. Various ridge

  18. Education for the Future: New Strategies of Distance Education for the Universities of Eastern Siberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirko, Vladimir I.; Malakhova, Ekaterina V.; Pack, Nikolay I.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the main trends of global education and educational problems in the Arctic and Siberian regions. The modern labor markets are changing in the Arctic. The modern labor market requires the creation of new jobs associated with the provision of the Arctic zone with food. Small food productions will be created. We will need a…

  19. Effects of solar activity in the middle atmosphere dynamical regime over Eastern Siberia, USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaidukov, V. A.; Kazimirovsky, E. S.; Zhovty, E. I.; Chernigovskaya, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Lower thermospheric (90 to 120 km) wind data was acquired by ground based spaced-receiver method (HF, LF) near Irkutsk (52 deg N, 104 deg E). There is interrelated solar and meteorological control of lower thermosphere dynamics. Some features of solar control effects on the wind parameters are discussed.

  20. The Sredne-Amursky basin: A migrating cretaceous depocenter for the Amur river, eastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Light, M.; Maslanyj, M.; Davidson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Recently acquired seismic, well, and regional geological data imply favorable conditions for the accumulation of oil and gas in the 20,000 km[sup 2] Sredne-Amursky basin. Major graben and northeast-trending sinistral wrench-fault systems are recognized in the basin. Lower and Upper Cretaceous sediments are up to 9000 and 3000 m thick, respectively. Paleogeographic reconstructions imply that during the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous the Sredne-Amursky basin was part of a narrow marine embayment (back-arc basin), which was open to the north. During the Cretaceous, the region was part of a foreland basin complicated by strike-slip, which produced subsidence related to transtension during obliquemore » collision of the Sikhote-Alin arc with Eurasian margin. Contemporaneous uplift also related to this collision migrated from south to north and may have sourced northward-directed deltas and alluvial fans, which fed northward into the closing back-arc basin between 130 and 85 Ma. The progradational clastic succession of the Berriasian-Albian and the Late Cretaceous fluvial, brackish water and paralic sediments within the basin may be analogous to the highly productive late Tertiary clastics of the Amur River delta in the northeast Sakhalin basin. Cretaceous-Tertiary lacustrine-deltaic sapropelic shales provide significant source and seal potential and potential reservoirs occur in the Cretaceous and Tertiary. Structural plays were developed during Cretaceous rifting and subsequent strike-slip deformation. If the full hydrocarbon potential of the Sredne-Amursky basin is to be realized, the regional appraisal suggests that exploration should be focused toward the identification of plays related to prograding Cretaceous deltaic depositional systems.« less

  1. The First Precise Data on the Age of Charoite Mineralization (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Gorovoy, V. A.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Shevelev, A. S.; Vladykin, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Charoite is a unique mineral and a rock of the same name. It is known from the only deposit in the world at the contact with Early Cretaceous syenite and other alkaline rocks of the Malyi Murun massif. The data on 40Ar/39Ar dating of tinaksite, tokkoite, and frankamenite associated with charoite are reported in this paper. All these minerals, except for frankamenite, have shown clear plateau ages overlapping with each other within the analytical errors. The weighted mean of the plateau ages of tinaksite, tokkoite, and microcline is 135.86 ± 0.26 Ma. Considering that these minerals are syngenetic to charoite, this age is the time of charoite crystallization. Frankamenite with an older age (137.55 ± 0.46 Ma) may reflect the polychronous crystallization of the charoite association.

  2. [Julian Talko-Hryncewicz--physician, anthropologist and Siberia explorer].

    PubMed

    Supady, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Julian Talko-Hryncewicz was born in Polish family of noble descent in Lithuania in 1850. He graduated from University in Kiev with diploma in medicine in 1876. He begun his practice in Zwinogródka in Ukraine. He left to Siberia in 1891 where he got the job of regional physician in the town Troickosowsk. He got back to Poland to run the Department of Anthropology at the Jagiellonian University in 1809. During the First World War he organised the Buriacki Field Hospital (1915-1917) in Petersburg. In the independent Poland he got back to the Jagiellonian University where he published many medical and anthropological publications. He died in Cracow in 1936.

  3. Holocene Faunal Trends in West Siberia and Their Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gashev, S. N.; Aleshina, A. O.; Zuban, I. A.; Lupinos, M. Y.; Mardonova, L. B.; Mitropolskiy, M. G.; Selyukov, A. G.; Sorokina, N. V.; Stolbov, V. A.; Shapovalov, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Based on an analysis of the transformation of vertebrate and invertebrate fauna of West Siberia in the Holocene, the classification and periodization of the main faunal trends are presented. Against the background of changing environmental conditions, the key regularities of the faunal dynamics, and the ways some species penetrate into the territory of the region and others disappear from the beginning of the Holocene to the present time have been indicated. Three global and four fluctuating trends are identified. The anthropogenic trend is ascertained separately. A conclusion is made about the prevailing causes of these changes, associated primarily with periodic climatic processes of different levels, determined by planetary geological and cosmic cycles. It is emphasized that, in the historical period, anthropogenic factors play a significant role in the regional faunal dynamics.

  4. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, V N; Knoll, A H; Grotzinger, J P

    1995-01-01

    Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n

  5. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n

  6. A Laser Photoacoustic Analysis of Residual CO2 and H2O in Larch Stems

    PubMed Central

    Ageev, Boris; Ponomarev, Yurii; Sapozhnikova, Valeria; Savchuk, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Every so often, the results obtained from investigations into the effects of varying environmental conditions on the tree growth rate at the same sites and on the change in the carbon balance in plants, using traditional methods, are found to differ widely. We believe that the reason for the ambiguity of the data has to do with failure to account for the role of the residual CO2 (and H2O) in the tree wood exhibiting a climate response. In our earlier work, the results of a laser photoacoustic gas analysis of CO2 and H2O vacuum-desorbed from disc tree rings of evergreen conifer trees were presented. In this paper, laser photoacoustic measurements of tree ring gases in deciduous conifer trees and CO2 carbon isotope composition determined by means of a mass spectrometer are given. Conclusions are made regarding the response of annual larch CO2 disc tree ring distributions to climatic parameters (temperatures and precipitation). The data about the CO2 disc content for different sites are compared. PMID:25808838

  7. Geographic variation, genetic structure and conservation unit designation in the larch mountain salamander( Plethodon larselli)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, R.S.; Miller, Mark P.; Crisafulli, Charles; Haig, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The Larch Mountain salamander (Plethodon larselli Burns, 1954) is an endemic species in the Pacific northwestern United States facing threats related to habitat destruction. To facilitate development of conservation strategies, we used DNA sequences and RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNA) to examine differences among populations of this species. Phylogenetic analyses of cytochrome b revealed a clade of haplotypes from populations north of the Columbia River derived from a clade containing haplotypes from the river's southwestern region. Haplotypes from southeastern populations formed a separate clade. Nucleotide diversity was reduced in northern populations relative to southern populations. These results were corroborated by analyses of RAPD loci, which revealed similar patterns of clustering and diversity. Network analyses suggested that northern populations were colonized following a range expansion mediated by individuals from populations located southwest of the river. Changes in the Columbia River's location during the Pliocene and Pleistocene likely released distributional constraints on this species, permitting their northern range expansion. Based on the barrier presented by the Columbia River's present location and differences in haplotype diversity and population structure observed between northern and southern populations, we suggest that designation of separate management units encompassing each region may assist with mitigating different threats to this species.

  8. [Seasonal variation of soil heat conduction in a larch plantation and its relations to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jie; Cui, Song; Liu, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Hui-Min

    2008-10-01

    Based on a 3-year (2003-2005) observation of soil heat flux (SHF) in a larch (Larix gmelinii) plantation, the characteristics of soil heat conduction in the plantation and their relationships with environment factors were analyzed. The results showed that there was an obvious seasonal variation of SHF in different years and sampling sites. The SHF was positive from April to August and mostly negative from September to next March, with an almost balance between heat income and outcome at annual scale. Solar net radiation had significant effects on the SHF and soil heat conductance (k), and an obvious time-lag effect was found, with 4-5 hours' time-lag in winter and 2-3 hours' time-lag in summer. Based on the real-time measurement of SHF and soil temperature difference at the study sites, the k value was significantly higher in early spring (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed in other seasons (P > 0.05). Therefore, when we use the observation data of soil temperature from weather stations to estimate soil heat flux, the k value in spring (from March to May) could induce a bias estimation.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  10. Neural cell activation by phenolic compounds from the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica).

    PubMed

    Loers, Gabriele; Yashunsky, Dmitry V; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-07-25

    Small organic phenolic compounds from natural sources have attracted increasing attention due to their potential to ameliorate the serious consequences of acute and chronic traumata of the mammalian nervous system. In this contribution, it is reported that phenols from the knot zones of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) wood, namely, the antioxidant flavonoid (+)-dihydroquercetin (1) and the lignans (-)-secoisolariciresinol (2) and (+)-isolariciresinol (3), affect migration and outgrowth of neurites/processes from cultured neurons and glial cells of embryonic and early postnatal mice. Compounds 1-3, which were available in preparative amounts, enhanced neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and motoneurons, as well as process formation of Schwann cells in a dose-dependent manner in the low nanomolar range. Migration of cultured astrocytes was inhibited by 1-3, and migration of neurons out of cerebellar explants was enhanced by 1. These observations provide evidence for the neuroactive features of these phenolic compounds in enhancing the beneficial properties of neurons and reducing the inhibitory properties of activated astrocytes in an in vitro setting and encourage the further investigation of these effects in vivo, in animal models of acute and chronic neurological diseases.

  11. Larch arabinogalactan for dry eye protection and treatment of corneal lesions: investigations in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Burgalassi, Susi; Nicosia, Nadia; Monti, Daniela; Falcone, Giulia; Boldrini, Enrico; Chetoni, Patrizia

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the corneal protective and healing properties of arabinogalactan (AG), a natural polysaccharide present in conifers of the genus Larix (Larch). AG was tested in comparison with other two polysaccharides possessing well-established properties in the treatment of dry eye: tamarind seed polysaccharide and hyaluronic acid. The AG formulation was subjected to the following investigations: rheologic measurements; evaluation of mucoadhesive properties by rheologic interaction with mucin; ferning test; and in vivo evaluation on rabbits, including treatment of an experimental dry eye; evaluation of the preocular retention; and evaluation of healing rate of experimental corneal wound. AG dispersions showed a newtonian nonviscous behavior, eta = 1.6 mPa . s for 10% w/w solution; it possessed good mucoadhesive properties useful for retention on the eye surface. In fact, a prolonged time of residence in rabbit eyes was ascertained using fluorescein-labeled AG. Five percent (5.0%) w/w AG exerted a good protective effect against the appearance of corneal dry spots. It also reduced significantly the healing time of an experimental corneal lesion since 27 h after the first treatment. These findings suggest that AG may be a potential therapeutic product for dry eye protection and for the treatment of corneal wounds.

  12. Forest snail diversity and its environmental predictors along a sharp climatic gradient in southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsák, Michal; Juřičková, Lucie; Horsáková, Veronika; Pokorná, Adéla; Pokorný, Petr; Šizling, Arnošt L.; Chytrý, Milan

    2018-04-01

    Diversity patterns of forest snail assemblages have been studied mainly in Europe. Siberian snail faunas have different evolutionary history and colonization dynamics than European faunas, but studies of forest snail diversity are almost missing from Siberia. Therefore, we collected snails at 173 forest sites in the Russian Altai and adjacent areas, encompassing broad variation in climate and forest types. We found 51 species, with a maximum of 15 and an average of seven species per site. The main gradient in species composition was related to soil pH, a variable that also positively correlates with snail abundances. The second gradient was associated with climate characteristics of winter. We observed significant differences in both species richness and composition among six forest types defined based on vegetation classification. Hemiboreal continental forests were the poorest of these types but hosted several species characteristic of European full-glacial stages of the Late Pleistocene. A high snow cover in Temperate coniferous and mixed forests, protecting the soil from freezing, allowed the frost-sensitive large-bodied (>10 mm) species to inhabit this forest type. In contrast to most of the European snail assemblages studied so far we found that the factors responsible for the variation in species richness differed from those driving species composition. This may be attributed to the sharp climatic gradient and the presence of the cold-adapted species typical of the Pleistocene cold stages. We suggest that southern Siberian forests hosting these species can serve as modern analogues of full-glacial forests in periglacial Central and Eastern Europe.

  13. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  14. Ozone risk assessment for an Alpine larch forest in two vegetative seasons with different approaches: comparison of POD1 and AOT40.

    PubMed

    Finco, Angelo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Chiesa, Maria; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2017-12-01

    The upper vegetation belts like larch forests are supposed to be under great pressure because of climate change in the next decades. For this reason, the evaluation of the risks due to abiotic stressors like ozone is a key step. Two different approaches were used here: mapping AOT40 index by means of passive samplers and direct measurements of ozone deposition.Measurements of ozone fluxes using the eddy-correlation technique were carried out for the first time over a larch forest in Paspardo (I) at 1750 m a.s.l. Two field campaigns were run: the first one in 2010 from July to October and the second one in the following year from June to September. Vertical exchange of ozone, energy, and momentum were measured on a tower platform at 26 m above ground level to study fluxes dynamics over this ecosystem. Since the tower was located on a gentle slope, an "ad hoc" methodology was developed to minimize the effects of the terrain inclination. The larch forest uptake was estimated by means of a two-layer model to separate the understorey uptake from the larch one. Even if the total ozone fluxes were generally high, up to 30-40 nmol O 3  m -2  s -1 in both years, the stomatal uptake by the larch forest was relatively low (around 15% of the total deposition).Ozone risk was assessed considering the POD 1 received by the larch forest and the exposure index AOT40 estimated with both local data and data from the map obtained by the passive samplers monitoring.

  15. The YAK-AEROSIB transcontinental aircraft campaigns: new insights on the transport of CO2, CO and O3 across Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, J.-D.; Ciais, P.; Nédélec, P.; Ramonet, M.; Belan, B. D.; Arshinov, M. Yu.; Golitsyn, G. S.; Granberg, I.; Stohl, A.; Cayez, G.; Athier, G.; Boumard, F.; Cousin, J.-M.

    2008-09-01

    Two airborne campaigns were carried out to measure the tropospheric concentrations and variability of CO2, CO and O3 over Siberia. In order to quantify the influence of remote and regional natural and anthropogenic sources, we analysed a total of 52 vertical profiles of these species collected in April and September 2006, every ~200 km and up to 7 km altitude. CO2 and CO concentrations were high in April 2006 (respectively 385-390 ppm CO2 and 160-200 ppb CO) compared to background values. CO concentrations up to 220 ppb were recorded above 3.5 km over eastern Siberia, with enhancements in 500-1000 m thick layers. The presence of CO enriched air masses resulted from a quick frontal uplift of a polluted air mass exposed to northern China anthropogenic emissions and to fire emissions in northern Mongolia. A dominant Asian origin for CO above 4 km (71.0%) contrasted with a dominant European origin below this altitude (70.9%) was deduced both from a transport model analysis, and from the contrasted ΔCO/ΔCO2 ratio vertical distribution. In September 2006, a significant O3 depletion (~ -30 ppb) was repeatedly observed in the boundary layer, as diagnosed from virtual potential temperature profiles and CO2 gradients, compared to the free troposphere aloft, suggestive of a strong O3 deposition over Siberian forests.

  16. Oxygen isotope and deuterium composition of snow cover on the profile of Western Siberia from Tomsk to the Gulf of Ob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'chuk, Yu. K.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Budantseva, N. A.; Vorobiov, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Krizkov, I. V.; Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Chizhova, Ju. N.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the variability of the isotope composition (δ18O, δD, d exc) of the snow cover on a long transect of Western Siberia from the southern taiga to the tundra. The study of the snow cover is of paleogeographic, paleogeocryological, and paleohydrological value. The snow cover of western Siberia was sampled on a broadly NS transzonal profile from the environs of Tomsk (southern taiga zone) to the eastern coast of the Gulf of Ob (tundra zone) from February 19 to March 4, 2014. Snow samples were collected at 31 sites. Most of the samples represented by fresh snow, i.e., snow that had fallen a day before the moment of sampling were collected in two areas. In the area of Yamburg, the snow specimens collected from the surface are most probably settled snow of different ages. The values of δ18O in the snow from Tomsk to Yamburg varied from-21.89 to-32.82‰, and the values of δD, from-163.3 to-261.2‰. The value of deuterium excess was in the range of 4.06-19.53‰.

  17. Genetic variation, phenotypic stability, and repeatability of drought response in European larch throughout 50 years in a common garden experiment

    PubMed Central

    George, Jan-Peter; Grabner, Michael; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Weißenbacher, Lambert; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Assessing intra-specific variation in drought stress response is required to mitigate the consequences of climate change on forest ecosystems. Previous studies suggest that European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), an important European conifer in mountainous and alpine forests, is highly vulnerable to drought. In light of this, we estimated the genetic variation in drought sensitivity and its degree of genetic determination in a 50-year-old common garden experiment in the drought-prone northeastern Austria. Tree ring data from larch provenances originating from across the species' natural range were used to estimate the drought reaction in four consecutive drought events (1977, 1981, 1990–1994, and 2003) with extremely low standardized precipitation- and evapotranspiration-index values that affected growth in all provenances. We found significant differences among provenances across the four drought periods for the trees’ capacity to withstand drought (resistance) and for their capacity to reach pre-drought growth levels after drought (resilience). Provenances from the species' northern distribution limit in the Polish lowlands were found to be more drought resistant and showed higher stability across all drought periods than provenances from mountainous habitats at the southern fringe. The degree of genetic determination, as estimated by the repeatability, ranged up to 0.39, but significantly differed among provenances, indicating varying degrees of natural selection at the provenance origin. Generally, the relationship between the provenances’ source climate and drought behavior was weak, suggesting that the contrasting patterns of drought response are a result of both genetic divergence out of different refugial lineages and local adaptation to summer or winter drought conditions. Our analysis suggests that European larch posseses high genetic variation among and within provenances that can be used for assisted migration and breeding programs. PMID

  18. Drought response of five conifer species under contrasting water availability suggests high vulnerability of Norway spruce and European larch.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Mathieu; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Eilmann, Britta; Brang, Peter; Bugmann, Harald; Rigling, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The ability of tree species to cope with anticipated decrease in water availability is still poorly understood. We evaluated the potential of Norway spruce, Scots pine, European larch, black pine, and Douglas-fir to withstand drought in a drier future climate by analyzing their past growth and physiological responses at a xeric and a mesic site in Central Europe using dendroecological methods. Earlywood, latewood, and total ring width, as well as the δ(13) C and δ(18) O in early- and latewood were measured and statistically related to a multiscalar soil water deficit index from 1961 to 2009. At the xeric site, δ(13) C values of all species were strongly linked to water deficits that lasted longer than 11 months, indicating a long-term cumulative effect on the carbon pool. Trees at the xeric site were particularly sensitive to soil water recharge in the preceding autumn and early spring. The native species European larch and Norway spruce, growing close to their dry distribution limit at the xeric site, were found to be the most vulnerable species to soil water deficits. At the mesic site, summer water availability was critical for all species, whereas water availability prior to the growing season was less important. Trees at the mesic were more vulnerable to water deficits of shorter duration than the xeric site. We conclude that if summers become drier, trees growing on mesic sites will undergo significant growth reductions, whereas at their dry distribution limit in the Alps, tree growth of the highly sensitive spruce and larch may collapse, likely inducing dieback and compromising the provision of ecosystem services. However, the magnitude of these changes will be mediated strongly by soil water recharge in winter and thus water availability at the beginning of the growing season. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. AmeriFlux CA-WP1 Alberta - Western Peatland - LaBiche River,Black Spruce/Larch Fen

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, Lawrence B.

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-WP1 Alberta - Western Peatland - LaBiche River,Black Spruce/Larch Fen. Site Description - Latitude: 54.9538359° N Longitude: 112.4669767° W, the site is dominated by stunted trees of Larix laricina and Picea mariana, with Betula pumila, Ledum groenlandicum and Salix sp. (shrubs) and a wide range of moss species. There is also an abundant dwarf-shrub and herb layer including: Andromeda polifolia, Carex sp., Empetrum nigrum, Menyanthese trifoliata, Oxycoccus microcarpus, Potentilla palustris, Rubus acaulis, Smilacina trifolia, Vaccinium vitis-idea.

  20. EC FP6 Siberia-focused Enviro-RISKS Project and its Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A. A.; Gordov, E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The FP6 Project "Man-induced Environmental Risks: Monitoring, Management and Remediation of Man-made Changes in Siberia" (Enviro-RISKS) strategic objective is to facilitate elaboration of solid scientific background and understanding of man-made associated environmental risks, their influence on all aspects of regional environment and optimal ways for it remediation by means of coordinated initiatives of a range of relevant RTD projects as well as to achieve their improved integration thus giving the projects additional synergy in current activities and potential for practical applications. List of Partners includes 3 leading European research organizations, 6 leading Russian research organizations (5 - located in Siberia) and 1 organization from Kazakhstan. Additionally several Russian and European research organizations joined to the Project as Associated Partners. Scientific background and foundation for the project performance is formed by a number of different levels RTD projects carried out by Partners and devoted to near all aspects of the theme. The set comprise coordinated/performed by partners EC funded thematic international projects, Russian national projects and other projects performed by NIS partners. Project outcomes include, in particular, development and support of the bilingual Enviro-RISKS web portal (http://risks.scert.ru/) as the major tool for disseminations of environmental information and project results; achieved level of development of Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/), which is the Siberia-focused NEESPI Environmental Mega-Project ongoing under the auspices of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The main Project outcome are Memorandum on the state of the art of environmental RTD activity in Siberia and Recommendations on future environmental RTD activity in Siberia elaborated by four Working Experts Groups working in most important for Siberia Thematic Focuses. Three Thematic Focuses

  1. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of

  2. Direct observations of reactive atmospheric gases at ZOTTO station in the middle of Siberia as a base for large-scale modeling of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Shtabkin, Yury; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Vasileva, Anastasia; Rakitin, Vadim; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    polluted cases which are quite regular CO may increase till 400 ppb and more. Most uncertainties are due to the wild fires, which are often in different regions of Siberia. Numerical assessment of climatically important natural and anthropogenic emission sources influencing observed CO and O3 concentrations and their seasonal variability was made using GEOS-Chem model. According to the results, during the cold period CO concentrations in the surface layer is largely driven atmospheric transport from anthropogenic sources in Western Europe (up to 20 ppb), south of European Russia (up to 35 ppb) and south-western Siberia (up to 28 ppb). During the warm season they are usually affected by air transport from eastern Siberia, where the main contribution to the CO emissions are biogenic VOC oxidation (up to 15 ppb) and wildfires (up to 12 ppb). Transport of pollutants from south-western Siberia can add about 2,5 ppb to the ozone summer level in Central Siberia. In wintertime this factor leads to a reduced surface ozone level by 2 ppb. The contribution of large remote emission sources (Europe) is estimated within 1 ppb. Generally the simulation results indicate a significant role of long-range air transport in addition to regional natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution which determine the total balance of surface CO. These processes need to be considered in quantitative analyses of the factors that determine the long-term photochemical system evolution in the lower troposphere over the continental regions of Northern Eurasia. This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Fund under grant 14-47-00049.

  3. Eastern Europe: USSR aims to improve production

    SciTech Connect

    Rigassi, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This article details the perspectives for Eastern European petroleum development. Observations include: Oil output in Russia declined 2.6% last year, a drop more than twice as bad as 1984; Gorbachev cleaned house in 1985 after inspecting production problems in West Siberia; USSR exploratory/appraisal drilling the next five years should exceed 1981-85 by 40%; Gas output in USSR for '85 was 57.5 bcfd. A peak of 64 bcfd was reached last February; Poland hit a major offshore oil and gas find in the Baltic Sea during October 1985; Cash-short Yugoslavia plans to develop Ivana offshore gas field in the Adriatic Sea;more » Faced with stumbling domestic oil production, Romania turns to the USSR to fill the gap; Gas production in Hungary may drop despite added production from new and old fields.« less

  4. Hydrological dynamics and fire history of the last 1300 years in western Siberia reconstructed from a high-resolution, ombrotrophic peat archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Słowiński, Michał; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Małgorzata; Kaliszan, Karolina; Lapshina, Elena; Gilbert, Daniel; Buttler, Alexandre; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima; Kołaczek, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Siberian peatlands provide records of past changes in the continental climate of Eurasia. We analyzed a core from Mukhrino mire in western Siberia to reconstruct environmental change in this region over the last 1300 years. The pollen analysis revealed little variation of local pine-birch forests. A testate amoebae transfer function was used to generate a quantitative water-table reconstruction; pollen, plant macrofossils, and charcoal were analyzed to reconstruct changes in vegetation and fire activity. The study revealed that Mukhrino mire was wet until the Little Ice Age (LIA), when drought was recorded. Dry conditions during the LIA are consistent with other studies from central and eastern Europe, and with the pattern of carbon accumulation across the Northern Hemisphere. A significant increase in fire activity between ca. AD 1975 and 1990 may be associated with the development of the nearby city of Khanty-Mansiysk, as well as with the prevailing positive Arctic Oscillation.

  5. Landscape fire in East Siberia: medical, ecological and economic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimova, N. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.; Zabuga, G. A.; Elfimova, T. A.

    2018-01-01

    More than 40 % of the forests in Siberia region are known to have a fire danger of high classes and high burning degrees. This paper describes air pollutants emission (PM10, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and others) in East Siberian region during a 10-year period in the forests fires focus. A total of 500 to 2000 fires occurred in Irkutsk oblast during the last ten years. At an average annual forest fires cover an area of 1 109 hectares on the model territory (Bratsk city). The plane pollutant emission source with a high productivity is formed on the significant forest fire area occurred in a relatively short-term time periods. The increase in hazard ratios was registered for the ingredients of emission-specific industrial enterprises and capable of accumulating in vegetation: carbon disulphide 1.9 times, fluorine-containing substances 1.8 times during the fire. The economic loss of energy resources resulting from reduced production of firewood was estimated at 56.6 million in Irkutsk oblast. The potential risk of negative effects for the respiratory system and cardiovascular system stipulated for the acute inhalation exposure was found to increase on the days, of the fires, as evidenced by the growth of the daily mortality and morbidity rates among the population.

  6. A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

  7. Effects of climate and fire on short-term vegetation recovery in the boreal larch forests of Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua

    2016-11-18

    Understanding the influence of climate variability and fire characteristics in shaping postfire vegetation recovery will help to predict future ecosystem trajectories in boreal forests. In this study, I asked: (1) which remotely-sensed vegetation index (VI) is a good proxy for vegetation recovery? and (2) what are the relative influences of climate and fire in controlling postfire vegetation recovery in a Siberian larch forest, a globally important but poorly understood ecosystem type? Analysis showed that the shortwave infrared (SWIR) VI is a good indicator of postfire vegetation recovery in boreal larch forests. A boosted regression tree analysis showed that postfire recovery was collectively controlled by processes that controlled seed availability, as well as by site conditions and climate variability. Fire severity and its spatial variability played a dominant role in determining vegetation recovery, indicating seed availability as the primary mechanism affecting postfire forest resilience. Environmental and immediate postfire climatic conditions appear to be less important, but interact strongly with fire severity to influence postfire recovery. If future warming and fire regimes manifest as expected in this region, seed limitation and climate-induced regeneration failure will become more prevalent and severe, which may cause forests to shift to alternative stable states.

  8. Effects of climate and fire on short-term vegetation recovery in the boreal larch forests of Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the influence of climate variability and fire characteristics in shaping postfire vegetation recovery will help to predict future ecosystem trajectories in boreal forests. In this study, I asked: (1) which remotely-sensed vegetation index (VI) is a good proxy for vegetation recovery? and (2) what are the relative influences of climate and fire in controlling postfire vegetation recovery in a Siberian larch forest, a globally important but poorly understood ecosystem type? Analysis showed that the shortwave infrared (SWIR) VI is a good indicator of postfire vegetation recovery in boreal larch forests. A boosted regression tree analysis showed that postfire recovery was collectively controlled by processes that controlled seed availability, as well as by site conditions and climate variability. Fire severity and its spatial variability played a dominant role in determining vegetation recovery, indicating seed availability as the primary mechanism affecting postfire forest resilience. Environmental and immediate postfire climatic conditions appear to be less important, but interact strongly with fire severity to influence postfire recovery. If future warming and fire regimes manifest as expected in this region, seed limitation and climate-induced regeneration failure will become more prevalent and severe, which may cause forests to shift to alternative stable states. PMID:27857204

  9. Soil respiration of the Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii) forest and the response to fire disturbance in Da Xing'an Mountains, China

    Treesearch

    Tongxin Hu; Long Sun; Haiqing Hu; David R. Weise; Futao Guo

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high frequency of wildfire disturbances in boreal forests in China, the effects of wildfires on soil respiration are not yet well understood. We examined the effects of fire severity on the soil respiration rate (Rs) and its component change in a Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii) in Northeast China. The results showed...

  10. Ecological indicators of forest degradation after forest fire and clear-cutting in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) stand of Mongolia

    Treesearch

    Y.D. Park; D.K. Lee; J.A. Stanturf; S.Y. Woo; D. Zoyo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate ecological indicators of forest degradation after forest fire and clear-cutting in the Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) stand of Mongolia. The species abundance and biodiversity indices were higher in burned and clear-cut stands than those of reference stand, but boreal understory species, such as Vaccinium vitis-idaea,...

  11. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface

    Treesearch

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan

    2004-01-01

    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...

  12. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  14. The role of organic soil layer on the fate of Siberian larch forest and near-surface permafrost under changing climate: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SATO, H.; Iwahana, G.; Ohta, T.

    2013-12-01

    Siberian larch forest is the largest coniferous forest region in the world. In this vast region, larch often forms nearly pure stands, regenerated by recurrent fire. This region is characterized by a short and dry growing season; the annual mean precipitation for Yakutsk was only about 240 mm. To maintain forest ecosystem under such small precipitation, underlying permafrost and seasonal soil freezing-thawing-cycle have been supposed to play important roles; (1) frozen ground inhibits percolation of soil water into deep soil layers, and (2) excess soil water at the end of growing season can be carried over until the next growing season as ice, and larch trees can use the melt water. As a proof for this explanation, geographical distribution of Siberian larch region highly coincides with continuous and discontinuous permafrost zone. Recent observations and simulation studies suggests that existences of larch forest and permafrost in subsurface layer are co-dependent; permafrost maintains the larch forest by enhancing water use efficiency of trees, while larch forest maintains permafrost by inhibiting solar radiation and preventing heat exchanges between soil and atmosphere. Owing to such complexity and absence of enough ecosystem data available, current-generation Earth System Models significantly diverse in their prediction of structure and key ecosystem functions in Siberian larch forest under changing climate. Such uncertainty should in turn expand uncertainty over predictions of climate, because Siberian larch forest should have major role in the global carbon balance with its huge area and vast potential carbon pool within the biomass and soil, and changes in boreal forest albedo can have a considerable effect on Northern Hemisphere climate. In this study, we developed an integrated ecosystem model, which treats interactions between plant-dynamics and freeze-thaw cycles. This integrated model contains a dynamic global vegetation model SEIB-DGVM, which simulates

  15. Release and retention patterns of organic compounds and nutrients after the cold period in foliar litterfall of pure European larch, common beech and red oak plantations in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldienė, D.; Aleinikovienė, J.; Muraškienė, M.; Marozas, V.; Armolaitis, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in alien warmth-tolerant forest plantations of red oak ( Quercus rubra), common beech ( Fagus sylvatica) and European larch ( Larix decidua). We compared the changes in foliar litterfall mass and biochemical composition after five months of cold period. The mean mass of fresh foliar litterfall collected in late autumn was 30% higher in red oak compared to the larch and beech plantations. After the cold period, the reduction of foliar litterfall mass did not exceed 10% in any of the studied plantations. The fresh foliar litterfall of red oak was the richest in cellular fibre and easily decomposable glucose and nutrients such as P and Mg, larch was distinguished by the highest lignin, N, K and Ca concentrations, while beech fresh foliar litterfall was the poorest in the aforementioned nutrients. After the cold period, the changes in the biochemical composition of foliar litterfall revealed different patterns. In the spring, the beech and red oak foliar litterfall was the richest in N, P and Ca, meanwhile the larch foliar litterfall still had the highest concentration of lignin but, in contrast to the autumn, was the poorest in nutrients. After the cold period Lignin: N, C: N and C: P ratios reached critical values indicating that the foliar litterfall of beech and red oak had started to decompose. The highest lignin concentration and the highest and most stable Lignin: N, C: N, C: P and N: P ratios after the cold period indicated that the slowest foliar litterfall decomposition took place in the larch plantation.

  16. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  17. [Temperature conditions of the formation of frost damages in conifer trees in the high latitudes of Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Gurskaia, M A

    2014-01-01

    Frost damage to the bottom of the stem at a height of 0.2 m and at the height of the position of the thermometer in the weather station (2 m) and higher in the Siberian spruce (Picea obovata Ledeb.) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) growing at the northern limits of their natural habitat were studied in order to reveal the upper threshold temperature conditions of their formation. Possible causes of differences in the distribution of frost damage in the stem of the spruce and larch are discussed.

  18. Nitrogen cycle inferred by δ15N in larch stand in northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Mika; Lopez C., Maximo Larry; Nobori, Yoshihiro; Byambasuren, Mijidsuren; Boy, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Mongolia represents the southernmost border of boreal forests and therefore is more sensitive to climate change. In boreal regions forest grow under N-limited conditions and for this reason rely on ectomycorrhizal fungi for the uptake of inorganic and dissolved organic N from the soil solution. A drastic increase in air temperature and a decrease or almost no change in summer precipitation has led to a severe climate induced drought that is expected to impact the nitrogen cycle in this region. Until now there has been no study on the nitrogen dynamics and especially not by means of stable isotope in the entire Eurasian boreal forests. Thus, in this study we evaluate the effect of spatial and climatic characteristics on the soil-tree N exchange in three representative larch forest stands (Larix sibirica) in the forest-steppe zone of central Mongolia. The results showed significant differences in the soil available N content and the influence that this difference exerts on the level of N fractionation from roots to leaves. In this study we observed heavier d15N in fine roots than in short roots (where the ectomycorrhizal fungi is attached) which was used as a proxy for soil available d15N. This value did not match total N d15N in any of the three sites selected for this study even though total N d15N has been used in previous studies as a proxy for available N d15N. Higher fractionation was observed in forest stands where available N was more limited indicating a heavier reliance on ectomycorrhizal fungi for inorganic N uptake. Coincidentally, the site with less available N was the southern site with the lowest precipitation. The opposite was found in the northern sites where available N was higher and thus fractionation showed lower values. Different tree tissues (fine and short-roots, stem, leaves) and litter showed multiple, intra-plant processes that influenced the isotope signal of the source-sink nitrogen dynamics.

