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Sample records for eastern canada comparison

  1. Comparison of toxaphene congeners levels in five seal species from eastern Canada: what is the importance of biological factors?

    PubMed

    Gouteux, Bruno; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike O; Muir, Derek C G; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-15

    Environmentally relevant chlorobornanes (CHBs) were measured in blubber samples of harbor (Phoca vitulina), gray (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica), and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled in different part of the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem (SLME) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in the eastern Canadian Arctic waters. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of six CHBs (Parlar-26, -40/-41, -44, -50, and -62) among the five seal species. Seal species could be separated into three groups based on their respective sigmaCHB mean concentrations (+/-standard error): gray (49+/-3.9 ng/g lipid weight) and harbor (80+/-20 ng/g lipid weight) seals were more contaminated than ringed seals (18+/-7.6 ng/g lipid weight) but less contaminated than harp (370+/-87 ng/g lipid weight) and hooded (680+/-310 ng/g lipid weight) seals. These differences are not expected to be related to different sources of toxaphene contamination, since both the SLME and the eastern Canadian Arctic environments are thought to be mainly contaminated via atmospheric transportfrom the southeastern part of the United States. Thus, biological factors such as sex, age, nutritive condition, metabolism capacity, and diet of the animals collected were considered. Results reported in this study indicated that the diet is likely the main factor accounting for interspecies variations in toxaphene contamination in seals from eastern Canada.

  2. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  3. Comparison of earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) Fjords: Implications for paleoseismicity and sedimentology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Viel, Matias; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Winiarski, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro J. M.; Ghaleb, Bassam; Jaouen, Alain; Locat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles along with physical and sedimentological properties of sediment cores from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chile) Fjords allowed the identification of several decimeter to meter-thick turbidites. In both fjords, the turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M > 7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M ~ 8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In the Saguenay Fjord, the earthquake-triggered turbidites are sometimes underlying a hyperpycnite associated with the rapid breaching and draining of a natural dam formed by earthquake-triggered landslides. Similar hyperpycnal floods were also recorded in historical and continental geological archives for the 1960 and 1575 AD Chilean subduction earthquakes, highlighting the risk of such flood events several weeks or months after main earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, this paper also emphasizes the sensitivity of fjords to record historic and pre-historic seismicity.

  4. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  5. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because of the varying internal structures and material strengths that dissipate stress differently. However, because analysis of the actual earthquake fault system remains incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in sampling the solid Earth (Richter, 1958; Kanamori, 1981; Geller et al., 1997), much of the recent research in statistical seismology has centered on investigating the variety of spatial and temporal patterns that exist in local and regional data. In particular, in recent years a combination of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and seismicity data analysis has established the link between variations in seismicity rates and the dynamics of the underlying stress field (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Rundle et al., 2002; Tiampo et al., 2002, 2006; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005). However, this research has predominantly focused on tectonically-active regions with a relatively high rate of background seismicity. Here we present new work that quantifies seismicity rate changes in the intraplate region of eastern Canada in order to identify spatial and temporal variations in local and regional stress (Tiampo et al, 2002, 2006). Although stable eastern North America generally has much lower seismicity than plate boundary regions, there are areas of substantial seismicity and earthquake hazard. The bulk of the eastern Canadian seismicity is concentrated in both the lower Saint Lawrence seismic zone, downriver from Québec City and the Charlevoix seismic zone to the west of Québec City. Although Mazzotti and Adams (2005) estimate that seismic strain rates in most of eastern Canada are about 10-13 to 10-11/yr, exceptions to these low strain rates can be found in these regions of higher seismic activation. These seismically active zones generally are associated with large lithospheric-scale paleotectonic geologic features and this strong

  6. WRF Simulations of the 20-22 January 2007 Snow Events over Eastern Canada: Comparison with In-Situ and Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Matsui, T.; Cifelli, R.; Huo, A.; Lang, S.; Tokay, A.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Jackson, G.; Rutledge, S.; Petersen, W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to improve cold season precipitation measurements in middle and high latitudes through the use of high-frequency passive microwave radiometry. For this, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard microphysics scheme is coupled with a satellite data simulation unit (WRF-SDSU) that has been developed to facilitate over-land snowfall retrieval algorithms by providing a virtual cloud library and microwave brightness temperature (Tb) measurements consistent with the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). This study tested the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme in WRF for two snowstorm events, a lake effect and a synoptic event, that occurred between 20 and 22 January 2007 over the Canadian CloudSAT/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) site in Ontario, Canada. The 24h-accumulated snowfall predicted by the WRF model with the Goddard microphysics was comparable to the observed accumulated snowfall by the ground-based radar for both events. The model correctly predicted the onset and ending of both snow events at the CARE site. WRF simulations capture the basic cloud properties as seen by the ground-based radar and satellite (i.e., CloudSAT, AMSU-B) observations as well as the observed cloud streak organization in the lake event. This latter result reveals that WRF was able to capture the cloud macro-structure reasonably well.

  7. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for a Site in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Vikram; Arcos, Maria E. M.; Alcinov, Trajce; Lavine, Alexis; Youngs, Robert; Roussel, Patrick; Mullin, Derek

    2016-12-01

    Unlike probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), there is not a well-established methodology for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). The PTHA methodology presented is similar to the widely used PSHA methodology for ground motion, and incorporates both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in calculating the probability of exceeding runup and drawdown values produced by tsunamigenic sources. Evaluating tsunami hazard is more difficult in locations such as the eastern coastline of Canada because of low tsunami recurrence rates and few historical examples. In this study, we evaluated the hazard from local and far-field earthquake and landslide tsunamigenic sources at a site on the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick, Canada. These sources included local faults, the Puerto Rico subduction zone, fault sources in the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary region, and landslides on the Canadian continental slope and in the Canary Islands. Using a new PTHA methodology that is closely linked to well-established PSHA methodology combined with tide stage probability, we calculated that the return period for a wave runup exceeding the tidal range of +4 m level above mean sea level (highest astronomical tide) is approximately 14,500 years.

  8. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices.

  9. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged <1 year. Data were collected through four focus groups conducted in Arabic/Farsi, and were further complemented by comprehensive survey data collected in the second phase of study. Mothers' main criterion for choosing infant foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations.

  10. Seismicity and seismotectonics in eastern Canada and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shutian

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the fundamental nature of seismicity and seismotectonics in eastern Canada and vicinity. The findings have some instructive roles in seismological research and seismic hazard assessments. The first part is focused on developments and refinements to methodologies required for analysis of seismic phenomena. The second part is devoted to case histories, in which these methods are applied with the goal of developing greater insight into the nature of intraplate seismicity. Chapter Two describes a hybrid method for precise determination of earthquake hypocenters. The method partitions the inversion process by separating the inversion into distinct steps. The benefits of splitting the problem up stem from inherent tradeoffs between the focal depth, epicentral location and the origin time in the inversion process. Examples show that the approach yields more accurate solutions than those obtained using the original hypoDD analysis procedure. In Chapter Three a new moment-tensor inversion method is described and tested. The method is tailored for small earthquakes. It is interactive and uses adjustable, independently weighted time windows to isolate crustal phases. The technique is applied to a number of small earthquakes and also verified using a synthetic event. In Chapter Four, the developed techniques are applied to investigate seismicity of the WQSZ in western Quebec. Seismicity in this zone is mainly localized along a hotspot track. A statistical approach is used to delineate spatial clusters of seismicity. The locations of several clusters are consistent with paleoseismic evidence for large prehistoric earthquakes, suggesting these clusters may be exceptionally long-lived aftershock sequences from prehistoric earthquakes. Chapter Five provides an analysis of seismicity and seismotectonics in northern Ontario. Four distinct types of seismic activity are noted. No obvious correlation was found between the seismicity on the Severn

  11. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  12. Financing Aboriginal Government: The Case of Canada's Eastern Arctic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1992-01-01

    Describes financial strategies that promote financial autonomy of Native governments. Discusses the creation of trust funds with cash settlements of land claims, continued program funding by the federal government, and financial training for Native peoples in relation to the Nunavut agreement, which created an autonomous Inuit territory in Canada.…

  13. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  14. Insect-induced tree mortality of boreal forests in eastern Canada under a changing climate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiongqing; Lei, Yuancai; Ma, Zhihai; Kneeshaw, Dan; Peng, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    Forest insects are major disturbances that induce tree mortality in eastern coniferous (or fir-spruce) forests in eastern North America. The spruce budworm (SBW) (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clemens]) is the most devastating insect causing tree mortality. However, the relative importance of insect-caused mortality versus tree mortality caused by other agents and how this relationship will change with climate change is not known. Based on permanent sample plots across eastern Canada, we combined a logistic model with a negative model to estimate tree mortality. The results showed that tree mortality increased mainly due to forest insects. The mean difference in annual tree mortality between plots disturbed by insects and those without insect disturbance was 0.0680 per year (P < 0.0001, T-test), and the carbon sink loss was about 2.87t C ha−1 year−1 larger than in natural forests. We also found that annual tree mortality increased significantly with the annual climate moisture index (CMI) and decreased significantly with annual minimum temperature (Tmin), annual mean temperature (Tmean) and the number of degree days below 0°C (DD0), which was inconsistent with previous studies (Adams et al. 2009; van Mantgem et al. 2009; Allen et al. 2010). Furthermore, the results for the trends in the magnitude of forest insect outbreaks were consistent with those of climate factors for annual tree mortality. Our results demonstrate that forest insects are the dominant cause of the tree mortality in eastern Canada but that tree mortality induced by insect outbreaks will decrease in eastern Canada under warming climate. PMID:25360275

  15. Variability and origin of seismic anisotropy across eastern Canada: Evidence from shear wave splitting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Forte, A. M.; Hobbs, T. E.; Calvel, A.; Gonzalez-Monteza, A.; Schow, B.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy in continental regions are frequently interpreted with respect to past tectonic processes, preserved in the lithosphere as "fossil" fabrics. Models of the present-day sublithospheric flow (often using absolute plate motion as a proxy) are also used to explain the observations. Discriminating between these different sources of seismic anisotropy is particularly challenging beneath shields, whose thick (≥200 km) lithospheric roots may record a protracted history of deformation and strongly influence underlying mantle flow. Eastern Canada, where the geological record spans ˜3 Ga of Earth history, is an ideal region to address this issue. We use shear wave splitting measurements of core phases such as SKS to define upper mantle anisotropy using the orientation of the fast-polarization direction ϕ and delay time δt between fast and slow shear wave arrivals. Comparison with structural trends in surface geology and aeromagnetic data helps to determine the contribution of fossil lithospheric fabrics to the anisotropy. We also assess the influence of sublithospheric mantle flow via flow directions derived from global geodynamic models. Fast-polarization orientations are generally ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW across the region, but significant lateral variability in splitting parameters on a ≤100 km scale implies a lithospheric contribution to the results. Correlations with structural geologic and magnetic trends are not ubiquitous, however, nor are correlations with geodynamically predicted mantle flow directions. We therefore consider that the splitting parameters likely record a combination of the present-day mantle flow and older lithospheric fabrics. Consideration of both sources of anisotropy is critical in shield regions when interpreting splitting observations.