  19. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  20. Using New Remotely-sensed Biomass To Estimate Co2 Fluxes Over Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafont, S.; Kergoat, L.; Dedieu, G.; Le Toan, T.

    Two european programs recently focused on Siberia. The first one, Eurosiberian Car- bonflux was a faisability study for an observation system of the regional CO2 fluxes. The second one, SIBERIA was a big effort to develop and validate a biomass map on Siberia using radar data from satelltes (J-ERS, ERS). Here, we extend the simula- tion of NPP performed for the first program by using the biomass data of the second program. The TURC model, used here, is a global NPP model, based on light use efficiency, where photosynthetic assimilation is driven by satellite vegetation index, and au- totrophic respiration is driven by biomass. In this study, we will present a n´ zoom z on siberian region. The TURC model was run with a fine resolution (few kilometers) and a daily time step. We will discuss the impact of a new biomass dataset description on Net Primary Pro- ductivity (NPP) and CO2 fluxes estimation.

  1. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  2. Targeting the Soviet Army along the Sino-Soviet Border. Sanitized

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-31

    consisting usually of larches, pines, firs and spruces . Over 75’ of Eastern Siberia and 49% of the Far East economic region are forested, the densest...momentum of the Soviet strategic progra’i in both quality, diversity and numbers of systems. New high throwight missiles. are being introduced...model area in defense alert and maneuver scenario 1!./114 14 Site/weapons ratios for targetl~ag defense alert sites 121 15 Outlays fir offensive alert

  3. Taxonomic composition of phytoplankton in the Vakh River (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorobogatova, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides data on the hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of the Vakh River in the Middle Ob region. In 2005-2008 we have identified 404 taxonomic units represented by 463 species, types and forms of algae, belonging to 140 genera, 52 families, 13 classes and 7 divisions. 386 species were identified for the first time, 141 taxa were identified as rare and 22 taxa as new for Western Siberia. Leading divisions, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, make up for 78.9% of total phytoplankton diversity. Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Euglenophyta form a community of 88 taxonomic units having a rank lower than genus level, and represent 19.0% of the total number. The floral role of Xanthophyta and Dinophyta is insignificant (2.1%). The main structure-forming species are 14: vegetating throughout the year (Aulacoseira italica, Asterionella formosa), summer taxa (Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira varians, Aulacoseira granulata, Pandorina morum, Pediastrum boryanum, P. duplex, Lacunastrum gracillimum, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and summer-autumn (Microcystis pulverea, Tabellaria fenestrata, T. flocculosa, Mucidosphaerium pulchellum). The Vakh River demonstrates specific characteristics of boreal flowing waterways. The northern composition is represented in a big rate of families (44.2%) and genera (109 77.9) with one to three species. The richest genera Closterium (31 taxa), Eunotia (27 taxa), Pinnularia (22 taxa), Desmidium (11 taxa) and the family Desmidiaceae (45 taxa) ensure diversity of phytoplankton. Ecological and geographical analysis demonstrates predominance of cosmopolitan algae (56.6%). Plankton represents 44.7% of all algae, oligogalobs - 78.8% and indifferent algae – 36.7%. Water meets the requirements for β-mezosaprobian pollution zone, class of satisfactory purity (III class).

  4. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  5. Carbon and nitrogen pools in thermokarst-affected permafrost landscapes in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Matthias; Grosse, Guido; Strauss, Jens; Günther, Frank; Grigoriev, Mikhail; Maximov, Georgy M.; Hugelius, Gustaf

    2018-02-01

    Ice-rich yedoma-dominated landscapes store considerable amounts of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and are vulnerable to degradation under climate warming. We investigate the C and N pools in two thermokarst-affected yedoma landscapes - on Sobo-Sise Island and on Bykovsky Peninsula in the north of eastern Siberia. Soil cores up to 3 m depth were collected along geomorphic gradients and analysed for organic C and N contents. A high vertical sampling density in the profiles allowed the calculation of C and N stocks for short soil column intervals and enhanced understanding of within-core parameter variability. Profile-level C and N stocks were scaled to the landscape level based on landform classifications from 5 m resolution, multispectral RapidEye satellite imagery. Mean landscape C and N storage in the first metre of soil for Sobo-Sise Island is estimated to be 20.2 kg C m-2 and 1.8 kg N m-2 and for Bykovsky Peninsula 25.9 kg C m-2 and 2.2 kg N m-2. Radiocarbon dating demonstrates the Holocene age of thermokarst basin deposits but also suggests the presence of thick Holocene-age cover layers which can reach up to 2 m on top of intact yedoma landforms. Reconstructed sedimentation rates of 0.10-0.57 mm yr-1 suggest sustained mineral soil accumulation across all investigated landforms. Both yedoma and thermokarst landforms are characterized by limited accumulation of organic soil layers (peat). We further estimate that an active layer deepening of about 100 cm will increase organic C availability in a seasonally thawed state in the two study areas by ˜ 5.8 Tg (13.2 kg C m-2). Our study demonstrates the importance of increasing the number of C and N storage inventories in ice-rich yedoma and thermokarst environments in order to account for high variability of permafrost and thermokarst environments in pan-permafrost soil C and N pool estimates.

  6. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  7. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  8. Climatic interpretation of tree-ring methoxyl d2H time-series from a central alpine larch forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-04-01

    We measured stable hydrogen isotope ratios of lignin methoxyl groups (d2HLM) in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from the Simplon Valley in southern Switzerland. Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their d2HLM values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). Testing the climate response of the d2HLM series, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation and weaker but negative correlation with June/July temperature. In addition, a negative correlation with June-August d2H in precipitation of the nearby GNIP station in Locarno is observed. The pentadally resolved d2HLM series show no significant correlation to climate parameters. The positive correlation of the annually resolved data to summer precipitation is uncommon to d2H measurements from tree-rings (Feakins et al., 2013; Helle and Schleser, 2004; McCarroll and Loader, 2004; Mischel et al., 2015; White et al., 1994). However, we explain the positive association with warm season hydroclimate as follows: methoxyl groups of lignin are directly formed from tissues in the xylem water. More precipitation during June and July, which are on average relatively dry month, results in higher d2H values of the xylem water and therefore, higher d2H value in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that d2HLM values of high elevation larch trees might likely serve as a summer precipitation proxy. References: Feakins, S.J., Ellsworth, P.V., Sternberg, L.d.S.L., 2013. Lignin methoxyl hydrogen isotope rations in a coastal ecosystem. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 121: 54-66. Helle, G., Schleser, G.H., 2004. Interpreting Climate Proxies from Tree-rings. In: Fischer, H., Floeser, G., Kumke, T., Lohmann, G., Miller, H., Negendank, J.F.W., et al., editors. The Climate in Historical Times. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 129-148. McCarroll, D., Loader, N.J., 2004. Stable isotopes in tree rings. Quaternary

  9. Facile Control of the Porous Structure of Larch-Derived Mesoporous Carbons via Self-Assembly for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Chen, Honglei; Wang, Shoujuan; Kong, Fangong; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-11-20

    Mesoporous carbons have been successfully synthesized via self-assembly using larch-based resins as precursors and triblock copolymers as soft templates. The porous structure of mesoporous carbons can be tailored by adjusting the ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic (EO/PO) units owing to interfacial curvature. Interestingly, the porous structures show a distinct change from vortex-like to worm-like pores, to stripe-like pores, and to ordered two-dimensional hexagonal pores as the ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic units increases, indicating the significant effect of EO/PO ratio on the porous structure. The mesoporous carbons as supercapacitor electrodes exhibit superior electrochemical capacitive performance and a high degree of reversibility after 2000 cycles for supercapacitors due to the well-defined mesoporosity of the carbon materials. Meanwhile, the superior carbon has a high specific capacitance of 107 F·g -1 in 6 M KOH at a current density of 10 A·g -1 .

  10. A Physicochemical and Pharmacological Study of the Newly Synthesized Complex of Albendazole and the Polysaccharide Arabinogalactan from Larch Wood.

    PubMed

    Chistyachenko, Yulia S; Meteleva, Elizaveta S; Pakharukova, Maria Y; Katokhin, Aleksey V; Khvostov, Mikhail V; Varlamova, Anastasiya I; Glamazdin, Igor I; Khalikov, Salavat S; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Arkhipov, Ivan A; Tolstikova, Tatyana G; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Dushkin, Alexander V; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion complexes of albendazole (ABZ) with the polysaccharide arabinogalactan from larch wood Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii were synthesized using a solid-state mechanochemical technology. We investigated physicochemical properties of the synthesized complexes in the solid state and in aqueous solutions as well as their anthelmintic activity against Trichinella spiralis, Hymenolepis nаna, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and mixed nematodoses of sheep. Formation of the complexes was demonstrated by means of intrinsic solubility and the NMR relaxation method. The mechanochemically synthesized complexes were more stable in comparison with the complex produced by mixing solutions of the components. The complexes of ABZ showed anthelmintic activity at 10-fold lower doses than did free ABZ. The complexes also showed lower acute toxicity and hepatotoxicity. These results suggest that it is possible to design new drugs on the basis of the ABZ:arabinogalactan complex that are safer and more effective than albendazole.

  11. Key mechanisms of metabolic changes in mountain pine and larch under drought in the Swiss National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churakova, Olga; Bigler, Christof; Bryukhanova, Marina; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Forests are of great ecological, economic and social importance worldwide. In many regions they have been recently affected by water deficits during summer droughts due to increasing temperatures and shortage of precipitation (Allen et al. 2010). Climate models predict that drought frequency will continue to increase during the 21st century and beyond (CH 2011). Since the foundation of the Swiss National Park (SNP) in 1914 these forests have not been managed any more, which allows to study natural processes in these forest ecosystems. Since the 1990s, annual and spring temperatures increased in the SNP up to 0.5 ºC and 1.02 ºC, respectively, and average summer temperature increased up to 0.6 ºC. Annual precipitation decreased by 81 mm compared to the mean values (927 mm) from 1917 to 1989. Therefore, detailed studies of drought effects on the physiological functioning of trees over the last decades are needed. Recently, mortality processes of mountain pines were observed in the Swiss National Park (Bigler, Rigling 2013). It is of great interest to investigate and compare the physiological responses of mountain pine and larch to drought and to understand the mechanisms behind the mortality processes. The goal of our study is to investigate the key mechanisms of tree physiological responses to drought in the SNP using state-of-the-art methods of classical dendrochronology, tree physiology, stable isotope, and compound-specific isotope analyses. Long-term responses of mountain pine and larch trees from north- and south-facing sites to drought will be inferred from tree-ring width data. Based on climatic data a drought index will be calculated and reconstructed back in time. New chronologies for stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios derived from both pine and larch tree-ring cellulose will provide retrospective insight into the long-term whole-plant physiological control of gas exchange derived from estimates of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and

  12. Warming and CO2 enrichment modified the ecophysiological responses of Dahurian larch and Mongolia pine during the past century in the permafrost of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Liangju; Voelker, Steven; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuanwen; Zhang, Lingnan; Sun, Weizhen; Zhang, Qiuliang; Wu, Guoju; Li, Xiaoqin

    2018-06-15

    Tree-ring δ13C and δ18O of dominant Dahurian larch and Mongolia pine in the permafrost region of the northern Great Higgnan Mountains, China were used to elucidate species-specific ecophysiological responses to warming temperatures and increasing CO2 over the past century. Larch and pine stable carbon discrimination (Δ13C) 13C and δ18O in tree rings both showed synchronous changes during the investigated period (1901-2010), but with species-specific isotopic responses to atmospheric enriched CO2 and warming. Tree-ring Δ13C and δ18O were controlled by both maximum temperature and moisture conditions (precipitation, relative humidity and vapor pressure deficit), but with different growth periods (Δ13C in June-July and δ18O in July-August, respectively). In addition, stable isotopes of larch showed relatively greater sensitivity to moisture deficits than pine. Climatic conditions from 1920 to 1960 strongly and coherently regulated tree-ring Δ13C and δ18O through stomatal conductance. However, climatic-sensitivities of tree-ring Δ13C and δ18O recently diverged, implying substantial adjustments of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and altered water sources over recent decades, which reveal the varied impacts of each factor on tree-ring Δ13C and δ18O over time. Based on expected changes in leaf gas-exchange, we isolated the impacts of atmospheric CO2 and climate change on intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) over the past century. Higher intracellular CO2 in pine than larch from 1960 onwards suggests this species may be more resilient to severe droughts in the future. Our data also illustrated no weakening of the iWUE response to increasing CO2 in trees from this permafrost region. The overall pattern of CO2 enrichment and climate impacts on iWUE of pine and larch were similar, but warming increased iWUE of larch to a greater extent than that of pine over recent two decades. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of considering how

  13. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe.

    PubMed

    Khansaritoreh, Elmira; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Ariunbaatar, Tumurbaatar; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Batsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Yeruult, Yolk; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Tuya, Daramragchaa; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affected by warming, drought, and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area. We found increasing climate sensitivity and decreasing first-order autocorrelation of annual stemwood increment with decreasing stand size. Stemwood increment increased with previous year's June and August precipitation in the three smallest forest size classes, but not in the largest forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the tree growth dependence on summer rainfall was highest. Missing ring frequency has strongly increased since the 1970s in small, but not in large forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the increase was much greater than in the forest-dominated landscape. Forest regeneration decreased with decreasing stand size and was scarce or absent in the smallest forests. Our results suggest that the larch trees in small and isolated forest patches are far more susceptible to climate warming than in large continuous forests pointing to a grim future for the forests in this strongly warming region of the boreal forest that is also under high land use pressure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Deep Permafrost Carbon Pool of Siberia and Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Grosse, G.; Ulrich, M.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Hubberten, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the amount of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost and its biogeochemical characteristics are important topics in today's permafrost research. While the uppermost cryosoil horizons are reasonably studied and recorded in the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), there are large uncertainties concerning the quantity and distribution of permafrost deep organic carbon. We studied the organic carbon content of the Yedoma region of unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. This region is unique because of its long-term accumulation of organic carbon, which was deeply incorporated into permafrost during the late Quaternary. Inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term carbon sink. Organic carbon in the Yedoma region occurs mainly as peat inclusions, twigs and root fragments, other solid and fine detrital plant remains, fossil remains of mammals, insects, aquatic plankton and soil microorganisms, and finally their decompositional and metabolic products in terms of particulate and dissolved organic matter. With our study we show that two major sub-reservoirs compose the Yedoma region deep frozen organic carbon; Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalised as thermokarst deposits). Thaw-lake basins result when lake formation degrades Yedoma deposits, then the lakes drain and deposits refreeze. Therefore, the deep Yedoma region organic carbon pool is far from homogeneous and strongly linked to depositional and permafrost dynamics as well as the ecological and climatic history. Using of approximately 1000 frozen samples from 23 Siberian and Alaskan study sites and a new approach for upscaling, we find significant differences to former estimates of the Yedoma coverage area, thickness of the relevant frozen deposits, ground ice content and finally in organic carbon content that lead to a reassessment of the deep

  15. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

    2009-12-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age

  16. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in Siberia

    Treesearch

    Eric Gustafson; Anatoly Shvidenko; Robert Scheller; Brian Sturtevant

    2011-01-01

    Siberian forest ecosystems are experiencing multiple global changes. Climate change produces direct (temperature and precipitation) and indirect (altered fire regimes and increase in cold-limited insect outbreaks) effects. Although much of Siberia has not yet been subject to timber harvest, the frontier of timber cutting is advancing steadily across the region. We...

  17. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2011-01-01

    We investigated questions about the ability of broad silvicultural strategies to achieve multiple objectives (reduce disturbance losses, maintain the abundance of preferred species, mitigate fragmentation and loss of age-class diversity, and sequester aboveground carbon) under future climate conditions in Siberia. We conducted a factorial experiment using the LANDIS-II...

  18. Fire Impact on Surface Fuels and Carbon Emissions in Scots pine Logged Sites of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zhila, S. V.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due great amounts of logging slash, which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population. Both legal and illegal logging are also increasing rapidly in many forest areas of Siberia. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on logged vs. unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region in 2009-2012 as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Dead down woody fuels are significantly less at unburned/logged area of dry southern regions compared to more humid northern regions. Fuel consumption was typically less in spring fires than during summer fires. Fire-caused carbon emissions on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration is less at logged areas compared to undisturbed forest. After fire soil respiration decreases both at logged and unlogged areas. arbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  19. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  20. Variability of fire behavior, fire effects, and emissions in Scotch pine forests of central Siberia

    Treesearch

    D. J. McRae; Susan Conard; G. A. Ivanova; A. I. Sukhinin; Steve Baker; Y. N. Samsonov; T. W. Blake; V. A. Ivanov; A. V. Ivanov; T. V. Churkina; WeiMin Hao; K. P. Koutzenogij; Nataly Kovaleva

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, replicated 4-ha experimental fires were conducted on a dry Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris)/lichen (Cladonia sp.)/feathermoss (Pleurozeum schreberi) forest site in central Siberia. Observations from the initial seven surface fires (2000-2001) ignited under a range of burning...

  1. Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Mikhail V.

    2002-02-01

    Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and

  2. Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Ichii, K.; Hirata, R.; Takagi, K.; Asanuma, J.; Machimura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Ohta, T.; Saigusa, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Hirano, T.

    2010-03-01

    Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and used to identify important environmental factors that affect the carbon and water cycles at both temporal and spatial scales. The model simulation performed with the default deciduous conifer parameters produced results that had large differences from the observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE), and evapotranspiration (ET). Therefore, we adjusted several model parameters in order to reproduce the observed rates of carbon and water cycle processes. This model calibration, performed using the AsiaFlux data, substantially improved the model performance. The simulated annual GPP, RE, NEE, and ET from the calibrated model were highly consistent with observed values. The observed and simulated GPP and RE across the six sites were positively correlated with the annual mean air temperature and annual total precipitation. On the other hand, the simulated carbon budget was partly explained by the stand disturbance history in addition to the climate. The sensitivity study indicated that spring warming enhanced the carbon sink, whereas summer warming decreased it across the larch forests. The summer radiation was the most important factor that controlled the carbon fluxes in the temperate site, but the VPD and water conditions were the limiting factors in the boreal sites. One model parameter, the allocation ratio of carbon between belowground and aboveground, was site-specific, and it was negatively correlated with the annual climate of annual mean air temperature and total precipitation. Although this study substantially

  3. Simulating carbon and water cycles of larch forests in East Asia by the BIOME-BGC model with AsiaFlux data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, M.; Ichii, K.; Hirata, R.; Takagi, K.; Asanuma, J.; Machimura, T.; Nakai, Y.; Ohta, T.; Saigusa, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Hirano, T.

    2009-08-01

    Larch forests are widely distributed across many cool-temperate and boreal regions, and they are expected to play an important role in global carbon and water cycles. Model parameterizations for larch forests still contain large uncertainties owing to a lack of validation. In this study, a process-based terrestrial biosphere model, BIOME-BGC, was tested for larch forests at six AsiaFlux sites and used to identify important environmental factors that affect the carbon and water cycles at both temporal and spatial scales. The model simulation performed with the default deciduous conifer parameters produced results that had large differences from the observed net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE), and evapotranspiration (ET). Therefore, we adjusted several model parameters in order to reproduce the observed rates of carbon and water cycle processes. This model calibration, performed using the AsiaFlux data, significantly improved the model performance. The simulated annual GPP, RE, NEE, and ET from the calibrated model were highly consistent with observed values. The observed and simulated GPP and RE across the six sites are positively correlated with the annual mean air temperature and annual total precipitation. On the other hand, the simulated carbon budget is partly explained by the stand disturbance history in addition to the climate. The sensitivity study indicates that spring warming enhances the carbon sink, whereas summer warming decreases it across the larch forests. The summer radiation is the most important factor that controls the carbon fluxes in the temperate site, but the VPD and water conditions are the limiting factors in the boreal sites. One model parameter, the allocation ratio of carbon between aboveground and belowground, is site-specific, and it is negatively correlated with the annual climate of annual mean air temperature and total precipitation. Although this study significantly improves

  4. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    Environmental Sciences) biannual Young Scientists' School (YSS) and international conferences [15]. These include lecture courses for young scientists, training sessions, invited lectures and thematic workshops (www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). The first event was organized in 2000, and thereafter each year 50-70 young scientists from Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States participate in CITES and ENVIROMIS conferences. These events are organized to support multidisciplinary education, contain no parallel sessions, are composed of about 50% students, and all presentations are posted to assist future professional activity. In the first years, these activities were supported internationally (INTAS, the EC International Cooperation Program within FP5 and FP6); however, recent activities have been supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the RF Ministry of Education and Science and the SB RAS. Some results gained in the course of SIRS projects being carried out, and current challenges While some findings on regional climate dynamics were reported in the EGU 2009 NEESPI session and in manuscripts listed on the NEESPI website (www.neespi.org/science/NEESPI_publications.pdf), a majority of them have been published in Russian journals and are still unknown in the international climatic community. However, additional reports can be found in the Enviro-RISKS final scientific report [16], mainly in the third volume devoted to climate change, terrestrial ecosystems and hydrology (www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-3.pdf). We have already established that temperatures have increased, particularly in the winter in Eastern Siberia (0.5°/decade), and the number of frost days (~1 day yr-1) and growing season length has also increased (~1 day yr-1) [17, 18]. Even more troubling is the potential for these transient phenomena to manifest themselves as nonlinear reactions to ongoing climatic change [19]. There are three main scientific research challenges to the SIRS community, which

  5. Tree-ring proxies of larch bud moth defoliation: latewood width and blue intensity are more precise than tree-ring width.

    PubMed

    Arbellay, Estelle; Jarvis, Ingrid; Chavardès, Raphaël D; Daniels, Lori D; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-05-19

    Reconstructions of defoliation by larch bud moth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) based on European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree rings have unraveled outbreak patterns over exceptional temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we conducted tree-ring analyses on 105 increment cores of European larch from the Valais Alps, Switzerland. The well-documented history of LBM outbreaks in Valais provided a solid baseline for evaluating the LBM defoliation signal in multiple tree-ring parameters. First, we used tree-ring width measurements along with regional records of LBM outbreaks to reconstruct the occurrence of these events at two sites within the Swiss Alps. Second, we measured earlywood width, latewood width and blue intensity, and compared these parameters with tree-ring width to assess the capacity of each proxy to detect LBM defoliation. A total of six LBM outbreaks were reconstructed for the two sites between AD 1850 and 2000. Growth suppression induced by LBM was, on average, highest in latewood width (59%), followed by total ring width (54%), earlywood width (51%) and blue intensity (26%). We show that latewood width and blue intensity can improve the temporal accuracy of LBM outbreak reconstructions, as both proxies systematically detected LBM defoliation in the first year it occurred, as well as the differentiation between defoliation and non-defoliation years. This study introduces blue intensity as a promising new proxy of insect defoliation and encourages its use in conjunction with latewood width.

  6. European larch phenology in the Alps: can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliavacca, M.; Cremonese, E.; Colombo, R.; Busetto, L.; Galvagno, M.; Ganis, L.; Meroni, M.; Pari, E.; Rossini, M.; Siniscalco, C.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2008-09-01

    Vegetation phenology is strongly influenced by climatic factors. Climate changes may cause phenological variations, especially in the Alps which are considered to be extremely vulnerable to global warming. The main goal of our study is to analyze European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) phenology in alpine environments and the role of the ecological factors involved, using an integrated approach based on accurate field observations and modelling techniques. We present 2 years of field-collected larch phenological data, obtained following a specifically designed observation protocol. We observed that both spring and autumn larch phenology is strongly influenced by altitude. We propose an approach for the optimization of a spring warming model (SW) and the growing season index model (GSI) consisting of a model inversion technique, based on simulated look-up tables (LUTs), that provides robust parameter estimates. The optimized models showed excellent agreement between modelled and observed data: the SW model predicts the beginning of the growing season (BGS) with a mean RMSE of 4 days, while GSI gives a prediction of the growing season length (LGS) with a RMSE of 5 days. Moreover, we showed that the original GSI parameters led to consistent errors, while the optimized ones significantly increased model accuracy. Finally, we used GSI to investigate interactions of ecological factors during springtime development and autumn senescence. We found that temperature is the most effective factor during spring recovery while photoperiod plays an important role during autumn senescence: photoperiod shows a contrasting effect with altitude decreasing its influence with increasing altitude.

  7. Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Katzenberg, M. Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Berdnikova, Natalia E.; Savel’ev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  8. Surveillance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild birds and ticks in Tomsk city and its suburbs (Western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Mikryukova, Tamara P; Moskvitina, Nina S; Kononova, Yulia V; Korobitsyn, Igor G; Kartashov, Mikhail Y; Tyuten Kov, Oleg Y; Protopopova, Elena V; Romanenko, Vladimir N; Chausov, Evgeny V; Gashkov, Sergey I; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Moskvitin, Sergey S; Tupota, Natalya L; Sementsova, Alexandra O; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of wild birds in the transmission of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), we investigated randomly captured wild birds bearing ixodid ticks in a very highly endemic TBE region located in Tomsk city and its suburbs in the south of Western Siberia, Russia. The 779 wild birds representing 60 species were captured carrying a total of 841 ticks, Ixodes pavlovskyi Pom., 1946 (n=531), Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch., 1930 (n=244), and Ixodes plumbeus Leach. 1815 (n=66). The highest average number of ticks per bird in a particular species was found for the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, 1758) (5.60 ticks/bird) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis Linnaeus, 1758) (13.25 ticks/bird). Samples from wild birds and ticks collected in highly endemic periods from 2006 to 2011 were tested for the TBEV markers using monoclonal modified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RT-PCR. TBEV RNA and antigen were found in 9.7% and 22.8% samples collected from wild birds, respectively. TBEV markers were also detected in 14.1% I. persulcatus ticks, 5.2% I. pavlovskyi, and 4.2% I. plumbeus ticks collected from wild birds. Two TBEV strains were also isolated on PKE (pig kidney embryo) cells from fieldfare and Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849). Sequencing of 5'-NCR of TBEV revealed that all TBEV isolates belong to Far Eastern (dominate) and Siberian genotypes. Several phylogenetic subgroups included TBEV sequences novel for the Tomsk region. Our data suggest that wild birds are potential disseminators of TBEV, TBEV-infected ixodid ticks, and possibly other tick-borne infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Going with the flow: Hydrologic response of middle Lena River (Siberia) to the climate variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, Emmanuèle; Dépret, Thomas; Costard, François; Virmoux, Clément; Fedorov, Alexander; Grancher, Delphine; Konstantinov, Pavel; Brunstein, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Recent observations indicate that over the last decades, climate change has increasingly influenced the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme climatic and hydrologic events. The main aim of this study is to determine the hydrologic response, especially the flood evolution, of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia to ongoing climate change. Draining the coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere, the Lena River is impacted by global warming, which is particularly pronounced in periglacial areas characterized by deep and continuous permafrost. We document the hydrologic variability of the Middle Lena River, first by characterizing trend and stationarity of monthly discharges. Second, we analyze on the basis of the peak over threshold method (POT) the temporal evolution of intensity and duration of three discharge classes: bar-full discharge, bank-full discharge and large floods. Finally, we also determined the dates of the flood beginning and of the flood peak. Data on mean monthly discharge and flood peaks are available since 1936 and daily discharges since 1954. Our results provide evidence for a net hydrologic change with an increase in the intensity and duration of floods in the two decades ending in 2012. The frequency of high floods is unprecedented, and small floods no longer occur. The tail of the temporal distribution of the flood peak is also changing. More frequent early floods are occurring in spring with secondary flood peaks in summer, the latest probably represents the most striking change. Furthermore, the changes have been accelerating since 2004. Finally, two islands were instrumented (2008-2012) in order to study the flooding dynamics with a better precision.

  10. Dwarf mistletoe affects whole-tree water relations of Douglas fir and western larch primarily through changes in leaf to sapwood ratios.

    PubMed

    Sala, Anna; Carey, Eileen V; Callaway, Ragan M

    2001-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoes induce abnormal growth patterns and extreme changes in the biomass allocation of their hosts as well as directly parasitizing them for resources. Because biomass allocation can affect the resource use and efficiency of conifers, we studied the influences of dwarf mistletoe infection on above-ground biomass allocation of Douglas fir and western larch, and the consequences of such changes on whole-tree water use and water relations. Sap flow, tree water potentials, leaf:sapwood area ratios (A L :A S ), leaf carbon isotope ratios, and nitrogen content were measured on Douglas fir and western larch trees with various degrees of mistletoe infection during the summer of 1996 in western Montana. Heavy dwarf mistletoe infection on Douglas fir and western larch was related to significant increases in A L :A S . Correspondingly, water transport dynamics were altered in infected trees, but responses were different for the two species. Higher A L :A S ratios in heavily infected Douglas firs were offset by increases in sapwood area-based sap flux densities (Q SW ) such that leaf area-based sap flux densities (Q L ) and predawn leaf water potentials at the end of the summer did not change significantly with mistletoe infection. Small (but statistically insignificant) decreases of Q L for heavily infected Douglas firs were enough to offset increases in leaf area such that whole-tree water use was similar for uninfected and heavily infected trees. Increased A L :A S ratios of heavily infected western larch were not offset by increases of Q SW . Consequently, Q L was reduced, which corresponded with significant decreases of water potential at the end of the summer. Furthermore, mistletoe-infection-related changes in A L :A S as a function of tree size resulted in greater whole-tree water use for large infected larches than for large uninfected trees. Such changes may result in further depletion of limited soil water resources in mature infected stands late in the

  11. Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst lakes are typical features of the northern permafrost ecosystems, and play an important role in the thermal exchange between atmosphere and subsurface. The objective of this study is to describe the main thermal processes of the lakes and to quantify the heat exchange with the underlying sediments. The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) were investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a 3-year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. Lakes were covered by ice up to 2 m thick that persisted for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increased at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. Prior to ice break-up, solar radiation effectively warmed the water beneath the ice cover and induced convective mixing. Ice break-up started at the beginning of June and lasted until the middle or end of June. Mixing occurred within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continued during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers, a quantitative measure of the balance between wind mixing and stratification that is important for describing the biogeochemical cycles of lakes. The lake thermal regime was modeled numerically using the FLake model. The model demonstrated good agreement with observations with regard to the mean lake temperature, with a good reproduction of the summer stratification during the ice-free period, but poor agreement during the ice-covered period. Modeled sensitivity to lake depth demonstrated that lakes in this climatic zone with mean depths > 5 m develop

  12. International importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea as a staging area for migrating king eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, S.; Dickson, D.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of habitats used by arctic birds on migration is crucial for their conservation. We explored the importance of the eastern Chukchi Sea (ECS) as a staging area for king eiders (Somateria spectabilis) migrating between breeding areas in Siberia and western North America and wintering areas in the Bering Sea. We tracked 190 king eiders with satellite transmitters between 1997 and 2007. In late summer, 74% of satellite-tracked king eiders migrating south staged in the ECS for 13 ?? 13 (SD) days between late June and early November. During spring migration, king eiders staged in the ECS between mid-April and early June for 21 ?? 10 days. All instrumented birds migrating to breeding grounds in western North America (n = 62), and 6 of 11 males migrating to breeding grounds in Siberia, used this area for at least 1 week during spring migration. The importance of this staging area renders it possible that industrial development could adversely affect king eider populations in both Siberia and North America. ?? 2009 US Government.

  13. Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Rocañín-Arjó, Ares; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations.

  14. Timber Volume and Biomass Estimates in Central Siberia from Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Kimes, Daniel S.; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Mapping of boreal forest's type, structure parameters and biomass are critical for understanding the boreal forest's significance in the carbon cycle, its response to and impact on global climate change. The biggest deficiency of the existing ground based forest inventories is the uncertainty in the inventory data, particularly in remote areas of Siberia where sampling is sparse, lacking, and often decades old. Remote sensing methods can help overcome these problems. In this joint US and Russian study, we used the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and unique waveform data of the geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) and produced a map of timber volume for a 10degx12deg area in Central Siberia. Using these methods, the mean timber volume for the forested area in the total study area was 203 m3/ ha. The new remote sensing methods used in this study provide a truly independent estimate of forest structure, which is not dependent on traditional ground forest inventory methods.

  15. [Entification of the Rubella virus genotype 1H in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Seregin, S V; Babkin, I V; Petrova, I D; Iashina, L N; Malkova, E M; Petrov, V S

    2011-01-01

    Molecular epidemiological study of novel strain of Rubella virus isolated during the outbreak in Western Siberia in 2004 was described. Detailed phylogenetic analysis performed based upon entire SP-region, which encodes all three Rubella structural proteins (C, E2, and E1), was implemented. This analysis provides characterization of this strain and classifies it as 1H genotype, thereby correcting previous classification of this strain based upon shorter nucleotide sequence, only encoding E1 protein. Therefore, this study identified the genotype of the Rubella virus not previously detected in Western Siberia (and even entire Russian Federation), which highlights the importance of more extensive characterization of genetic variability of the Rubella virus, especially with regard to potential influence of vaccination on the Rubella virus mutagenesis.

  16. The influence of climate on peatland extent in Western Siberia since the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, G. A.; Brovkin, V. A.; Kleinen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Boreal and subarctic peatlands are an important dynamical component of the earth system. They are sensitive to climate change, and could either continue to serve as a carbon sink or become a carbon source. Climatic thresholds for switching peatlands from sink to source are not well defined, and therefore, incorporating peatlands into Earth system models is a challenging task. Here we introduce a climatic index, warm precipitation excess, to delineate the potential geographic distribution of boreal peatlands for a given climate and landscape morphology. This allows us to explain the present-day distribution of peatlands in Western Siberia, their absence during the Last Glacial Maximum, their expansion during the mid-Holocene, and to form a working hypothesis about the trend to peatland degradation in the southern taiga belt of Western Siberia under an RCP 8.5 scenario for the projected climate in year 2100. PMID:27095029

  17. The influence of climate on peatland extent in Western Siberia since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, G A; Brovkin, V A; Kleinen, T

    2016-04-20

    Boreal and subarctic peatlands are an important dynamical component of the earth system. They are sensitive to climate change, and could either continue to serve as a carbon sink or become a carbon source. Climatic thresholds for switching peatlands from sink to source are not well defined, and therefore, incorporating peatlands into Earth system models is a challenging task. Here we introduce a climatic index, warm precipitation excess, to delineate the potential geographic distribution of boreal peatlands for a given climate and landscape morphology. This allows us to explain the present-day distribution of peatlands in Western Siberia, their absence during the Last Glacial Maximum, their expansion during the mid-Holocene, and to form a working hypothesis about the trend to peatland degradation in the southern taiga belt of Western Siberia under an RCP 8.5 scenario for the projected climate in year 2100.

  18. New Approach to Road Construction in Oil-Producing Regions of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piirainen, V. Y.; Estrin, Y.

    2017-10-01

    This article presents, as a polemic exercise, a new approach to road construction in marshland areas of oil and gas producing regions of Western Siberia. The approach is based on the use of novel modular elements that can be assembled into an integral structure by means of topological interlocking. The use of modern superlight concrete in conjunction with the new design systems based on the modular principle opens up new avenues to solving problems of road construction in regions with unstable, boggy soils.