  16. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  17. Federal-provincial agreements for the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program: Annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report on the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program compares the previous year`s emissions of sulphur dioxide in the 7 easternmost provinces to the emission targets in the program. The objective is to cap sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions until the year 2000. Coupled with the US Acid Rain Program it is intended to protect sensitive ecosystems from acid deposition. This report discusses emissions for the latest year, concerns, and steps to be taken. Statistical tables give emissions by province and industry, with information for some major air pollution sources in mineral extraction or electric power generation.

  18. Fire regime zonation under current and future climate over eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Yan; Gauthier, Sylvie; Gray, David R; Le Goff, Héloïse; Lefort, Patrick; Morissette, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Fire is a major disturbance in Canadian forests. Along with fuel and ignition characteristics, climatic conditions are seen as one of the main drivers of fire regimes. Projected changes in climate are expected to significantly influence fire regimes in Canada. As fire regime greatly shapes large-scale patterns in biodiversity, carbon, and vegetation, as well as forest and fire management strategies, it becomes necessary to define regions where current and future fire regimes are homogeneous. Random Forests (RF) modeling was used to relate fire regime attributes prevailing between 1961 and 1990 in eastern Canada with climatic/fire-weather and environmental variables. Using climatic normals outputs from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), we delineated current (1961-1990) and future (2011-2040, 2040-2070, 2071 2100) homogeneous fire regime (HFR) zones. Heterogeneous response of fire regime to climate changes is projected for eastern Canada with some areas (e.g., western Quebec) experiencing very small alterations while others (e.g., southeastern Ontario) are facing great shifts. Overall, models predicted a 2.2- and 2.4-fold increase in the number of fires and the annual area burned respectively mostly as a result of an increase in extreme fire-weather normals and mean drought code. As extreme fire danger would occur later in the fire season on average, the fire season would shift slightly later (5-20 days) in the summer for much of the study area while remaining relatively stable elsewhere. Although fire regime values would change significantly over time, most zone boundaries would remain relatively stable. The information resulting from HFR zonations is clearly of interest for forest and fire management agencies as it reveals zones with peculiar fire regimes that would have been hidden otherwise using predefined administrative or ecological stratifications.

  19. Soil nitrous oxide emissions after deposition of dairy cow excreta in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Ziadi, Noura; Angers, Denis A; Bélanger, Gilles; Charbonneau, Édith; Pellerin, Doris; Liang, Chang; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-05-01

    Urine and dung deposited by grazing dairy cows are a major source of nitrous oxide (NO), a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. In this study, we quantified the emissions of NO after deposition of dairy cow excreta onto two grassland sites with contrasting soil types in eastern Canada. Our objectives were to determine the impact of excreta type, urine-N rate, time of the year, and soil type on annual NO emissions. Emissions were monitored on sandy loam and clay soils after spring, summer, and fall urine (5 and 10 g N patch) and dung (1.75 kg fresh weight dung) applications to perennial grasses in two successive years. The mean NO emission factor (EF) for urine was 1.09% of applied N in the clay soil and 0.31% in the sandy loam soil, estimates much smaller than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default value for total excreta N (2%). Despite variations in urine composition and in climatic conditions, these soil-specific EFs were similar for the two urine-N application rates. The time of the year when urine was applied had no impact on emissions from the sandy loam soil, but greater EFs were observed after summer (1.59%) than spring (1.14%) and fall (0.55%) applications in the clay soil. Dung deposition impact on NO emission was smaller than that of urine, with a mean EF of 0.15% in the sandy loam soil and 0.08% in the clay soil. Our results suggest (i) that the IPCC default EF overestimates NO emissions from grazing cattle excreta in eastern Canada by a factor of 4.3 and (ii) that a region-specific inventory methodology should account for soil type and should use specific EFs for urine and dung.

  20. Freezing Rain Diagnostic Study Over Eastern Canada Using the 5th Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, É.; Paquin, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; de Elía, R.

    2015-12-01

    Northeastern North America is often affected by freezing rain events during the cold season. They can have significant consequences (from road accidents, to severe power outages) despite their intensity and duration. The 1998 Ice Storm over Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States is an example of an extreme event with catastrophic consequences. A total of up to 150 mm of ice accumulated during 10 days were observed in some areas. This natural disaster has highlighted the need to better understand how such phenomena will evolve with future climate scenario. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of using regional climate modeling to diagnose the occurrence of freezing rain events over Quebec (Canada). To address this issue, we used the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), from 1979 to 2014. An empirical method (Bourgouin, 2000) developed to determine the type of winter precipitations was chosen to diagnose freezing rain events. The study focused in the Montreal area and the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec, Canada). The sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution was explored by using three resolutions: 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11°. In general, freezing rain was diagnosed consistently at all resolutions but the higher one (0.11°) produced more realistic results due to a better representation of the orography. Using the higher resolution, the results showed that the climatology of the freezing rain occurrence in the Montreal area is comparable to available observations. It also suggested that the role of the specific orography of the region with the St. Lawrence River Valley can impact the characteristics of freezing rain events in this area. Overall, this study will contribute to a better preparedness for such events in the future. High resolution regional climate simulations are essential to improve the reproduction of local scale orographically-forced phenomena.

  1. Salinity variability along the eastern continental shelf of Canada and the United States, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisagni, James J.

    2016-09-01

    Continental shelf waters located off the east coast of Canada and the United States are part of a long shelf current system that is partly comprised of colder, less-saline waters originating from high latitudes, including waters from the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre, along with ice-melt and freshwater input from local rivers. A 41-year analysis (1973-2013) of near-surface salinity (NSS) using three hydrographic datasets (Bedford Institute of Oceanography "Climate", NOAA/ESDIM, and Canadian Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)) allowed an examination of NSS variability within 11 continental shelf sub-regions, extending from the southern Newfoundland Shelf of eastern Canada to the DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf of the United States. Although the periods of record containing sufficient data vary between sub-regions, regional mean NSS values are lowest within the Gulf of St. Lawrence and highest on the DelMarVa/Hatteras shelf, with largest annual variability within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After removal of outliers, long-term linear trends computed from annual mean NSS were detected along the Newfoundland Shelf (+0.011 y-1), Western Scotian Shelf (-0.007 y-1), Gulf of Maine (-0.014 y-1), Georges Bank (-0.011 y-1), and DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf (+0.024 y-1). A long-term quadratic fit to annual mean NSS from the Eastern Scotian Shelf displays a salinity increase through 1992 of +0.026 y-1, decreasing thereafter until 2013 by -0.028 y-1. A quadratic fit for the Western Grand Banks displays a NSS increase through 2007 of +0.022 y-1, decreasing thereafter through 2013 by -0.006 y-1. Annual mean NSS from the Eastern Grand Banks, Tail of the Grand Banks, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Middle Atlantic Bight display no long-term trends. Inter-annual variability (IAV) of NSS residuals shows similar small mean squared error (mse) of 0.02-0.04 for the four northern-most sub-regions (Newfoundland Shelf, Eastern, Tail and Western Grand Banks) and are correlated at 0-year lag. IAV of NSS

  2. Description of a Quality Assurance Process for a Surface Wind Database in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro, J.; Beltrami, H.; García-Bustamante, E.; Hidalgo; Jiménez, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Meteorological data of good quality are important for understanding both global and regional climates. The data are subject to different types of measurement errors that can be roughly classified into three groups: random, systematic and rough errors. Random errors are unavoidable and inherent to the very nature of the measurements as instrumental responses to real physical phenomena, as they are an approximate representation of the reality. Systematic errors are produced by instrumental scale shifts and drifts or by some more or less persistent factors that are not taken into account (changes in the sensor, recalibrations or location displacements). Rough errors are associated with sensor malfunction or mismanagement arising during data processing, transmission, reception or storage. It is essential to develop procedures that allow to identify, and correct if possible, the errors in observed series, in order to improve the quality of the data sets and reach solid conclusions in the studies. This work summarizes the evaluation made to date of the quality assurance process of wind speed and direction data acquired over a wide area in Eastern Canada (including the provinces of Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador), a region of the adjacent maritime areas and a region of the north-eastern U.S. (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont). The data set consists of 527 stations, it spans the period 1940-2009 and has been compiled from three different sources: a set of 344 land sites obtained from Environment Canada (1940-2009), a subset of 40 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes (1988-2008) provided by Fisheries and Oceans, and a subset of 143 land sites combining both eastern Canada and north-eastern U.S. provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (1975-2007). The data have been compiled and subsequently a set of quality assurance techniques have been applied to

  3. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  4. The Effects of Climate and Fire on Peatland Carbon Dynamics in Central and Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, D.; Adams, C.; Westervelt, A.; Bourakovsky, A.; Hamley, C.; Hall, A.; Camill, P.; Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in subarctic peatlands could change significantly in response to high-latitude warming. To examine the sensitivity of peatland carbon storage to changes in regional climate, moisture, and disturbance, we measured carbon accumulation and peat characteristics in cores through the transition from the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, ~6-4 ka cal. yr. BP) to the Neoglacial cooling (NGC, ~4-0 ka) as possible analogs to future climate change. We sampled six cores from northern Manitoba and seven cores across southeast Labrador, Canada. These regional contrasts permitted analysis of net moisture regimes on carbon accumulation. We used calibrated 14C dates, percent carbon, and bulk density measurements to determine long-term carbon accumulation rates for the Holocene. Areal charcoal concentrations were measured as a proxy for historic fire severity, which may mediate the climate-carbon accumulation relationship. Carbon accumulation rates in Labrador showed a clear increase of 29.6 ± 2.4 g C m-2 yr-1 during the local HTM and a subsequent decrease of 15.9 ± 2.9 g C m-2 yr-1 during the NGC indicating possible influence of regional temperature on carbon dynamics in eastern Canada. In contrast, the Manitoba peatlands did not show a clear relationship between climate and carbon accumulation. Fires were common and severe in Manitoba and often slowed sedimentation rate and C storage, but were rarely present in Labrador. Local variables, including peatland development and fire, may therefore play a larger role in controlling carbon accumulation in the continental interior. The results from these two subaratic regions complicate general hypotheses that high latitude peatlands will be either carbon sinks or sources in the upcoming decades.