  19. Chemical and dispersal characteristics of particulate emissions from forest fires in Siberia

    Treesearch

    Y. N. Samsonov; V. A. Ivanov; D. J. McRae; S. P. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 20 experimental fires were conducted on forest plots of 1-4 ha each in 2000-07 in two types of boreal forests in central Siberia, and 18 on 6 x 12-m plots in 2008-10. These experiments were designed to mimic wildfires under similar burning conditions. The fires were conducted in prescribed conditions including full documentation on pre-fire weather, pre-...

  20. Facile Control of the Porous Structure of Larch-Derived Mesoporous Carbons via Self-Assembly for Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Wei; Chen, Honglei; Wang, Shoujuan; Kong, Fangong; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-01-01

    Mesoporous carbons have been successfully synthesized via self-assembly using larch-based resins as precursors and triblock copolymers as soft templates. The porous structure of mesoporous carbons can be tailored by adjusting the ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic (EO/PO) units owing to interfacial curvature. Interestingly, the porous structures show a distinct change from vortex-like to worm-like pores, to stripe-like pores, and to ordered two-dimensional hexagonal pores as the ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic units increases, indicating the significant effect of EO/PO ratio on the porous structure. The mesoporous carbons as supercapacitor electrodes exhibit superior electrochemical capacitive performance and a high degree of reversibility after 2000 cycles for supercapacitors due to the well-defined mesoporosity of the carbon materials. Meanwhile, the superior carbon has a high specific capacitance of 107 F·g−1 in 6 M KOH at a current density of 10 A·g−1. PMID:29156641

  1. Larch Arabinogalactan Attenuates Myocardial Injury by Inhibiting Apoptotic Cascades in a Rat Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sun-Ha

    2017-07-01

    We reported previously that supplementation with apple pectin, a dietary fiber, reduced myocardial injury in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion. In this study, we further investigated an arabinogalactan, one of the constituent polysaccharides of pectin, to determine which domains comprising pectin were responsible for the protection. In a rat model of 30-min ischemia followed by 3-h reperfusion, supplementation with larch arabinogalactan (LAG) over 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced infarct size. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and immunoblot analyses showed that intake of LAG blocked the steps involved in apoptotic cascades through downregulation of gelsolin gene expression at the protein (Gelsolin) level, inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, decreased bax/bcl-2 ratio at the protein (Bax/Bcl-2) level, which was correlated with the ratio at the mRNA level, inhibition of the conversion of Procaspase protein to Caspase-3 protein, and consequently a decrease in apoptotic cells. In addition, the intake of LAG reduced the hif1-α gene expression at the protein (HIF1-α) level. These findings suggest that arabinogalactan is an active component of pectin for reducing myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis in postocclusion steps, possibly indicating that arabinogalactan can be developed as a cardioprotectant to prevent myocardial injury.

  2. Potential Climate-driven Silvicultural and Agricultural Transformations in Siberia in the 21 Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Shvetsov, E.; Soja, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of Siberian forests in a changing climate showed them to be changed in composition, decreased, and shifted northwards. Our goals were to evaluate the ecological consequences for the forests and agriculture in Siberia and to offer adaptive measures that may be undertaken to minimize negative consequences and maximize benefits from a rapidly changing environment in the socially important region of southern Siberia. We considered two strategies to estimate climate-change effects on potentially failing forests within an expanding forest-steppe ecotone. To support forestry, seed transfers from locations that are best suited to the genotypes in future climates may be applied to assist trees and forests in a changing climate. To support agriculture, in view of the growing world concerns on food safety, new farming lands may be established in a new forest-steppe ecotone with its favorable climatic and soil resources. We used our bioclimatic vegetation models of various levels: a forest type model to predict forest shifts and forest-failing lands, tree species range and their climatypes models to predict what tree species/climatype would be suitable and crop models to predict crops to introduce in potentially climate-disturbed areas in Siberia. Climate change data for the 2080s were calculated from the ensemble of 20 general circulation models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) and two scenarios to characterize the range of climate change: mild climate (RCP2.6 scenario) and sharp climate (RCP 8.5 scenario). By the 2080s, forest-steppe and steppe rather than forests would dominate up to half of Siberia in the warmer and dryer RCP 8.5 climate. Water stress tolerant and fire-resistant light-needled species Pinus sylvestris and Larix spp. would dominate the forest-steppe ecotone. Failing forests in a dryer climate may be maintained by moving and substituting proper climatypes from locations often hundreds of km away. Agriculture in Siberia

  3. Late orogenic processes between Baltica and Siberia cratons during the building of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchkov, V.

    2003-04-01

    Since the Middle Carboniferous, the territory between the Baltica, Kazakhstania and Siberia plates have been part of the continental crust, the last oceanic crust having by then been subducted. At this time continent-continent collision started and proceeded until the latest epochs of the Paleozoic, forming the Uralide orogen. Two features of this collision standout: 1) The northward movement of the Kazakhstanian block between the Baltica and Siberia plates resulted in a large-scale oroclinal bend of structures in West Siberia, which is well expressed in the magnetic field, as well as in the exposed Kazakhstanian structures, and 2) The orogenic event affected the whole territory between the Baltica and Siberia cratons, including the Kazakhstanian continent. A series of intermontane molasse basins are distributed throughout the orogen and in some places, like Bolshoi Karatau, are affected by Late Paleozoic deformation. Continent-continent collision had ceased by the end of the Permian, and in many places Triassic sediments unconformably overly the orogen. Triassic sedimentary sequences are typically coarse-grained (eventually proluvial), evidencing a new stage of mountain building, though many researchers have attributed this to a superplume event. The reason being the widespread flood basalt eruptions that took place not only between, but also on the cratons under discussion. There is a point of view that the break-up of the supercontinents (e.g., Pangea and Rodinia) was preceded by such a superplume event, passing to formation of linear graben systems and then to oceanic spreading. In the case under discussion, the process was arrested (the West Siberian basin with its grabens is often called a "failed ocean"). There is reason to suspect that the Paleozoic collision that led to formation of the Uralides left an enclosed ocean basin in the North, between the Baltica and Siberia plates. Only in the Early Jurassic, with the advent of the Old Kimmerian collision did

  4. Southern montane populations did not contribute to the recolonization of West Siberian Plain by Siberian larch (Larix sibirica): a range-wide analysis of cytoplasmic markers.

    PubMed

    Semerikov, Vladimir L; Semerikova, Svetlana A; Polezhaeva, Maria A; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-10-01

    While many species were confined to southern latitudes during the last glaciations, there has lately been mounting evidence that some of the most cold-tolerant species were actually able to survive close to the ice sheets. The contribution of these higher latitude outposts to the main recolonization thrust remains, however, untested. In the present study, we use the first range-wide survey of genetic diversity at cytoplasmic markers in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica; four mitochondrial (mt) DNA loci and five chloroplast (cp) DNA SSR loci) to (i) assess the relative contributions of southern and central areas to the current L. sibirica distribution range; and (ii) date the last major population expansion in both L. sibirica and adjacent Larix species. The geographic distribution of cpDNA variation was uninformative, but that of mitotypes clearly indicates that the southernmost populations, located in Mongolia and the Tien-Shan and Sayan Mountain ranges, had a very limited contribution to the current populations of the central and northern parts of the range. It also suggests that the contribution of the high latitude cryptic refugia was geographically limited and that most of the current West Siberian Plain larch populations likely originated in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains. Interestingly, the main population expansion detected through Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in all four larch species investigated here pre-dates the LGM, with a mode in a range of 220,000-1,340,000 years BP. Hence, L. sibirica, like other major conifer species of the boreal forest, was strongly affected by climatic events pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2 H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. European larch phenology in the Alps: can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling?

    PubMed

    Migliavacca, M; Cremonese, E; Colombo, R; Busetto, L; Galvagno, M; Ganis, L; Meroni, M; Pari, E; Rossini, M; Siniscalco, C; Morra di Cella, U

    2008-09-01

    Vegetation phenology is strongly influenced by climatic factors. Climate changes may cause phenological variations, especially in the Alps which are considered to be extremely vulnerable to global warming. The main goal of our study is to analyze European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) phenology in alpine environments and the role of the ecological factors involved, using an integrated approach based on accurate field observations and modelling techniques. We present 2 years of field-collected larch phenological data, obtained following a specifically designed observation protocol. We observed that both spring and autumn larch phenology is strongly influenced by altitude. We propose an approach for the optimization of a spring warming model (SW) and the growing season index model (GSI) consisting of a model inversion technique, based on simulated look-up tables (LUTs), that provides robust parameter estimates. The optimized models showed excellent agreement between modelled and observed data: the SW model predicts the beginning of the growing season (B(GS)) with a mean RMSE of 4 days, while GSI gives a prediction of the growing season length (L(GS)) with a RMSE of 5 days. Moreover, we showed that the original GSI parameters led to consistent errors, while the optimized ones significantly increased model accuracy. Finally, we used GSI to investigate interactions of ecological factors during springtime development and autumn senescence. We found that temperature is the most effective factor during spring recovery while photoperiod plays an important role during autumn senescence: photoperiod shows a contrasting effect with altitude decreasing its influence with increasing altitude.

  7. Ecology of influenza A and Newcastle disease viruses in wild birds and poultry in Eastern Siberia (2012-2014)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian Territory covering a large part of Northern Eurasia is of special interest for influenza virus ecology and evolution, for it is situated in the center of Eurasia and covers three major migration routes, combining bird populations from Asia, Africa, and Europe. During surveillance for av...

  8. Preliminary Results of the Permafrost Carbon Study in the Lower Kolyma Lowland (Eastern Siberia) Based on Drilling Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spektor, V. V.; Kholodov, A. L.; Bulygina, E. B.; Andreeva, V.; Broderick, D.; Spawn, S.; Natali, S.; Davydova, A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2012, the Polaris Project (thepolarisproject.org, Director R.M. Holmes) has conducted the permafrost drilling on the Kolyma Lowland for a complex study of permafrost carbon as a potential source for microbial decomposition. In July 2012, the first two boreholes, 15.1 and 13.4 m in depth, were drilled. The first borehole (BH 12/1) was drilled in the stratum of ice complex (yedoma) on the local watershed near the Schuch'e lake in the vicinity of the town Chersky (N68°44.7' E161°23'). The depth of active layer is 45 cm. The permafrost to the depth of 15.1 m represents grey and brown silts with predominant homogeneous structure. Silts contain numerous thread-like roots, scarce plant macrofossils, and in places are colored with unclear spots of ferrugination. Cryostructure is mainly pore ice or thin lense-like ice layers. Wedge ice is observed in the interval 12.5-12.9 m. The moisture volumetric percentage of silts varies along the stratum, mainly, between 40-50%. The organic content, defined in every 20 cm of the core as a loss on ignition, varies between 2-4%. The second borehole (BH 12/2), located in the Pleistocene Park (N68°30.8' E161°30') was drilled through modern floodplain sediments (0-0.6 m) of the Kolyma River with polygonal network at the surface, underlain by peat (0.6-1.3 m), silt deposits of thermokarst lake (1.3-12.0 m), and river grey sands (12.0-13.4 m). The active layer thickness is 65 cm. The cryostructure is predominantly lattice-like. Silts contain modern wedge ice at the depth of 2.5-2.7 m. Mollusk shells and large amount of plant macrofossils are observed in the interval 5.7-8.0 m. The organic content in the thermokarst deposits varies in average within 2-3 %, but is about 1% in the underlying river sands. To investigate permafrost carbon, samples for microbial and enzyme activities, as well as samples of trapped gases were collected from different horizons of frozen cores. Samples for palynological, diatom, and lithological analyses, as well as for absolute age AMS 14C and isotopes O16/O18, and D were collected for reconstructing paleoclimate and paleogeographic conditions of organic matter accumulation and preservation. As a part of the TSP Program (Thermal State Permafrost), both boreholes were equipped with loggers for temperature measurements at 3,5,10, and 15 m and 3,4,10, and 13 m for the BH 12/1 and 12/2 correspondingly. To evaluate the role of landscape conditions on the thermal regime of permafrost and active layer dynamics terrestrial survey near the boreholes was conducted.

  9. In situ produced branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in suspended particulate matter from the Yenisei River, Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Fedotov, Andrey; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in marine river fan sediments have a potential use for determining changes in the mean annual temperature (MAT) and pH of the river watershed soils. Prior to their incorporation in marine sediments, the compounds are transported to the marine system by rivers. However, emerging evidence suggests that the brGDGTs in freshwater systems can be derived from both soil run-off and in situ production. The production of brGDGTs in the river system can complicate the interpretation of the brGDGT signal delivered to the marine system. Therefore, we studied the distribution of brGDGT lipids in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Yenisei River. Chromatographic improvements allowed quantification of the recently described hexamethylated brGDGT isomer, characterized by having two methyl groups at the 6/6‧ instead of the 5/5‧ positions, in an environmental dataset for the first time. This novel compound was the most abundant brGDGT in SPM from the Yenisei. Its fractional abundance correlated well with that of the 6-methyl isomer of the hexamethylated brGDGT that contains one cyclopentane moiety. The Yenisei River watershed is characterized by large differences in MAT (>11 °C) as it spans a large latitudinal range (46-73°N), which would be expected to be reflected in brGDGT distributions of its soils. However, the brGDGT distributions in its SPM show little variation. Furthermore, the reconstructed pH values are high compared to the watershed soil pH. We, therefore, hypothesize that the brGDGTs in the Yenisei River SPM are predominantly produced in situ and not primarily derived from erosion of soil. This accounts for the absence of a change in the temperature signal, as the river water temperature is more stable. Using a lake calibration, the reconstructed temperature values agree with the mean summer temperatures (MST) recorded. The brGDGTs delivered to the sea by the Yenisei River during this season are thus not soil-derived, possibly complicating the use of brGDGTs in marine sediments for palaeoclimate reconstructions.

  10. DNA analysis of a 30,000-year-old Urocitellus glacialis from northeastern Siberia reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Faerman, Marina; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E.; Ermakov, Oleg A.; Golenishchev, Fedor N.; Gubin, Stanislav V.; Mintz, Eugenia; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergei V.; Zanina, Oksana G.; Formozov, Nikolai A.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El’ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed 14C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El’ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on complete cytochrome b gene sequences of five Late Pleistocene arctic ground squirrels and those of modern U. parryii from 21 locations across western Beringia, provided no support for earlier proposals that ancient arctic ground squirrels from Siberia constitute a distinct species. In fact, we observed genetic continuity of the glacialis mitochondrial DNA lineage in modern U. parryii of the Kamchatka peninsula. When viewed in a broader geographic perspective, our findings provide new insights into the genetic history of U. parryii in Late Pleistocene Beringia. PMID:28205612

  11. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program. Quarterly progress report, March 1-May 31, 1985. [Sycamore, alders, black locust, larch, poplars, saltbush

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1985-08-01

    This report covers the progress of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) during the third quarter of fiscal year 1985. This report summarizes ORNL management activities, technical activities at ORNL and subcontract institutions, and the technology transfer that is occurring as a result of subcontractor and ORNL activities. Third-year results of a nutrient utilization study confirmed that there were no benefits to quarterly fertilization with urea nitrogen. Testing of one prototype short-rotation intensive culture harvester was conducted on a sycamore plantation on Scott Paper Company land in southern Alabama. Coppice yields of European black alder reported by Iowa Statemore » University indicate potential productivity of about 7.2 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ if the best trees are selected. Coppice yields were more than double first-rotation yields. About 31,000 black locust and larch trees were established in 12 genetic tests at 4 sites in Michigan. Seedling rotation productivity rates of 4-year-old hybrid poplar, based on harvest data, were reported by Pennsylvania State University. Rates varied from 4.8 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/ to 10.7 dry Mg . ha/sup -1/ . year/sup -1/, depending on site, management strategy, and planting year. An efficient method for in vitro micropropagation of elite genotypes of fourwing saltbush was developed by Plant Resources Institute. A new study to evaluate yield/density relationships was established by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Dissertation research on the crown geometry of plantation-grown American sycamore was completed.« less

  12. Opisthorchis felineus infection prevalence in Western Siberia: A review of Russian literature.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Olga S; Fedotova, Marina M; Sokolova, Tatiana S; Golovach, Ekaterina A; Kovshirina, Yulia V; Ageeva, Tatiana S; Kovshirina, Anna E; Kobyakova, Olga S; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Odermatt, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In this study we reviewed Russian scientific literature (scientific publications, book chapters, monographs) published between 1 January 1979 and 31 August 2015 from two sources: Main database of the Russian Scientific Electronic Library (eLIBRARY, http://elibrary.ru/), and the Scientific Medical Library of Siberian State Medical University (http://medlib.tomsk.ru/). Specifically, the review details the infection prevalence of Opisthorchis felineus (O. felineus) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation. From the primary key words screening, 1591 records were identified from which 32 Russian-language publications were relevant. The lowest O. felineus infection rate of 0.4% was reported in Tatarstan Republic, and the highest reached 83.9% in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug. The infection prevalence was lower in children than in adults and increased with age. O. felineus infection was detected more often in indigenous population than in migrants. Infection intensity in western regions (Permskaya, Bryanskaya Oblast) was low and varied from 15 to 336 eggs per gram stool (epg), while in endemic regions it reached more than 2000 epg. In some settlements the mean intensity infection was 5234 epg. The high rates of intensity were registered in regions with a high prevalence of infection. Based on obtained data, a map of O. felineus infection prevalence in Western Siberia was developed. After mapping the results, the highest prevalence was detected in Tyumenskaya Oblast with over 60%, while the Tomskaya Oblast had the lowest prevalence at fewer than 19.0%. Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomus Okrug, Altaiskii Krai, Novosibirskaya Oblast and Omskaya Oblast had an average level of O. felineus infection of 20-39%. According to the results of the review, Western Siberia must be considered as highly endemic region for opisthorchiasis in the Russian Federation. The development of a control program specific for the Russian community is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

    2014-05-01

    Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

  14. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Diversity in Ixodid Ticks and Small Mammals in South-Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bakhvalova, Valentina N; Chicherina, Galina S; Potapova, Olga F; Panov, Victor V; Glupov, Victor V; Potapov, Mikhail A; Seligman, Stephen J; Morozova, Olga V

    2016-08-01

    The persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in nature is maintained by numerous species of reservoir hosts, multiple transmissions between vertebrates and invertebrates, and the virus adaptation to its hosts. Our Aim: was to compare TBEV isolates from ticks and small wild mammals to estimate their roles in the circulation of the viral subtypes. TBEV isolates from two species of ixodid ticks, four species of rodents, and one species of shrews in the Novosibirsk region, South-Western Siberia, Russia, were analyzed using bioassay, hemagglutination, hemagglutination inhibition, neutralization tests, ELISA, reverse transcription with real-time PCR, and phylogenetic analysis. TBEV RNA and/or protein E were found in 70.9% ± 3.0% of mammals and in 3.8% ± 0.4% of ticks. The TBEV infection rate, main subtypes, and neurovirulence were similar between ixodid tick species. However, the proportions of the virus that were pathogenic for laboratory mice and of the Far-Eastern (FE) subtype, as well as the viral loads with the Siberian and the European subtypes for the TBEV in Ixodes pavlovskyi Pomerantsev, 1946 were higher than in Ixodes persulcatus (P. Schulze, 1930). Percentages of infected Myodes rutilus, Sicista betulina, and Sorex araneus exceeded those of Apodemus agrarius and Myodes rufocanus. Larvae and nymphs of ticks were found mainly on rodents, especially on Myodes rufocanus and S. betulina. The proportion of TBEV-mixed infections with different subtypes in the infected ticks (55.9% ± 6.5%) was higher than in small mammals (36.1% ± 4.0%) (p < 0.01). Molecular typing revealed mono- or mixed infection with three main subtypes of TBEV in ticks and small mammals. The Siberian subtype was more common in ixodid ticks, and the FE subtype was more common in small mammals (p < 0.001). TBEV isolates of the European subtype were rare. TBEV infection among different species of small mammals did not correlate with their infestation rate with

  15. Cap-shaped gastropods from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northern East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzhov, A. V.; Zakharov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Cap-shaped gastropods are first identified in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sections of northern East Siberia. They belong to three new genera of the subclass Pectinibranchia ( Boreioconus gen. nov., Nixepileolus gen. nov., and Taimyroconus gen. nov.), which are identified at the species level ( B. bojarkensis sp. nov., N. depressus sp. nov., T. zakharovi sp. nov.), and several species with the open nomenclature. The genus Taimyroconus attributed to the family Calyptraeidae is considered as an ancestral form of the genus Crepidula. The stratigraphic position of each taxon is determined for several sections. The facies confinement, habitat conditions, and ethology of defined genera are considered with the analysis of their geographic distribution.

  16. Ecosystem resilience to abrupt late Quaternary change in continental southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Poppy; Mackay, Anson; Bezrukova, Elena; Shchetnikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Quaternary climate variability is dominated by long term orbital forcing along with abrupt sub-Milankovitch events on the scales of millennia to centuries, driven by internal feedback mechanisms, volcanic forcing and fluctuating solar activity. Although these are well documented in the North Atlantic region, their expression is poorly understood in Siberia, particularly in relation to abrupt climatic events. Siberia has the world's highest level of continentality offering an opportunity to study changes remote from oceanic influences and improving understanding of interactions between the Siberian High and other atmospheric systems including the Aleutian Low, Arctic oscillation and Icelandic Low1 and ENSO2. Understanding of palaeoenvironmental change in Siberia is essential due to the region's high sensitivity to climatic change, with warming rates considerably higher than the global average over the past 50 years3, triggering significant environmental changes, including permafrost degradation, shifts in the forest-steppe biome, increases in forest fires and warming of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Additionally, the region provides essential palaeoenvironmental context for early hominins, for example at globally important sites such as Denisova cave4, and megafauna extinctions5. This presentation outlines ongoing work at Lake Baunt, SE Siberia including: key quaternary climate forcings, the site and its regional context, the key methods and preliminary results. These include a dated record back to ˜30ka BP (based on multiple 14C dates and Bayesian age modelling), multiproxy indicators of palaeoproductivity (e.g. biogenic silica and diatom analyses) and lake mixing regimes (inferred from diatom analyses). Together these highlight several key Quaternary fluctuations potentially correlated to events recorded in Greenland Ice Cores (GS2, GS2.1, GI1, GS1), and these are considered against key Quaternary records including those from nearby Lake Baikal and Hulu Cave in

  17. Modelling Climate/Global Change and Assessing Environmental Risks for Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykosov, V. N.; Kabanov, M. V.; Heimann, M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The state-of-the-art climate models are based on a combined atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. A central direction of their development is associated with an increasingly accurate description of all physical processes participating in climate formation. In modeling global climate, it is necessary to reconstruct seasonal and monthly mean values, seasonal variability (monsoon cycle, parameters of storm-tracks, etc.), climatic variability (its dominating modes, such as El Niño or Arctic Oscillation), etc. At the same time, it is quite urgent now to use modern mathematical models in studying regional climate and ecological peculiarities, in particular, that of Northern Eurasia. It is related with the fact that, according to modern ideas, natural environment in mid- and high latitudes of the Northern hemisphere is most sensitive to the observed global climate changes. One should consider such tasks of modeling regional climate as detailed reconstruction of its characteristics, investigation of the peculiarities of hydrological cycle, estimation of the possibility of extreme phenomena to occur, and investigation of the consequences of the regional climate changes for the environment and socio-economic relations as its basic tasks. Changes in nature and climate in Siberia are of special interest in view of the global change in the Earth system. The vast continental territory of Siberia is undoubtedly a ponderable natural territorial region of Eurasian continent, which is characterized by the various combinations of climate-forming factors. Forests, water, and wetland areas are situated on a significant part of Siberia. They play planetary important regulating role due to the processes of emission and accumulation of the main greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, etc.). Evidence of the enhanced rates of the warming observed in the region and the consequences of such warming for natural environment are undoubtedly important reason for integrated regional

  18. An arctic fox rabies virus strain as the cause of human rabies in Russian Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, I V

    1999-01-01

    A case of human rabies in the arctic zone of Siberia is described. The victim was bitten by a wolf, but characterization of the isolate by monoclonal antibodies showed that it was an arctic fox virus strain. This discovery reaffirmed the value of strain typing rabies virus isolates in regions where this has not been done already: such characterization pertains to the identification of the reservoir host, to the natural history of the virus in the reservoir, and to future surveillance, post-exposure treatment, and public education in the region.

  19. Monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) grown under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Tani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We measured monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) to evaluate the response of monoterpene emission rates and their composition to elevated CO2 (600 μmol mol-1) and O3 (60 nmol mol-1) conditions. The dominant monoterpenes were α-pinene and β-pinene. The emission rate of total monoterpenes significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions (P < 0.05). The ratio of carbon emission in the form of monoterpenes to photosynthetically fixed carbon also significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. By contrast, elevated O3 did not significantly affect the emission rate of total monoterpenes. The ratios of α-pinene/β-pinene, limonene/β-pinene, and myrcene/β-pinene were all significantly decreased by O3 exposure (P < 0.05). High reactivity of α-pinene, limonene, and myrcene when combining with O3 may be able to mitigate oxidative damage inside the larch needles. No significant combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on individual or total monoterpene emissions were detected.

  20. Comparative toxicity of Acephate, Diflubenzuron, and Malathion to larvae of the Larch Casebearer, Coleophora laricella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) and adults of its parasites, Chrysocharis laricinellae1 and Dicladocerus nearcticus1,2

    Treesearch

    Marion Page; Roger B Ryan; Nancy Rappaport; Fred< sup> 3< /sup> Schmidt

    1982-01-01

    Fourth-instar larch casebearer, Coleophora laricella (Hübner), was significantly less susceptible to acephate and malathion than were adults of its parasites. Chrysocharis larcinellae(Ratz.) and Dicladocerus nearcticus Yoshimoto (P0.01) than the hosts to diflubenzuron. Malathion was equally...

  1. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis.

  2. Ecologically Safe Geothermal Energy Resources in Western Siberia near high-rise construction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Alexandr; Shiganova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The development of geothermal energy in combination with other renewable energy sources (the sun, the wind) will help to solve the problem of heat supply and electrification in near high-rise construction zones of the country, especially in sparsely populated parts, where centralized energy and heat supply is economically unacceptable, and will improve the ecological situation. The aim of the research is to analyze the geothermal resources of the main aquifers in Western Siberia and to develop recommendations for further study and use of heat and power resources of this territory. The article gives retrospective of state research programs and potential use of hydrothermal resources of administrative units geographically entering the territory under consideration. It is noted that by now such programs have been curtailed for various reasons, although there are examples of their successful and effective use in various fields of industry and agriculture. According to the decision of the Supreme Ecological Council of the State Duma Committee of the Russian Federation adopted in 2014 on the beginning of the development of federal targeted programs for the use of heat power water as a source of electricity and heat supply, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation made proposals for further research and use of hydrothermal waters in Western Siberia. Implementation of the programs proposed by the authors, alongside with other positive aspects, will solve the problems of heat supply in remote territories and improve the environmental situation in the region.

  3. Climate-Induced Mortality of Siberian Pine and Fir in the Lake Baikal Watershed, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrova, IIya A.; Golyukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Yagunov, Mikhail N.

    2016-01-01

    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) (so called "dark needle conifers", DNC) showed decreased radial growth increment within the Lake Baikal watershed since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands within the Lake Baikal watershed. Within Siberia DNC mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus silvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  4. Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

  5. Climate-Induced Mortality of Siberian Pine and Fir in the Lake Baikal Watershed, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Golyukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Yagunov, Mikhail N.

    2016-01-01

    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) (so called ''dark needle conifers", DNC) showed decreased radial growth increment within the Lake Baikal watershed since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands within the Lake Baikal watershed. Within Siberia DNC mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus silvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  6. Temporal changes of soil physic-chemical properties at different soil depths during larch afforestation by multivariate analysis of covariance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Mei; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Zijun; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2014-04-01

    Soil physic-chemical properties differ at different depths; however, differences in afforestation-induced temporal changes at different soil depths are seldom reported. By examining 19 parameters, the temporal changes and their interactions with soil depth in a large chronosequence dataset (159 plots; 636 profiles; 2544 samples) of larch plantations were checked by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). No linear temporal changes were found in 9 parameters (N, K, N:P, available forms of N, P, K and ratios of N: available N, P: available P and K: available K), while marked linear changes were found in the rest 10 parameters. Four of them showed divergent temporal changes between surface and deep soils. At surface soils, changing rates were 262.1 g·kg(-1)·year(-1) for SOM, 438.9 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:P, 5.3 mg·g(-1)·year(-1) for C:K, and -3.23 mg·cm(-3)·year(-1) for bulk density, while contrary tendencies were found in deeper soils. These divergences resulted in much moderated or no changes in the overall 80-cm soil profile. The other six parameters showed significant temporal changes for overall 0-80-cm soil profile (P: -4.10 mg·kg(-1)·year(-1); pH: -0.0061 unit·year(-1); C:N: 167.1 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); K:P: 371.5 mg·g(-1) year(-1); N:K: -0.242 mg·g(-1)·year(-1); EC: 0.169 μS·cm(-1)·year(-1)), but without significant differences at different soil depths (P > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of deep soils in studying physic-chemical changes of soil properties, and the temporal changes occurred in both surface and deep soils should be fully considered for forest management and soil nutrient balance.

  7. Experience and Perspectives of Art History Development in Educational Space of Siberia at the Turn of XX-XXI ?enturies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekhvyadovich, Larisa Ivanovna; Chernyaeva, Irina Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article has a program-analytical nature, contains an analysis and assessment of the scientific school of T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Arts, professor, member of Russian Union of Artists. The goal of T. M. Stepanskaya's professional activity is incorporation of Art History in higher educational institutions in Siberia. The authors consider the…

  8. Engineering a Business School in a Former Soviet-Era Closed City: The Case of Omsk, Siberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukhlomin, Valeri; Chukhlomina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a modernization project undertaken by a nationally accredited Russian university located in Omsk, Siberia, and aimed at developing a new international business school. A unique feature of the project is that it was successfully implemented in a former Soviet-era closed city. Until 1991, the university hadn't had any…

  9. Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Dambueva, Irina; Zakharov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of uncovering all of the most basal variation in the northern Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we have analyzed mtDNA control region and coding region sequence variation in 98 Altaian Kazakhs from southern Siberia and 149 Barghuts from Inner Mongolia, China. Both populations exhibit the prevalence of eastern Eurasian lineages accounting for 91.9% in Barghuts and 60.2% in Altaian Kazakhs. The strong affinity of Altaian Kazakhs and populations of northern and central Asia has been revealed, reflecting both influences of central Asian inhabitants and essential genetic interaction with the Altai region indigenous populations. Statistical analyses data demonstrate a close positioning of all Mongolic-speaking populations (Mongolians, Buryats, Khamnigans, Kalmyks as well as Barghuts studied here) and Turkic-speaking Sojots, thus suggesting their origin from a common maternal ancestral gene pool. In order to achieve a thorough coverage of DNA lineages revealed in the northern Asian matrilineal gene pool, we have completely sequenced the mtDNA of 55 samples representing haplogroups R11b, B4, B5, F2, M9, M10, M11, M13, N9a and R9c1, which were pinpointed from a massive collection (over 5000 individuals) of northern and eastern Asian, as well as European control region mtDNA sequences. Applying the newly updated mtDNA tree to the previously reported northern Asian and eastern Asian mtDNA data sets has resolved the status of the poorly classified mtDNA types and allowed us to obtain the coalescence age estimates of the nodes of interest using different calibrated rates. Our findings confirm our previous conclusion that northern Asian maternal gene pool consists of predominantly post-LGM components of eastern Asian ancestry, though some genetic lineages may have a pre-LGM/LGM origin. PMID:22363811

  10. Dynamical Downscaling over Siberia: Is there an added value in representing recent climate conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klehmet, K.; Rockel, B.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of long-term changes and variability of climate variables for the large areal extent of Siberia - covering arctic, subarctic and temperate northern latitudes - is hampered by the sparseness of in-situ observations. To counteract this deficiency we aimed to provide a reconstruction of regional climate for the period 1948-2010 getting homogenous, consistent fields of various terrestrial and atmospheric parameters for Siberia. In order to obtain in addition a higher temporal and spatial resolution than global datasets can provide, we performed the reconstruction using the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (climate mode of the limited area model COSMO developed by the German weather service). However, the question arises whether the dynamically downscaled data of reanalysis can improve the representation of recent climate conditions. As global forcing for the initialization and the regional boundaries we use NCEP-1 Reanalysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction since it has the longest temporal data coverage among the reanalysis products. Additionally, spectral nudging is applied to prevent the regional model from deviating from the prescribed large-scale circulation within the whole simulation domain. The area of interest covers a region in Siberia, spanning from the Laptev Sea and Kara Sea to Northern Mongolia and from the West Siberian Lowland to the border of Sea of Okhotsk. The current horizontal resolution is of about 50 km which is planned to be increased to 25 km. To answer the question, we investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature and precipitation of the model output in comparison to global reanalysis data (NCEP-1, ERA40, ERA-Interim). As reference Russian station data from the "Global Summary of the Day" data set, provided by NCDC, is used. Temperature is analyzed with respect to its climatologically spatial patterns across the model domain and its variability of extremes based on climate indices derived

  11. Using MODIS and GLAS Data to Develop Timber Volume Estimates in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Kimes, Daniel; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, Viatcheslav; Hyde, Peter; Nelson, Ross

    2007-01-01

    The boreal forest is the Earth's largest terrestrial biome, covering some 12 million km2 and accounting for about one third of this planet's total forest area. Mapping of boreal forest's type, structure parameters and biomass are critical for understanding the boreal forest's significance in the carbon cycle, its response to and impact on global climate change. Ground based forest inventories, have much uncertainty in the inventory data, particularly in remote areas of Siberia where sampling is sparse and/or lacking. In addition, many of the forest inventories that do exist for Siberia are now a decade or more old. Thus, available forest inventories fail to capture the current conditions. Changes in forest structure in a particular forest-type and region can change significantly due to changing environment conditions, and natural and anthropogenic disturbance. Remote sensing methods can potentially overcome these problems. Multispectral sensors can be used to provide vegetation cover maps that show a timely and accurate geographic distribution of vegetation types rather than decade old ground based maps. Lidar sensors can be used to directly obtain measurements that can be used to derive critical forest structure information (e.g., height, density, and volume). These in turn can used to estimate biomass components using allometric equations without having to use out dated forest inventory. Finally, remote sensing data is ideally suited to provide a sampling basis for a rigorous statistical estimate of the variance and error bound on forest structure measures. In this study, new remote sensing methods were applied to develop estimates timber volume using NASA's MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and unique waveform data of the geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS) for a 10 deg x 10 deg area in central Siberia. Using MODIS and GLAS data, maps were produced for cover type and timber volume for 2003, and a realistic variance (error bound) for

  12. Variability in Canopy Transpiration with Atmospheric Drivers and Permafrost Thaw Depth in an Arctic Siberian Larch Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loranty, M. M.; Berner, L. T.; Alexander, H. D.; Davydov, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are experiencing rapid change associated with amplified rates of climate warming. A general increase in vegetation productivity has been among the expected responses for terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic. However, recent evidence from satellite derived productivity metrics has revealed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity in the magnitude, and even the direction, of productivity trends in recent decades. Declines in productivity may seem counterintuitive in what are traditionally thought to be temperature limited ecosystems. However a warmer and drier atmosphere in conjunction with changing permafrost conditions may impose hydrologic stresses on vegetation as well. Many Siberian ecosystems receive annual precipitation inputs characteristics of arid and semiarid regions. Boreal forests persist because permafrost acts as an aquatard trapping water near the surface and because historically cool growing season temperatures have kept atmospheric evaporative demand relatively low. As climate change simultaneously warms the atmosphere and deepens the active layer it is likely that vegetation will experience a higher degree of hydrologic limitation, perhaps necessitating the reallocation of resources. Here we use sap flux observations of canopy transpiration to understand the influence of atmospheric and permafrost conditions on the function of an arctic boreal forest in northeastern Siberia. We find that individual trees exhibit stronger responses to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D) as the growing season progresses. Further, the magnitude of this response appears to be positively correlated with changes in the depth of permafrost thaw. These results imply that arctic boreal forests will need to adapt to increasing hydrologic stress in order to benefit from what are typically thought of as increasingly favorable growing conditions with continued climate change.