  5. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  6. Strawberry vein banding virus isolates in eastern Canada are molecularly divergent from other isolates.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia; MacKenzie, Tyler D B; Singh, Mathuresh; Lawrence, Janice; Nie, Xianzhou

    2017-02-11

    The complete sequence of a strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) isolate collected in Nova Scotia, Canada, and designated NS8, was determined. The 7,856-nucleotide circular double-stranded DNA genome contains seven open-reading frames (ORFs), which is consistent with other SVBV isolates and other members of the genus Caulimovirus. Comparison of NS8 with other whole-genome sequences retrieved from databases revealed that NS8 shares the highest sequence similarity (96.5% identity) with isolate China (accession number HE681085) and the lowest (88.3% identity) with clone pSVBV-E3 (accession number X97304). Despite the overall high sequence similarity between NS8 and China, the coat protein encoding ORF IV of NS8 shares only 90.9% sequence identity with the China isolate. Phylogenetic analysis at the complete-genome level placed NS8 and all Chinese isolates in one clade and clone pSVBV-E3 in a separate clade. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of all available ORF IV sequences, including those retrieved from databases and newly sequenced samples in this study from Canada, revealed three distinct clades. All Canadian isolates grouped together as one clade, pSVBV-E3 and several others from Europe, Egypt and the USA grouped as a second clade, and isolates from China formed a third clade. These results demonstrate that SVBV is more divergent than previously reported.

  7. Quantitative constraints on the lithospheric mantle discontinuity structure in eastern Canada from joint analysis of receiver function and surface wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, I. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous work has suggested that the Archean craton of central and eastern Canada contains a number of relict slabs, frozen in and radiating out from the center. This observation has been used to suggest that the craton's existence is due to the formation and dying out of ancient (~2 Ga) subduction zones at the craton edges in progressive Wilson cycles, leaving a chemically depleted and buoyant slab after each stage. Miller & Eaton (2010) used teleseismic S receiver functions to image a deep (200-260 km) sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and a number of negative polarity shallower, mid-lithospheric discontinuities. However, noise in the data and insufficient sampling from only 8 seismic stations meant that the discontinuities could only be interpreted using comparisons with results based on surface wave and heat flow analyses. To better understand the discontinuity structure across central and eastern Canada, we utilise data from a combination of 32 permanent and temporary broadband stations including those from the HuBLE experiment. From this extended dataset we attempt to constrain evidence for the observed discontinuities more quantitatively by combining both P and S receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocity data in Monte Carlo based joint inversions for shear wave velocity structure. The crustal thickness and velocity is initially constrained by results from active source experiments and stacking of receiver functions. Our Monte Carlo approach allows us to investigate uncertainty in the Vp, density and attenuation parameters on the inferred Vs result and discontinuities, allowing for better constraints on recently reported internal structure of continental lithosphere in both Canada and other cratonic regions.

  8. Recent turbidity current activity in sediment-starved submarine canyons (Northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bourgault, Daniel; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are known to be main conduits for the transport of sediments to deep-sea basins, mostly by turbidity currents. Turbidity currents flowing in submarine canyons are mostly triggered by hyperpycnal flows, small to large slope failures and advection of shelf sediment offshore. In these contexts, sediment supply is necessary to maintain canyon activity over time. In 2007, a high-resolution mapping of small-scale submarine canyons offshore Pointe-des-Monts (NW Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada) revealed a series of incisions characterized by the presence of numerous confined crescentic bedforms. The repeat mapping of the canyons in 2012 and 2015 revealed that the bedforms migrated upslope, indicating that they are cyclic steps produced by supercritical flows. Surprisingly, the comparison of multibeam surveys did not show any evidence of slope failures that could have triggered the turbidity currents responsible for recent bedform migration. Additionally, the rocky shores and coastal shelf do not supply sediments to these canyons, thus excluding turbidity current triggers such as advection of shelf sediments or hyperpycnal flows. In this context, we suggest that hydrodynamic processes are responsible for suspending in-situ sediments, which then may flow as turbidity currents when density of the water-sediment mixture is high enough. ADCPs deployed for 3,5 months during the summer of 2015 revealed along-canyon currents following tidal cycles with speeds up to 0.4 m/s, which were not strong enough to produce bedform migration. Therefore, the currents responsible for bedforms occur during infrequent events or during winter conditions, which both require longer instrument time-series to be observed.

  9. Devonian-Carboniferous tectonics and basin deformation in the Cabot Strait Area, eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, G.S.; Hall, J.

    1994-11-01

    The Magdalen Basin, in the Cabot Strait-Bay St. George area, was a major depocenter for Devonian-Carboniferous sediments in eastern Canada. Structure within the basin is complex and is characterized by northeast- and east-trending, mainly dextral strike-slip faults associated with the bend in the Appalachian orogenic belt known as the St. Lawrence Promontory. Under the Cabot Strait two linear grabens parallel the major fault trends and preserve up to 6 km of Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, comprising mainly coarse-grained terrigenous clastics with a Lower Carboniferous transgressive episode recorded by marine carbonates, evaporites, and fine-grained clastics. Several unconformities within the sedimentary succession record deformation associated with movement along the regional strike-slip faults. Minor local unconformities are interpreted within the upper Horton (early Visean), upper Barachois (late Westphalian), and post-Pennsylvanian successions. A major unconformity cuts out most of the Namurian and Westphalian section in the study area and can be correlated on a regional scale. Kinematic strain partitioning along the master Cabot fault led to the development of doubly vergent compressional structures within a wrench borderland. This was complicated by transpressive deformation at a restraining bend in the master fault, and by deformation associated with over-stepped ends of splays of the regional fault system. The Magdalen Basin probably formed in an early phase of post-Acadian extension, and was later reactivated by regional strike-slip faults. The presence of thick source and reservoir rocks, as well as diverse trapping possibilities and a favorable burial and maturation history, indicate that the Cabot Strait area has good potential for accumulating and preserving petroleum.

  10. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  11. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  12. The ice storm in eastern Canada 1998 KAMEDO-Report No. 74.

    PubMed

    Riddex, L; Dellgar, U

    2001-01-01

    This is a report of the impact of the ice storm that struck eastern Canada on 04-09 January 1998. The storm deposited ice some 100 mm thick on the ground and on the electric power lines and eventually left 1.4 million households and much of the infrastructure without electrical power. Data were obtained through non-structured interviews of those involved. Most of the larger hospitals were equipped with emergency generating equipment and were able to provide most essential services. For most hospitals, non-emergency services were compromised. Many other medical facilities, including clinics had to be shut down, and smaller hospitals were forced to transfer some patients to larger institutions. In addition, hospitals experienced a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits including an increase in the number of persons with injuries, respiratory tract infections, or heart problems. A marked increase in carbon-monoxide intoxication was observed: 50 persons required the use of hyperbaric oxygen and six persons died of CO poisoning. Prehospital services not only experienced a marked increase in the number of emergency responses, but also were utilized to provide transportation of non-ill or injured persons, equipment, and supplies. Home care was interrupted and many patients dependent upon power had to be transported to hospitals. Many hospitals opened their buildings to provide shelter to the families of many of their employees and medical staff. This helped to keep staffing at a better level than if they had to find shelter and essential services elsewhere. The transmission and sharing of information was severely limited due in part to the loss of power and inability to access television. This led to the distribution of misleading or incorrect information. This storm was exemplary of our dependence upon electrical power and that we are not prepared to cope with the loss of electricity.

  13. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  14. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  15. Trace gas emissions following deposition of excreta by grazing dairy cows in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Pelster, D. E.; Chantigny, M. H.; Angers, D. A.; Liang, C.; Belanger, G.; Ziadi, N.; Charbonneau, E.; Pellerin, D.

    2012-04-01

    The N2O emission factor proposed for cattle excreta N by the Tier I IPCC methodology (EF3) is 2% (IPCC, 2006). While N2O emissions from excreta deposited by grazing animals have been reported in several publications, relatively few estimated EF3 values because measurements did not cover the entire year. This study measured N2O and CH4 flux and crop dry matter (DM) yield over two years (2009 to 2011) from a clay and a sandy loam soil cultivated with Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). A split-plot design was used on each soil type, with different application dates (either spring, summer or autumn application) as main plots and treatment (U-50: urine 50 g N m-2, U-100: urine 100 g N m-2, dung: 60 g N m-2, and control) as the sub-plots. Regardless of application time, annual DM yield increased in all treated plots when compared to the control. Also, DM yields were generally greater when urine as opposed to dung was applied suggesting greater N-availability from the urine application. The CH4 flux from the dung plots increased for only the first two weeks after treatment while the flux from the urine plots was similar to the control plots. Cumulative N2O emissions on the U-50 and U-100 plots increased linearly with urine N rate on both soils, resulting in nearly identical mean emission factors for both urine rates. The emission factor for the urine was three times greater on the clay (1.02% of applied N on both rates) than on the sandy loam soil (0.26% (U100) and 0.31% (U50) of applied N). Cumulative N2O emissions from dung plots also differed between soil types; however the impact of soil type on N2O emissions was opposite to that of urine, with greater losses from the sandy loam (0.15%) compared with the clay soil (0.07%). These results suggest that estimates of soil N2O emissions by grazing cattle in Eastern Canada obtained using the IPCC default methodology are overestimates of actual values and that these estimates for should include a stratification according to

  16. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  17. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens.

  18. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  19. Routine estimate of focal depths for moderate and small earthquakes by modelling regional depth phase sPmP in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Peci, V.; Adams, J.; McCormack, D.

    2003-04-01

    ROUTINE ESTIMATE OF FOCAL DEPTHS FOR MODERATE AND SMALL EARTHQUAKES BY MODELLING REGIONAL DEPTH PHASE sPmP IN EASTERN CANADA Shutian Ma, Veronika Peci, John Adams, and David McCormack(1) (1) National Earthquake Hazards Program, Geological Survey of Canada, 7 Observatory Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0Y3, Canada Shutian Ma (ma@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-947 3520) Veronika Peci (peci@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-995 7100) John Adams (adams@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-995 5519) David McCormack (cormack@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-992 8766) Earthquake focal depths are critical parameters for basic seismological research, seismotectonic study, seismic hazard assessment, and event discrimination. Focal depths for most earthquakes with Mw >= 4.5 can be estimated from teleseismic arrival times of P, pP and sP. For maller earthquakes, focal depths can be stimated from Pg and Sg arrival times recorded at close stations. However, for most earthquakes in eastern Canada, teleseismic signals are too weak and seismograph spacing too sparse for depth estimation. The regional phase sPmP is very sensitive to focal depth, generally well developed at epicentral distances greater than 100 km, and clearly recorded at many stations in eastern Canada for earthquakes with mN >= 2.8. We developed a procedure to estimate focal depth routinely with sPmP. We select vertical waveforms recorded at distances from about 100 to 300 km (using Geotool and SAC2000), generate synthetic waveforms (using reflectivity method) for a typical focal mechanism and for a suitable range of depths, and choose the depth at which the synthetic best matches the selected waveform. The software is easy to operate. For routine work an experienced operator can get a focal depth with waveform modelling within 10 minutes after the waveform is selected, or in a couple of minutes get a rough focal depth from sPmP and Pg or PmP arrival times without waveform modelling. We have confirmed our sPmP modelling results by two comparisons: (1) to depths

  20. From field to region yield predictions in response to pedo-climatic variations in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JÉGO, G.; Pattey, E.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    to improve regional crop modelling. Although several aspects of the coupling between crop models and RS data have been investigated (e.g., inversion of radiative transfer models and neural networks), extensive verification using multiple years and sites is required prior to implementation of the RS assimilation at the regional scale, in order to evaluate the model robustness and consistency in response to climatic variations. STICS performance was evaluated over several years for spring wheat, soybean and corn yield predictions over two small rainfed agricultural region of Eastern Canada exhibiting a high degree of pedodiversity when LAI derived from EO data was assimilated. Averaged yield predictions of the three crops compared well with measurements (10%

  1. Changes in the Style of Neritic Carbonate Production in the Tropics during the End-Ordovician Hirnantian Glaciation : atypical limestone facies from the Anticosti succession, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrochers, A.; Long, D. G. F.; Ghienne, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    During the End-Ordovician (Hirnantian) glacial maxima, carbonate platforms in the tropics were exposed extensively and their own diverse endemic faunas, displaced to the continental margins, suffered massive extinction. One of the best exposed and most complete stratigraphic records from a paleotropical area spanning the Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary is on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. The Anticosti sequence developed within a far-field Taconic foreland basin along the eastern margin of Laurentia under the influence of high tectonic subsidence and sustained carbonate sediment supply. Our biostratigraphically well-controlled δ13C curves and depth sensitive facies analysis allow us to recognize a distinctive Hirnantian stratigraphic architecture and its related sea level curve at the Milankovitch-cyclicity scales. The sudden appearance of abundant oncolites and calcimicrobial-coral reefs marks the Anticosti succession near the O/S boundary at the same time of a major faunal turnover (conodont, chitinozoan, acritarch, shelly faunas). These microbial limestones, a prominent regional marker unit on Anticosti Island known as the Laframboise Member, formed mainly during the peak interval and falling limb of the main Hirnantian positive isotopic carbon excursion. A comparison with the sequence stratigraphy of Morocco suggests that the Laframboise limestones correspond to the Late Ordovician glacial climax (middle to upper Hirnantian in age), characterised by a continental-scale ice sheet. A comparison between the Laframboise succession and other coeval shallow-water tropical successions in Laurentia, Avalonia, Baltica, Siberia and South China shows that the style of carbonate production changed from one derived largely from various carbonate secreting organisms to one dominated by widespread microbial and/or oolitic production. In contrast to the normal marine shelly faunas of pre- and post- extinction Hirnantian strata, shallow water tropical carbonates appear

  2. (Re)-Introduction to French: Four Education Models to Revitalise an Endangered Group in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy; Jolicoeur, Manon

    2014-01-01

    This study explores early francization models for a linguistic minority currently struggling to preserve its language. The French Acadians of New Brunswick, Canada, represent 30% of the province's total population, yet their numbers and their linguistic vitality are decreasing. New Brunswick has two public school systems: the English language…

  3. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aris, Aziz; Leblanc, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities.

  4. The story of a craton from heart to margins: illuminating cratonic lithosphere with Rayleigh wave phase velocities in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.

  5. Regional variation in energy storage strategies in American glass eels from Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Mélanie; Bernatchez, Louis; Tremblay, Réjean; Audet, Céline

    2015-10-01

    Energy status was analyzed in glass eels captured during two early waves of arrival at the mouths of the Mersey River, Nova Scotia, Canada (MR), and Grande-Rivière-Blanche, Québec, Canada (GRB), and according to their salinity preference (freshwater, brackish, or saltwater). Glass eels captured in the GRB estuary were larger, more pigmented, and exhibited higher whole-body glycogen, phospholipid, and sterol and wax ester contents. Those from MR had a higher condition index and a higher whole-body triacylglycerol content, suggesting different patterns of storage and/or use of energy reserves. Within a river, a delay of two weeks in estuarine arrival was characterized by significantly lower energy reserves. No differences in energy storage were observed according to salinity preference. Thus, the results revealed the occurrence of different energy storage strategies according to glass eel migration distance and duration, but not according to salinity preference.

  6. New Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) records with new collection data from New Brunswick and eastern Canada: Tachyporinae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Twenty-three species of Tachyporinae are newly recorded from New Brunswick. This brings the total number of Tachyporinae known from the province to 70. Lordithon campbelli Schülke is newly recorded for Canada and we provide the first documented records of Tachinus addendus Horn and Tachinus frigidus Erichson for New Brunswick. Collection and habitat data are presented and discussed for each species. A list of Tachyporinae species currently known from the province of New Brunswick is presented. PMID:22577318

  7. ESTIMATION OF CRITICAL LOADS OF ACIDITY FOR LAKESIN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP) adopted the Acid Rain Action Plan in June 1998, and issued a series of action items to support its work toward a reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx ) emissions in northeastern North Americ...

  8. Morphology, petrography, age and origin of Fogo Seamount chain, offshore eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe-Piper, G.; de Jonge, A.; Piper, D. J. W.; Jansa, L. F.

    2003-04-01

    The Fogo Seamounts are located approximately 500 km offshore from Newfoundland to the southwest of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. This complex seamount chain is early Cretaceous in age and is partially buried under later continental slope deposits. It has in the past been ascribed to the passage of a Canary or Azores hot spot. The seamounts are developed along the northeastern transform margin of the Jurassic central Atlantic Ocean. The Narwhal F-99 well was drilled in 1986 on the continental slope into one buried seamount. In this study, we bring together unpublished data on the bathymetry, seismic-reflection character, and distribution of the Fogo Seamounts and interpret new petrographic, geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data from a dredge sample from the central part of the seamount chain and from the Narwhal F-99 well, making comparisons with other offshore volcanic rocks on the eastern Canadian margin. Petrographically, the seamount samples consist of vitrophyric basalt, with clinopyroxene at Narwhal and kaersutite in the dredge sample. Chemically, the samples are olivine basalt with a low Mg number and low concentration of transition metals. Trace element and REE abundances are similar to those of other early Cretaceous volcanic rocks on the southeast Canadian margin. Three petrogenetic types of mafic magma are recognised in the area. The dredge sample is typical OIB rather alkalic basalts and similar to those in other seamount chains. Rocks at Narwhal and Brant have a greater signature of a depleted mantle source (are more tholeiitic). All have Nd isotopes similar to the Newfoundland and New England seamounts. In Orpheus graben to the northwest, there appears to have been greater crustal contamination, either from the crust in the region or from mantle previously enriched in crustal contaminants. The dredge sample gave a 40Ar/39Ar age of 130.3 +/- 1.3 Ma (Hauterivian). A K/Ar age from the Narwhal F-99 well of 127 +/- 6 Ma is inconsistent with

  9. Comparisons of Health Care Systems in the United States, Germany and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ridic, Goran; Gleason, Suzanne; Ridic, Ognjen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to compare health care systems in three highly advanced industrialized countries: The United States of America, Canada and Germany. The first part of the research paper will focus on the description of health care systems in the above-mentioned countries while the second part will analyze, evaluate and compare the three systems regarding equity and efficiency. Finally, an overview of recent changes and proposed future reforms in these countries will be provided as well. We start by providing a general description and comparison of the structure of health care systems in Canada, Germany and the United States. PMID:23678317

  10. The history of occupational therapy assistants in Canada: a comparison with the United States.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, P

    2001-10-01

    In the middle of the twentieth century, the role of occupational therapy assistant was introduced in North America. Although the role, utilization and training of assistant personnel have raised much controversy and debate within the profession, Canada and the United States have taken very different paths in terms of dealing with these issues. This paper focuses on the history of occupational therapy assistants in Canada, using the experience in the United States for comparison purposes. The occupational therapy literature and official documents of the professional associations are used to present a chronology of major historical events in both countries. Similarities and differences emerge in relation to historical roots; training model and standards of education; certification, regulation, and standards of practice; career laddering and career mobility; and professional affiliation. The paper concludes with a summary of issues which require further exploration, debate and resolution if the profession is to move forward in Canada.