  13. Integrating proximal and satellite optical data for the analysis of ecosystem carbon uptake and plant phenology at the European larch Specnet site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvagno, Marta; Gamon, John; Cremonese, Edoardo; Garrity, Steven; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Filippa, Gianluca; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Rossini, Micol

    2017-04-01

    Automated canopy-level optical sampling in tandem with ecosystem-atmosphere flux observations is continuously carried on at a variety of ecosystems through the Specnet network (http://specnet.info/). Specifically, 9 sites within US and Europe were selected since 2015, to investigate the use of novel NDVI and PRI low-cost sensors for the analysis of ecosystem functioning and phenology. Different plant functional types, such as grasslands, deciduous, and evergreen forests belong to the network, here we present specific data from the larch (Larix decidua Mill.) forest Italian site. Three automated NDVI and three automated PRI spectral reflectance sensors (Decagon Devices Inc.) were installed in 2015 on the top of the 20-meters eddy covariance tower, pointing toward the west, north, and east orientations. An additional system, composed by one NDVI and PRI system was installed to monitor the understory component. The objective of this analysis is the comparison between these in-situ inexpensive sensors, independent NDVI and PRI sensors (Skye Instruments) previously installed on the 20-meters tower and satellite-derived NDVI. Both MODIS and Sentinel NDVI data were used for the comparison. Moreover, the newly derived chlorophyll/carotenoid index (CCI, Gamon et al. 2016), computed as the normalized difference between the NDVI red band and PRI 532 nm band, was tested to estimate the seasonal pattern of daily Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) of the larch forest. Results showed that the seasonality of NDVI was comparable among in-situ sensors and satellite data, though orientation-specific differences were observed. Both NDVI and CCI tracked daily GPP, but with different sensitivity to its seasonality. Future analysis will be directed toward a comparison between this site-based results with the other sites within the Specnet network.

  14. Tree-ring growth patterns and climatic signals along a vertical transect of larch sites in the Simplon and Rhône Valleys (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, Dana F. C.; Esper, Jan

    2017-04-01

    State-of-the-art millennial long temperature reconstructions from the European Alps integrate wood samples of Larix decidua Mill. from the Lötschental and Simplon regions in Switzerland (Büntgen et al., 2005; 2006). Some of the oldest samples that enable the extension of the time-series back into the first millennium AD are obtained from old buildings in Simplon Village, through the precise location of these samples and the elevation of sampling sites remain unknown. We here evaluate the growth characteristics of larch tree-ring width data along a vertical transect in the Simplon and Rhône valleys. 330 trees from nine sites in 985, 1100, 1400, 1575, 1710, 1712, 1900, 2020, and 2150 m asl have been sampled and analysed for their climate signals. The results indicate a stronger temperature signal in the tree-ring width with increasing elevation. The lower the sites the more a drought signal is imprinted in the ring width data. The intermediate site at 1400 m asl does not show any pronounced climate signal. A comparison of growth patterns of living-tree sites with samples from the historical buildings in Simplon Village (Riechelmann et al., 2013) indicates the construction timber to origin from intermediate to higher elevations. We therefore do not expect strong temperature signal from these timbers. References: Büntgen, U., Esper, J., Frank, D.C., Nicolussi, K., Schmidhalter, M., 2005. A 1052-year tree-ring proxy for Alpine summer temperatures. Climate Dynamics 25: 141-153. Büntgen, U., Frank, D.C., Nievergelt, D., Esper J., 2006. Summer temperature variations in the European Alps, A.D. 755-2004. Journal of Climate 19: 5606-5623. Riechelmann, D.F.C., Schmidhalter, M., Büntgen, U., Esper, J., 2013. Extending a high-elevation larch ring width chronology from the Simplon region in the Swiss Alps over the past millenium. TRACE 11:103-108.

  15. Satellite Analysis of the Severe 1987 Forest Fires in Northern China and Southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  16. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  17. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    PubMed

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Geochemistry of obsidian from Krasnoe Lake on the Chukchi Peninsula (Northeastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, V. K.; Grebennikov, A. V.; Kuzmin, Ya. V.; Glascock, M. D.; Nozdrachev, E. A.; Budnitsky, S. Yu.; Vorobey, I. E.

    2017-09-01

    This report considers features of the geochemical composition of obsidian from beach sediments of Krasnoe Lake along the lower course of the Anadyr River, as well as from lava-pyroclastic rocks constituting the lake coastal outcrops and the surrounding branches of Rarytkin Ridge. The two geochemical types of obsidian, for the first time distinguished and researched, correspond in their chemical composition to lavas and ignimbrite-like tuffs of rhyolites from the Rarytkin area. The distinguished types represent the final stage of acidic volcanism in the West Kamchatkan-Koryak volcanic belt. It was assumed that the accumulation of obsidian in coastal pebble beds was caused by the erosion of extrusive domes and pyroclastic flows. The geochemical studies of obsidian artifacts from archeological sites of the regions of the Sea of Okhotsk, the Kolyma River, and the Chukchi Peninsula along with the correlation of geological and archeological samples show that Krasnoe Lake was an important source of "archeological" obsidian in Northeastern Siberia.

  19. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, David; Green, Richard E.; Kircher, Martin; Krause, Johannes; Patterson, Nick; Durand, Eric Y.; Viola, Bence; Briggs, Adrian W.; Stenzel, Udo; Johnson, Philip L. F.; Maricic, Tomislav; Good, Jeffrey M.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Fu, Qiaomei; Mallick, Swapan; Li, Heng; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Stoneking, Mark; Richards, Michael; Talamo, Sahra; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoli P.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kelso, Janet; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Using DNA extracted from a finger bone found in Denisova Cave in southern Siberia, we have sequenced the genome of an archaic hominin to about 1.9-fold coverage. This individual is from a group that shares a common origin with Neanderthals. This population was not involved in the putative gene flow from Neanderthals into Eurasians; however, the data suggest that it contributed 4–6% of its genetic material to the genomes of present-day Melanesians. We designate this hominin population ‘Denisovans’ and suggest that it may have been widespread in Asia during the Late Pleistocene epoch. A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone. This tooth shares no derived morphological features with Neanderthals or modern humans, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans. PMID:21179161

  20. Total Water-Vapor Distribution in the Summer Cloudless Atmosphere over the South of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshkin, D. N.; Bezuglova, N. N.; Kabanov, M. V.; Pavlov, V. E.; Sokolov, K. I.; Sukovatov, K. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the total water vapor in different climatic zones of the south of Western Siberia in summer of 2008-2011 is studied on the basis of Envisat data. The correlation analysis of the water-vapor time series from the Envisat data W and radiosonde observations w for the territory of Omsk aerological station show that the absolute values of W and w are linearly correlated with a coefficient of 0.77 (significance level p < 0.05). The distribution functions of the total water vapor are calculated based on the number of its measurements by Envisat for a cloudless sky of three zones with different physical properties of the underlying surface, in particular, steppes to the south of the Vasyugan Swamp and forests to the northeast of the Swamp. The distribution functions are bimodal; each mode follows the lognormal law. The parameters of these functions are given.

  1. Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation in the Greater Mekong, Subregion and Russian Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yong; Li, Zengyuan; Sun, Gouqing; Zhang, Zhiyu; Schmullius, Christiane; Meng, Shili; Ma, Zhenyu; Lu, Hao; Li, Shiming; Liu, Qingwang; Bai, Lina; Tian, Xin

    2016-08-01

    Forests play a vital role in sustainable development and provide a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. We summarized works in forest aboveground biomass estimation in Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Russian Siberia (RuS). Both regions are rich in forest resources. These mapping and estimation works were based on multiple-source remote sensing data and some field measurements. Biomass maps were generated at 500 m and 30 m pixel size for RuS and GMS respectively. With the available of the 2015 PALSAR-2 mosaic at 25 m spacing, Sentinel-2 data at 20 m, we will work on the biomass mapping and dynamic study at higher spatial resolution.

  2. International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

    2009-04-01

    During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network

  3. Fallout traces of the Fukushima NPP accident in southern West Siberia (Novosibirsk, Russia).

    PubMed

    Melgunov, M S; Pokhilenko, N P; Strakhovenko, V D; Sukhorukov, F V; Chuguevskii, A V

    2012-05-01

    The fallout of artificially produced radioactive isotopes has been recorded at a site in southern West Siberia (54°50'43.6″ N, 083°06'22.4″ E, Novosibirsk, Russia). The highest activities of (131)I, (134)Cs, and (136)Cs were found in fresh snow precipitated on 02 April 2011, at 0.83, 0.092, and 0.002 Bq L(-1) of meltwater, respectively. The (131)I/(134)Cs ratio decreased from 9.0 on 02 April to 1.2 on 27 April, which is consistent with the radioactive decay of (131)I. This fallout can only have originated from the accidental emission of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, Japan, in March 2011.

  4. Net ecosystem exchange in a sedge-sphagnum fen at the South of West Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, Egor

    2017-04-01

    The model of net ecosystem exchange was used to study the influence of different environmental factors and to calculate daily and growing season carbon budget for minerotrophic fen at South of West Siberia, Russia. Minerotrophic sedge-sphagnum fen occupies the central part of the Bakcharskoe bog. The model uses air and soil temperature, incoming photosynthetically active radiation, and leaf area index as the explanatory factors for gross primary production, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration. The model coefficients were calibrated using data collected by automated soil CO2 flux system with clear long-term chamber. The studied ecosystem is a sink of carbon according to modelling and observation results. This study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant numbers 16-07-01205 and 16-45-700562.

  5. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    PubMed

    Przyboś, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied.

  6. Energy and Resource-Saving Sources of Energy in Small Power Engineering of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Marina

    2017-11-01

    The sustainable development of distant areas of Siberia is associated with the structures of energy demand and supply, the implementation and promotion of the process of environmentally safe restructuring of the energy supply system. It has been established that suspension coal fuels derived from brown coal, coal mining, coal processing wastes can be used as fuel. The results of experimental and industrial boilers on suspension water coal fuel are presented. The designs of vortex combustion chambers of various powers are developed and tested. The possibility of using coal-enrichment wastes and substandard coals for the production of manure-coal fuel briquettes was studied. It is shown that the strength and thermal power characteristics of briquettes depend on the moisture content and degree of metamorphism of the raw materials. The most effective percentage of the solid phase and manure, as a binder, was determined.

  7. [Industrial production of the LDRD "Siberia-N" digital radiographic devices].

    PubMed

    Baru, S E; Ukraintsev, Iu G

    2004-01-01

    It is envisaged, as a key task, in the Federal Program on Tuberculosis Monitoring, that preventive measures and early TB detection is a priority. Fluorography, which is important for the recognition of pulmonary tuberculosis at its early stages, has been used in the diagnostics of pulmonary pathologies. However, according to the statistics provided by the Russian Ministry of Healthcare, around 80% of available medical equipment is now worn and obsolete. Owing to a fruitful research activity related with designing a digital low-dose X-Ray unit (Siberia-N) carried out by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk), a certain progress can be stated in perfecting the fluorography equipment in Russia. The above unit incorporates all advanced achievements in the field of digital X-Ray diagnostics.

  8. Radiative Characteristics of Aerosol During Extreme Fire Event over Siberia in Summer 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solarradiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analyzed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under back-ground conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95+/-0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16+/-0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approx. 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm)=0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD.

  9. Molecular & genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in the southern part of West Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnik, Oksana; Dymova, Maya Alexandrovna; Stasenko, Vladimir Leonidovich; Blokh, Aleksey Igorevich; Tatarintseva, Marina Petrovna; Kolesnikova, Lyubov Pavlovna; Filipenko, Maksim Leonidovich

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: A complicated epidemiological situation characterized by significantly high tuberculosis (TB) morbidity is observed in West Siberia. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the southern part of West Siberia (in the Omsk region). Methods: From March 2013 to January 2015, 100 isolates of M. tuberculosis were obtained from patients with pulmonary TB living in the Omsk region. Drug susceptibility testing was performed on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (absolute concentration method). Genetic typing of isolates was carried out by variable number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) typing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The genetic types and characteristics of cluster strains were determined using 15 MIRU-VNTR loci. Results: Thirty six VNTR types were found. Twenty six (26.0%) isolates had a unique profile, and the remaining 74 were grouped in 10 clusters containing from 2 to 23 isolates. The Beijing genotype was found in 72 isolates, 61 (85.0%) of which were part of five clusters that included two large clusters containing 23 isolates. Other genetic families, such as Latin-American Mediterranean (LAM, 11.0%), S family (2.0%) and Haarlem (4.0%), were also detected. The genetic family of 11 isolates could not be determined. Six different VNTR profiles were found in these non-classified isolates. Only 16 per cent of isolates were sensitive to anti-TB drugs. The katG315 (94.8%) and rpoB531 (92.2%) mutations were identified in 77 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: This study showed that the M. tuberculosis population in the Omsk region was heterogeneous. The Beijing genotype predominated and was actively spreading. The findings obtained point to the need for the implementation of more effective preventive measures to stop the spread of drug-resistant M

  10. Dissolved organic matter composition and biodegradability in a permafrost-dominated watershed network in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, A. A.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Wymore, A.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Kolosov, R.; McDowell, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    Thawing permafrost soils can mobilize large quantities of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils to headwater streams, and DOM may undergo rapid transformations in streams and rivers in transit to the Arctic Ocean. With climate change an increased frequency of fire is also expected, which will further alter the DOM entering streams, and may contribute to changes in its biodegradability. Elucidating how DOM composition varies across a fire gradient within a river network underlain by continuous permafrost will therefore improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and its role in the global carbon cycle. To determine DOM composition we measured optical properties via excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) and subsequent parallel factor analysis across a spatially extensive collection of sites in central Siberia. Within a subset of streams in the Nizhnyaya Tunguska watershed network, we also measured biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) incubated at in situ temperatures over a 7 day period during spring freshet on two dates in early June. Despite clear changes in optical properties of DOM and background DOC concentration along the fire gradient (range: 3 to >100 y since burn) BDOC did not vary systematically with years since fire for either incubation date. In the first incubation conducted near peak flow BDOC ranged from negligible to 7.6% (BDOC concentration = negligible to 1.4 mg C L-1) within a 7 day period. In the second incubation conducted 5 days later BDOC was negligible across all sites (as both a percentage and a concentration). Our results suggest that DOC exported from permafrost soils in the central Siberian plateau is relatively unreactive at in situ temperatures over 7 day time scales, which contrasts with previous studies conducted in watersheds underlain with Yedoma outcrops where biodegradability comprises a large fraction of DOC. Our preliminary results suggest that melting of permafrost soils in central

  11. Greenhouse gas aerosols and pollutants over Siberia: the YAK-AEROSIB French Russian Joint International Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel; Belan, Boris D.; Ancellet, Gérard; Nédélec, Philippe; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Pruvost, Arnaud; Berchet, Antoine; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Pison, Isabelle; Ciais, Philippe; Law, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    Despite the unique scientific value of better knowing atmospheric composition over Siberia, regional observations of the tropospheric composition over this region are still lacking. Large local anthropogenic emissions, strong ecosystem gas exchange across the vast forest expanse, and processes feeding back to global climate such as wetlands CH4 emissions, seabed hydrates destabilization and degrading permafrost make this region particularly crucial to investigate. We aim at addressing this need in the YAK-AEROSIB program by collecting high-precision in-situ measurements of the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and ultrafine particles distribution in the Siberian troposphere, as well as other parameters including aerosol lidar profiles, on a pan-Siberian aircraft transect. Campaigns are performed almost annually since 2006 until now on this regular route, while special campaigns are occasionnally arranged to sample the troposphere elsewere (e.g. Russian Arctic coast). We show the background tropospheric composition obtained from these surveys, the variability and the impact of large-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions from Europe and Asia, as well as the impact of biomass burning plumes both from local wildfires (2012) and from remote sources elsewhere in Asia. Long range transport of anthropogenic emissions is shown to have a discernible impact on O3 distribution, although its lower-tropospheric variability is largely driven by surface deposition. Regional sources and sinks drive the lower troposphere CO2 and CH4 concentrations. Recent efforts aim at better understanding the respective role of CH4 emission processes (including methanogenesis in wetlands and emissions by wildfires) in driving its large scale atmospheric variability over the region. Generally, the YAK AEROSIB provide unique observations over Siberia, documenting both direct impact of regional sources and aged air masses experiencing long range transport toward the high

  12. Interannual and Seasonal Patterns of Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Energy Fluxes From Ecotonal and Thermokarst-Impacted Ecosystems on Carbon-Rich Permafrost Soils in Northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Edgar, Colin W.; Syndonia Bret-Harte, M.; Kade, Anja; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Eastern Siberia Russia is currently experiencing a distinct and unprecedented rate of warming. This change is particularly important given the large amounts of carbon stored in the yedoma permafrost soils that become vulnerable to thaw and release under warming. Data from this region pertaining to year-round carbon, water, and energy fluxes are scarce, particularly in sensitive ecotonal ecosystems near latitudinal treeline, as well as those already impacted by permafrost thaw. Here we investigated the interannual and seasonal carbon dioxide, water, and energy dynamics at an ecotonal forested site and a disturbed thermokarst-impacted site. The ecotonal site was approximately neutral in terms of CO2 uptake/release, while the disturbed site was either a source or neutral. Our data suggest that high rates of plant productivity during the growing season at the disturbed site may, in part, counterbalance higher rates of respiration during the cold season compared to the ecotonal site. We also found that the ecotonal site was sensitive to the timing of the freezeup of the soil active layer in fall, releasing more CO2 when freezeup occurred later. Both sites showed a negative water balance, although the ecotonal site appeared more sensitive to dry conditions. Water use efficiency at the ecotonal site was lower during warmer summers. Overall, these Siberian measurements indicate ecosystem sensitivity to warmer conditions during the fall and to drier conditions during the growing season and provide a better understanding of ecosystem response to climate in a part of the circumpolar Arctic where current knowledge is weakest.

  13. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  14. Managing Eastern Redceder

    Treesearch

    E.R. Ferguson; E.R. Lawson; W.R. Maple; C. Mesavage

    1968-01-01

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is the most widely distributed conifer of tree size in the Eastern United States (48). Its range also extends into southeastern Canada. The wood was once favored for domestic use and export because of its exceptional cutting qualities, durability, rich color, and aroma. It has now lost much of its...

  15. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  17. Highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus of clade 2.3.2.1c in Western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, V Y; Susloparov, I M; Kolosova, N P; Goncharova, N I; Shipovalov, A V; Ilyicheva, T N; Durymanov, A G; Chernyshova, O A; Kozlovskiy, L I; Chernyshova, T V; Pryadkina, E N; Karimova, T V; Mikheev, V N; Ryzhikov, A B

    2016-06-01

    In the spring of 2015, avian influenza virus surveillance in Western Siberia resulted in isolation of several influenza H5N1 virus strains. The strains were isolated from several wild bird species. Investigation of biological features of those strains demonstrated their high pathogenicity for mammals. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the strains belong to clade 2.3.2.1c.

  18. Morphology and biology of Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 in high mountain lakes of East Siberia (including Lake Amut)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheveleva, Natalya G.; Itigilova, Mydygma Ts.; Chananbaator, Ayushcuren

    2017-03-01

    Data on zooplankton from 13 high-mountain lakes of East Siberia have shown that the Holarctic copepod Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 dominates among crustaceans. In July, its abundance comprised 64%-98% of the total plankton fauna in the pelagial of these lakes, approximately 30% in the littoral zone and 10% in small northern thermokarst lakes. Biometric measurements and morphological descriptions based on scanning microscope images are supplemented by the data on its geographic distribution and phenology.

  19. Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D. J.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Kovaleva, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due to the presence of generally untreated logging slash (i.e., available fuel) which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population; this increases the risk for fire ignition. Fire impacts on the overstory trees, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on 14 logged and unlogged comparison sites in the Lower Angara Region in 2009-2010 as part of the NASA-funded NEESPI project, The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia. Based on calculated fuel consumption, we estimated carbon emission from fires on both logged and unlogged burned sites. Carbon emission from fires on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration decreased on both site types after fires. This reduction may partially offset fire-produced carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  20. A reconstruction of vegetation and paleohydrologycal changes from peatland in Kansk forest-steppe, Yenisei Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are an important natural archive for past climatic changes. Climatic changes throughout the Holocene have been reconstructed from peat using a wide array of biological and other proxies. Many different proxy indicators can be derived from peat cores allowing for a multi-proxy approach to climatic reconstructions. Peat-based climatic and environmental reconstructions are currently available from many sites in Yenisei Siberia, mainly for its northern territories. The purpose of this paper is to study some features of peatland development and environmental reconstructions from the Holocene period in the south part of Yenisei Siberia (Kansk forest-steppe zone). The main method used in this research is macrofossil analysis. It can be used to reconstruct the development of local vegetation and surface wetness on peatlands. The macrofossil analysis in the peat resulted from the study of the vegetation in a particular place over a period of time, and it allowed the reconstruction of environmental changes that have occurred since the Late Glacial. Then we used ecological scales of moisture and reconstructed surface wetness for the entire period of the bog formation. Radiocarbon dating was carried out at Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk . Peatland "Pinchinskoye" was selected for investigation in Kansk forest-steppe. It is located on the right bank of the Yenisei River in the floodplain of Esaulovka River. Peat cores of 350 cm were selected in the southern part of the peatbog, including 225 cm of peat (with loam layers in the range of 90 to 135 cm), 75 cm of organic and mineral sapropel with the inclusion of fossil shells of mollusks and different plant macrofossils and 50 cm of the loam below. The process of peat accumulation dated back 8400 ± 140 years, which is the oldest date for the forest-steppe zone of Yenisei Siberia. The climate of Boreal period of the Holocene was chilly. Under these conditions, in the

  1. The Yudomian of Siberia, Vendian and Ediacaran systems of the International stratigraphic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomentovsky, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    In Russia, the terminal Neoproterozoic formally includes the Vendian of western part of the East European platform and the concurrent Yudoma Group of Siberia. As is shown in this work, the designated subdivisions correspond in the stratotypes only to the upper, Yudomian Series of the Vendian. In the Siberian platform, the Ust-Yudoma and Aim horizons of the Yudomian are tightly interrelated. The lower of them, bearing remains of Ediacaran Fauna, represents the Ediacarian Stage, whereas the upper one containing small-shelled fossils (SSF) corresponds to the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage divided into the trisulcatus and antiqua superregional zones. In more complete sections of the platform periphery, sediments of these subdivisions conformably rest on siliciclastic succession that should be ranked as basal subdivision of the Yudomian. The succession is concurrent to the Laplandian Stage of the East European platform. According to geochronological dates obtained recently, the Yudomian Series spans interval of 600-540 Ma. In the East European platform, the Upper Vendian (Yudomian) begins with the Laplandian basal tillites of synonymous stage. In the west of the platform, tillites are dated at 600 Ma like the Upper Vendian base in Siberia. The next Ediacarian Stage of the East European platform is stratigraphic equivalent of the Redkino Horizon, while summary range of the Kotlin and Rovno horizons is concurrent to that of the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage. The Vendian of Russia is conformably overlain by the Tommotian Stage of the Lower Cambrian. Intense pre-Vendian events constrained distribution areas of the Lower Vendian sediments in Russia. The Lower Vendian deposits of the East European platform are most representative and well studied in the central Urals, where they are attributed to the Serebryanka Group. In Siberia, separate subdivisions representing the Lower Vendian are the Maastakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift, two lower members of the Ushakovka Formation in the Baikal

  2. Database of Alluvial Radiocarbon Dates in European Russia and Siberia and its Palaeohydrological Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Panin, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    We collected and analyzed published radiocarbon dates from East European Plain (EEP) and Siberia to pick absolute dates on alluvial and associated deposits. After filtering unreliable dates, 1000 radiocarbon dates from EEP and 500 from Siberia were included into the database. Each date was supplied with information on geographic location and coordinates, catchment area, geomorphological position, characteristics of geological section and dated materials. Also the information about published sources was given. Documented sections refer to fluvial forms in a wide range of catchment sizes. To extract palaeohydrological signal we used two kinds of proxies: sedimentological and geomorphological. We used the following indicators of low activity: organic horizons (soil, peat) in overbank alluvium, balka bottoms and gully fans, small river palaeochannels; and the following indicators of high activity: active sedimentation on river floodplains (burial of organic horizons), balka bottoms and gully fans, erosion by flood flows on floodplains, in bottoms of balkas and gullies, river incision, big palaeochannels, channel avulsions and chute cutoffs. 
 Each date that received palaeohydrological interpretation was regarded as the indicator of a particular Local Palaeohydrological Event. Combined probability density functions of high- and low-activity dates were used to detect time intervals of different palaeohydrological status. For EEP after low fluvial activity during LGM two palaeohydrological epochs were designated: extremely high activity in the end of MIS 2 (ca. 18-11.7 ka b2k), and much lower activity in the Holocene. Within the Holocene two hierarchical levels of hydroclimatic variability were designated according to their duration and magnitude - regional palaeohydrological phases (centuries to few millennia) and regional palaeofluvial episodes (decades to few centuries). Tendency is rather clear of activity lowering in the first half and rise in the second half of

  3. About some processes of replacement of PGM from the placers of Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, G. I.; Knyazev, V. N.; Nekos, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    placer of Sysim river (Eastern Sayan). The similar composition of phase was described by S.A.Toma and S.Murphy /6/. In placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau) the edging of idealized composition Os_2S (tab., No. 4-1) are develops on the grain of Os-Ir-ruthenium (tab., No.4). It indicates deficit of sulfur in a solution. In case of increased concentration of arsenic the minerals of Os-Ir-Ru system (tab., No. 5) are replaced by diarsenides (anduoite - omeiite series) (tab., No. 5-1) or sulfoarsenides of these elements as it was observed in PGM from placer of Rudnaya river (Western Sayan). In the extremely rare cases at superposition of sulfurless and arsenicless solutions the replacement of alloys Os-Ir-Ru by exotic phases can happen. For example, authors find the grain of native iridium, which was heavily deformed and impregnated on microgaps by phases of generalized composition from Pt(Ni,Cu,Fe)_2 to Ir(Ni,Fe,Cu)_3 in placer of Bolshoy Khaylik river /7/. The forming of similar phases can be initiated by very specific conditions: the extremely reducing conditions, very low fugitivity of sulfur and oxygen, absence of other anion-forming elements, high activity of a nickel, iron and cooper. The similar phases were found in streak-schlieren chromitic ores in one massif of alpine-type ultramafic rocks of Koryak Highland /3/. Also rather rare replacement of platinum with the high contents of ruthenium and iridium (platruthenosmiridium by old nomenclature) (tab., No.6) by Pt-Fe alloys (tab., No.6-1). It was observed by authors in PGM from placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau). In the system Pt-Fe most widespread placer-forming minerals are ferriferous platinum, tetraferroplatinum and isoferroplatinum. In placers that were investigated by the authors the Pt-Fe alloys most frequently is replaced by cuperite, which forms the various thickness edgings. It usual phenomenon in some cases becomes complicated by forming of narrow (first microns) intermittent band of high

  4. Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Soja, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the carbon budget resulting in a considerable carbon efflux, initially through direct consumption of forest fuels and later as a result of tree mortality and decomposition of dead material accumulated on the forest floor. In initial postfire years these processes dominate over photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and the ecosystems become a carbon source. Over several postfire years, above-ground carbon in dead biomass tends to increase, with the increase depending significantly on fire severity. High-severity fire enhances dead biomass carbon, while moderate- and low-severity fires have minimal effect on above-ground carbon distribution in Scots pine ecosystems. Dead stand biomass carbon increases, primarily during the first two years following fires, due to tree mortality. This increase can account for up to 12.4% of the total stand biomass after low- and moderate- intensity fires. We found tree dieback following a high-intensity fire is an order of magnitude higher, and thus the dead biomass increases up to 88.1% of total above-ground biomass. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreases with increasing tree mortality, and needle foliage and bark are incorporated into the upper layer of the forest floor in the course of years. Ground vegetation and duff carbon were >90, 71-83, and 82% of prefire levels after fires of low, moderate, and high severity, respectively for the first 4 to 5 years after fire. Fires of low and moderate severity caused down woody fuel carbon to increase by 2.1 and 3.6 t ha-1 respectively by four years after burning as compared to the pre-fire values. Climate

  5. Impact of raized bogs on export of carbon and river water chemical composition in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voistinova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Bogs play an important role in functioning of the biosphere. Specific geochemical environment of the bogs results in formation of the special biogeochemical cycle of the elements. Processes of decay and transformation of organic material define the reductive conditions of bog water, form and migratory mobility of the chemical elements. Particular interest in recent years is aroused by the question of content and dynamics of the carbon in bog and river water according to indicated natural and climatic changes on the territory. The most important parts of the carbon balance in bog ecosystems together with processes of exhalation from deposit surface in the form of CO2 is its export with river water. The results of research carried out in scientific station "Vasyugansky" in south taiga subzone of Western Siberia showed that chemical composition of raised bog water includes high amounts of total iron (2,13 mg/l), ammonium ions (5,33 mg/l), humic and fulvic acids (5,21 mg/l and 45,8 mg/l), dissolved organic carbon (69,1 mg/l), COD (236,93 mgO/l), there are low mineralization and indicators of pH. Carbon comes in bog water in organic compounds: carboxylic acids, phenols, aromatic and paraffin hydrocarbons, organic phosphates, phthalates and other compounds. Formation of river waters composition in the Western Siberia takes place in the following context: high level of bogged river catchments (sometimes up to 70%), excess humidification and low heat provision. Basing on the results of study of hydrochemical runoff in small and medium rivers with different levels of bogged in river catchments (Chaya, Bakchar, Klyuch, Gavrilovka) it was noted that raised bog influence on river waters chemical composition shows in ion runoff decrease, organic substances runoff increase, increase of amounts of total iron, ammonium irons and water pH indicators decrease. Study of humic matters migration is very important in the context of formation of flexible complexes of humic and fulvic

  6. Development of provisions for oil contaminated soil neutralizing in the conditions of Siberia and the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtripling, L. O.; Kholkin, E. G.