  11. Contrasting reproductive strategies in three deep-sea octocorals from eastern Canada: Primnoa resedaeformis, Keratoisis ornata, and Anthomastus grandiflorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, A.; Hamel, J.-F.

    2011-06-01

    Various aspects of reproduction were studied in three deep-sea octocorals belonging to the order Alcyonacea that co-occur at bathyal depths on the continental edge and the slope of eastern Canada. The main goals were to expand knowledge of deep-water heterotrophic corals and ascertain whether reproductive strategies could explain the known patterns of occurrence. Anthomastus grandiflorus is a gonochoric species with a female-biased sex ratio that exhibits internal fertilization and brooding of planula larvae. Conversely, Primnoa resedaeformis and Keratoisis ornata rely on broadcast spawning and external fertilization; their sexuality remains undetermined as spermatocysts were not found. In P. resedaeformis, the presence of mixed size classes of oocytes in samples from all months, depths, and locations studied suggests continuous oogenesis or overlapping development of oocyte cohorts, indicative of a gametogenic cycle spanning more than a year. No evidence of periodicity was found in this species, although it could have been masked by the striking bathymetric variation in potential relative fecundity (oocytes polyp-1). The two other octocorals displayed a clear annual breeding pattern. Spawning in K. ornata and larval release in A. grandiflorus occurred in late summer and fall, respectively, possibly in response to environmental factors, as supported by shifts in the reproductive peak of A. grandiflorus across latitudes. The three species are presumed to share a nonfeeding larval mode, and data on their reproductive potential do not present any striking disparities. Published data on bycatches and video surveys in Atlantic Canada indicate that the gonochoric brooder A. grandiflorus is more widely distributed than the two free spawners, P. resedaeformis and K. ornata, which is contrary to common dispersal potential paradigms.

  12. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  13. Impact of drought and heat events on carbon exchanges in temperate pine forests of different ages in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M. A.; MacKay, S. L.; Khomik, M.; Brodeur, J. J.; Schumacher, J.; Hartmann, H.; Peichl, M.

    2012-04-01

    North American forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle because they offset a large portion of global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. A substantial fraction of these carbon sequestering forests are located in the north-eastern temperate climate zones, where spring through early summer is the most productive period of the growing season. Therefore, variations in carbon sequestration rates due to environmental constraints during this period may have a profound impact on seasonal and annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of forest ecosystems in the region. Recent studies suggest that, in the future, summer warming and drought events may be shifted to both spring and autumn shoulder seasons and concurrent heat and drought events may exacerbate the negative effects of drought on carbon cycling in these forests. In this study the impact of seasonal and annual climate variability as well as extreme climatic events on gross primary productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (Ec) in an age-sequence (72, 37 and 9 years old) of planted temperate pine (white pine, Pinus strobus L.) forests, north of Lake Erie in southern Ontario, Canada will be examined using eight years (2003-2010) of eddy covariance flux and meteorological data. These sites are known as the Turkey Point Flux Station and had been part of the Canadian Carbon Program (CCP) or the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN. The response of canopy transpiration (Et) and forest growth rates to experimentally reduced precipitation during the early growing season will also be evaluated in the 72-year old forest. A 20 m x 20 m throughfall exclusion setup was established and throughfall was excluded from April 1 to July 3, 2009. During this period 270 mm precipitation (27% of annual total) fell, of which 90% was excluded excluded. Sapflow measurements suggested that Et was 14% less in the drought plot compared to the reference plot

  14. A comparison of medical physics training and education programs--Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, B M C; Duggan, L; Howlett, S; Clark, B G

    2009-12-01

    An overview and comparison of medical physics clinical training, academic education, and national certification/accreditation of individual professionals in Canada and Australia is presented. Topics discussed include program organization, funding, fees, administration, time requirements, content, program accreditation, and levels of certification/accreditation of individual Medical Physicists. Differences in the training, education, and certification/accreditation approaches between the two countries are highlighted. The possibility of mutual recognition of certified/accredited Medical Physicists is examined.

  15. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.

    2011-01-01

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; however, deposition has been declining since the 1970s, resulting in some recovery in previously acidified aquatic ecosystems. Accurate watershed S mass balances help to evaluate the extent to which atmospheric S deposition is retained within ecosystems, and whether internal cycling sources and biogeochemical processes may be affecting the rate of recovery from decreasing S atmospheric loads. This study evaluated S mass balances for 15 sites with watersheds in southeastern Canada and northeastern US for the period 1985 to 2002. These 15 sites included nine in Canada (Turkey Lakes, ON; Harp Lake, ON; Plastic Lake, ON; Hermine, QC; Lake Laflamme, QC; Lake Clair, QC; Lake Tirasse, QC; Mersey, NS; Moosepit, NS) and six in the US (Arbutus Lake, NY; Biscuit Brook, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Cone Pond, NH; Bear Brook Watershed, ME). Annual S wet deposition inputs were derived from measured bulk or wet-only deposition and stream export was obtained by combining drainage water fluxes with SO42- concentrations. Dry deposition has the greatest uncertainty of any of the mass flux calculations necessary to develop accurate watershed balances, and here we developed a new method to calculate this quantity. We utilized historical information from both the US National Emissions Inventory and the US (CASTNET) and the Canadian (CAPMoN) dry deposition networks to develop a formulation that predicted SO2 concentrations as a function of SO2 emissions, latitude and longitude. The SO2 concentrations were used to predict dry deposition using relationships between concentrations and deposition flux derived from the CASTNET or CAPMoN networks. For the year 2002, we compared the SO2

  16. Winter effect on soil microorganisms under different tillage and phosphorus management practices in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yichao; Lalande, Roger; Hamel, Chantal; Ziadi, Noura

    2015-05-01

    Determining how soil microorganisms respond to crop management systems during winter could further our understanding of soil phosphorus (P) transformations. This study assessed the effects of tillage (moldboard plowing or no-till) and P fertilization (0, 17.5, or 35 kg P·ha(-1)) on soil microbial biomass, enzymatic activity, and microbial community structure in winter, in a long-term (18 years) corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation established in 1992 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Soil samples were collected at 2 depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in February 2010 and 2011 after the soybean and the corn growing seasons, respectively. Winter conditions increased the amounts of soil microbial biomasses but reduced the overall enzymatic activity of the soil, as compared with fall levels after corn. P fertilization had a quadratic effect on the amounts of total, bacterial, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi phospholipid fatty acid markers after corn but not after soybean. The soil microbial community following the soybean and the corn crops in winter had a different structure. These findings suggest that winter conditions and crop-year could be important factors affecting the characteristics of the soil microbial community under different tillage and mineral P fertilization.

  17. Three billion years of crustal evolution in eastern Canada: Constraints from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bodin, T.; Menke, W.; Levin, V.

    2016-02-01

    The geological record of SE Canada spans more than 2.5 Ga, making it a natural laboratory for the study of crustal formation and evolution over time. We estimate the crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio, a proxy for bulk crustal composition, and shear velocity (Vs) structure from receiver functions at a network of seismograph stations recently deployed across the Archean Superior Craton, the Proterozoic Grenville, and the Phanerozoic Appalachian provinces. The bulk seismic crustal properties and shear velocity structure reveal a correlation with tectonic provinces of different ages: the post-Archean crust becomes thicker, faster, more heterogeneous, and more compositionally evolved. This secular variation pattern is consistent with a growing consensus that crustal growth efficiency increased at the end of the Archean. A lack of correlation among elevation, Moho topography, and gravity anomalies within the Proterozoic belt is better explained by buoyant mantle support rather than by compositional variations driven by lower crustal metamorphic reactions. A ubiquitous ˜20 km thick high-Vs lower crustal layer is imaged beneath the Proterozoic belt. The strong discontinuity at 20 km may represent the signature of extensional collapse of an orogenic plateau, accommodated by lateral crustal flow. Wide anorthosite massifs inferred to fractionate from a mafic mantle source are abundant in Proterozoic geology and are underlain by high-Vs lower crust and a gradational Moho. Mafic underplating may have provided a source for these intrusions and could have been an important post-Archean process stimulating mafic crustal growth in a vertical sense.

  18. Declining Acidic Deposition Begins Reversal of Forest-Soil Acidification in the Northeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Hazlett, Paul W; Fernandez, Ivan J; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W; Shortle, Walter C; Smith, Kevin T; Antidormi, Michael R

    2015-11-17

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO4(2-) deposition of 5.7-76%, over intervals of 8-24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO4(2-) deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with exchangeable Al ratios (P < 0.05) in the O horizon. However, base saturation in the B horizon decreased at one-third of the sites, with no increases. These results are unique in showing that the effects of acidic deposition on North American soils have begun to reverse.

  19. Historical records of atmospheric metal deposition along the St. Lawrence Valley (eastern Canada) based on peat bog cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratte, Steve; Mucci, Alfonso; Garneau, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    The recent history of atmospheric As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn deposition and the stable Pb isotope signatures were reconstructed from short cores collected at three peat bogs along the St. Lawrence Valley (SLV). The onset of industrial activity was recorded around 1810-1850 AD. As, Cd, Pb and, to a certain extent, Ni deposition rates reached maxima between 1940 and the early 1970s. Trace metals likely originated from coal-burning and ore smelting between 1850 and 1950 AD, and were replaced thereafter, at least in the case of Pb, by the combustion of leaded gasolines until the mid-1980s. Trace metal contents and accumulation rates were greater in the two cores recovered from the southwestern SLV than further northeast, as expected from their proximity to urban and industrial centers of eastern Canada and the U.S. Mid-West and the direction of the prevalent winds. A rapid decrease in metal accumulation rates since the 1970s suggests that mitigation policies were effective in reducing atmospheric metal emissions. Nevertheless, metal accumulation rates and stable Pb isotope signatures have not yet returned to their pre-industrial values.

  20. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  1. Declining acidic deposition begins reversal of forest-soil acidification in the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W.; Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Antidormi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO42– deposition of 5.7–76%, over intervals of 8–24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO42– deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with exchangeable Al ratios (P < 0.05) in the O horizon. However, base saturation in the B horizon decreased at one-third of the sites, with no increases. These results are unique in showing that the effects of acidic deposition on North American soils have begun to reverse.

  2. Comparison of (14)C liquid scintillation counting at NIST and NRC Canada.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E; Galea, Raphael; Laureano-Pérez, Lizbeth; Zimmerman, Brian E

    2016-03-01

    An informal bilateral comparison of (14)C liquid scintillation (LS) counting at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been completed. Two solutions, one containing (14)C-labeled sodium benzoate and one containing (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane, were measured at both laboratories. Despite observed LS cocktail instabilities, the two laboratories achieved accord in their standardizations of both solutions. At the conclusion of the comparison, the beta spectrum used for efficiency calculations was identified as inadequate and the data were reanalyzed with different inputs, improving accord.

  3. Friedreich ataxia in Acadian families from eastern Canada: clinical diversity with conserved haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Poirier, J; Mercier, J; Julien, D; Morgan, K; Roy, M; Gosselin, F; Bouchard, J P; Melançon, S B

    1996-09-06

    The gene for Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. The current candidate region of about 150 kb lies between loci FR2 and F8101 near the D9S15/D9S5 linkage group at 9q13-21.1. Linkage homogeneity between classical FRDA and a milder, slowly progressive Acadian variant (FRDA-Acad) has been demonstrated. An extended D9S15-D9S5 haplotype (C6) predominates in FRDA-Acad chromosomes from Louisiana. We studied 10 Acadian families from New Brunswick, Canada. In eight families, affected individuals conformed to the clinical description of FRDA-Acad; in one, 2 sibs presented with spastic ataxia (SPA-Acad). In the last family, 2 sibs had FRDA-Acad, and one had SPA-Acad. We found that SPA-Acad is linked to the FRDA gene region. The C6 haplotype and a second major haplotype (B7) were identified. The same ataxia-linked haplotypes segregated with both FRDA-Acad and SPA-Acad in two unrelated families. The parental origins of these haplotypes were different. Our observation of different phenotypes associated with the same combination of haplotypes may point to the influence of the parent of origin on gene expression, indicate the effect of modifier genes, or reflect the presence of different mutations on the same haplotypes. Our findings underline the need to investigate families with autosomal-recessive ataxias for linkage to the FRDA region, despite lack of key diagnostic manifestations such as cardiomyopathy or absent deep-tendon reflexes.

  4. Inorganic carbon in a high latitude estuary-fjord system in Canada's eastern Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, D.; Bedard, J. M.; Burt, W. J.; Vagle, S.; Thomas, H.; Azetsu-Scott, K.; McGillis, W. R.; Iverson, S. J.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly changing conditions in the Arctic can have a significant impact on biogeochemical cycles and can be particularly important in high latitude estuary-fjord systems with abundant and diverse freshwater sources. This study provides a first look into the inorganic carbon system and its relation to freshwater sources in Cumberland Sound in the east coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. These data contribute to the very limited set of inorganic carbon measurements in high latitude estuary-fjord systems. During the ice-free conditions in August 2011, the meteoric freshwater fractions (MW) in the upper 40 m ranged from 11 to 21% and no sea ice melt (SIM) was present in the Sound. Surface waters were undersaturated with pCO2 (260 and 300 μatm), and DIC and TA ranged between 1779 and 1966 μmol DIC kg-1, and 1922 and 2140 μmol TA kg-1, respectively. Aragonite saturation (ΩAr) state ranged from 1.9 in the surface to 1.4 in the subsurface waters. Data show decreasing TA and ΩAr with increasing MW fraction and suggest that Cumberland Sound waters would become aragonite undersaturated (ΩAr < 1) at MW = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.56). Estimated local δ18O (-19.2‰) and TA (174 μmol TA kg-1) end-members indicate MW was most likely a mixture of river water and glacial melt. In August 2012, MW fractions at the surface were between 8 and 11.5%, and SIM between 7 and 23%. Significant interannual variability of summertime SIM could potentially result in ΩAr undersaturation.

  5. Friedreich ataxia in Acadian families from eastern Canada: Clinical diversity with conserved haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, A.; Poirier, J.; Mercier, J.

    1996-09-06

    The gene for Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. The current candidate region of about 150 kb lies between loci FR2 and F8101 near the D9S15/D9S5 linkage group at 9q13-21.1. Linkage homogeneity between classical FRDA and a milder, slowly progressive Acadian variant (FRDA-Acad) has been demonstrated. An extended D9S15-D9S5 haplotype (C6) predominates in FRDA-Acad chromosomes from Louisiana. We studied 10 Acadian families from New Brunswick, Canada. In eight families, affected individuals conformed to the clinical description of FRDA-Acad; in one, 2 sibs presented with spastic ataxia (SPA-Acad). In the last family, 2 sibs had FRDA-Acad, and one had SPA-Acad. We found that SPA-Acad is linked to the FRDA gene region. The C6 haplotype and a second major haplotype (137) were identified. The same ataxia-linked haplotypes segregated with both FRDA-Acad and SPA-Acad in two unrelated families. The parental origins of these haplotypes were different. Our observation of different phenotypes associated with the same combination of haplotypes may point to the influence of the parent of origin on gene expression, indicate the effect of modifier genes, or reflect the presence of different mutations on the same haplotype. Our findings underline the need to investigate families with autosomal-recessive ataxias for linkage to the FRDA region, despite lack of key diagnostic manifestations such as cardiomyopathy or absent deep-tendon reflexes. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ice sheet load cycling and fluid underpressures in the Eastern Michigan Basin, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, Christopher E.; Provost, Alden M.

    2014-01-01

    Strong fluid underpressures have been detected in Paleozoic strata in the eastern Michigan Basin, with hydraulic heads reaching ~400 m below land surface (~4 MPa underpressure) and ~200 m below sea level in strata where unusually low permeabilities (~10−20–10−23 m2) were measured in situ. Multiple glaciations, including three with as much as 3 km of ice cover at the site in the last 120 ka, suggest a causal link with the underpressures. We examined this possibility using a one-dimensional groundwater flow model incorporating mechanical loading from both ice weight and lithospheric flexure. Because hydrologic and mechanical changes during glaciation are not well characterized and subsurface properties are imperfectly known, the model was used inversely to estimate flexural loads and loosely constrained permeabilities by matching observed pressures. Acceptable matches were obtained for a surprisingly wide range of scenarios with permeabilities close to measured values and plausible flexural loads. Matches were not obtained when too many parameters were preselected, or when permeabilities were constrained to be significantly larger than measured values. In successful model runs groundwater expulsion under glacial-mechanical loads caused the underpressuring, and flexural loads were important if aquifer and sub-glacial pressures were significantly elevated during glaciation. Simulated fluid pressures in the low-permeability strata fluctuated by 30–40 MPa during glacial cycles but resulted in advective transport of only tens of meters or less. Although other mechanisms cannot be ruled out, we conclude that glacial-mechanical forcing of a water-saturated system can explain the observed underpressures.

  7. Isotopic Clues on Factors Controlling Geochemical Fluxes From Large Watersheds in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, E.; Helie, J.; Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Gaillardet, J.

    2008-12-01

    A monitoring and monthly sampling program of the Nelson, Ottawa, St. Lawrence, La Grande and Great Whale rivers was started in September 2007. It provides information on the seasonality and sources of geochemical fluxes into the Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic from watersheds covering more than 2.6 106 km2 of the eastern Canadian boreal domain. Measurements of pH and alkalinity, analyses of major ions, strontium and dissolved silica, 2H and 18O of water, concentrations and isotopic properties of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (13C) and uranium (234U/238U) were performed. Lithology more than latitudinal climatic gradients controls the river geochemistry. Rivers draining silicate terrains show lower dissolved U concentrations but greater 234U/238U disequilibria than rivers draining carbonates (average of 1.38 vs. 1.23). Groundwater supplies might exert some control on these U- isotope signatures. No clear seasonality is observed in 234U/238U ratios, but U concentrations are correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in most rivers. Rivers draining carbonates present higher total dissolved carbon concentrations and higher 13C-contents in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in response to the dissolution of soil carbonates. DOC/DIC ratios above 2.4 are observed in rivers draining silicates; their lower 13C-DIC content directly reflects the organic matter oxidation in soils. Total dissolved solids are one order of magnitude or more greater in rivers draining carbonates, showing the strong difference in chemical weathering rates according to the geological setting. The stability in chemical fluxes and water isotopic compositions in the La Grande River, which hosts hydroelectric reservoirs covering more than 12 000 km2, indicates that it is the most buffered hydrological system among the investigated watersheds. Seasonal fluctuations are observed elsewhere, with maximum geochemical fluxes during the spring snowmelt. 2H-18O content of river water