    2017-08-01

    Siberia and the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation occupy a large area of the country and they differ from other regions in special climatic conditions, in particular, a long period of freezing temperatures and relatively poor infrastructure. The main problem of neutralizing soils contaminated with oil products in conditions of negative ambient temperature is that the contaminated soil is in a frozen state, and it prevents the normal course of neutralization process, so additional energy is required for preparing the soil. There is proposed a technology adapted to the conditions of Siberia and the Arctic for the operational elimination of emergency situations consequences accompanied with oil spills. The technology for neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products is based on the encapsulation of a pollutant (reagent capsulation technology) using an alkaline calcium-based reagent. Powdered building quicklime is used as a reagent, and it is a product of roasting carbonate rocks or a mixture of this product with mineral additives (calcium oxide). The encapsulated material obtained as a result of neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products is resistant to natural and man-made factors such as moisture, temperature fluctuations, acid rain and high pressure. Energy use from the chemical detoxification exothermic process of soils contaminated with petroleum products in combination with the forced supply of carbon dioxide to the neutralization zone during the formation of a shell from calcium carbonate on the surface of the pollutant makes it possible to neutralize soils contaminated with oil products in the extreme climatic conditions of the Arctic using reagent Encapsulation. The principle of equipment operation that allows neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products in the natural and climatic conditions of the Arctic using reagent capsulation technology has been described. The results of experimental studies have been presented that

  7. Glaciation control of melting rates in the mantle: U-Th systematics of young basalts from Southern Siberia and Central Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasskazov, S.; Chebykin, E.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Sayans, Siberia and Hangay, Central Mongolia are mountainous uplifts effected by Quaternary volcanism, but only the former area was covered by glaciers that were as thick as 500 m. Glaciation time intervals were marked by moraines and sub-glacial hyaloclastite-bearing volcanic edifices, whereas interglacial ones were exhibited by sub-aerial "valley" flows and cinder cones. To estimate temporal variations of maximum rates of melting and mantle upwelling in the glacial and glacial-free areas, we measured radionuclides of the U-Th system for 74 samples of the Middle-Late Pleistocene through Holocene basalts by ICP-MS technique (Chebykin et al. Russian Geol. Geophys. 2004. 45: 539-556) using mass-spectrometer Agilent 7500ce. The obtained U-Th isochron ages for the Pleistocene volcanic units in the age interval of the last 400 Kyr are mostly consistent with results of K-Ar dating. The measured (230Th/238U) ratios for the Holocene basalts from both areas are within the same range of 1.08-1.16 (parentheses denote units of activity), whereas the 50 Kyr lavas yield, respectively, the higher and lower initial (230Th0/238U) ratios (1.18-1.46 and 1.05-1.13). This discrepancy demonstrates contrast maximum rates of melting in conventional garnet peridotite sources. We suggest that this dynamical feature was provided by the abrupt Late Pleistocene deglaciation that caused the mantle decompression expressed by the earlier increasing melting beneath Eastern Sayans than beneath Hangay. In the last 400 Kyr, magmatic liquids from both Eastern Sayans and Hangay showed the overall temporal decreasing (230Th0/238U) (i.e. relative increasing rates of melting and upwelling of the mantle) with the systematically lower isotopic ratios (i.e. increased mantle activity) in the former area than in the latter. The 400 Kyr phonotephrites in Hangay showed elevated concentrations of Th (6-8 ppm) and Th/U (3.7-3.9). The high (230Th0/238U) (4.3-6.0) reflected slow fractional melting

  8. Collembola of the genus Protaphorura Absolon, 1901 (Onychiuridae) in the Eastern Palearctic: morphology, distribution, identification key

    PubMed Central

    Kaprus’, Igor; Weiner, Wanda; Paśnik, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Seven new species, Protaphorura jernika sp. n., Protaphorura abscondita sp. n., Protaphorura tuvinica sp. n., Protaphorura vasilinae sp. n., Protaphorura sayanica sp. n., Protaphorura oligopseudocellata sp. n. and Protaphorura nikolai sp. n. from different habitats of the southern Siberia and Far East of Russia, are described. Protaphorura ombrophila (Stach, 1960) is redescribed based on the type specimens. These species differ one from other and from all known species by dorsal and ventral pseudocellar formulae, number of pseudocelli on subcoxae 1 of legs I–III, parapseudocellar formula, chaetotaxy of body, structure of claw, size of postantennal organ and body length. Geographical distribution of all known Protaphorura species of Eastern Palearctic was analysed and an identification key to 50 species was provided. PMID:27853409

  9. Effect of warming on larch trees in the Asian southern border of the boreal forest, Mongolia and China in the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Cho, Qiqin; Nobori, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Byambasuren, Mijidsuren; Zhang, Yandong; Sugimoto, Atsuko

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades air temperature (Ta) has been increasing steadily around the globe and it is reported that in the last 40 years Ta in Mongolia alone has increased by about 2.1 deg.C. The boreal region as a whole is expected to experience changes due to atmospheric drying, permafrost degradation, increases in the frequency of forest fires and other factors that will lead to a shift of the forest ecosystems northward. The southern border of the boreal forest distributes in northern Mongolia and northeast China, which as transition areas are more sensitive to changes. In a 500 km long south-north transect of larch forests extending in each of these two countries, larch forest sites were chosen (Larix sibirica in Mongolia and Larix gmeliini in China). Studies until now have used only tree-ring analysis to determined past and recent climate in Mongolia and China. However, isotope analysis has not been coupled with this analysis to give a wider overview of the environmental changes taking place in these regions. Therefore in this study tree core samples were collected for tree-ring and carbon isotope analysis to be coupled with available meteorological data. These data indicate that in the last four decades, the northernmost site of the selected transect has experienced the largest increase in Ta, but nevertheless the annual Ta in the southernmost site remained several degrees higher. On the other hand precipitation shows a very slight increase in the central and northernmost sites while an insignificant decrease is observed in the southernmost site. Tree-ring analysis shows that for most of the 20th century tree ring growth had lower inter-annual variability until the beginning of the 1970's but from then on the annual variability has increased. Unlike the results of the tree-ring analysis, the carbon isotope analysis revealed that until the 1970's the increases in the drying atmospheric conditions (higher temperature-no changes in rainfall) were not present but the

  10. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic transition: the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, Turukhansk Uplift, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicified carbonates of the latest Mesoproterozoic Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, northwestern Siberia, contain abundant and diverse permineralized microfossils. Peritidal environments are dominated by microbial mats built by filamentous cyanobacteria comparable to modern species of Lyngbya and Phormidium. In subtidal to lower intertidal settings, mat-dwelling microbenthos and possible coastal microplankton are abundant. In contrast, densely woven mat populations with few associated taxa characterize more restricted parts of tidal flats; the preservation of vertically oriented sheath bundles and primary fenestrae indicates that in these mats carbonate cementation was commonly penecontemporaneous with mat growth. Eoentophysalis mats are limited to restricted environments where microlaminated carbonate precipitates formed on or just beneath the sediment surface. Most microbenthic populations are cyanobacterial, although eukaryotic microfossils may occur among the simple spheroidal cells interpreted as coastal plankton. Protists are more securely represented by large (up to 320 micrometers in diameter) but poorly preserved acritarchs in basinal facies. The Sukhaya Tunguska assemblage contains 27 species in 18 genera. By virtue of their stratigraphic longevity and their close and predictable association with specific paleoenvironmental conditions, including substrates, Proterozoic cyanobacteria support a model of bacterial evolution in which populations adapt rapidly to novel environments and, thereafter, resist competitive replacement. The resulting evolutionary pattern is one of accumulation and stasis rather than the turnover and replacement characteristic of Phanerozoic plants and animals.

  11. Music as knowledge in Shamanism and other healing traditions of Siberia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of experiential ways of knowing. In her Quebec City presentation, she shared some of this experiential dimension by showing and commenting on videotaped segments featuring three Siberian healers. Walker’s paper discusses healing at several levels. In addition to several healing dimensions that she lists at the end of her paper, she mentions the physiological effects of music, dance, and drumming. Current research is leading to a better understanding of how trauma affects the brain and the body, and ways that various therapies, including new therapies focusing on sensorimotor effects, can promote healing. Along with these developments has come a greater appreciation and understanding among some mental health practitioners of some of the neuropsychological processes by which traditional practices such as narrative, singing, drumming, and dancing, may bring about healing.

  12. Methane turnover and methanotrophic communities in arctic aquatic ecosystems of the Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia.

    PubMed

    Osudar, Roman; Liebner, Susanne; Alawi, Mashal; Yang, Sizhong; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Wagner, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Large amounts of organic carbon are stored in Arctic permafrost environments, and microbial activity can potentially mineralize this carbon into methane, a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, we assessed the methane budget, the bacterial methane oxidation (MOX) and the underlying environmental controls of arctic lake systems, which represent substantial sources of methane. Five lake systems located on Samoylov Island (Lena Delta, Siberia) and the connected river sites were analyzed using radiotracers to estimate the MOX rates, and molecular biology methods to characterize the abundance and the community composition of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). In contrast to the river, the lake systems had high variation in the methane concentrations, the abundance and composition of the MOB communities, and consequently, the MOX rates. The highest methane concentrations and the highest MOX rates were detected in the lake outlets and in a lake complex in a flood plain area. Though, in all aquatic systems, we detected both, Type I and II MOB, in lake systems, we observed a higher diversity including MOB, typical of the soil environments. The inoculation of soil MOB into the aquatic systems, resulting from permafrost thawing, might be an additional factor controlling the MOB community composition and potentially methanotrophic capacity. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Osteoarthritis in Siberia's Cis-Baikal: Skeletal indicators of hunter-gatherer adaptation and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Lieverse, Angela R; Weber, Andrzej W; Bazaliiskiy, Vladimir Ivanovich; Goriunova, Olga Ivanovna; Savel'ev, Nikolai Aleksandrovich

    2007-01-01

    This examination of osteoarthritis in Siberia's Cis-Baikal region focuses on the reconstruction of mid-Holocene mobility and activity patterns with particular interest in an alleged fifth millennium BC biocultural hiatus. Five cemetery populations--two representing the pre-hiatus Kitoi culture (6800-4900 BC) and three the post-hiatus Serovo-Glaskovo (4200-1000 BC)-are considered. The objective is to investigate osteoarthritic prevalence and distribution (patterning) within and among these populations in order to reconstruct mobility and activity patterns among the Cis-Baikal foragers, and to test for possible disparities that may reflect differing adaptive strategies. The data reveal that levels of activity remained relatively constant throughout the mid-Holocene but that mobility and specific activity patterns did not. Although results are consistent with the current understanding of distinct Kitoi and Serovo-Glaskovo subsistence regimes, specifically the lower residential mobility and narrower resource base of the former, they also draw attention to adaptive characteristics shared by all occupants of the Cis-Baikal. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  14. Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kaufman, A. J.; Kolosov, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the Olenek Uplift of northeastern Siberia, the Khorbusuonka Group and overlying Kessyusa and Erkeket formations preserve a significant record of terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian Earth history. A composite section more than 350 m thick is reconstructed from numerous exposures along the Khorbusuonka River. The Khorbusuonka Group comprises three principal sedimentary sequences: peritidal dolomites of the Mastakh Formation, which are bounded above and below by red beds; the Khatyspyt and most of the overlying Turkut formations, which shallow upward from relatively deep-water carbonaceous micrites to cross-bedded dolomitic grainstones and stromatolites; and a thin upper Turkut sequence bounded by karst surfaces. The overlying Kessyusa Formation is bounded above and below by erosional surfaces and contains additional parasequence boundaries internally. Ediacaran metazoans, simple trace fossils, and vendotaenids occur in the Khatyspyt Formation; small shelly fossils, more complex trace fossils, and acritarchs all appear near the base of the Kessyusa Formation and diversify upward. The carbon-isotopic composition of carbonates varies stratigraphically in a pattern comparable to that determined for other terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian successions. In concert, litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphic data indicate the importance of the Khorbusuonka Group in the global correlation of terminal Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Stratigraphic data and a recently determined radiometric date on basal Kessyusa volcanic breccias further underscore the significance of the Olenek region in investigations of the Proterozoic-cambrian boundary.

  15. Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Grotzinger, J P; Kaufman, A J; Kolosov, P

    1995-01-01

    In the Olenek Uplift of northeastern Siberia, the Khorbusuonka Group and overlying Kessyusa and Erkeket formations preserve a significant record of terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian Earth history. A composite section more than 350 m thick is reconstructed from numerous exposures along the Khorbusuonka River. The Khorbusuonka Group comprises three principal sedimentary sequences: peritidal dolomites of the Mastakh Formation, which are bounded above and below by red beds; the Khatyspyt and most of the overlying Turkut formations, which shallow upward from relatively deep-water carbonaceous micrites to cross-bedded dolomitic grainstones and stromatolites; and a thin upper Turkut sequence bounded by karst surfaces. The overlying Kessyusa Formation is bounded above and below by erosional surfaces and contains additional parasequence boundaries internally. Ediacaran metazoans, simple trace fossils, and vendotaenids occur in the Khatyspyt Formation; small shelly fossils, more complex trace fossils, and acritarchs all appear near the base of the Kessyusa Formation and diversify upward. The carbon-isotopic composition of carbonates varies stratigraphically in a pattern comparable to that determined for other terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian successions. In concert, litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphic data indicate the importance of the Khorbusuonka Group in the global correlation of terminal Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Stratigraphic data and a recently determined radiometric date on basal Kessyusa volcanic breccias further underscore the significance of the Olenek region in investigations of the Proterozoic-cambrian boundary.

  16. Relationship between glacier melting and atmospheric circulation in the southeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipova, O. P.; Osipov, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between climate and cryosphere is a key issue in recent years. Changes in surface mass balance of mountain glaciers closely correspond to differential changes in atmospheric circulation. Mountain glaciers in southeast Siberia located on East Sayan, Baikalsky and Kodar ridges have been continuously shrinking since the end of the Little Ice Age. In this study we used daily synoptic weather maps (Irkutsk Center of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring), 500 hPa, 700 hPa and 850 hPa geopotential height and air temperature data of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to assess relationships between atmospheric circulation patterns and the sum of positive temperature (SPT), a predictor of summer ice/snow ablation. Results show that increased SPT (ablation) is generally associated with anticyclones and anticyclonic pressure fields (with cloudless weather conditions) and warm atmospheric fronts. Decreased SPT (ablation) is strongly correlated with cyclones and cyclonic type pressure fields, cold atmospheric fronts and air advections. Significant correlations have been found between ablation and cyclonic/anticyclonic activity. Revealed decreasing trends in the SPT in three glaciarized ridges at the beginning of the 21st century led to changes of air temperature and snow/ice melt climates.

  17. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Howe, E. Lance; Murphy, James J.; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation PMID:27442434

  18. A rock-magnetic record from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Evidence for Late Quaternary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Rock-magnetic measurements of sediment cores from the Academician Ridge region of Lake Baikal, Siberia show variations related to Late Quaternary climate change. Based upon the well-dated last glacial-interglacial transition, variations in magnetic concentration and mineralogy are related to glacial-interglacial cycles using a conceptual model. Interglacial intervals are characterized by low magnetic concentrations and a composition that is dominated by low coercivity minerals. Glacial intervals are characterized by high magnetic concentrations and increased amounts of high coercivity minerals. The variation in magnetic concentration is consistent with dilution by diatom opal during the more productive interglacial periods. We also infer an increased contribution of eolian sediment during the colder, windier, and more arid glacial conditions when extensive loess deposits were formed throughout Europe and Asia. Eolian transport is inferred to deliver increased amounts of high coercivity minerals as staining on eolian grains during the glacial intervals. Variations in magnetic concentration and mineralogy of Lake Baikal sediment correlate to the SPECMAP marine oxygen-isotope record. The high degree of correlation between Baikal magnetic concentration/mineralogy and the SPECMAP oxygen-isotope record indicates that Lake Baikal sediment preserves a history of climate change in central Asia for the last 250 ka. This correlation provides a method of estimating the age of sediment beyond the range of the radiocarbon method. Future work must include providing better age control and additional climate proxy data, thereby strengthening the correlation of continental and marine climate records. ?? 1994.

  19. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

  20. Vegetation responses to interglacial warming in the Arctic, examples from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, A. V.; Anderson, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Palynological data from Lake El'gygytgyn reveal responses of plant communities to a range of climatic conditions that can help assess the possible impact of global warming on arctoboreal ecosystems. Vegetation associated with climatic optima suggests two types of interglacial responses: one is dominated by deciduous taxa (the postglacial thermal maximum (PGTM) and marine isotope stage (MIS5)) and the second by evergreen conifers (MIS11, MIS31). The MIS11 forests show a similarity to Picea-Larix-Betula-Alnus forests of Siberia. While dark coniferous forest also characterizes MIS31, the pollen taxa show an affinity to the modern boreal forest of the lower Amur valley in the Russian Far East. Despite vegetation differences during the thermal maxima, all four glacial-interglacial transitions are alike, being dominated by deciduous woody taxa. Initially Betula shrub tundra established and was replaced by tundra with tree-sized shrubs (PGTM), Betula woodland (MIS5), or Betula-Larix (MIS11, MIS31) forest. The consistent occurrence of deciduous forest and/or high shrub tundra in all interglaciations as they approach or achieve maximum warmth underscores the significance of this biome for modeling efforts. The El'gygytgyn data also suggest the possible elimination or massive reduction of arctic plant communities under extreme warm-earth scenarios.

  1. The role of large arthropods in the development of halomorphic soils in the south of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordkovich, V. G.; Lyubechanskii, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    Soil sequences along catenas crossing the peripheral parts of shallow-water drying lakes in the south of Siberia have been studied. They include the sulfidic and typical playa (sor) solonchaks (Gleyic Solonchaks), playa solonchak over the buried solonetz (Gleyic Solonchak Thapto-Solonetz)), shallow solonetz-solonchak (Salic Solonetz), and solonetzic and solonchakous chernozemic-meadow soil (Luvic Gleyic Chernozem (Sodic, Salic)). This spatial sequence also represents a series of historical stages of the development of halomorphic soils: the amphibian, hydromorphic, semihydromorphic, and automorphic-paleohydromorphic stages. During all of them, the biogenic component plays a significant role in the matter budget of halomorphic soils. The diversity, number, and functional activity of large insects and spiders are particularly important. Their total abundance in the course of transformation of the halomorphic soils decreases from several thousand to about 100 specimens/(m2 day), whereas their species diversity increases from 17 to 45 species. Changes in the functional structure of the soil zoocenosis and its impact on the character and intensity of pedogenetic processes can be considered driving forces of the transformation of hydromorphic soils. This is ensured by the sequential alteration of the groups of invertebrates with different types of cenotic strategy and different mechanisms of adaptation to biotic and abiotic components of the soil in the course of the development of the soil zoocenosis.

  2. A syringe-sharing model for the spread of HIV: application to Omsk, Western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Artzrouni, Marc; Leonenko, Vasiliy N; Mara, Thierry A

    2017-03-01

    A system of two differential equations is used to model the transmission dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus between 'persons who inject drugs' (PWIDs) and their syringes. Our vector-borne disease model hinges on a metaphorical urn from which PWIDs draw syringes at random which may or may not be infected and may or may not result in one of the two agents becoming infected. The model's parameters are estimated with data mostly from the city of Omsk in Western Siberia. A linear trend in PWID prevalence in Omsk could only be fitted by considering a time-dependent version of the model captured through a secular decrease in the probability that PWIDs decide to share a syringe. A global sensitivity analysis is performed with 14 parameters considered random variables in order to assess their impact on average numbers infected over a 50-year projection. With obvious intervention implications the drug injection rate and the probability of syringe-cleansing are the only parameters whose coefficients of correlations with numbers of infected PWIDs and infected syringes have an absolute value close to or larger than 0.40. © The authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  3. Methanolobus psychrotolerans sp. nov., a psychrotolerant methanoarchaeon isolated from a saline meromictic lake in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chung; Huang, Hsing-Hua; Lai, Mei-Chin; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Tang, Sen-Lin; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Degermendzhy, Andrey G

    2018-04-01

    A psychrotolerant, methylotrophic methanogen, strain YSF-03 T , was isolated from the saline meromictic Lake Shira in Siberia. Cells of strain YSF-03 T were non-motile, irregular cocci and 0.8-1.2 µm in diameter. The methanogenic substrates utilized by strain YSF-03 T were methanol and trimethylamine. The temperature range of growth for strain YSF-03 T was from 0 to 37 °C. The optimum growth conditions were 30-37 °C, pH 7.0-7.4 and 0.17 M NaCl. The G+C content of the genome of strain YSF-03 T was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain YSF-03 T was most closely related to Methanolobus profundi MobM T (98.15 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Genome relatedness between strain YSF-03 T and MobM T was computed using the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator and average nucleotide identity, which gave values of 23.5 and 79.3 %, respectively. Based on the morphological, phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic relatedness data presented here, it is evident that strain YSF-03 T represents a novel species of the genus Methanolobus, for which the name Methanolobus psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YSF-03 T (=BCRC AR10049 T =DSM 104044 T =NBRC 112514 T ).

  4. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic transition: the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, Turukhansk Uplift, Siberia.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, V N; Knoll, A H; Petrov PYu

    1997-12-01

    Silicified carbonates of the latest Mesoproterozoic Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, northwestern Siberia, contain abundant and diverse permineralized microfossils. Peritidal environments are dominated by microbial mats built by filamentous cyanobacteria comparable to modern species of Lyngbya and Phormidium. In subtidal to lower intertidal settings, mat-dwelling microbenthos and possible coastal microplankton are abundant. In contrast, densely woven mat populations with few associated taxa characterize more restricted parts of tidal flats; the preservation of vertically oriented sheath bundles and primary fenestrae indicates that in these mats carbonate cementation was commonly penecontemporaneous with mat growth. Eoentophysalis mats are limited to restricted environments where microlaminated carbonate precipitates formed on or just beneath the sediment surface. Most microbenthic populations are cyanobacterial, although eukaryotic microfossils may occur among the simple spheroidal cells interpreted as coastal plankton. Protists are more securely represented by large (up to 320 micrometers in diameter) but poorly preserved acritarchs in basinal facies. The Sukhaya Tunguska assemblage contains 27 species in 18 genera. By virtue of their stratigraphic longevity and their close and predictable association with specific paleoenvironmental conditions, including substrates, Proterozoic cyanobacteria support a model of bacterial evolution in which populations adapt rapidly to novel environments and, thereafter, resist competitive replacement. The resulting evolutionary pattern is one of accumulation and stasis rather than the turnover and replacement characteristic of Phanerozoic plants and animals.

  5. Atmospheric methane over Siberia: measurements from the 2014 YAK-AEROSIB aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pisso, Ignacio; Ancellet, Gérard; Law, Kathy; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Nédélec, Philippe; Myhre, Cathrine Lund

    2017-04-01

    The YAK-AEROSIB program collects high-precision in-situ measurements of the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and ultrafine particles distribution in the Siberian troposphere, as well as other parameters including aerosol lidar profiles, on a pan-Siberian aircraft transect. Recent efforts aim at better understanding the respective role of CH4 emission processes in driving its large scale atmospheric variability over the region. The October 2014 YAK-AEROSIB/MOCA campaign from Novosibirsk to Salekhard and over the Kara sea and the Yamal peninsula sampled air masses affected by local, regional and remote pollution. We analyse the contribution of local anthropogenic sources to measured CH4 enhancements, in relation to atmospheric mixing and transport conditions. Our analysis also attempts to detect CH4 signal from sources of methane in the Siberian shelf and the Arctic ocean during low level flight legs over the Kara sea using the airborne measurements and a Lagrangian model coupled to potential CH4 hydrate and geological sources. The measured CH4 concentrations do not contradict a potential source upstream of our measurements, but the interpretation is challenging due to a very low CH4 signal. The challenging question of the methane budget and its evolution in Siberia leads to a need for new approaches. A new generation of airborne measurements, more flexible, is now needed.

  6. The Merensky Reef in the Chineisky Pluton (Siberia)? A myth or a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitova, L.; Sharapov, V.; Zhukova, I.

    2006-12-01

    It is a dream of each geologist to find a `Merensky Reef' in each layered basic intrusion. Scientists have been trying many various techniques to come this dream to reality. The most perspective way to do so is probably a combination of physicochemical and computer modeling of layered basic intrusion crystallization together with fluid and melt inclusions studies in situ. This combination allows us to do the following: 1. To study boundary conditions for separation of low density gas phase and salt melt from the crystallizing primary basic melt in large magma chamber. 2. To determine correct quantitative parameters for formation of residual fluid-bearing brines extracting high metal concentrations. 3. To compute critical levels for substance differentiation at phase, geochemical and other `barriers' in those basic mantle-crust ore magmatic systems. 4. To model metal extraction, transportation and deposition at these `barriers' for systems of various `silicate melt - residual salt brines' ratios under the conditions of continental lithosphere. Comparison of real and modeled data allows us to conclude if a formation of a narrow zone of high metal concentration is possible at those critical levels (phase and geochemical `barriers'). The above-mentioned algorithm has been used for the Chineisky Pluton (the Transbaikal region, Siberia). Fortunately we have found our own `Merensky Reef', which happened to be a PGE enrichment marginal zone of the Chineisky Pluton due to specific fluid regime of crystallization! This work was supported by the Ministry for Russian Science and Education, Grant #DSP.2.1.1.702.

  7. Hydrological and climate changes in southeast Siberia over the last 33 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuta, Nagayoshi; Ikeda, Hisashi; Shibata, Kenji; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Murakami, Takuma; Tani, Yukinori; Takano, Masao; Nakamura, Toshio; Tanaka, Atsushi; Naito, Sayuri; Ochiai, Shinya; Shichi, Koji; Kawakami, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Takayoshi

    2018-05-01

    Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate changes in intracontinental Siberia were reconstructed by continuous, high-resolution records (biogenic silica, U, total organic carbon and N, total S, and grain size) from a sediment core retrieved from the Buguldeika Saddle, Lake Baikal, dating back to the last 33 cal. ka BP. The Holocene climate was wet relative to the last glacial period. The climate became gradually warm and wet from the early to middle Holocene, followed by a shift at ca. 6.5 cal. ka BP toward warm and dry, possibly because of evapotranspiration. This suggests that the climate system transition from the glacial to interglacial state occurred at that time. In the last glacial, the deposition of carbonate mud from the Primorsky Range was associated with Heinrich events (H3 and H1) and the Selenga River inflow during the Last Glacial Maximum was caused by meltwater of mountain glaciers in the Khamar-Daban Range. The anoxic bottom-water during the Allerød-Younger Dryas was probably a result of weakened ventilation associated with reduced Selenga River inflow and microbial decomposition of organic matters originating from moderate input of nutrients from the Primorsky Range. The rapid decline in precipitation during the early Holocene may have been a response to the 8.2 ka cooling event.

  8. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes inmore » the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.« less

  9. Seasonally frozen layer in natural and drained peatlands at the South of West Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, Egor; Kiselev, Maxim; Voropay, Nadezhda; Preis, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    The temperature regime of soils in natural and drained peatlands at Bakchar bog located in the South Taiga zone of West Siberia is studied. Soil temperature for depths up to 320 cm was registered using autonomous temperature profile recorder during the period from August 2010 to September 2016. Maximal and minimal temperatures were registered at surface in July and February, consequently. Extreme soil temperatures at 320 cm depth shifts to December (maximum) and July (minimum) reducing absolute values. Annual peat soil temperature amplitude decrease with depth from 21,8 °C on surface to 1,1 °C at 320 cm. The analysis of daily, month and annual mean data of temperature in peat soil has shown that seasonally frozen layer was registered up to 20-60 cm depth. The duration of seasonally freeze layer existence varies from 130 to 180 days. Drained peatlands with the lowest water table have highest freeze depth. Soil at water-logged sedge-sphagnum fen in winter is warmer than soil in ryam ecosystem and mineral soil at upland. Maximal freezing depth in peatlands is up to 3 times lower than at drain areas.

  10. Cnidarian-like embryos associated with the first shelly fossils in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchinsky, Artem; Bengtson, Stefan; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann

    1999-07-01

    Phosphatized spheroids, ˜0.5 mm in diameter, in the Lower Cambrian Manykay Formation at the Bol'shaya Kuonamka River in northern Sakha (Yakutia) are interpreted as cnidarian embryos of late developmental stages. One of the poles has a double cross-like structure, consisting of two sets of four bands each. The bands of the upper set radiate at 90° from each other; those of the lower set also radiate at about right angles from each other, but the set is rotated 45° in respect to the upper set. Although there is a resemblance to the cross-like arrangements of cells in pregastrulation spiralian eggs, in particular those of annelids, the combined evidence favors an interpretation of the bands as incipient tentacles of a cnidarian actinula larva. The embryos occur with one of the first assemblages of shelly fossils in northern Siberia, that of the Angustiochrea lata zone. The co-occurring shelly fossils, anabaritids, probably also represent the phylum Cnidaria, but because their tubes have a consistent triradial symmetry, the connection with the tetraradially symmetrical embryos is problematic. The size of the embryos suggests that they are nonplanktotrophic, and the presence of actinula-like features suggests the lack of a free planula stage.

  11. Characteristics of Forests in Western Sayani Mountains, Siberia from SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, V. I.; Kovacs, Katalin

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigated the possibility of using spaceborne radar data to map forest types and logging in the mountainous Western Sayani area in Siberia. L and C band HH, HV, and VV polarized images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C instrument were used in the study. Techniques to reduce topographic effects in the radar images were investigated. These included radiometric correction using illumination angle inferred from a digital elevation model, and reducing apparent effects of topography through band ratios. Forest classification was performed after terrain correction utilizing typical supervised techniques and principal component analyses. An ancillary data set of local elevations was also used to improve the forest classification. Map accuracy for each technique was estimated for training sites based on Russian forestry maps, satellite imagery and field measurements. The results indicate that it is necessary to correct for topography when attempting to classify forests in mountainous terrain. Radiometric correction based on a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) improved classification results but required reducing the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) resolution to match the DEM. Using ratios of SAR channels that include cross-polarization improved classification and

  12. Molar tooth structures in calcareous nodules, early Neoproterozoic Burovaya Formation, Turukhansk region, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Michael C.; Bartley, Julie K.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Petrov, Peter Yu.

    2003-05-01

    Molar tooth structures are abundant in large (1-2 m diameter) carbonate nodules within fine-grained, subtidal carbonates of the early Neoproterozoic (lower Upper Riphean) Burovaya Formation along the Sukhaya Tunguska River, Turukhansk Uplift, northwestern Siberia. Although molar tooth structures are regionally abundant in this unit, here they occur only within the nodules. Stable isotopic compositions of molar-tooth-filling dolomicrospar cements and of thinly bedded dolomicrite within and surrounding the nodules are indistinguishable from one another. The carbon isotopic compositions (mean δ13C=+2.8‰ PDB±0.4) reflect mean average oceanic surface water composition during their formation; the light oxygen isotopic compositions (mean δ18O=-6.4‰ PDB±2.2) are generally similar to those of other little-altered Meso- to Neoproterozoic limestones and dolostones. These molar tooth structures have no features that would support a tectonic origin; they more likely formed through bacterial processes. Carbonate cement filling of these voids occurred soon after their formation, but the mechanism responsible for this carbonate precipitation is currently uncertain. Local restriction of molar tooth structures to early diagenetic nodules suggests that penecontemporaneous lithification was required for the formation, or at least preservation, of these widespread Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic features.

  13. An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

  14. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using an attenuated total reflection probe to distinguish between Japanese larch, pine and citrus plants in healthy and diseased states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfo, D. S.; Mortimer, H.; Woodhall, J. W.; Boonham, N.

    2016-06-01

    FTIR spectroscopy coupled with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) sampling probe has been demonstrated as a technique for detecting disease in plants. Spectral differences were detected in Japanese Larch (Larix kaempferi) infected with Phytophthora ramorum at 3403 cm-1 and 1730 cm-1, from pine (Pinus spp.) infected with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at 1070 cm-1, 1425 cm-1, 1621 cm-1 and 3403 cm-1 and from citrus (Citrus spp.) infected with 'Candidatus liberibacter' at 960 cm-1, 1087 cm-1, 1109 cm-1, 1154 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1385 cm-1, 1462 cm-1, 1707 cm-1, 2882 cm-1, 2982 cm-1 and 3650 cm-1. A spectral marker in healthy citrus has been identified as Pentanone but is absent from the diseased sample spectra. This agrees with recent work by Aksenov, 2014. Additionally, the spectral signature of Cutin was identified in the spectra of Pinus spp. and Citrus spp. and is consistent with work by Dubis, 1999 and Heredia-Guerrero, 2014.

  15. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  16. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra

  17. Radiative characteristics of aerosol during extreme fire event over Siberia in summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solar radiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analysed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under background conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95 ± 0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16 ± 0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of ˜ 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm) = 0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD. The calculations of the average radiative effects of smoke and background aerosol are presented. Compared to background conditions and ordinary smoke, under the extreme smoke conditions the

  18. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  19. Waste management in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, Russia: An environmental assessment of alternative development scenarios.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksen, Marie K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2018-04-01

    The current waste management system, handling around 500,000 t of household, commercial, and institutional waste annually in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, is based on landfilling in an old landfill with no controls of leachate and gas. Life-cycle assessment modelling of the current system shows that it is a major load on the environment, while the simulation of seven alternative systems results in large savings in many impact categories. With respect to climate change, it is estimated that a saving of about 1200 kg CO 2 equivalents is possible per year, per inhabitant, which is a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The best alternatives involve efficient energy recovery from waste and recycling by source separation for commercial and institutional waste, the major waste type in the Irkutsk region. Recycling of household waste seems less attractive, and it is therefore recommended only to consider this option after experience has been gained with the commercial and institutional waste. Sensitivity analysis shows that recovery of energy - in particular electricity, heat, and steam - from waste is crucial to the environmental performance of the waste management system. This relates to the efficiencies of energy recovery as well as what the recovered energy substitutes, that is, the 'dirtier' the off-set energy, the higher the environmental savings for the waste management system. Since recovered energy may be utilised by only a few energy grids or industrial users, it is recommended to perform additional local assessments of the integration of the waste energy into existing systems and facilities.

  20. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  1. Present Permafrost Thaw in Central Yakutia, North-East Siberia: Surficial Geology and Hydrology Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerniawska, Jolanta; Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Current climate change in the high-latitudes of Eurasia is a generally accepted phenomenon characterized by increased annual temperature values and marked weather anomalies observed in the sub-polar and polar regions. In the northern and NE Siberia, this trend of the MAT rise, documented particularly over the last three decades, is believed to account for the territorial lowland as well as insular mountain frozen ground thaw that in turn has triggered ecosystem feedbacks on the local as well as regional scales. In the northern regions of Yakutia, this is principally witnessed by accelerated near-surface dynamics of seasonally activated de-freezing grounds and inter-linked geomorphic and hydrological actions affecting large-scale tundra landscape settings. In the southern and central taiga-forest areas with perennial alpine and continuous permafrost conditions, respectively, an increased depth of the seasonally melted top-soil layers has become evident accompanied by thermokarst lake expansion and ground surface collapsing. Some cryogenic depressions generated from small gullies over the past decades eloquently demonstrate the intensity and scales of the current permafrost degradation in the Siberian North. The fluvial discharge is most dynamic in late spring to mid-summer because of the cumulative effect of snow-melting because of a high solar radiation and short intervals of torrential rains. Yet, the climate-change-dependent and most active geomorphic agent is the accelerated permafrost thaw seen in landslides and tundra-forest cover decay due to a higher water table. Numerous preserved biotic fossiliferous records Pleistocene and early Holocene in age are being exposed in this process providing unique palaeoecology evidence at particular sites. These climate-generated processes have mostly highly negative effects to the natural habitats (migratory animal routes and riverine biota due to an earlier ice-melting) as well as the local settlement communities

  2. Changes in terrestrial CO2 budget in Siberia in the past three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichii, K.; Kondo, M.; Ueyama, M.; Ito, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Maki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Niwa, Y.; Patra, P. K.; Saeki, T.; Sato, H.; Sasai, T.; Saigusa, N.; Tian, H.; Yanagi, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2015-12-01

    Siberia is one of the regions where significant warming is proceeding, and the warming might cause changes in terrestrial carbon cycle. We analyzed interannual and decadal changes in terrestrial CO2 fluxes in the regions using multiple data sets, such as empirically estimated carbon fluxes based on multiple eddy-covariance sites (empirical upscaling; Support Vector Regression with AsiaFlux data), satellite-based vegetation index data, multiple terrestrial carbon cycle models from Asia-MIP (e.g. BEAMS, Biome-BGC, SEIB-DGVM, and VISIT), and atmospheric inverse models (e.g. ACTM, JMA, NICAM-TM) for the past 3 decades (1980s, 1990s, and 2000s). First, we checked the consistency in interannual variation of net carbon exchange between empirical upscaling and Asia-MIP model for 2001-2011 period, and found these two estimations show overall consistent interannual variation. Second, we analyzed net carbon exchange form Asia-MIP models and atmospheric inversions for the past three decades, and found persistent increases in terrestrial CO2 sink from two estimates. Magnitudes of estimated terrestrial CO2 sinks are also consistent (e.g. Asia-MIP: 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 1980s and 0.3 PgC yr-1 in 2000s and Inversions: 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 1980s and 0.5 PgC/yr in 2000s). We further analyzed the cause of persistent increases in CO2 uptake in the region using Asia-MIP model outputs, and climate changes (both warming and increases in water availability) and CO2 fertilization plays almost equivalent roles in sink increases. In addition, both gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were increased, but increase in GPP was larger than that in RE.