  8. Spatial distribution and viability of Alexandrium tamarense resting cysts in surface sediments from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Stéphanie; Roy, Suzanne; Starr, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 (as defined by Lilly et al., 2007) is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. In August 2008, a major bloom of A. tamarense developed in the SLE and caused major mortality of fish, seabirds and marine mammals notably in the vicinity of a marine park. Eleven months later, surface (0-5 cm) and deeper (5-10 cm) sediments were sampled to determine resting cysts concentrations, locate prospective cyst seedbeds and examine if these had changed following this major bloom. This information is thought to be important to understand inter-annual patterns in algal toxicity, cyst abundance being a good predictor of subsequent bloom magnitude in some regions. Surface cyst distribution was heterogeneous and it confirmed the location of the cyst seedbed previously reported on the north shore near the Manicouagan/aux-Outardes Rivers (>500 cysts cm-3). A zone of cyst accumulation was also observed on the south shore of the SLE (maximum of 1200 cysts cm-3), with higher concentrations relative to previous cyst mapping in the 1980s. A mismatch was observed between the zones with high surface cyst concentrations and those where the highest PSP toxins were detected (used as a proxy for vegetative cells in the water column). Cyst concentrations were negatively correlated with PSP levels from the same sites, suggesting that cysts were formed and deposited away from the major sites of toxicity. Deposition likely took place near the end of the bloom, once it had reached the eastern boundary of the SLE. PSP toxicity was worse near the peak of the bloom, which occurred westward of this region. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of local blooms, influenced by the estuarine and mesoscale circulation. Interestingly, the major bloom of August 2008 was not followed by particularly large cyst deposition or by any major bloom in 2009 in this region. Cyst viability

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999–2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15–19 days earlier on average in the 2080–2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low. PMID:26682889

  10. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia coli Populations in the South Nation River Drainage Basin, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lyautey, Emilie; Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Scott, Andrew; Berkers, Tanya; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface waters from multiple watersheds within the South Nation River basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. The basin is composed of mixed but primarily agricultural land uses. From March 2004 to November 2007, a total of 2,004 surface water samples were collected from 24 sampling sites. E. coli densities ranged from undetectable to 1.64 × 105 CFU 100 ml−1 and were correlated with stream order and proximity to livestock production systems. The diversity of 21,307 E. coli isolates was characterized using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR), allowing for the identification of as many as 7,325 distinct genotypes, without capturing all of the diversity. The community was temporally and spatially dominated by a few dominant genotypes (clusters of more than 500 isolates) and several genotypes of intermediary abundance (clustering between 10 and 499 isolates). Simpson diversity indices, assessed on a normalized number of isolates per sample, ranged from 0.050 to 0.668. Simpson indices could be statistically discriminated on the basis of year and stream order, but land use, discharge, weather, and water physical-chemical properties were not statistically important discriminators. The detection of Campylobacter species was associated with statistically lower Simpson indices (greater diversity; P < 0.05). Waterborne E. coli isolates from genotypes of dominant and intermediary abundance were clustered with isolates obtained from fecal samples collected in the study area over the same period, and 90% of the isolates tested proved to share genotypes with fecal isolates. Overall, our data indicated that the densities and distribution of E. coli in these mixed-use watersheds were linked to stream order and livestock-based land uses. Waterborne E. coli populations that were distinct from fecal isolates were detected and, on this basis, were possibly naturalized E. coli strains. PMID

  11. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Houle, Daniel; Paquette, Alain; Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999-2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15-19 days earlier on average in the 2080-2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low.

  13. Spatially explicit fire-climate history of the boreal forest-tundra (Eastern Canada) over the last 2000 years.

    PubMed

    Payette, Serge; Filion, Louise; Delwaide, Ann

    2008-07-12

    Across the boreal forest, fire is the main disturbance factor and driver of ecosystem changes. In this study, we reconstructed a long-term, spatially explicit fire history of a forest-tundra region in northeastern Canada. We hypothesized that current occupation of similar topographic and edaphic sites by tundra and forest was the consequence of cumulative regression with time of forest cover due to compounding fire and climate disturbances. All fires were mapped and dated per 100 year intervals over the last 2,000 years using several fire dating techniques. Past fire occurrences and post-fire regeneration at the northern forest limit indicate 70% reduction of forest cover since 1800 yr BP and nearly complete cessation of forest regeneration since 900 yr BP. Regression of forest cover was particularly important between 1500s-1700s and possibly since 900 yr BP. Although fire frequency was very low over the last 100 years, each fire event was followed by drastic removal of spruce cover. Contrary to widespread belief of northward boreal forest expansion due to recent warming, lack of post-fire recovery during the last centuries, in comparison with active tree regeneration more than 1,000 years ago, indicates that the current climate does not favour such expansion.

  14. Changing climate, changing forests: the impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rustad, Lindsey; Campbell, John; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Huntington, Thomas; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Mohan, Jacqueline; Rodenhouse, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems provide important insights for forest science, management, and policy. A synthesis of recent research from the northeastern United States and eastern Canada shows that the climate of the region has become warmer and wetter over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. Greater change is projected in the future. The amount of projected future change depends on the emissions scenarios used. Tree species composition of northeast forests has shifted slowly in response to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid and it is unclear how forests will respond to large changes in suitable habitat. Projections indicate significant declines in suitable habitat for spruce-fir forests and expansion of suitable habitat for oak-dominated forests. Productivity gains that might result from extended growing seasons and carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization may be offset by productivity losses associated with the disruption of species assemblages and concurrent stresses associated with potential increases in atmospheric deposition of pollutants, forest fragmentation, and nuisance species. Investigations of links to water and nutrient cycling suggest that changes in evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and mineralization rates could result in significant alterations of key ecosystem processes. Climate change affects the distribution and abundance of many wildlife species in the region through changes in habitat, food availability, thermal tolerances, species interactions such as competition, and susceptibility to parasites and disease. Birds are the most studied northeastern taxa. Twenty-seven of the 38 bird species for which we have adequate long-term records have expanded their ranges predominantly in a northward direction. There is some evidence to suggest that novel species, including pests and

  15. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region

    PubMed Central

    Vryonides, P.; Haralambous, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2–hmF2) and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:25685433

  16. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Vryonides, P; Haralambous, H

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2-hmF2) and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area.

  17. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    PubMed

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  18. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  19. A comparison of eastern North American seismic strain-rates to glacial rebound strain-rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.

    1994-01-01

    Glacial rebound strain-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal strain-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed strain-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic strain-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional strain-rates. The predicted glacial rebound strain-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic strain-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound strain-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.

  20. Using diatoms to monitor stream biological integrity in Eastern Canada: an overview of 10 years of index development and ongoing challenges.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Campeau, Stéphane; Zugic-Drakulic, Natasa; Winter, Jennifer G; Fortin, Claude

    2014-03-15

    An improved version of the Eastern Canadian Diatom Index (IDEC: Indice Diatomées de l'Est du Canada) was developed, incorporating modifications to optimize diatom-based monitoring in Eastern Canada. The most significant improvement with this version of the IDEC is the extended coverage area including additional reference sites. This new version of the IDEC also incorporated a simplified list of diatom taxa to reduce the variability among analysts as it gains in popularity. Rare taxa (<2%) were excluded and various morphotypes were grouped. The index was created based on three sub-indices that were adapted to cover the range of natural pH and conductivity values allowing us to partial out the strong influence of natural pH and conductivity from the general pollution gradient. The index was created using 648 diatom assemblages including those from nearly 150 reference (or least-disturbed) sites. The reference sites covered a large range of natural characteristics. The diatom assemblages collected in these environments constitute "biotype class A" in each sub-index and represent a realistic goal for restoration. Associated total phosphorus and total nitrogen showed that class A generally reflects conditions that are considered oligotrophic (<0.025 mg L(-1)) or oligo-mesotrophic, while class D at the opposite end of the pollution gradient reflects eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic environments. There is a good correspondence between IDEC values and nutrient criteria, water quality indices based on physico-chemistry measurements, the presence of agricultural activities, and urban areas. The IDEC has a great potential to assist water quality monitoring, particularly when the objective is to assess the trophic status of a watercourse.

  1. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  2. Mercury in the Arctic atmosphere: an analysis of eight years of measurements of GEM at Alert (Canada) and a comparison with observations at Amderma (Russia) and Kuujjuarapik (Canada).

    PubMed

    Steffen, Alexandra; Schroeder, William; Macdonald, Rob; Poissant, Laurier; Konoplev, Alexei

    2005-04-15

    Eight years of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentration measurements from Alert, Nunavut, Canada (between 1995 and 2002) is presented. The annual time series shows a distinct repeating seasonal pattern with an overall annual median concentration for this time period of 1.58 (S.D.=0.04 ng m(-3)). Strong seasonal variation was observed throughout the years with springtime displaying strong variability in the GEM and overall lower median concentrations due to the so-called mercury depletion events (MDEs). Summer concentrations are higher than the annual average and show a decrease in variability. Fall and winter concentrations are distributed around the annual median concentrations and show little variability. The relationship between the springtime depression and the summer increase shows a change in the behaviour of mercury between 1995 and 2002. Preliminary results suggest that during this period an increasing amount of the mercury lost from the atmosphere in the spring is not returned to atmosphere in summer. A comparison of GEM concentration data from three sites--Alert (Canada), Amderma (Russia) and Kuujjuarapik (Canada)--demonstrated similar monthly distribution of GEM between Alert and Amderma, with the latter not showing as high summer concentrations. Monthly distribution of GEM at Kuujjuarapik varied considerably from the other two sites. MDEs were found to occur at each site in the spring yet displayed different characteristics. MDEs appear to start at Alert shortly after polar sunrise but in Amderma their initiation is delayed approximately 2 months following polar sunrise. MDEs occur in Kuujjuarapik in the springtime despite an incomplete development of the polar day-night cycle. In spring, as soon as air temperature attained temperatures consistently above 0 degrees C, MDEs ended immediately at all three sites. Continued studies into MDEs are warranted, but clearly an important component of future studies must focus on the origins of the variation

  3. Influence of Ohio River Valley Emissions on Fine Particle Sulfate Measured from Aircraft over Large Regions of the Eastern United States and Canada during INTEX-NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sandholm, Scott; Kim, Saewung; Stickel, Robert E.; Huey, L. Gregory; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of fine inorganic aerosol composition were made with a particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to dual ion chromatographs (PILS-IC) as part of the NASA INTEX-NA study. The sampling campaign, which lasted from 1 July to 14 August 2004, centered over the eastern United States and Canada and showed that sulfate was the dominant inorganic species measured. The highest sulfate concentrations were observed at altitudes below 2 km, and back trajectory analyses showed a distinct difference between air masses that had or had not intercepted the Ohio River valley (ORV) region. Air masses encountered below 2 km with a history over the ORV had sulfate concentrations that were higher by a factor of 3.2 and total sulfur (S) concentrations higher by 2.5. The study's highest sulfate concentrations were found in these air masses. The sulfur of the ORV air masses was also more processed with a mean sulfate to total sulfur molar ratio of 0.5 compared to 0.3 in non-ORV measurements. Results from a second, independent trajectory model agreed well with those from the primary analysis. These ORV-influenced air masses were encountered on multiple days and were widely spread across the eastern United States and western Atlantic region.