  3. Peculiarities of the vertical and geographical distribution of particulate organic matter over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalia G.; Pevneva, Galina S.; Golovko, Anatoly K.; Kozlov, Alexandre S.; Malyshkin, Sergey B.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have performed aerosol sampling in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) over different regions of West Siberia in order to reveal peculiarities of the geographical distribution of particulate organic matter (POM). Investigation of the vertical distribution of POM in the troposphere was undertaken by means of aerosol sampling from Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory in the atmospheric layer from 2 to 8 km during three YAK-AEROSIB campaigns (2012, 2013, and 2014). Aerosol samples were collected onto Teflon filters (PTFE membranes, GRIMM 1.113). The collected aerosol samples were treated as follows: the organic part was extracted from the filter, using chromatographic acetone in an ultrasonic bath; then, it was concentrated in vacuum up to 50 μL, with the subsequent analysis using a chromatography mass spectrometer Agilent 6890N (50 - 250 °C with a rate of 5 °C/min., isotherm at the initial and final temperature - 3 and 45 min, respectively). Hydrocarbons were identified using mass spectral library databases NIST, Wiley, as well as by comparing retention times of reference compounds in model mixtures (Alkane Standard Solutions C8 - C20 and C21 - C40 by SIGMA -ALDRICH). Total organic matter varied from 244.56 ng/m3 in aerosol samples collected in the ASL to 0.08 ng/m3 in the free troposphere (FT) over the Kara Sea. Significant differences were also found in the geographical distribution of POM due to different volatile organic compounds emitted by vegetation in specific regions. Differences between concentrations of POM sampled in the free troposphere over the continent and ocean can exceed an order of magnitude. Average concentration of organic compounds in the ASL is close to 30 ng/m3 and it decreases exponentially with height down to 14 ng/m3 at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer and 5 ng/m3 in the FT.

  4. Influence of transport infrastructure on water permeability of soils of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Dmitry; Eremina, Diana

    2017-10-01

    Correctly designed transport infrastructure should support the current economic relations. It should provide a reserve for development of economy of the region in the future. In Western Siberia, new highways are actively being built and major repairs of the operating roads are being conducted. Local materials are often used in the roadbed construction. In the Tyumen region, it is usually sandy silt and clayey sand. The soil has unfavourable physico-mechanical properties. The soil is prone to water and wind erosion. This type of ground gets on the adjacent to the road territory. Studies on the influence of highways on soil permeability were carried out on the basis of the federal highway Tyumen-Omsk. Three types of soils, which are actively used in the agricultural sector, were considered. It is found that the content of particles with the size less than 0.01 mm reaches 32% in the soil used in road construction. It is noted that a part of these particles accumulates on the adjacent to the road territory since it is being washed out from roadbed. The content of physical clay (<0.01 mm) in soils increases by 34-62% relative to the initial values. The width of active accumulation of silt particles reaches 15-20 m along the roads. The soils at the distance up to 10 m from the highway are almost impermeable to water. Absence of a natural hydrological drain, results in the territory bogging. An inverse close correlation was established between the content of physical clay (<0.01 mm) and water permeability (r = 0.90).

  5. Recent fertility and mortality trends among aboriginal and nonaboriginal populations of central Siberia.

    PubMed

    Leonard, W R; Keenleyside, A; Ivakine, E

    1997-06-01

    We examine mortality and fertility patterns of aboriginal (primarily Evenki and Keto) and Russian (i.e., nonaboriginal) populations from the Baykit District of Central Siberia for the period 1982-1994. Mortality rates in the aboriginal population of Baykit are substantially greater than those observed in the Russians and are comparable to levels recently reported for other indigenous Siberian groups. Infant mortality rates average 48 per 1000 live births among Baykit aboriginals, three times greater than the Russians of the district (15 per 1000 births) and more than double the rates for Inuit and Indian populations of Canada. Similarly, crude death rates of the Baykit aboriginals are twice as high as those observed in either the Baykit Russians or the Canadian aboriginal populations (13 vs 6-7 deaths per 1000 individuals). Birth rates of the indigenous population of Baykit are higher than those of the Russians (33 vs. 15 births per 1000 individuals) but are comparable to those of Canadian aboriginal groups. Violence and accidents are the leading causes of adult male mortality in both ethnic groups, whereas circulatory diseases have emerged as the prime cause of death in women. The greater male mortality resulting from violence and accidents is a widely observed cross-cultural phenomenon. The emergence of circulatory diseases as a major mortality risk for women, however, appears to be linked to specific lifestyle changes associated with Soviet reorganization of indigenous Siberian societies. Marked declines in mortality and increases in fertility were observed in the Baykit aboriginal population during the mid to late 1980s with the government's implementation of anti-alcohol policies. The decline in mortality, however, was largely erased during the early 1990s, as the region became increasingly isolated and marginalized following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Demographic trends in the Baykit District suggest that because the indigenous groups have become more

  6. Holocene carbon dynamics at the forest-steppe ecotone of southern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Anson William; Seddon, Alistair W R; Leng, Melanie J; Heumann, Georg; Morley, David W; Piotrowska, Natalia; Rioual, Patrick; Roberts, Sarah; Swann, George E A

    2017-05-01

    The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m -2  yr -1 ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ 13 C TOC ). Forest-steppe dynamics were reconstructed using pollen, and diatom records provided measures of primary production from near- and off-shore communities. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to identify significant change points in temporal series, and by applying generalized linear least-squares regression modelling to components of the multiproxy data, we address (1) What factors influence carbon dynamics during early Holocene warming and late Holocene cooling? (2) How did carbon dynamics respond to abrupt sub-Milankovitch scale events? and (3) What is the Holocene carbon storage budget for Lake Baikal. CMAR values range between 2.8 and 12.5 g C m -2  yr -1 . Peak burial rates (and greatest variability) occurred during the early Holocene, associated with melting permafrost and retreating glaciers, while lowest burial rates occurred during the neoglacial. Significant shifts in carbon dynamics at 10.3, 4.1 and 2.8 kyr bp provide compelling evidence for the sensitivity of the region to sub-Milankovitch drivers of climate change. We estimate that 1.03 Pg C was buried in Lake Baikal sediments during the Holocene, almost one-quarter of which was buried during the early Holocene alone. Combined, our results highlight the importance of understanding the close linkages between carbon cycling and hydrological processes, not just temperatures, in southern Siberian environments

  7. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest. Key Points We compared soil N dynamics of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transectShifts in N dynamics suggest a decrease in microbial N limitation with depthWe found no decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate zones PMID:26693204

  8. Mapping of Geographically Isolated Wetlands of Western Siberia Using High Resolution Space Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N.; Dyukarev, A.; Lane, C.; Autrey, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Using the remote sensing data for integrated study of natural objects is actual for investigation of difficult to access areas of West Siberia. The research of this study focuses on determining the extent and spectral signatures of isolated wetlands within Ob-Tom Interfluve area using Landsat and Quickbird space images. High-resolution space images were carefully examined and wetlands were manually delineated. Wetlands have clear visible signs at the high resolution space images. 567 wetlands were recognized as isolated wetlands with the area about 10 000 ha (of 2.5% of the study area). Isolated wetlands with area less 2 ha are the most frequent. Half of the total amount of wetlands has area less than 6.4 ha. The largest isolated wetland occupies 797 ha, and only 5% have area more than 50 ha. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for analysis of vegetation structure and spectral characteristics of wetlands. The masked isolated wetlands image was classified into 12 land cover classes using ISODATA unsupervised classification. The attribution of unsupervised classification results allowed us to clearly recognize 7 types of wetlands: tall, low and sparse ryams (Pine-Shrub-Sphagnum community), open wetlands with shrub, moss or sedge cover, and open water objects. Analysis of spectral profiles for all classes has shown that Landsat spectral bands 4 and 5 have higher variability. These bands allow to separate wetland classed definitely. Accuracy assessment of isolated wetland map shows a good agreement with expert field data. The work was supported by grants ISTC № 4079.

  9. Enzymatic regulation of organic matter metabolism in Siberia's Kolyma River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P. J.; Sobczak, W.; Vonk, J. E.; Davydova, A.; Schade, J.; Bulygina, E.; Davydov, S.; Zimov, N.; Holmes, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic soils contain vast amounts of ancient organic carbon stored in permafrost that can be unlocked and remobilised via permafrost thaw and bacterial degradation. The mechanisms regulating the release and fate of this carbon are important to understand if we wish to predict future changes in the global carbon cycle. Microbial communities release enzymes into the environment (ectoenzymes) as a means of degrading organic matter and to acquire carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for assimilation. We measured potential activities of a suite of ectoenzymes within surface waters collected from a range of streams and rivers throughout the Kolyma River basin, Siberia. Ectoenzyme activities were additionally measured in Kolyma river waters collected at three distinct periods of the hydrograph (under-ice, freshet and summer conditions). Seven enzymes were studied allowing bacterial requirements for a wide range of compounds including lignin, carbohydrates, proteins and cellulose to be assessed. Concurrent measurements of DOC lability were conducted using biological oxygen demand assays conducted over 5 days (BOD). Phenol oxidase activity was found to strongly correlate to BOD (r2=0.68) and stream CO2 concentration (r2=0.76) across all of the study sites, suggesting the rate of phenolic degradation may be a controlling factor in organic carbon metabolism. The activity rate in ectoenzymes that catalyze phosphate, lignin and carbon substrates varied significantly within the Kolyma river over the hydrograph, suggesting that seasonal changes in organic matter composition may also shift the limiting resource for bacterial degradation. Extremely high activity rates in ectoenzymes that catalyze lignin, chitin, cellulose and proteins were measured in waters draining permafrost ice complexes. It is apparent that organic carbon is continually processed throughout the stream network, and that its ultimate fate is linked to organic matter composition. We demonstrate that organic carbon

  10. Enzymatic Regulation of Organic Matter Metabolism in Siberia's Kolyma River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P. J.; Sobczak, W. V.; Vonk, J. E.; Davydova, A.; Schade, J. D.; Bulygina, E. B.; Davydov, S.; Zimov, N.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic soils contain vast amounts of ancient organic carbon locked up in permafrost. This organic matter can be unlocked via permafrost thaw and bacterial processing. Microbial communities release enzymes into the environment (ectoenzymes) as a means of degrading organic matter and to acquire carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for assimilation. Limited ectoenzyme production, or unfavourable in-situ conditions (e.g. temperature, oxygen) can limit degradation of permafrost on land. Environmental conditions may become more favourable for bacterial degradation as carbon compounds are released from permafrost into Arctic streams and rivers. We measured the potential activities of a suite of ectoenzymes within surface waters collected from a range of streams and rivers throughout the Kolyma River basin, Siberia. Ectoenzyme activities were additionally measured in Kolyma river waters collected at three distinct periods of the hydrograph (under-ice, freshet and summer conditions). In total, seven enzymes were studied allowing bacterial requirements for a wide range of compounds including lignin, carbohydrates, proteins and cellulose to be assessed. To investigate the lability of the carbon pool within these waters, we measured the biological oxygen demand over 5 days (BOD). Significant correlations were observed between phenol oxidase activity and BOD across all of the study sites, suggesting the rate of phenolic degradation may be a controlling factor in organic carbon metabolism. The activity rate in ectoenzymes that catalyze phosphate, lignin and carbon substrates varied significantly within the Kolyma river over the hydrograph, indicating that seasonal changes in organic matter composition may also shift the limiting resource for bacterial degradation. High activity rates in ectoenzymes that catalyze lignin, chitin, cellulose and proteins were measured in waters draining permafrost ice complexes. These results suggest that organic carbon is continually processed

  11. Distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere over West Siberia and Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Ancellet, Gérard; Pelon, Jacques; Berchet, Antoine; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Belan, Sergey B.; Penner, Johannes E.; Balin, Yurii S.; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Davydov, Denis K.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Chernov, Dmitrii G.; Fofonov, Alexader V.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is affected by climate change much stronger than other regions of the globe. Permafrost thawing can lead to additional methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect and warming, as well as changes of Arctic tundra ecosystems. A great part of Siberian Arctic is still unexplored. Ground-based investigations are difficult to be carried out in this area due to it is an out-of-the-way place. So, in spite of the high cost, aircraft-based in-situ measurements can provide a good opportunity to fill up the gap in data on the atmospheric composition over this region. The ninth YAK-AEROSIB campaign was focused on the airborne survey of Arctic regions of West Siberia. It was performed in October 2014. During the campaign, the high-precision in-situ measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and aerososls, including aerosol lidar profiles, have been carried out in the Siberian troposphere from Novosibirsk to Kara Sea. Vertical distributions of the above atmospheric constituents will be presented. This work was supported by LIA YAK-AEROSIB, CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  12. Radioisotope contaminations from releases of the Tomsk-Seversk nuclear facility (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F; Pourcelot, L; Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Le Roux, G; Rhikvanov, L P; Stille, P; Renaud, Ph; Mezhibor, A

    2008-04-01

    Soils have been sampled in the vicinity of the Tomsk-Seversk facility (Siberia, Russia) that allows us to measure radioactive contaminations due to atmospheric and aquatic releases. Indeed soils exhibit large inventories of man-made fission products including 137Cs (ranging from 33,000 to 68,500 Bq m(-2)) and actinides such as plutonium (i.e. 239+240Pu from 420 to 5900 Bq m(-2)) or 241Am (160-1220 Bq m(-2)). Among all sampling sites, the bank of the Romashka channel exhibits the highest radioisotope concentrations. At this site, some short half-life gamma emitters were detected as well indicating recent aquatic discharge in the channel. In comparison, soils that underwent atmospheric depositions like peat and forest soils exhibit lower activities of actinides and 137Cs. Soil activities are too high to be related solely to global fallout and thus the source of plutonium must be discharges from the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) plant. This is confirmed by plutonium isotopic ratios measured by ICP-MS; the low 241Pu/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios with respect to global fallout ratio or civil nuclear fuel are consistent with weapons grade signatures. Up to now, the influence of Tomsk-Seversk plutonium discharges was speculated in the Ob River and its estuary. Isotopic data from the present study show that plutonium measured in SCC probably constitutes a significant source of plutonium in the aquatic environment, together with plutonium from global fallout and other contaminated sites including Tomsk, Mayak (Russia) and Semipalatinsk (Republic of Kazakhstan). It is estimated that the proportion of plutonium from SCC source can reach 45% for 239Pu and 60% for 241Pu in the sediments.

  13. InSAR observation of seasonal ground surface deformation in permafrost area near Batagay, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagiya, K.; Furuya, M.

    2017-12-01

    Thawing of permafrost can lead to ground deformation. Ground deformation has been studied as a serious problem in the Arctic Ocean coastal area such as Russia for a long time, because the deformation causes damage to architectures at these areas. However, there have been no quantitative observation data, and the spatial and temporal distributions have hardly been investigated. On the other hand, by the recently global warming influence, the importance of organic carbon stored in permafrost is pointed out. Although the release of methane gas is confirmed in some thermokarst lakes, it is very difficult to observe the permafrost in a wide area by field study. Instead, it is technically possible to monitor the subsidence and uplift of the ground over the permafrost area, which could potentially make a significant contribution to the monitoring thawing process of permafrost. In this study, we attempted to detect ground deformation signal in permafrost area by remote sensing using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Using the data of two SAR satellites ALOS and ALOS2 launched by JAXA, we observed recent ground deformation from 2007 to 2016. Particularly recent observations of ALOS2 from 2014 to 2016 discovered distant displacements towards the LOS direction in the northeast region from the town of Batagay,Siberia. The diameter of the displacements area covers about 7.7 km. In this study, we considered that this signal is likely to be due to permafrost thawing, we also investigated the seasonal characteristics and looked back ALOS data of this area. In addition, since the high latitude area, observation results include noise due to the ionosphere, so we tried to remove the noise.

  14. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  15. Landsat imagery evidences great recent land cover changes induced by wild fires in central Siberia*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antamoshkina, O. A.; Trofimova, N. V.; Antamoshkin, O. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the methods of satellite image classification to determine general types of forest ecosystems, as well as the long-term monitoring of ecosystems changes using satellite imagery of medium spatial resolution and the daily data of space monitoring of active fires. The area of interest of this work is 100 km footprint of the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), located near the Zotino settlement, Krasnoyarsk region. The study area is located in the middle taiga subzone of Western Siberia, are presented by the left and right banks of the Yenisei river. For Landsat satellite imagery supervised classification by the maximum likelihood method was made using ground-based studies over the last fifteen years. The results are the identification of the 10 aggregated classes of land surface and composition of the study area thematic map. Operational satellite monitoring and analysis of spatial information about ecosystem in the 100-kilometer footprint of the ZOTTO tall tower allows to monitor the dynamics of forest disturbance by fire and logging over a long time period and to estimate changes in forest ecosystems of the study area. Data on the number and area of fires detected in the study region for the 2000-2014 received in the work. Calculations show that active fires have burned more than a quarter of the footprint area over the study period. Fires have a significant impact on the redistribution of classes of land surface. Area of all types of vegetation ecosystems declined dramatically under the influence of fires, whereas industrial logging does not impact seriously on it. The results obtained in our work indicate the highest occurrence of fires for lichen forest types within study region, probably due to their high natural fire danger, which is consistent with other studies. The least damage the fire caused to the wetland ecosystem due to high content of moisture and the presence of a large number of fire breaks in the form of open water.

  16. Tropospheric ozone over Siberia in spring 2010: long-range transport of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions, stratospheric intrusion and remote boundary layer influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berchet, A.; Paris, J.-D.; Ancellet, G.; Law, K.; Stohl, A.; Nédélec, P.; Arshinov, M. Yu; Belan, B. D.; Ciais, P.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric pollution, including tropospheric ozone, has an adverse effect on humans and their environment. The Siberian air shed covers about 10% of Earth's land surface. Therefore, it can contribute significantly to the global tropospheric ozone budget due, in the region, to vast deposition losses on the boreal forest vegetation in the atmospheric surface layer on the one hand, and in-situ photochemical production from ozone precursors emitted by Siberian terrestrial ecosystems, and the influx of stratospheric ozone to the troposphere on the other hand. We have identified and characterized factors that influenced the tropospheric ozone budget over Siberia during spring 2010 by analyzing in-situ measurements of ozone, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane mixing ratios collected by continuous analyzers during an intensive airborne measurement campaign of the YAK-AEROSIB Project, carried out between 15 and 18 April 2010. The observations, spanning over 3000 km and stretching from 800 to 6700 m above ground level, were analyzed using the Lagrangian model FLEXPART to simulate backward air mass transport. The analysis of trace gas variability and simulated origin of air masses origins showed that biomass burning and anthropogenic activity expectedly increased carbon monoxide and dioxide concentrations. Also, such plumes coming from east and west of West Siberian plain and from North-Eastern China were shown to increase ozone mixing ratio owing to photochemical processes taking place along the transport route. In the case of low ozone mixing ratios observed over a large area (800x200km) in the upper troposphere above 5500 m the air masses transported to the region under study were likely influenced by an Arctic ozone depletion event transported to lower latitudes and advected to the upper troposphere. The stratospheric source of ozone to the troposphere was observed directly in a well-defined stratospheric intrusion. Numerical simulations of this event suggest

  17. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  18. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  19. [Soil functioning in foci of Siberian moth population outbreaks in the southern taiga subzone of Central Siberia].

    PubMed

    Krasnoshchekov, Iu N; Beskorovaĭnaia, I N

    2008-01-01

    The results of experimental studies on the contribution of zoogenic debris to transformation of soil properties in the southern taiga subzone of Central Siberia are analyzed. They show that water-soluble carbon outflow from the forest litter increases by 21-26% upon a Siberian moth invasion, with this value decreasing to 14% one year later. The burning of forest in an area completely defoliated by the pest leads to changes in the stock, fractional composition, actual acidity, and ash element contents of the litter. The litter-dwelling invertebrate assemblage is almost completely destroyed by fire and begins to recover only after two years.

  20. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  1. [Features of the structure and parameters of the intra-alveolar septa in residents of Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Shishkin, G S; Ustiuzhaninova, N V

    1998-01-01

    In inhabitants of Novosibirsk and Moscow district intraalveolar septum, the basic functional element of the lung consists of interstitial connective tissue and capillar network, limited with basement membranes, on which cells of epithelial lining are placed. There are no principal differences in septal structure between individuals from both regions. The majority of morphometric parameters are statistically similar, although certain peculiarities were noted in human subjects from Siberia, the most important of which is that air-blood barrier in them is 33% thinner than those in inhabitants of Moscow district. Majority of capillaries possess the air-blood barrier from both sides. This increases diffous capacity of the lungs and blood oxygenation level.

  2. High-Resolution Regional Biomass Map of Siberia from Glas, Palsar L-Band Radar and Landsat Vcf Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Ranson, K.; Montesano, P.; Zhang, Z.; Kharuk, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. The taiga or boreal forest covers over 16 x106 km2 of Arctic North America, Scandinavia, and Eurasia. A large part of the northern Boreal forests are in Russia's Siberia, as area with recent accelerated climate warming. During the last two decades we have been working on characterization of boreal forests in north-central Siberia using field and satellite measurements. We have published results of circumpolar biomass using field plots, airborne (PALS, ACTM) and spaceborne (GLAS) lidar data with ASTER DEM, LANDSAT and MODIS land cover classification, MODIS burned area and WWF's ecoregion map. Researchers from ESA and Russia have also been working on biomass (or growing stock) mapping in Siberia. For example, they developed a pan-boreal growing stock volume map at 1-kilometer scale using hyper-temporal ENVISAT ASAR ScanSAR backscatter data. Using the annual PALSAR mosaics from 2007 to 2010 growing stock volume maps were retrieved based on a supervised random forest regression approach. This method is being used in the ESA/Russia ZAPAS project for Central Siberia Biomass mapping. Spatially specific biomass maps of this region at higher resolution are desired for carbon cycle and climate change studies. In this study, our work focused on improving resolution ( 50 m) of a biomass map based on PALSAR L-band data and Landsat Vegetation Canopy Fraction products. GLAS data were carefully processed and screened using land cover classification, local slope, and acquisition dates. The biomass at remaining footprints was estimated using a model developed from field measurements at GLAS footprints. The GLAS biomass samples were then aggregated into 1 Mg/ha bins of biomass and mean VCF and PALSAR backscatter and textures were calculated for each of these biomass bins. The resulted biomass/signature data was used to train a random forest model for biomass mapping of entire region from 50o

  3. The Relationship of Forest Fires Detected by MODIS and SRTM Derived Topographic Features in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon K.; Kovacs, Katalin; Kharuk, Viatcheslav; Burke, Erin

    2006-01-01

    Fires are a common occurrence in the Siberian boreal forest. The MOD14 Thermal anomalies product of the Terra MODIS Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer) product set is designed to detect thermal anomalies (i.e. hotspots or fires) on the Earth's surface. Recent field studies showed a dependence of fire occurrence on topography. In this study MODIS thermal anomaly data and SRTM topography data were merged and analyzed to evaluate if forest fires are more likely to occur at certain combinations of elevation, slope and aspect. Using the satellite data over a large area can lead to better understanding how topography and forest fires are related. The study area covers a 2.5 Million krn(exp 2) portion of the Central Siberian southern taiga from 72 deg to 110 deg East and from 50 deg to 60 deg North. About 57% of the study area is forested and 80% of the forest grows between 200 and 1000 m. Forests with pine (Pinus sylvestris), larch (Larix sibirica, L. gmelinii), Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), spruce (Picea obovata.) and fir (Abies sibirica) cover most of the landscape. Deciduous stands with birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen (Populus tremula) cover the areas of lower elevation in this region. The climate of this area is distinctly continental with long, cold winters and short hot summers. The tree line in this part of the world is around 1500 m in elevation with alpine tundra, snow and ice fields and rock outcrops extending up to over 3800 m. A 500 m resolution landcover map was developed using 2001 MODIS MOD13 Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Middle Infrared (MIR) products for seven 16-day periods. The classification accuracy was over 87%. The SRTM version 2 data, which is distributed in 1 degree by 1 degree tiles were mosaiced using the ENVI software. In this study, only those MODIS pixels were used that were flagged as "nominal or high confidence fire" by the MODIS fire product team. Using MODIS data from the years 2000 to 2005 along with the

  4. New data on stratigraphy (palynomorphs, ostracods, paleomagnetism) of Cenozoic continental deposits of the Ishim plain, Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, O. B.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Khazin, L. B.; Khazina, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    New micropaleontological and paleomagnetic data were obtained by studying core samples of Cenozoic continental deposits from two boreholes drilled in the south of Tyumen oblast (Western Siberia). Palynological assemblages in deposits of the Tavda (upper part), Novomikhailovka, Turtas, Abrosimovka, Tobolsk, Smirnovka, and Suzgun formations were described. Deposits of these formations are enriched in spore-pollen assemblages, which can be correlated with assemblages of regional palynozones of the West Siberian Plain. Ostracods were described in Quaternary deposits. On the basis of biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic data, the Late Eocene (Priabonian)-Holocene age of deposits was substantiated. For the first time, beds with dinocysts of genus Pseudokomewuia were identified in deposits of the Turtas Formation (Upper Oligocene) of the Ishim lithofacial area. In total, nine regional magnetozones were distinguished in the paleomagnetic section. On the basis of palynological and paleomagnetic data, sections of two boreholes were correlated, and hiatuses in sedimentation were revealed. A large hiatus is at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (Western Siberia): the Lower Oligocene Atlym Horizon and Miocene-Pliocene and Eopleistocene sediments are missing. The Oligocene interval of the section is represented in a reduced volume.

  5. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  6. The effects of cleared larch canopy and nitrogen supply on gas exchange and leaf traits in deciduous broad-leaved tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoko; Koike, Takayoshi

    2009-12-01

    To understand the leaf-level responses of successional tree species to forest gap formation and nitrogen deposition, we performed canopy clearing and nitrogen-amendment treatments in larch plantations and investigated the changes in the light-use characteristics and the leaf structure of the invading deciduous broad-leaved tree seedlings. We hypothesized that the responses of the tree seedlings to clearing and nitrogen input would reflect specific traits in the shoot development that would be related to the species-specific successional characteristics. The gap phase species Magnolia hyporeuca Siebold et Zucc. and the mid-late successional tree species Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledeb. var. crispula (Blume) Ohashi., which grow in or near the forest gaps, had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Psat), enhanced mesophyll surface area (Smes) and increased leaf mass per area (LMA) under both the clearing treatment and the clearing with nitrogen-amendment treatment. These two species therefore increased their Psat via an increase in Smes and LMA. The LMA values of the late successional tree species Prunus ssiori F. Schmidt and Carpinus cordata Blume, which grow in the forest understory, were enhanced by the clearing treatment. However, they displayed lesser responses to the clearing treatment under which there were no marked increases in Psat or Smes values in the second year. These results indicate distinct and varied responses to disturbance regimes among the four seral tree seedlings. The Psat value largely increased in line with the increase in Smes value during the second year in M. hyporeuca and Q. mongolica. The nitrogen supply accelerated the change in LMA and increased the Smes value in the leaves of Q. mongolica.

  7. A cool-temperate young larch plantation as a net methane source - A 4-year continuous hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation and chamber measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Kota; Takagi, Kentaro

    2018-07-01

    Upland forests are thought to be methane (CH4) sinks due to oxidation by methanotrophs in aerobic soils. However, CH4 budget for upland forests are not well quantified at the ecosystem scale, when possible CH4 sources, such as small wet areas, exists in the ecosystem. Here, we quantified CH4 fluxes in a cool-temperate larch plantation based on four-year continuous measurements using the hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) method and dynamic closed chambers with a laser-based analyzer. After filling data gaps for half-hourly data using machine-learning-based regressions, we found that the forest acted as a net CH4 source at the canopy scale: 30 ± 11 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2014, 56 ± 8 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2015, 154 ± 5 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2016, and 132 ± 6 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1 in 2017. Hotspot emissions from the edge of the pond could strongly contribute to the canopy-scale emissions. The magnitude of the hotspot emissions was 10-100 times greater than the order of the canopy-scale and chamber-based CH4 fluxes at the dry soils. The high temperatures with wet conditions stimulated the hotspot emissions, and thus induced canopy-scale CH4 emissions in the summer. Understanding and modeling the dynamics of hotspot emissions are important for quantifying CH4 budgets of upland forests. Micrometeorological measurements at various forests are required for revisiting CH4 budget of upland forests.

  8. cDNA cloning, genomic organization and expression analysis during somatic embryogenesis of the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene from Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Feng; Li, Wan-Feng; Han, Su-Ying; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Li-Wang

    2013-10-15

    A full-length cDNA and genomic sequences of a translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) gene were isolated from Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis) and designated LaTCTP. The length of the cDNA was 1, 043 bp and contained a 504 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted protein of 167 amino acids, characterized by two signature sequences of the TCTP protein family. Analysis of the LaTCTP gene structure indicated four introns and five exons, and it is the largest of all currently known TCTP genes in plants. The 5'-flanking promoter region of LaTCTP was cloned using an improved TAIL-PCR technique. In this region we identified many important potential cis-acting elements, such as a Box-W1 (fungal elicitor responsive element), a CAT-box (cis-acting regulatory element related to meristem expression), a CGTCA-motif (cis-acting regulatory element involved in MeJA-responsiveness), a GT1-motif (light responsive element), a Skn-1-motif (cis-acting regulatory element required for endosperm expression) and a TGA-element (auxin-responsive element), suggesting that expression of LaTCTP is highly regulated. Expression analysis demonstrated ubiquitous localization of LaTCTP mRNA in the roots, stems and needles, high mRNA levels in the embryonal-suspensor mass (ESM), browning embryogenic cultures and mature somatic embryos, and low levels of mRNA at day five during somatic embryogenesis. We suggest that LaTCTP might participate in the regulation of somatic embryo development. These results provide a theoretical basis for understanding the molecular regulatory mechanism of LaTCTP and lay the foundation for artificial regulation of somatic embryogenesis. © 2013.

  9. Relict gas hydrates as possible reason of gas emission from shallow permafrost at the northern part of West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Bukhanov, Boris; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Istomin, Vladimir; Tipenko, Gennady

    2017-04-01

    Intra-permafrost gas (mostly methane) is represent a serious geological hazards during exploration and development of oil and gas fields. Special danger is posed by large methane accumulations which usually confined to sandy and silty sand horizons and overlying in the frozen strata on the depth up to 200 meters. Such methane accumulations are widely spread in a number of gas fields in the northern part of Western Siberia. According to indirect indicators this accumulations can be relic gas hydrates, that formed earlier during favorable conditions for hydrate accumulation (1, 2). Until now, they could be preserved in the frozen sediments due to geological manifestation of the self-preservation effect of gas hydrates at temperatures below zero. These gas hydrate formations, which are lying above the gas hydrate stability zone today, are in a metastable state and are very sensitive to various anthropogenic impacts. During drilling and operation of production wells in the areas where the relic of gas hydrates can occur, there are active gas emission and gas explosion, that can lead to various technical complications up to the accident. Mathematical and experimental simulations were were conducted to evaluate the possibility of existence of relic gas hydrates in the northern part of West Siberia. The results of math simulations revealed stages of geological history when the gas hydrate stability zone began virtually from the ground surface and saturated in shallow permafrost horizons. Later permafrost is not completely thaw. Experimental simulations of porous gas hydrate dissociation in frozen soils and evaluation of self-preservation manifestation of gas hydrates at negative temperatures were carried out for identification conditions for relic gas hydrates existence in permafrost of northern part of West Siberia. Sandy and silty sand sediments were used in experimental investigations. These sediments are typical of most gas-seeping (above the gas hydrate stability

  10. Analysis of Climatic and Environmental Changes Using CLEARS Web-GIS Information-Computational System: Siberia Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I.; Shulgina, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Analysis of recent climatic and environmental changes in Siberia performed on the basis of the CLEARS (CLimate and Environment Analysis and Research System) information-computational system is presented. The system was developed using the specialized software framework for rapid development of thematic information-computational systems based on Web-GIS technologies. It comprises structured environmental datasets, computational kernel, specialized web portal implementing web mapping application logic, and graphical user interface. Functional capabilities of the system include a number of procedures for mathematical and statistical analysis, data processing and visualization. At present a number of georeferenced datasets is available for processing including two editions of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, JMA/CRIEPI JRA-25 Reanalysis, ECMWF ERA-40 and ERA Interim Reanalysis, meteorological observation data for the territory of the former USSR, and others. Firstly, using functionality of the computational kernel employing approved statistical methods it was shown that the most reliable spatio-temporal characteristics of surface temperature and precipitation in Siberia in the second half of 20th and beginning of 21st centuries are provided by ERA-40/ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA Reanalysis, respectively. Namely those Reanalyses are statistically consistent with reliable in situ meteorological observations. Analysis of surface temperature and precipitation dynamics for the territory of Siberia performed on the base of the developed information-computational system reveals fine spatial and temporal details in heterogeneous patterns obtained for the region earlier. Dynamics of bioclimatic indices determining climate change impact on structure and functioning of regional vegetation cover was investigated as well. Analysis shows significant positive trends of growing season length accompanied by statistically significant increase of sum of growing degree days and total

  11. Magnetic Characterization of Proposed Tektite-like Objects (Urengoites, South-Ural Glass) from Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezaeva, N. S.; Rochette, P.; Masaitis, V. L.; Badyukov, D. D.; Kosterov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urengoites and South-Ural glass are proposed `tektite-like' objects from Western Siberia (Russia), previously described in [1-3]. Urengoites (U-1, U-2, U-3; 24 Ma [1]) were discovered near the West-Siberian town of Novy Urengoi [1-2]. Total recovered mass: 21.65 g. The only recovered South-Ural glass A-1 was found near Magnitogorsk ( 90 g) [3]. In spite of previous works [1-3], the magnetic properties of urengoites and South-Ural glass remain unknown. Here we present a comprehensive magnetic characterization for all three currently known urengoite specimens and the only discovered South-Ural glass. Rock magnetic investigations revealed the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals in all samples. Low-temperature magnetometry (ZFC-FC dataset) points out to magnetite, which was detected in the most magnetic urengoite sample (U-3) via its characteristic Verwey transition at 120K (<1 ppm). Contrary to previous investigations [2], we could measure NRM for all samples and acquire alternating field demagnetization spectra for the biggest samples (U-1 and A-1). The following SIRM values were recorded: 4.33 μAm2/kg (U-1). 13.20 μAm2/kg (U-2), 62.40 μAm2/kg (U-3) and 9.36 μAm2/kg (A-1). The obtained χ0 values for all four samples (U-1 to U-3: from 9.98 to 19.90·10-9 m3/kg; A-1: 4.66·10-9 m3/kg) are close to those for Libyan glassed (see Table 1 in [4]). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements for A-1 sample revealed 28% of anisotropy. SIRM values and non-isotropic susceptibility demonstrate a composite ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic origin of susceptibility. U-1 and A-1 do not demonstrate any field nor frequency dependence of χ0, which likely indicates the absence of superparamagnetic grains of nanometric size. Acknowledgements: The work is supported by Act 211 Government of the Russian Federation, agreement № 02.A03.21.0006 and is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University. This research has

  12. Soil microbiological composition and its evolution along with forest succession in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naplekova, Nadezhda N.; Malakhova, Nataliya A.; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Natural forest succession process in West Siberia is mostly initiated by fire disturbance and involves changing tree species composition from pioneer species to late succession trees. Along with forest aging, litter and forest biomass accumulate. Changes of the soil nitrogen cycle between succession stages, important for plant functioning, have been reported in a number of studies. To help understanding the mechanism of the changes in the soil nitrogen cycle we analyzed soil microbiological composition for soil profiles (0-160 cm) taken at sites corresponding to three forest succession stages: (1) young pine, age 18-20 years, (2) mid age, dark coniferous, age 50-70 years, (3) mature, fir-spruce, age 170-180 years. Soil samples were taken from each soil horizon and analyzed in the laboratory for quantity and species composition of algae and other microorganisms. Algae community at all stages of succession is dominated by species typical for forest (pp. Chlorhormidium, Chlamydomonas, Chloroccocum, Pleurochloris, Stichococcus). Algae species composition is summarized by formulas: young forest C14X10Ch9H2P4Cf1B2amph4, mid age X16C15Ch10H4P4Cf1B2amph4, mature X24C22Ch17H10P2amph5Cf1, with designations C -- Cyanophyta, X -- Xantophyta, Ch -- Chlorophyta, B -- Bacillariophyta. Diversity is highest in upper two horizons and declines with depth. Microorganism composition on upper 20 cm was analyzed in three types of forests separately for consumers of protein (ammonifiers) and mineral nitrogen, fungi, azotobacter, Clostridium pasteurianum, oligonitrophylic (eg diazotrophs), nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Nitrogen biologic fixation in the mature forest soils is done mostly by oligonitrophyls and microorganisms of the genus Clostridium as well as сyanobacteria of sp. Nostoc, but the production rate appears low. Concentrations (count in gram soil) of nitrogen consumers (eg ammonifiers), oligonitrophyls, Clostridium and denitrifiers increase several fold from young forest to mid

  13. Emission of greenhouse gases from geographically isolated wetlands of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatskaya, E.; Dyukarev, E.; Veretennikova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are integral components of landscapes with specific nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration potentials, which frequently differ, based on hydroperiod and seasonal hydropattern, as well as the constituent concentration of inputs, site-specific storages and vegetation structures. Human modifications have the potential to significantly alter controls on carbon dynamics. This study focused on determining carbon emissions (CO2 and CH4) from geographically isolated peatlands within the Ob-Tom River Interfluve area of Western Siberia affected by water diversion for municipal use by the city of Tomsk, Russia. Two oligotrophic wetlands within the study area were selected for site-specific CO2 studies, the Timiryazevskoe (16 ha) and Kirsanovskoe wetlands (29 ha), both affected by the Tomsk water intake (177 water wells 250 000 m3 water daily). Measurements of СО2 and CH4 emissions from peat surfaces were carried out bi-monthly in growing periods from 2008-2013 in two dominate vegetation zones, pine- shrub-sphagnum phytocenosis (ryam) and sedge-sphagnum fens. СО2 emissions were measured using OPTOGAS-500.4 infrared gas analyzer and dark chamber. Methane emissions were measured using static chamber method. Air samples were collected by syringes and analyzed at gas chromatograph Shimadzu-GC14B. Observations were accompanied by measurement of air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, peat temperature at various depths and the water table level. CО2 emission over the vegetative growing period had clearly pronounced seasonal dynamics with maximum values in the middle of the growing season (mid-July) and minimum values in spring and autumn. The average total flux over the studied period is 123±55 gС/m2 at sedge-sphagnum fen of Kirsanovskoe wetland and 323±66 gС/m2 at fen of Timiryazevskoe wetland. Total СО2 flux for the snow-free period at ryam sites of Timiryazevskoe and Kirsanovskoe wetlands is 238±84 and 260±47 gС/m2 accordingly. Methane

  14. Impact of hydrology on methane flux patterns in a permafrost-affected floodplain in Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Beulig, Felix; Kuesel, Kirsten; Wildner, Marcus; Heimann, Martin; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergei; Goeckede, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    A large fraction of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost soil is at risk to be decomposed and released to the atmosphere under climate change. Thawing of ice-rich permafrost will re-structure the surface topography, with potentially significant effects on hydrology: water table depth (WTD) of depressed areas will increase, while that of the surrounding area will decrease. Changes in hydrology will trigger modifications in soil and vegetation, e.g. soil temperature, vegetation and microbial community structure. All of these secondary effects will alter carbon cycle processes, with the magnitude and even sign of the net effect yet unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate effects of drainage on methane fluxes in a floodplain of the Kolyma River near Cherskii, Northeast Siberia. The study site is separated into two areas, one that has been drained since 2004, and a nearby reference site. Methane flux was measured for ~16 weeks during summer and early winter of 2013, and summer of 2014. In addition, to separate different methane emission pathways, plant-mediated methane transport (through aerenchyma) as well as the proportion of ebullition were measured in 2014. Vegetation and microbial community structures were investigated and compared. After a decade of drainage history that lowered WTD by about 20cm in the drained area, Eriophorum (cotton grass) that previously dominated have to a large part been replaced by Carex (tussock-forming sedge) and shrub species. While WTD primarily influenced the methane flux rate, this vegetation change indirectly altered the flux as well in a way that sites with Eriophorum emitted more methane. Concerning the microbial community structure, the relative abundance of methanogen and ratio of methanotrophs to methanogens were well correlated with methane flux rates, implying that the methane flux is highly influenced by microorganisms. As a consequence of these changes, in the drained area less amount of methane was

  15. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audry, S.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Dupré, B.

    2011-11-01

    This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw) lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i) document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii) characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC) stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m-2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM) mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions was suggested. This shift was likely promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides) and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all stages of ecosystem development

  16. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audry, S.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Dupré, B.

    2011-08-01

    This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw) lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i) document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii) characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC) stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m-2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM) mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways was evidenced from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions. This shift was promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides) and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all stages of ecosystem development, the

  17. 30-year lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer state over Tomsk (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, Vladimir V.; Burlakov, Vladimir D.; Nevzorov, Aleksei V.; Pravdin, Vladimir L.; Savelieva, Ekaterina S.; Gerasimov, Vladislav V.

    2017-02-01

    There are only four lidar stations in the world which have almost continuously performed observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer (SAL) state over the last 30 years. The longest time series of the SAL lidar measurements have been accumulated at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) since 1973, the NASA Langley Research Center (Hampton, Virginia) since 1974, and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) since 1976. The fourth lidar station we present started to perform routine observations of the SAL parameters in Tomsk (56.48° N, 85.05° E, Western Siberia, Russia) in 1986. In this paper, we mainly focus on and discuss the stratospheric background period from 2000 to 2005 and the causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk in the 2006-2015 period. During the last decade, volcanic aerosol plumes from tropical Mt. Manam, Soufrière Hills, Rabaul, Merapi, Nabro, and Kelut and extratropical (northern) Mt. Okmok, Kasatochi, Redoubt, Sarychev Peak, Eyjafjallajökull, and Grímsvötn were detected in the stratosphere over Tomsk. When it was possible, we used the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model to assign aerosol layers observed over Tomsk to the corresponding volcanic eruptions. The trajectory analysis highlighted some surprising results. For example, in the cases of the Okmok, Kasatochi, and Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, the HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectories, started from altitudes of aerosol layers detected over Tomsk with a lidar, passed over these volcanoes on their eruption days at altitudes higher than the maximum plume altitudes given by the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program. An explanation of these facts is suggested. The role of both tropical and northern volcanic eruptions in volcanogenic aerosol loading of the midlatitude stratosphere is also discussed. In addition to volcanoes, we considered other possible causes of the SAL perturbations over Tomsk, i.e., the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events and smoke plumes from strong forest fires. At least

  18. Ground and aircraft-based methane measurements in Siberia: source attribution using tracers and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Paris, J. D.; Pruvost, A.; Peng, S.; Turquety, S.; Berchet, A.; Pison, I.; Helle, J.; Arshinov, M.; Belan, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is also naturally emitted by a number of processes, including microbial activity in wetlands, permafrost degradation and wildfires. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of its natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). Furthermore, high latitude regions are large natural sources of CH4 in the atmosphere. Observing boreal/Arctic CH4 variability and understanding its main driving processes using atmospheric measurements and transport model is the task of this work. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns (flights in the tropospheric layer up to 9 km connecting the two cities of Novosibirsk and Yakutsk) and continuous measurements at Fonovaya Observatory (60 km west of Tomsk - 56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) have been performed in order to provide observational data on the composition of Siberian air. The study is focused on 2012, during which a strong heat wave impacted Siberia, leading to the highest mean daily temperature values on record since the beginning of the 20th century. This abnormal drought has led to numerous large forest fires. A chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfires (APIFLAME), is used to determine contributions of CH4 sources in the region. Recent results concerning CH4 fluxes and its atmospheric variability in the Siberian territory derived from a modeled-based analysis will be shown and discussed. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S

  19. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  20. Total Storage and Landscape Partitioning of Soil Organic Carbon and Phytomass Carbon in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, M. B.; Hanisch, J.; Weiss, N.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of detailed partitioning of soil organic carbon (SOC) and phytomass carbon (PC) from two study sites in Siberia. The study sites in the Tundra (Kytalyk) and the Taiga (Spasskaya Pad) reflect two contrasting environments in the continuous permafrost zone. In total 57 individual field sites (24 and 33 per study site respectively) have have been sampled for SOC and PC along transects cutting across different land covers. In Kytalyk the sampling depth for the soil pedons was 1 m depth. In Spasskaya Pad where the active layer was significantly deeper, we aimed for 2 m depth or tried to include at least the top of the permafrost. Here the average depth of soil profiles was 152 cm. PC was sampled from 1x1 m ground coverage plots. In Spasskaya Pad tree phytomass was also estimated on a 5x5 m plot. The SOC storage was calculated separately for the intervals 0-30 cm, 30-100 cm and 100-200 cm (the latter only for Spasskaya Pad), as well as for organic layer vs. mineral soil, active layer vs. permafrost and for cryoturbated soil horizons. Landscape partitioning was performed by thematic up-scaling using a vegetation based land cover classification of very high resolution (2x2 m) satellite imagery. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was used to explore the relationship of SOC with PC and different soil and permafrost related variables. The results show that the different land cover classes can be considered distinct storages of SOC, but that PC is not significantly related to total SOC storage. At both study sites the 30-100 cm SOC storage is more important for the total SOC storage than the 0-30 cm interval, and large portions of the total SOC are stored in the permafrost. The largest contribution comes from wetland pedons, but highly cryoturbated individual non-wetland pedons can match these. In Kytalyk the landscape partitioning of SOC mostly follows large scale geomorphological features, while in Spasskaya pad forest type also has a large

  1. Monitoring of a gas reservoir in Western Siberia through SqueeSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucci, Alessio; Ferretti, Alessandro; Fokker, Peter A.; Jager, Johan; Lou, Sten

    2014-05-01

    The success of surface movement monitoring using InSAR is critically dependent on the coherence of the radar signal though time and over space. As a result, rural areas are more difficult to monitor with this technology than are areas with a lot of infrastructure. The development of advanced algorithms exploiting distributed scatterers, such as SqueeSAR, has improved these possibilities considerably. However, in rural areas covered with varying quantities of snow and ice, it had not yet been possible to demonstrate the applicability of the technology. We performed a study to assess the applicability of InSAR for assessing land movement is Western Siberia, where we chose the area of the Yuznho Russkoye field for a detailed analysis, after a screening using data that involved a number of fields in the vicinity of the Yuznho Russkoye Field. A first evaluation with C-band data ranging from 2004 - 2010 was unsuccessful due to the small number of images. Therefore we investigated the applicability of X-band data. 75 images were available spanning a period spanning May 2012 until July 2013. Within the summer periods when there was no snow coverage, the X-band data showed good coherence. The subsidence during a summer season, however, was not sufficient to make a quantitative comparison between geomechanical predictions and geodetic observations. Including the winter season in the analysis, however, destroyed the coherence and no subsidence signal could be derived. Quite unexpectedly, however, by cutting out the winter season and using the two disconnected summer seasons simultaneously, the coherence re-appeared and a subsidence estimate was established covering the full period. This way, the temporal surface movement could be established as a function of the position in the field. The spatial subsidence distribution was subsequently compared with the expected pattern expected from the location of producing wells and was found to be show a good correlation. Subsidence was

  2. Redistribution of vegetation zones and populations of Larix sibirica Ledb. and Pinus sylvestris L. in central Siberia in a warming climate

    Treesearch

    N.M. Tchebakova; G.E. Rehfeldt; E.I. Parfenova

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for global warming over the past 200 years is overwhelming (Hulme et al. 1999), based on both direct weather observation and indirect physical and biological indicators such as retreating glaciers and snow/ice cover, increasing sea level, and longer growing seasons (IPCC 2001). Recent GCM projections of the Hadley Centre (Gordon et al. 2000) for Siberia show...

  3. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ∼ 60 large and small rivers (< 100 to ≤ 150 000 km2 watershed area) of Western Siberia Lowland (WSL) during spring flood and summer and winter base-flow across a 1500 km latitudinal gradient covering continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. Analysis of ∼ 40 major and trace elements in dissolved (< 0.45 μm) fraction allowed establishing main environmental factors controlling the transport of metals and trace elements in rivers of this environmentally important region. No statistically significant effect of the basin size on most TE concentration was evidenced. Three category of trace elements were distinguished according to their concentration - latitude pattern: (i) increasing northward in spring and winter (Fe, Al, Ga (only winter), Ti (only winter), REEs, Pb, Zr, Hf, Th (only winter)), linked to leaching from peat and/or redox processes and transport in the form of Fe-rich colloids, (ii) decreasing northward during all seasons (Sr, Mo, U, As, Sb) marking the underground water influence of river feeding and (iii) elements without distinct trend from S to N whose variations within each latitude range were higher than the difference between latitudinal ranges (B, Li, Ti (except summer), Cr, V, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cs, Hf, Th). In addition to these general features, specific, northward increase during spring period was mostly pronounced for Fe, Mn, Co, Zn and Ba and may stem from a combination of enhanced leaching from the topsoil and vegetation and bottom waters of the lakes (spring overturn). A spring time northward decrease was observed for Ni, Cu, Zr, Rb. The southward increase in summer was strongly visible for Fe, Ni, Ba, Rb and V, probably due to peat/moss release (Ni, Ba, Rb) or groundwater feeding (Fe, V). The Principal Component Analysis demonstrated two main factors potentially controlling the ensemble of TE

  4. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  5. Eastern Airlines LOFT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with scenario design and development issues, Eastern Airlines committed itself to the full four-hour LOFT training format without the additional time for specific maneuvers. Abnormals and emergency conditions, pacing, and quiet periods are included in the scenarios which are written for the instructor to follow verbatim. Simulator capabilities, performance assessment; training vs. checking; crew composition and scheduling; satisfactory completion; the use of video performance printouts; the number of instructors; instructor training and standardization; and initial, transition, and upgrade training are discussed.

  6. Sedimentary ancient DNA and pollen reveal the composition of plant organic matter in Late Quaternary permafrost sediments of the Buor Khaya Peninsula (north-eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildegard Zimmermann, Heike; Raschke, Elena; Saskia Epp, Laura; Rosmarie Stoof-Leichsenring, Kathleen; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Overduin, Pier Paul; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    Organic matter deposited in ancient, ice-rich permafrost sediments is vulnerable to climate change and may contribute to the future release of greenhouse gases; it is thus important to get a better characterization of the plant organic matter within such sediments. From a Late Quaternary permafrost sediment core from the Buor Khaya Peninsula, we analysed plant-derived sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) to identify the taxonomic composition of plant organic matter, and undertook palynological analysis to assess the environmental conditions during deposition. Using sedaDNA, we identified 154 taxa and from pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs we identified 83 taxa. In the deposits dated between 54 and 51 kyr BP, sedaDNA records a diverse low-centred polygon plant community including recurring aquatic pond vegetation while from the pollen record we infer terrestrial open-land vegetation with relatively dry environmental conditions at a regional scale. A fluctuating dominance of either terrestrial or swamp and aquatic taxa in both proxies allowed the local hydrological development of the polygon to be traced. In deposits dated between 11.4 and 9.7 kyr BP (13.4-11.1 cal kyr BP), sedaDNA shows a taxonomic turnover to moist shrub tundra and a lower taxonomic richness compared to the older samples. Pollen also records a shrub tundra community, mostly seen as changes in relative proportions of the most dominant taxa, while a decrease in taxonomic richness was less pronounced compared to sedaDNA. Our results show the advantages of using sedaDNA in combination with palynological analyses when macrofossils are rarely preserved. The high resolution of the sedaDNA record provides a detailed picture of the taxonomic composition of plant-derived organic matter throughout the core, and palynological analyses prove valuable by allowing for inferences of regional environmental conditions.

  7. Soil respiration dynamics in the middle taiga of Central Siberia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhnykina, Anastasia; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Polosukhina, Daria

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2 emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was located in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer -LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths -5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest was characterized by the intermediate values of soil respiration. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and climatic conditions identified the parameters with

  8. Middle-Late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda (Southwestern Siberia): vegetation, climate, humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, N.; Nazarova, L.; Papin, D.; Nourgaliev, D.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental reconstruction of Mid-Late Holocene vegetation and climate was inferred from pollen records of Lake Big Yarovoe (Kulunda steppe, Southwestern Siberia). Reconstruction suggests generally prevalence of steppe during last 4.45 ka. Relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.45 and 3.80 ka BP. The largest development of conifers forest started in Kulunda after 3.80 ka BP. Constant presence of dark-coniferous trees Abies and especially Picea between 3.80 and 2.7 ka BP indicates the most humid period in the region during studied time. Onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominated parallel to sharp reduction of conifers in Kulunda. These results are in agreement with general scheme of Holocene environmental history of surrounding areas including Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. Territory of Kulunda consists many archaeological sites of Bronze, Iron and Middle Ages. Second half of Bronze Age (4.45-3.80 ka BP) was represented by local human cultures or migrants from the North Kazakhstan. The main archaeological culture of Kulunda alike in the whole Ob`-Irtysh interfluve in this period was Elunino culture. The economical activities of Elunino community were connected with animal breeding especially with sheep and goats. The most humid period (~1795-710 BC; 3.8-2.7 ka BP) in Kulunda corresponded to the end of early Bronze Age and to the onset of the Iron Age. In 18 century BC Andronovo culture, associated with the Indo-Iranians and migrants from Central Kazakhstan, spread in the region. Cattle breeding economy was distinctive features of Andronovo people, however, increase of sheep, goats and horses with transition to nomadic life style was characteristic of the late Bronze Age. This trend is in

  9. Sources and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Ob River system, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. Kirk; Moran, S. Bradley; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Beasley, Thomas M.; Kelley, James M.

    2000-06-01

    The potential sources of anthropogenic radionuclides to the Ob River system of western Siberia include global stratospheric fallout, tropospheric fallout from atomic weapons tests and releases from production and reprocessing facilities. Samples of water, suspended and bottom sediments collected in 1994 and 1995 have been used to characterize the sources and transport of 137Cs, Pu isotopes, 237Np and 129I through the system. For the radionuclides that associate with particles, isotope ratios provide clues to their sources, providing any geochemical fractionation can be taken into account. Activity ratios of 239,240Pu/ 137Cs in suspended sediments are lower than the global fallout ratio in the Irtysh River before its confluence with the Ob, comparable to fallout in the central reach of the Ob, and greater than the fallout values in the lower Ob and in the Taz River. This pattern mirrors the downriver decrease in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. Laboratory adsorption experiments with Ob River sediment and water show that Kd values for Am (and presumably other actinides) are depressed by two orders of magnitude in the presence of Ob DOC concentrations, relative to values measured in DOC-free Ob water. Iodine and cesium Kd values show little or no (less than a factor of 2) dependence on DOC. Mixing plots using plutonium isotope ratios (atom ratios) show that Pu in suspended sediments of the Ob is a mixture of stratospheric global fallout at northern latitudes, tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test site at Semipalatinsk and reprocessing of spent fuel at Tomsk-7. Plutonium from Semipalatinsk is evident in the Irtysh River above its confluence with the Tobal. Suspended sediment samples taken in the Ob above its confluence with the Irtysh indicate the presence of Pu derived from the Tomsk-7 reprocessing facilities. A mixing plot constructed using 237Np/ 239Pu vs. 240Pu/ 239Pu shows similar mixtures of stratospheric and tropospheric fallout

  10. Lignin phenols in sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia: Application to paleoenvironmental studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Colman, Steven M.; Lerch, H.E.

    1997-01-01

    Sediments from three cores obtained from distinct depositional environments in Lake Baikal, Siberia were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen and lignin phenol concentration and composition. Results were used to examine changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during climatic cycles of the late Quaternary (< 125 ka). Average organic carbon, and total nitrogen concentrations, atomic C/N ratios and organic carbon accumulation rates were significantly higher in the Holocene compared with the late Pleistocene, reflecting overall warmer temperatures and increased runoff during the Holocene. A Holocene maximum in organic carbon was observed at about 6 ka, and may represent the warmest wettest period of the Holocene. At one site (Academician Ridge) pronounced late Pleistocene maxima in organic carbon and biogenic silica were observed at about 80-85 ka, probably indicative of an interstadial period with enhanced aquatic productivity. Total sedimentary lignin phenol contents were generally lower in the late Pleistocene compared to the Holocene, but with several peaks in concentration during the late Pleistocene. These late Pleistocene peaks in total sedimentary lignin content (dated at about 80, 50 and 30 ka) directly precede or occur during peaks in sedimentary biogenic silica contents. These periods likely represent relatively warm interstadial times, with increased precipitation producing the observed increase in terrestrial runoff and aquatic productivity. Lignin phenol ratios (S/V, C/V and P/V) were used to examine changes in terrestrial vegetation type resulting from changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during the late Pleistocene. A degree of caution must be used in the interpretation of these ratios with regard to vegetation sources and paleoenvironmental conditions, because of potential compositional changes in lignin resulting from biodegradation. Nevertheless, results show that long glacial periods were characterized by terrestrial vegetation composed

  11. Stable isotope ratios of atmospheric CO_{2} and CH_{4} over Siberia measured at ZOTTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhina, Anastasiya; Prokushkin, Anatily; Lavric, Jost; Heimann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The boreal and arctic zones of Siberia housing the large amounts of carbon stored in the living biomass of forests and wetlands, as well as in soils and specifically permafrost, play a crucial role in earth's global carbon cycle. The long-term studies of greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations are important instruments to analyze the response of these systems to climate warming. In parallel to GHG observations, the measurements of their stable isotopic composition can provide useful information for distinguishing contribution of individual GHG source to their atmospheric variations, since each source has its own isotopic signature. In this study we report first results of laboratory analyses of the CO2 and CH4 concentrations, the stable isotope ratio of δ13C-CO2, δ18O-CO2, δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 measured in one-liter glass flasks which were obtained from 301 height of ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower Observatory, near 60° N, 90° E, about 20 km west of the Yenisei River) during 2008 - 2013 and 2010 - 2013 for stable isotope composition of CO2 and CH4. The magnitudes of δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 in a seasonal cycle are -1.4±0.1‰ (-7.6 - -9.0‰) and -2.2±0.2‰ (-0.1 - -2.3‰), respectively. The δ13C-CO2 seasonal pattern opposes the CO2 concentrations, with a gradual enrichment in heavy isotope occurring during May - July, reflecting its discrimination in photosynthesis, and further depletion in August - September as photosynthetic activity decreases comparatively to ecosystem respiration. Relationship between the CO2 concentrations and respective δ13C-CO2 (Keeling plot) reveals isotopic source signature for growing season (May - September) -27.3±1.4‰ and -30.4±2.5‰ for winter (January - March). The behavior of δ18O-CO2 associated with both high photosynthetic rate in the June (enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by 18O as consequence of CO2 equilibrium with "heavy" leaf water) and respiratory activity of forest floor in June - October (depletion of respired CO2 by 18O

  12. [CCR5, CCR2, apoe, p53, ITGB3 and HFE gene polymorphism in Western Siberia long-livers].

    PubMed

    Ivanoshchuk, D E; Mikhaĭlova, S V; Kulikov, I V; Maksimov, V N; Voevoda, M I; Romashchenko, A G

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the distribution of some polymorphisms for the CCR5, CCR2, apoE, p53, ITGB3, and HFE genes in Russian long-livers from Western Siberia, a sample of 271 individuals (range 90-105 years) was examined. It was demonstrated that carriage of the delta32 polymorphism for the CCR5 gene, V64/polymorphism for the CCR2 gene, e2/e3/e4 for the apoE gene, L33P for the ITGB3 gene, as well as H63D and S65C polymorphisms for the HFE gene does not influence on predisposition to the longevity; carriage of the 282 Y allele for the HFE gene negatively influences on the longevity; carriage of the heterozygous genotype for the R72P polymorphism for the p53 gene correlates with the longevity of elderly people.

  13. A review of magnetostratigraphic results from the Tithonian-Berriasian of Nordvik (Siberia) and possible biostratigraphic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabl, Petr; Pruner, Petr; Wimbledon, William A. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we examine and discuss recently published magnetostratigraphic data from the Nordvik section (north Siberia) around the Tithonian-Berriasian (J/K) boundary, with a special emphasis on calibration with biostratigraphy and the reliability of both the fossil and magnetic records, as well as sedimentation rates. Specifically, we discuss original new interpretations by Bragin et al. (2013) and the commentary on that work by Guzhikov (2013). We consider some limitations of the Nordvik section, and conclude that the base of M18r, because it is in a condensed part of the sequence, makes a poor contender for precise long-range correlation. We discuss the lack of ammonites at several magnetozone boundaries, and whether the bases of the local zones of Craspedites taimyrensis and Arctoteuthis tehamaensis can be used to bracket the correlative horizon of Calpionella alpina, a widespread marker in the middle of M19n.2n in Tethys.

  14. Age and genesis of the Upper Cenozoic deposits of the Tyumen oblast (Western Siberia) enriched in biogenic silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, G. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Smirnov, P. V.; Konstantinov, A. O.; Kuzmina, O. B.

    2017-07-01

    An integrated micropaleontological study of deposits enriched in biogenic silica was conducted on material drilled in the Zyryanka and Uspenka fields of the southwestern Tyumen oblast (Western Siberia). The data obtained on palynology and diatoms allowed the assignment of the Zyryanka Field to the Turtas Formation (lower part of the Chattian Stage of the Oligocene) and the deposits of the Uspenka Field to be dated as Pleistocene. The absence in the Zyryanka Field diatom assemblage of in situ marine taxa and the mass occurrence of freshwater species, gemmuloscleres of freshwater sponges, and zygospores of Zygnematales algae suggest that a nonmarine basin existed in the early Turtas time. A considerable proportion of redeposited diatoms and dinocysts in the Quaternary deposits of the Uspenka Field suggest strong erosional processes during the time of deposition.

  15. Short-term standard litter decomposition across three different ecosystems in middle taiga zone of West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippova, Nina V.; Glagolev, Mikhail V.

    2018-03-01

    The method of standard litter (tea) decomposition was implemented to compare decomposition rate constants (k) between different peatland ecosystems and coniferous forests in the middle taiga zone of West Siberia (near Khanty-Mansiysk). The standard protocol of TeaComposition initiative was used to make the data usable for comparisons among different sites and zonobiomes worldwide. This article sums up the results of short-term decomposition (3 months) on the local scale. The values of decomposition rate constants differed significantly between three ecosystem types: it was higher in forest compared to bogs, and treed bogs had lower decomposition constant compared to Sphagnum lawns. In general, the decomposition rate constants were close to ones reported earlier for similar climatic conditions and habitats.

  16. Earthquake-triggered liquefaction in Southern Siberia and surroundings: a base for predictive models and seismic hazard estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunina, Oksana

    2016-04-01

    The forms and location patterns of soil liquefaction induced by earthquakes in southern Siberia, Mongolia, and northern Kazakhstan in 1950 through 2014 have been investigated, using field methods and a database of coseismic effects created as a GIS MapInfo application, with a handy input box for large data arrays. Statistical analysis of the data has revealed regional relationships between the magnitude (Ms) of an earthquake and the maximum distance of its environmental effect to the epicenter and to the causative fault (Lunina et al., 2014). Estimated limit distances to the fault for the Ms = 8.1 largest event are 130 km that is 3.5 times as short as those to the epicenter, which is 450 km. Along with this the wider of the fault the less liquefaction cases happen. 93% of them are within 40 km from the causative fault. Analysis of liquefaction locations relative to nearest faults in southern East Siberia shows the distances to be within 8 km but 69% of all cases are within 1 km. As a result, predictive models have been created for locations of seismic liquefaction, assuming a fault pattern for some parts of the Baikal rift zone. Base on our field and world data, equations have been suggested to relate the maximum sizes of liquefaction-induced clastic dikes (maximum width, visible maximum height and intensity index of clastic dikes) with Ms and local shaking intensity corresponding to the MSK-64 macroseismic intensity scale (Lunina and Gladkov, 2015). The obtained results make basis for modeling the distribution of the geohazard for the purposes of prediction and for estimating the earthquake parameters from liquefaction-induced clastic dikes. The author would like to express their gratitude to the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences for providing laboratory to carry out this research and Russian Scientific Foundation for their financial support (Grant 14-17-00007).

  17. Carbon exchange fluxes over peatlands in Western Siberia: Possible feedback between land-use change and climate change.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Elisa; Khashimov, Ilhom; Hölzel, Norbert; Klemm, Otto

    2016-03-01

    The growing demand for agricultural products has been leading to an expansion and intensification of agriculture around the world. More and more unused land is currently reclaimed in the regions of the former Soviet Union. Driven by climate change, the Western Siberian grain belt might, in a long-term, even expand into the drained peatland areas to the North. It is crucial to study the consequences of this land-use change with respect to the carbon cycling as this is still a major knowledge gap. We present for the first time data on the atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of an arable field and a neighboring unused grassland on peat soil in Western Siberia. Eddy covariance measurements were performed over one vegetation period. No directed methane fluxes were found due to an effective drainage of the study sites. The carbon dioxide fluxes appeared to be of high relevance for the global carbon and greenhouse gas cycles. They showed very site-specific patterns resulting from the development of vegetation: the persistent plants of the grassland were able to start photosynthesizing soon after snow melt, while the absence of vegetation on the managed field lead to a phase of emissions until the oat plants started to grow in June. The uptake peak of the oat field is much later than that of the grassland, but larger due to a rapid plant growth. Budgeting the whole measurement period, the grassland served as a carbon sink, whereas the oat field was identified to be a carbon source. The conversion from non-used grasslands on peat soil to cultivated fields in Western Siberia is therefore considered to have a positive feedback on climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Siberia snow depth climatology derived from SSM/I data using a combined dynamic and static algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grippa, M.; Mognard, N.; Le, Toan T.; Josberger, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges in determining snow depth (SD) from passive microwave measurements is to take into account the spatiotemporal variations of the snow grain size. Static algorithms based on a constant snow grain size cannot provide accurate estimates of snow pack thickness, particularly over large regions where the snow pack is subjected to big spatial temperature variations. A recent dynamic algorithm that accounts for the dependence of the microwave scattering on the snow grain size has been developed to estimate snow depth from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) over the Northern Great Plains (NGP) in the US. In this paper, we develop a combined dynamic and static algorithm to estimate snow depth from 13 years of SSM/I observations over Central Siberia. This region is characterised by extremely cold surface air temperatures and by the presence of permafrost that significantly affects the ground temperature. The dynamic algorithm is implemented to take into account these effects and it yields accurate snow depths early in the winter, when thin snowpacks combine with cold air temperatures to generate rapid crystal growth. However, it is not applicable later in the winter when the grain size growth slows. Combining the dynamic algorithm to a static algorithm, with a temporally constant but spatially varying coefficient, we obtain reasonable snow depth estimates throughout the entire snow season. Validation is carried out by comparing the satellite snow depth monthly averages to monthly climatological data. We show that the location of the snow depth maxima and minima is improved when applying the combined algorithm, since its dynamic portion explicitly incorporate the thermal gradient through the snowpack. The results obtained are presented and evaluated for five different vegetation zones of Central Siberia. Comparison with in situ measurements is also shown and discussed. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2017-03-01

    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 10 5  CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  20. Impacts of regional climatic fluctuations on radial growth of Siberian and Scots pine at Mukhrino mire (central-western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Guillaume; Guillet, Sébastien; Calliari, Baptiste; Corona, Christophe; Edvardsson, Johannes; Stoffel, Markus; Bragazza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Ring width (TRW) chronologies from Siberian (Pinus sibirica) and Scots (Pinus sylvestris) pine trees were sampled at Mukhrino - a large mire complex in central-western Siberia - to evaluate the impacts of hydroclimatic variability on tree growth over the last three centuries. For this purpose, we compared climate-growth correlation profiles from trees growing on peat soils with those growing on adjacent mineral soils. Tree growth at both peat and mineral soils was positively correlated to air temperature during the vegetation period. This finding can be explained by (i) the positive influence of temperature on plant physiological processes (i.e. growth control) during the growing season and (ii) the indirect impact of air temperatures on water table fluctuations. We observe also a strong link between TRW and the winter Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), especially in Siberian pine, reflecting the isolating effect of snow and limited freezing damage in roots. Significant negative relations were, by contrast, observed between bog TRW chronologies and hydroclimatic indices during spring and summer; they are considered an expression of the negative impacts of high water levels and moist peat soils on root development. Some unusually old bog pines - exhibiting >500 growth rings - apparently colonized the site at the beginning of the Little Ice Age, and therefore seem to confirm that (i) peat conditions may have been drier in Siberia than in most other regions of western Europe during this period. At the same time, the bog trees also point to (ii) their strong dependence on surface conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A population-based study of the associations of stroke occurrence with weather parameters in Siberia, Russia (1982-92).

    PubMed

    Feigin, V L; Nikitin, Y P; Bots, M L; Vinogradova, T E; Grobbee, D E

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have established a seasonal variation in stroke occurrence, but none have assessed the influence of inclement weather conditions on stroke incidence in a general population of Russia. We performed a stroke population-based study in the Oktiabrsky District of Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia. Included in the analysis were 1929 patients with their first occurrence of ischemic stroke (IS), 215 patients with their first occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 64 patients with their first occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): all patients were aged between 25 and 74 years. The cumulative daily occurrence of total strokes and stroke subtypes was evaluated in relation to aggregated daily mean values of ambient temperature, relative humidity and air pressure by means of Poisson regression analysis to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with corresponding confidence interval (CI) and to identify the weather parameters of most importance. In a multivariate analysis, with adjustment for the effects of season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and age of the patients, low ambient temperature (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.66) and mean value of air pressure (RR 0.986; 95% CI 0.972-0.999) were important predictors of IS occurrence, while mild ambient temperature (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1. 04-2.22) was an important predictor of ICH occurrence. No relationship between SAH occurrence and any one of the weather parameters studied was revealed. There was no interaction between any meteorological variables that was statistically significant. Inclement weather conditions are associated with the occurrence of IS and ICH in Siberia, Russia. Among the meteorological parameters studied, low ambient temperature and mean air pressure are the most important predictors of IS occurrence, whereas the occurrence of ICH is associated with mild ambient temperature. There is no association between any one of the weather parameters studied and the occurrence of SAH.