  4. Health status and health behaviours in neighbourhoods: A comparison of Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kathi; Eyles, John; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Health status has been demonstrated to vary by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, neighbourhood effects may vary between countries. In this study, neighbourhood variations in health outcomes are compared across four socially contrasting neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Ontario Canada. Data came from the 2001 wave of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Longitudinal Study and a 2000/2001 cross-sectional survey conducted in Hamilton. The results of the comparison point to important variations in the relationship between neighbourhood SES and health. While both cities display a socioeconomic gradient with respect to various measures of health and health behaviours, for some outcome measures the high SES neighbourhoods in Glasgow display distributions similar to those found in the low SES neighbourhoods in Hamilton. Our results suggest that a low SES neighbourhood in one country may not mean the same for health as a low SES neighbourhood in another country. As such, country context may explain the distribution of health status and health behaviours among socially contrasting neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood variations in health may be context specific. PMID:20022285

  5. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Mackinnon, A-M; Boston, L; Souter, B; Cook-Versloot, M; Griffiths, S; Olivier, G

    2007-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from mortalities occurring in populations of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus, brown trout, Salmo trutta, and striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The isolated viral strains produced a cytopathic effect on the epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line. Serum neutralization indicated the virus was VHSV and sequencing identified the rhabdovirus isolates as the North American strain of VHSV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass.

  6. Emerging pollutants in the North Sea in comparison to Lake Ontario, Canada, data.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Jens Arne; Muir, Derek; Ueno, Daisuke; Darling, Colin; Theobald, Norbert; Bester, Kai

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, the concentrations and fate of contaminants such as organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers, musk compounds such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk ketone and musk xylene, the bactericide triclosan, as well as the metabolites HHCB-lactone and triclosan-methyl were compared in the aqueous phase of the German Bight (North Sea). The concentrations of these compounds were around 1 to 10 ng/L in nearshore areas, and the concentrations were lower in the more pristine areas. The highest concentrations were determined for tris-(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate in the North Sea with concentration exceeding 10 ng/L even for the offshore samples. The samples contained 1 to 20 ng/L chlorinated organophosphates, approximately 1 ng/L nonchlorinated organophosphates, and 0.3 to 3 ng/L fragrance compounds. Some samples from Lake Ontario (Canada) were analyzed in comparison. Per capita emissions were calculated for both regions. These emissions were compared and turned out to be very similar for the Canadian and German locations. For the North Sea, some observations concerning stability, dilution, and degradation, as well as sources of the respective substances, were performed. These data indicate that the chlorinated organophosphates and some musk fragrances exhibit half lives exceeding the residence times and thus can be considered to be persistent in this ecosystem. In the German Bight, the river Elbe is the dominating source for the more hydrophilic compounds, such as chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants, which are diluted only into the North Sea. However, for the more lipophilic compounds such as the musk fragrances, different input patterns as well as distribution patterns are relevant, though the river Elbe is still a major source of pollution to the German Bight of the North Sea. The data seem to indicate either relevant inputs further west of the sampling area or mobilization from the sediments.

  7. Kelp, sea urchins and predators: A review of strong interactions in rocky subtidal systems of Eastern Canada, 1970-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, K. H.

    Abundance of the sea urchin Stronglocentrotus droebachiensis increased following reduced predation pressure, and dense kelp ( Laminaria and Agarum) beds were overgrazed and destroyed along more than 500 km of coastline in Nova Scotia, Canada. During the same period of time, lobster stocks in this area were reduced to about 10% of their former level. While direct evidence is lacking, indirect evidence suggests very strongly that the population explosion of urchins was triggered by a reduction of lobster stocks below a critical level, and that subsequent destruction of kelp beds caused increased lobster mortality through loss of cover, and reduced production in the food chain supporting lobsters. The whole comprises a positive feedback leading to further decreases in lobster stocks and the present, low-productivity configuration of urchin-dominated barren grounds.

  8. Informing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) with numerical modelling: A case-study on shellfish aquaculture in Malpeque Bay (Eastern Canada).

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Bacher, Cédric; Comeau, Luc A

    2015-11-15

    A moratorium on further bivalve leasing was established in 1999-2000 in Prince Edward Island (Canada). Recently, a marine spatial planning process was initiated explore potential mussel culture expansion in Malpeque Bay. This study focuses on the effects of a projected expansion scenario on productivity of existing leases and available suspended food resources. The aim is to provide a robust scientific assessment using available datasets and three modelling approaches ranging in complexity: (1) a connectivity analysis among culture areas; (2) a scenario analysis of organic seston dynamics based on a simplified biogeochemical model; and (3) a scenario analysis of phytoplankton dynamics based on an ecosystem model. These complementary approaches suggest (1) new leases can affect existing culture both through direct connectivity and through bay-scale effects driven by the overall increase in mussel biomass, and (2) a net reduction of phytoplankton within the bounds of its natural variation in the area.

  9. Petrogenesis of the Elzevir batholith and related trondhjemitic intrusions in the grenville province of eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Moore, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    The Elzevir batholith belongs to a suite of trondhjemitic intrusions emplaced at ca. 1,240 Ma in the Grenville Province of eastern Ontario. New major and trace element data, including REE, combined with isotopic and petrographic data indicate that: 1) the batholith has calc-alkalic affinities; 2) the Elzevir parental magma is very similar to that of dacites in the nearby, coeval metavolcanic rocks; the magma formed by partial melting of crustal material at granulite grade; 3) chemical differences between the plutonic and volcanic rocks can be best explained by accumulation of plagioclase in the plutonic environment; 4) fractionation was dominated by plagioclase and quartz, with lesser biotite and epidote, and minor zircon and apatite. It is suggested that melting of sialic crust took place during the ‘docking’ of a partly-evolved, originally ensimatic arc system against the main cratonic mass to the northwest.

  10. Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; McBurney, Scott R; Godson, Dale L; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2009-07-01

    Between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (Lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. A second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals from which frozen tissue samples were available, and it was isolated in cell culture from one of them. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disease caused by CDV in free-living felids in North America.

  11. Clinically relevant depression in old age: An international study with populations from Canada, Latin America and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Ylli, Alban; Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Phillips, Susan P; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-07-30

    Our aim is to assess cross-national variations in prevalence of clinically relevant depression and to examine the relationships of social and health factors with depression in five diverse populations of older adults, from Canada, Brazil, Colombia and Albania. We used the data from the International Mobility in Aging Study. Clinically relevant depression was defined as a score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D). Poisson regressions with robust covariance correction were used to estimate prevalence ratios associated with potential risk factors. Prevalence of clinically relevant depression across research sites varied widely, being consistently higher in women than in men. It was lowest in men from Brazil (6.3%) and highest in women from Albania (46.6%). Low education and insufficient income, living alone, multiple chronic conditions, and poor physical performance were all significantly associated with depression prevalence. Poor physical performance was more strongly associated with depression in men than in women. Similar factors are associated with clinically relevant depression among men and women and across research sites. The large variation in depression prevalence population rates is unexplained by the classical individual factors considered in the study suggesting the impact of country characteristics on depression among older populations.

  12. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  13. An interactive governance and fish chain approach to fisheries rebuilding: a case study of the Northern Gulf cod in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahmed; Chuenpagdee, Ratana

    2014-09-01

    Rebuilding collapsed fisheries is a multifaceted problem, requiring a holistic governance approach rather than technical management fixes. Using the Northern Gulf cod case study in eastern Canada, we illustrate how a "fish chain" framework, drawn from the interactive governance perspective, is particularly helpful in analyzing rebuilding challenges. The analysis demonstrates that factors limiting rebuilding exist along the entire fish chain, i.e., the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages. These challenges are embedded in both the ecological and social systems associated with the Northern Gulf cod fisheries, as well as in the governing systems. A comparative analysis of the pre- and post-collapse of the cod fisheries also reveals governance opportunities in rebuilding, which lie in policy interventions such as integrated and ecosystem-based management, livelihood transitional programs, and cross-scale institutional arrangements. Lessons from the Northern Gulf cod case study, especially the missed opportunities to explore alternative governing options during the transition, are valuable for rebuilding other collapsed fisheries.

  14. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  15. A comparison of methods used to obtain age ratios of snow and Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Linder, R.L.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    The validity of group counts, cannon-net catches, and hunter-bag checks for estimating productivity of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii-parvipes complex) was studied at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge during the falls of 1965 and 1966. Age ratios of snow geese obtained from net-trapped samples were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than from group counts at the same site. Immature snow geese were shot in a significantly greater (P < 0.01) proportion than they existed in the population as determined by group counts. Cannon-net catches and hunter-bag checks of snow and Canada geese yielded age ratios which were biased because of behavioral characteristics of the geese. Immatures of both species were less wary of trap equipment and immature snow geese were more vulnerable to the gun than adults. It was believed that age ratios from group counts of snow geese were more representative of the population than those from net catches and hunter-bag checks. Sex ratios of net-trapped geese showed a preponderance of males for adult Canada and adult and immature snow geese, whereas females were predominant in the immature segment of Canada geese. Hunter selectivity of blue- or white-phase snow geese was not observed at