  2. Revising the archaeological record of the Upper Pleistocene Arctic Siberia: Human dispersal and adaptations in MIS 3 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Nikolskiy, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    As the main external driver, environmental changes largely predetermine human population distribution, especially in the Arctic, where environmental conditions were often too extreme for human survival. Not that long ago the only evidence of human presence here was the Berelekh site in the lower reaches of the Indighirka River. This landmark dates to 13,000-12,000 years ago but it was widely accepted as documentation of the earliest stage of human dispersal in the Arctic. New research discussed here, shows that humans began colonizing the Siberian Arctic at least by the end of the early stage of MIS 3 at around 45,000 years ago. For now, this earliest known stage of human occupation in the arctic regions is documented by the evidence of human hunting. The archaeological record of continued human occupation is fragmentary; nevertheless, evidence exists for each significant phase including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Siberian Arctic human populations were likely supported by the local mammoth population, which provided humans with food and raw material in the form of mammoth tusks. Processing of mammoth ivory is recognized widely as one of the most important peculiarities of the material culture of ancient humans. In fact, ivory tool manufacturing is one of the most important innovations of the Upper Palaeolithic in northern Eurasia. Technology that allowed manufacturing of long ivory shafts - long points and full-size spears - was critical in the tree-less open landscapes of Eurasian mammoth steppe belt. These technological skills reach their greatest extent and development shortly before the Last Glacial Maximum but are recognizable until the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary across Northern Eurasia in all areas populated by mammoths and humans. Loss of this stable source of raw material due to the late Pleistocene mammoth extinction may have provoked a shift in post-LGM Siberia to the Beringian microblade tradition. This paper reviews the most important

  3. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  5. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  6. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.; Docherty, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is caused by infection with an RNA virus classified in the family Togaviridae. The virus is also referred to as an “arbovirus” because virus replication takes place within mosquitoes that then transmit the disease agent to vertebrate hosts such as birds and mammals, including humans. The term arbovirus is shortened nomenclature for arthropod (insect) borne (transmitted) viruses. Culiseta melanura is the most important mosquito vector; it silently (no disease) transmits and maintains the virus among birds. However, several other mosquito species can transmit this virus, including the introduced Asian tiger mosquito. New hosts become infected when they enter this endemic natural cycle and are fed upon by an infected mosquito. Therefore, the presence of mosquito habitat, the feeding habits of different mosquito species, and the activity patterns of vertebrate hosts are among the important factors for disease transmission.

  7. Eastern Iowa, Northwestern Illinois

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-10-250 (May-June 1973) --- A vertical view of eastern Iowa and northwestern Illinois, as photographed from Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Davenport, Burlington and Muscatine, Iowa; and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois can be delineated on opposite sides of the Mississippi River. The Iowa River and tributaries of it can also be delineated. This photograph was taken with one of six lenses of the Itek-furnished Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment S190-A mounted in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) of the space station. A six-inch lens, using 70mm medium speed Ektachrome (SO-356) film, was used. Agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Interior; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, M.

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a varietymore » of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.« less

  9. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Landscape and environmental changes along the Eastern Primorye coast during the middle to late Holocene and human effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Mokhova, L. M.; Kudryavtseva, E. P.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Maksimov, F. E.; Starikova, A. A.

    2018-06-01

    Several stages are recognizable in landscape evolution along the Eastern Primorye coast, Kit Bay and its surrounding mountains in terms of climatic changes and related sea level fluctuations during the middle-late Holocene. The last 3.8-3.5 cal ka years were marked by a notable effect of the pyrogenic factor. The sea level rise at the maximum phase of the Holocene transgression led to the formation of lagoons at stream mouths, which underwent a complicated development. At that time, the coast's principal topographic elements came into being, and the modern landscape's pattern was laid on the coastal lowlands. The authors trace the changes in the vegetation in the process of short-term warmings and coolings. Korean pine appeared in the forests surrounding Kit Bay much earlier than in other regions of the Eastern Primorye. During the considered period, warmer phases were marked by increasing importance of broadleaf species, while at the cooler phases, a proportion of the Korean pine grew in the low mountains. In the last 2.3 cal ka, at greater elevations in the middle mountains, dark coniferous forests became more widespread, particularly spruce. At the same time, larch groves existed around the coastal sphagnum bog, probably due to seasonally frozen ground persisting for the greater part of a year. Extreme events with a considerable effect on the coastal landscape evolution include floods, whose frequency has been growing for the last 1.75 cal ka. Strong tsunamis are another factor influencing coastal evolution. Finally, changes in landscapes have been recorded related to human activities in the last few decades.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 of Beijing B0/W lineage from HIV positive patient from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Shur, K V; Zaychikova, M V; Mikheecheva, N E; Klimina, K M; Bekker, O B; Zhdanova, S N; Ogarkov, O B; Danilenko, V N

    2016-12-01

    We report a draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 belonging to Beijing B0/W lineage isolated from a HIV patient from Siberia, Russia. This clinical isolate showed MDR phenotype and resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide. We analyzed SNPs associated with virulence and resistance. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession NZ_LVJJ00000000.

  12. [Energy and mass exchange and the productivity of the main ecosystems of Siberia (from eddy covariance measurements). 1. Heat balance structure in the vegetation season].

    PubMed

    Chebakova, N M; Vygodskaia, N N; Arnet, A; Belelli Markezini, L; Kolle, O; Kurbatova, Iu A; Parfenova, E I; Valentini, R; Vaganov, E A; Shul'tse, E D

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of heat balance (turbulent heat transfer and evaporation heat consumption) by the method of turbulent pulsations in 1998-2000 and 2002-2004 were used to obtain information on the daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of energy fluxes and mass transfer between the atmosphere and the typical ecosystems of Siberia (middle-taiga pine forest and raised bog, true four-grass steppe, with the use of data for typical tundra) along the Yenisei meridian (90 degrees E).

  13. Origin of elemental carbon in snow from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during winter-spring 2014, 2015 and 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Espen Yttri, Karl; Eckhardt, Sabine; Sollum, Espen; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Kobelev, Vasily O.; Korobov, Vladimir B.; Lobanov, Andrey A.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Vorobiev, Sergey N.; Thompson, Rona L.; Stohl, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Short-lived climate forcers have been proven important both for the climate and human health. In particular, black carbon (BC) is an important climate forcer both as an aerosol and when deposited on snow and ice surface because of its strong light absorption. This paper presents measurements of elemental carbon (EC; a measurement-based definition of BC) in snow collected from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during 2014, 2015 and 2016. The Russian Arctic is of great interest to the scientific community due to the large uncertainty of emission sources there. We have determined the major contributing sources of BC in snow in western Siberia and northwestern European Russia using a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. For the first time, we use a recently developed feature that calculates deposition in backward (so-called retroplume) simulations allowing estimation of the specific locations of sources that contribute to the deposited mass. EC concentrations in snow from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia were highly variable depending on the sampling location. Modelled BC and measured EC were moderately correlated (R = 0.53-0.83) and a systematic region-specific model underestimation was found. The model underestimated observations by 42 % (RMSE = 49 ng g-1) in 2014, 48 % (RMSE = 37 ng g-1) in 2015 and 27 % (RMSE = 43 ng g-1) in 2016. For EC sampled in northwestern European Russia the underestimation by the model was smaller (fractional bias, FB > -100 %). In this region, the major sources were transportation activities and domestic combustion in Finland. When sampling shifted to western Siberia, the model underestimation was more significant (FB < -100 %). There, the sources included emissions from gas flaring as a major contributor to snow BC. The accuracy of the model calculations was also evaluated using two independent datasets of BC measurements in snow covering the entire Arctic. The model underestimated BC concentrations in

  14. A teleconnection study of interannual sea surface temperature fluctuations in the northern North Atlantic and precipitation and runoff over Western Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, S.; Mysak, L.A.

    The spatial distributions of northern North Atlantic sea surface temperature and the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure anomalies averaged over six consecutive warm SST winters (1951-1956) and six consecutive cold SST winters (1971-1976) are examined. Three SLP anomaly difference (i.e., warm - cold winters) centers, significant at the 5% level, are observed over the northern North Atlantic, Europe, and western Siberia. This anomaly pattern is consistent in principle with what was identified in a related analyses by Palmer and Sun, who used composite data from selected winter months. The SLP difference centers over the northern North Atlantic and westernmore » Siberia are in phase. The impact of the latter center upon the runoff from the underlying Ob and Yenisey rivers and especially the teleconnection between SST anomalies in the northern North Atlantic and runoff of those two rivers via the atmosphere are investigated. The temporal cross-correlation analyses of 50 years (1930-1979) of records of SST, precipitation, and runoff anomalies indicate that the winter SST anomalies in the northern North Atlantic are significantly correlated with the winter and following summer runoff fluctuations of the Ob and Yenisey rivers. Positive (negative) northern North Atlantic SST anomalies are related to less (more) precipitation, and hence, less (more) runoff, over western Siberia. Discussions of possible physical mechanisms and processes that lead to the above relationships are attempted. The analyses of spatial distributions of precipitation in the warm and cold SST winters suggest that precipitation fluctuations over Europe and western Siberia may be affected by shifts of cyclone tracks associated with the SST variations in the northern North Atlantic. 27 refs., 9 figs.« less

  15. Paleomagnetic data for Siberia and Baltica in the context of testing some geodynamic models of the formation of the Central Asian Mobile Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Dronov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis of the paleomagnetic data for the Siberian (Siberia) and East European (Baltica) platforms shows that since the Early Paleozoic they could have experienced coherent movements as a part of consolidated continental agglomeration (a composite continent), which also includes the Arctida continent. Based on the paleomagnetic data, the relative positions of the Siberia and Baltica during the Ordovician is reconstructed, and a series of paleogeographical reconstructions describing the drift of the composite continent is suggested. The results of the lithologic-facial analysis of the sedimentation settings within the Ordovician basins of the Siberian and East European platforms and paleoclimatic markers are consistent with the suggested configuration and paleogeographical position of the composite continent. The suggested reconstructions and the ages of detrital zircons from the Early Paleozoic complexes of the platform margins and some objects of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (CAMB) reasonably well agree with the hypothesis (Sengör et al., 1993) which interprets the formation of the structure of CAMB Paleozoides as a result of the evolution of the island arc stretching along the margins of Siberia and Baltica.

  16. Linking trace gas measurements and molecular tracers of organic matter in aerosols for identification of ecosystem sources and types of wildfires in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, A. V.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Korets, M. A.; Bryukhanov, A. V.; Myers-Pigg, A. N.; Louchouarn, P.; Sidenko, N. V.; Amon, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Heimann, M.

    2016-11-01

    Summer 2012 was one of the extreme wildfire years in Siberia. At the surface air monitoring station “ZOTTO” (60°48'N, 89°21'E, 114 m a.s.l.) in Central Siberia we observed biomass burning (BB) influence on the ongoing atmospheric measurements within more than 50 % of the time in June-July 2012 that indicates a 30 times greater wildfire signal compared to previously reported ordinary biomass burning signature for the study area. While previous studies thoroughly estimated a relative input of BB into aerosol composition (i.e. size distribution, physical and optical parameters etc.) at ZOTTO, in this paper we characterize the source apportionment of the smoke aerosols with molecular tracer techniques from large-scale wildfires occurred in 2012 in the two prevailing types of Central Siberian ecosystems: complexes of pine forests and bogs and dark coniferous forests. Wildfires in the selected ecosystems are highly differed by their combustion phase (flaming/smoldering), the type of fire (crown/ground), biomass fuel, and nature of soil that greatly determines the smoke particle composition. Anhydrosugars (levoglucosan and its isomers) and lignin phenols taken as indicators of the sources and the state of particulate matter (PM) inputs in the specific fire plumes were used as powerful tools to compare wildfires in different environmental conditions and follow the role and contribution of different sources of terrestrial organic matter in the transport of BB pollutants into the pristine atmosphere of boreal zone in Central Siberia.

  17. Colorectal cancer risk factors among the population of South-East Siberia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S; Kutikhin, Anton G; Azanov, Artur Z; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Magarill, Yuri A; Brusina, Elena B

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies considering colorectal cancer risk factors among Russian populations, particularly in Siberia. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of various lifestyle, dietary, family, and socioeconomical factors on colorectal cancer risk in South-East Siberia. We recruited 185 Russian colorectal cancer cases and 210 gender-, age-, and ethnicity-matched asymptomatic controls with no history of any malignant tumor, using a specially designed questionnaire to obtain relevant information. After the statistical analysis, we defined several significant factors affecting colorectal cancer risk. Among these were smoking (OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.4- 3.24, P=0.0004), being overweight (BMI between 25-30, OR=2.45, 95%CI=1.49-4.03, P=0.0004), alcohol drinking (OR=8.73, 95%CI=5.49-13.87, P<0.0001), beer drinking (OR=9.24, 95%CI=5.14-16.61, P<0.0001), consumption of hard liquor (OR=9.37, 95%CI=5.92-14.82, P<0.0001), excessive red meat consumption (P<0.0001), excessive intake of red meat products (P<0.0001), excessive intake of dairy products (P<0.0001), excessive sour cream and cheese consumption (P<0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively), spicy food consumption (OR=2.87, 95%CI=1.9-4.33, P<0.0001), family history of gastrointestinal malignant tumors (OR=3.99, 95%CI=2.09-7.59, P<0.0001), and income exceeding twice the subsistence minimum (OR=5.34, 95%CI=3.35-8.53, P<0.0001). Certain factors, such as high concentration of salt in the food and precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrated borderline significance (OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.68-7.1, P=0.0008, and OR=5.25, 95%CI=1.94-14.22, P=0.001, respectively). Some factors were established as protective, like consumption of rye bread and both rye and wheat bread (OR=0.32, 95%CI=0.21-0.5, P<0,0001, and OR=0.07, 95%CI=0.02-0.21, P<0.0001, respectively), and also low concentration of salt in the food, although this was of

  18. Paleoenvironmental dynamics of Western Beringia - New studies from the Yedoma key site Duvanny Yar (Lower Kolyma River, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Jens; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    Duvanny Yar is a stratigraphic key site for the late Quaternary in Western Beringia. It is characteristic for ice-rich permafrost sequences of the so-called Yedoma Suite in north-east Siberia (e.g. KAPLINA et al. 1978; SHER et al. 1979) and is an important reference site for the late Pleistocene history of Beringia (HOPKINS 1982). The aim of our study was to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental dynamics at the Duvanny Yar site during the late Quaternary using its terrestrial archive. A multidisciplinary approach using geocryological, geochronological, sedimentological, hydrochemical, isotope geochemical, and paleoecological methods was applied to obtain multiproxy records. Sediment samples were analysed for ice contents, grain size parameters, biogeochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, stable carbon isotopes), mineral density, mass specific magnetic susceptibility, and for radiocarbon age. Stable isotopes of water were measured for ground ice (ice wedges, segregated ice, and pore ice), modern surface waters and modern precipitation. Six profiles along the riverbank were sampled in August 2008. They contained Eemian lacustrine deposits, long sequences of Ice Complex deposits of the Late Pleistocene Yedoma, Holocene lacustrine and boggy deposits in thermokarst depressions. All profiles showed very bad sorted sediment of fine to coarse silt. A homogenous and polymodal grain size distribution for the ice rich (~30 to 60 wt %) Yedoma Suite revealed a polygenetic origin and disproves the pure "arctic loess" hypothesis for these deposits. Measurements of bulk density, ice content and total organic carbon content (TOC) enable for a relative TOC content in Ice Complex deposits at Duvanny Yar. The mean value of organic carbon at Duvanny Yar is 16 ± 11 kg/m^3. Geochronological results based on 11 new AMS ages revealed that the Yedoma Suite was continuously formed from the end of the Middle Weichselian (~ 40000 years BP) and at least until the Late

  19. The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa

  20. Haze over eastern China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-26

    On October 17, 2015, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of a thick haze hanging over eastern China. In the north, the large city of Beijing is completely obscured from view, as is much of the landscape. The haze thins slightly over the Bohai Sea. Further south, sediment pours into the East China Sea near the city of Shanghai. Heavy haze is common in this region, and tends to worsen in October through January, when cold, heavy air traps pollutants near the surface of the Earth. It is likely that this scene was caused by such a temperature inversion. Normally, air is warmest near the surface of the Earth. But sometimes a mass of warm air will move the cooler air, so the atmosphere actually warms with the altitude. Cool air does not have energy to rise through the warm air, vertical circulation slows and air becomes trapped near the surface. Any pollution that is emitted into the cooler air will also get trapped, increasing low-level air pollution and haze. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  1. Haze over eastern China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On October 17, 2015, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of a thick haze hanging over eastern China. In the north, the large city of Beijing is completely obscured from view, as is much of the landscape. The haze thins slightly over the Bohai Sea. Further south, sediment pours into the East China Sea near the city of Shanghai. Heavy haze is common in this region, and tends to worsen in October through January, when cold, heavy air traps pollutants near the surface of the Earth. It is likely that this scene was caused by such a temperature inversion. Normally, air is warmest near the surface of the Earth. But sometimes a mass of warm air will move the cooler air, so the atmosphere actually warms with the altitude. Cool air does not have energy to rise through the warm air, vertical circulation slows and air becomes trapped near the surface. Any pollution that is emitted into the cooler air will also get trapped, increasing low-level air pollution and haze. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Climatic changes during the early Medieval and recent periods inferred from δ13C and δ18O of Siberian larch trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorova, O. V.; Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf

    2010-12-01

    We report unique isotope datasets for δ13C and δ18O of wood and cellulose of larch trees (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) from Northeastern Yakutia [70°N-148°E] for the early Medieval (AD 900-1000) and recent (AD 1880-2004) periods. During the recent period June, July, and August air temperatures were positively correlated with δ13C and δ18O of wood and cellulose, while July precipitation was negatively correlated. The positive correlation with one of the warmest months (July) in Northeastern Yakutia could indicate high photosynthetic capacity, because warm and dry conditions cause stomatal closure and lower the isotopic fractionation, leading to less negative δ13C values. Because during July, the soil water is still frozen at a soil depth of 20-30 cm, the water accessibility for trees is limited, which can lead to drought situations. An increase in water availability allows for a higher stomatal conductance, resulting in lower δ13C values, leading to a negative relationship with summer precipitation. Furthermore, the vapor pressure deficit of July and August was significantly correlated with δ13C of wood and cellulose, indicating decreased stomatal conductance, an expression of moderate drought. This leads to reduced 13CO2 discrimination and less negative δ13C values. The simultaneous increase of δ18O also indicates a reduction in stomatal conductance under rather dry conditions or drought. Comparative analyses between mean isotope values for the AD 900-1000 and AD 1880-2004 periods indicate similar ranges of climatic conditions, with the exception of the period AD 1950-2004, which is characterized by increased summer drought. Whilst isotopic ratios in cellulose are reliably related to climatic variables, those in whole wood showed even stronger relationships during some periods. Strong positive correlations between δ18O of cellulose and Greenland ice-core data were detected for the beginning of the Medieval period (r=0.86; p<0.05), indicating the reliability

  3. Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    Robert Rabaglia; Daniel Twardus

    1990-01-01

    The eastern tent caterpillar is often mistaken for the gypsy moth. Though they are similar in appearance, they differ in habits. The fully grown eastern tent caterpillar is about 2 inches long, black with a white stripe along the middle of the back and a row of pale blue oval spots on each side. It is sparsely covered with fine light brown hairs. The gypsy moth...

  4. Trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in arctic and subarctic Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outten, S.; Miles, V.; Ezau, I.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the high Arctic have been reliably documented, with widespread "greening" (increase in NDVI), specifically along the northern rim of Eurasia and Alaska. Whereas in West Siberia south of 65N, widespread "browning" (decrease in NDVI) has been noted, although the causes remain largely unclear. In this study we report results of statistical analysis of the spatial and temporal changes in NDVI around 28 major urban areas in the arctic and subarctic Western Siberia. Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves has led to rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development has significant impact on the environment and particularly in the vegetation cover in and around the urbanized areas. The analysis is based on 15 years (2000-2014) of high-resolution (250 m) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data acquired for summer months (June through August) over the entire arctic and subarctic Western Siberian region. The analysis shows that the NDVI background trends are generally in agreement with the trends reported in previous coarse-resolution NDVI studies. Our study reveals greening over the arctic (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern (boreal taiga forest) part is browning, with the more densely vegetation areas or areas with highest NDVI, particularly along Ob River showing strong negative trend. The unexpected and interesting finding of the study is statistically robust indication of the accelerated increase of NDVI ("greening") in the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the decrease in the NDVI background. Moreover, interannual variations of urban NDVI are not coherent with the NDVI background variability. We also find that in tundra zones, NDVI values are higher in a 5-10 km buffer zone around the city edge than in rural areas (40 km distance from the city edge), and in taiga in a 5-10 km

  5. Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

    2010-05-01

    Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variability of CO2 and CH4 Concentrations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Alexander V.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of greenhouse gas behavior in the atmosphere plays a key role in predicting the global changes of Earth's climate. In this connection, of particular importance is the study of the distribution of sources/sinks of trace gases in the atmospheric surface layer over the different regions of the globe. In order to fill a gap in the data on greenhouse gas concentrations in Russia, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan) and Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS, Russia) established a network for GHG monitoring (JR-STATION, Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network). Gas analyzers and meteorological sensors were mounted at radio relay towers located in different regions of West Siberia. The checking equipment was placed in containers at the tower base. In the containers, the climatic parameters optimal for gas analyzer operation were maintained. The work on the network development started in 2001. Since at each of the sites the measurement duration could be different, in this paper we present the data of the greenhouse gas monitoring for eight sites which give the primary idea on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over West Siberia. The analysis of the data showed that the average increase in concentration of carbon dioxide by results of our measurements in this territory increases within 1.95 - 2.53 ppm/year, depending on the area. The analysis of long-term data testifies about existence of growth of concentration of methane within 3.2 - 7.2 ppb / year. The presence of a distributed network of the sites operating in the monitoring regime makes it possible not only to investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 at each site and to determine the spatial differences between the concentrations by comparing the data, but also to plot the distribution charts for different moments of time. This work was supported by the Global Environment Research

  7. Eastern Hudson Bay, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Each winter sea ice forms over the salty waters of frigid northeastern Canada's Hudson Bay. As sunlight lengthens and weather warms, ice begins to break up and melt, with retreat typically starting in May and melt-out completed sometime in July. Since the 1970s, the timing of sea ice breakup in Hudson Bay has changed, with melting beginning earlier in the spring. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this a true-color image of Hudson Bay on March 26, 2013. Although snow still covers the surrounding land, ice has already begun to retreat from much of the eastern shore of the Bay visible in the image. A ring of bright white ice remains solidly frozen around the Belcher Islands in the southeast section of the Bay, but this ring is surrounded by blue waters and large chunks of ice. In the southwest, a similar situation is seen at Akimiski Island. The shelf of bright white ice gives way to open water in the south, as well as fractured, blue-tinted ice. The blue tint generally indicates water logging as ice begins to soften. The Aqua satellite captured a similar image of early ice melt on Hudson Bay on April 6, 2012. That image can be viewed at: modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/individual.php?db_date=2012-0... NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Long-term forest resilience to climate change indicated by mortality, regeneration, and growth in semiarid southern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chongyang; Liu, Hongyan; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Korolyuk, Andrey Yu; Sandanov, Denis V; Balsanova, Larisa D; Naidanov, Bulat B; Wu, Xiuchen

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have documented that regional climate warming and the resulting increase in drought stress have triggered increased tree mortality in semiarid forests with unavoidable impacts on regional and global carbon sequestration. Although climate warming is projected to continue into the future, studies examining long-term resilience of semiarid forests against climate change are limited. In this study, long-term forest resilience was defined as the capacity of forest recruitment to compensate for losses from mortality. We observed an obvious change in long-term forest resilience along a local aridity gradient by reconstructing tree growth trend and disturbance history and investigating postdisturbance regeneration in semiarid forests in southern Siberia. In our study, with increased severity of local aridity, forests became vulnerable to drought stress, and regeneration first accelerated and then ceased. Radial growth of trees during 1900-2012 was also relatively stable on the moderately arid site. Furthermore, we found that smaller forest patches always have relatively weaker resilience under the same climatic conditions. Our results imply a relatively higher resilience in arid timberline forest patches than in continuous forests; however, further climate warming and increased drought could possibly cause the disappearance of small forest patches around the arid tree line. This study sheds light on climate change adaptation and provides insight into managing vulnerable semiarid forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dynamics of water mass in the Central Siberia permafrost zone based on gravity survey from the grace satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, S. T.; Kharuk, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE gravimetric survey is applied to analyze the equivalent water mass anomalies (EWMAs) in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia. Variations in EWMAs are related to precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and soil composition (drainage conditions). The EWMA dynamics demonstrates two periods. The period of 2003-2008 is characterized by a positive trend. The one of 2008-2012 shows a decrease in the trend with a simultaneous increase by 30-70% of EWMA dispersion in the background of growth (up to 40%) of precipitation variability. The rate of water mass increment demonstrates a positive correlation with the sand and gravel contents in soil ( r = 0.72) and a negative one with clay content ( r =-0.69 to-0.77). For Taimyr Peninsula, there is a deficit of residual water mass (~250 mm for the period of 2012-2013) indicating the deeper thawing of permafrost soils. In the Central Siberian Plateau, the indicator of more intensive permafrost thawing (and that of an increase in active layer thickness) is a considerable trend of water mass increase (2003-2008). The increasing trend of the largest Siberian rivers (Yenisei and Lena) is revealed in the period of 2003-2012.

  10. Vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration in the troposphere over Siberia derived from airborne in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Machida, Toshinobu; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyskin, Sergei; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosols particles is very important when estimating aerosol radiative effects. To date there are a lot of research programs aimed to study aerosol vertical distribution, but only a few ones exist in such insufficiently explored region as Siberia. Monthly research flights and several extensive airborne campaigns carried out in recent years in Siberian troposphere allowed the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration to be summarized. In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in a wide range of particle sizes by means of improved version of the Novosibirsk-type diffusional particle sizer and GRIMM aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109. The data on aerosol vertical distribution enabled input parameters for the empirical equation of Jaenicke (1993) to be derived for Siberian troposphere up to 7 km. Vertical distributions of aerosol number concentration in different size ranges averaged for the main seasons of the year will be presented. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00526). Jaenicke R. Tropospheric aerosols, in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, edited by P.V. Hobs. -Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.- P. 1-31.

  11. Uncertainty in solid precipitation and snow depth prediction for Siberia using the Noah and Noah-MP land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Zupanski, Milija

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the uncertainties associated with land surface processes in an ensemble predication context. Specifically, we compare the uncertainties produced by a coupled atmosphere-land modeling system with two different land surface models, the Noah- MP land surface model (LSM) and the Noah LSM, by using the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF) data assimilation system as a platform for ensemble prediction. We carried out 24-hour prediction simulations in Siberia with 32 ensemble members beginning at 00:00 UTC on 5 March 2013. We then compared the model prediction uncertainty of snow depth and solid precipitation with observation-based research products and evaluated the standard deviation of the ensemble spread. The prediction skill and ensemble spread exhibited high positive correlation for both LSMs, indicating a realistic uncertainty estimation. The inclusion of a multiple snowlayer model in the Noah-MP LSM was beneficial for reducing the uncertainties of snow depth and snow depth change compared to the Noah LSM, but the uncertainty in daily solid precipitation showed minimal difference between the two LSMs. The impact of LSM choice in reducing temperature uncertainty was limited to surface layers of the atmosphere. In summary, we found that the more sophisticated Noah-MP LSM reduces uncertainties associated with land surface processes compared to the Noah LSM. Thus, using prediction models with improved skill implies improved predictability and greater certainty of prediction.

  12. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The carbon-isotopic composition of Proterozoic carbonates: Riphean successions from northwestern Siberia (Anabar Massif, Turukhansk Uplift)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thick carbonate-dominated successions in northwestern Siberia document secular variations in the C-isotopic composition of seawater through Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic (Early to early Late Riphean) time. Mesoproterozoic dolomites of the Billyakh Group, Anabar Massif, have delta 13C values that fall between 0 and -1.9 permil versus PDB, with values in the upper part of the succession (Yusmastakh Formation) consistently higher than those of the lower (Ust'-Il'ya and Kotuikan formations). Consistent with available biostratigraphic and radiometric data, delta 13C values for Billyakh carbonates compare closely with those characterizing early Mesoproterozoic carbonates (about 1600-1200 Ma) worldwide. In contrast, late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic limestones and dolomites in the Turukhansk Uplift exhibit moderate levels of secular variation. Only the lowermost carbonates in the Turukhansk succession (Linok Formation) have delta 13C values that approximate Billyakh values. Higher in the Turukhansk succession, delta 13C values vary from -2.7 to +4.6 permil (with outliers as low as -5.0 permil interpreted as diagentically altered). Again, consistent with paleontological and radiometric data, these values compare well with isotopic values from 1200 to 850 Ma successions elsewhere. Five sections measured in different parts of the Turukhansk basin show nearly identical patterns of variation, confirming that carbonate delta 13C correlates primarily with time and not facies. The Siberian sections illustrate the potential of integrated biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data in the intra- and interbasinal correlation of Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks.

  14. Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in the waterlogged forests of south and middle taiga of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolev, M. V.; Ilyasov, D. V.; Terentieva, I. E.; Sabrekov, A. F.; Mochenov, S. Yu; Maksutov, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    Field measurements of methane and carbon dioxide flux were carried out using portable static chambers in south (ST) and middle taiga subzones (MT) of Western Siberia (WS) from 16 to 24 August 2015. Two sites were investigated: Bakchar bog in the Tomsk region (in typical ecosystems for this area: oligotrophic bog/forest border and waterlogged forest) and Shapsha in Khanty-Mansiysk region (in waterlogged forest). The highest values of methane fluxes (mgC·m-2·h-1) were obtained in burnt wet birch forest (median 6.96; first quartile 3.12; third quartile 8.95). The lowest values of methane fluxes (among the sites mentioned above) were obtained in seasonally waterlogged forests (median -0.08; first and third quartiles are -0.14 and -0.03 mgC·m-2·h-1 respectively). These data will help to estimate the regional methane flux from the waterlogged and periodically flooded forests and to improve its prediction.

  15. Features of seasonal temperature variations in peat soils of oligotrophic bogs in south taiga of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. V.; Dyukarev, E. A.; Voropay, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    The work presents the results of the study of the peculiarities of the temperature regime in the five basic ecosystems of oligotrophic bogs in the south taiga zone of Western Siberia in 2011-2016. The soil temperature regime was studied using the atmospheric-soil measuring complex at different depths from surface down to 240 cm. All sites were divided into two groups according to the bog water level: flooded sites (hollow and open fen) and drained sites (ridge, tall and low ryam). The waterlogged sites are better warmed in the summer period and slowly freeze in the winter period. The analysis of the annual cycle of temperature showed that the maximum surface temperature is in July. The minimum temperature on the surface is observed in February or January. The greatest temperature gradient was recorded in the upper 2 cm layer. The gradient at the open fen was -2 °C/cm in February and 1.1 °C/cm in October. The peak of formation of the seasonally frozen layer occurs at the end of autumn or in the beginning of winter. The degradation of the seasonally frozen layer was observed both from top and bottom, but the degradation rate from the top is faster.

  16. Stable isotope and gas properties of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boereboom, T.; Samyn, D.; Meyer, H.; Tison, J.-L.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents and discusses the texture, fabric and gas properties (contents of total gas, O2, N2, CO2, and CH4) of two ice wedges from Cape Mamontov Klyk, Laptev Sea, Northern Siberia. The two ice wedges display contrasting structures: one being of relatively "clean" ice and the other showing clean ice at its centre as well as debris-rich ice on its sides (referred to as ice-sand wedge). A comparison of gas properties, crystal size, fabrics and stable isotope data (δ18O and δD) allows discriminating between three different facies of ice with specific paleoenvironmental signatures, suggesting different climatic conditions and rates of biological activity. More specifically, total gas content and composition reveal variable intensities of meltwater infiltration and show the impact of biological processes with contrasting contributions from anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Stable isotope data are shown to be valid for discussing changes in paleoenvironmental conditions and/or decipher different sources for the snow feeding into the ice wedges with time. Our data also give support to the previous assumption that the composite ice wedge was formed in Pleistocene and the ice wedge in Holocene times. This study sheds more light on the conditions of ice wedge growth under changing environmental conditions.

  17. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicatesmore » no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.« less

  18. Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, maturemore » source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.« less

  19. Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, maturemore » source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in [open quotes]snapshots[close quotes] by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.« less

  20. Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid drug carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Averina, E S; Müller, R H; Popov, D V; Radnaeva, L D

    2011-05-01

    At the turn of the millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles for pharmacology was developed, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The features of NLC structure which allow the inclusion of natural biologically active lipids in the NLC matrix open a wide prospect for the creation of high performance drug carriers. In this study NLC formulations were developed based on natural lipids from the Siberia region (Russia): fish oil from Lake Baikal fish; polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions and monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid fractions from fish oil and Siberian pine seed oil. Formulation parameters of NLC such as as type of surfactant and storage conditions were evaluated. The data obtained indicated high physical stability of NLC formulated on the basis of pure fish oil stabilized by Tween 80 and NLC formulated on the basis of free fatty acids stabilized by Poloxamer 188. The good chemical stability of the lipid matrix and the high concentrations of the biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the NLC developed open wide prospects for their use in pharmaceutics and cosmetics.

  1. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  2. Comparative genomics of Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains isolated at epidemic complications in Siberia and at the Far East.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Liliya V; Gladkikh, Anna S; Ponomareva, Anna S; Feranchuk, Sergey I; Bochalgin, Nikita О; Basov, Evgenii A; Yu Khunkheeva, Zhanna; Balakhonov, Sergey V

    2018-06-01

    The territory of Siberia and the Far East of Russia is classified as epidemically safe for cholera; however, in the 1970s and 1990s a number of infection importation cases and acute outbreaks associated with the cholera importation were reported. Here, we analyze genomes of four Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains isolated from humans during epidemic complications (imported cases, an outbreak) in the 1990s. The analyzed strains harbor the classical allele of the cholera toxin subunit B gene (ctxB1); thus, belong to genetically altered variants of the El Tor biotype. Analysis of the genomes revealed their high homology with the V. cholerae N16961 reference strain: 85-93 SNPs were identified in the core genome as compared to the reference. The determined features of SNPs in the CTX prophage made it possible to propose the presence of a new subtype - CTX-2a in two strains; the other two strains carried the prophage of CTX-3 type. Results of phylogenetic analysis based on SNP-typing demonstrated that two strains belonged to the second wave, and two - to the early third wave of cholera dissemination in the world. Phylogenetic reconstruction in combination with epidemiological data permitted to trace the origin of the strains and the way of their importation to the Russian Federation directly or through temporary cholera foci. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution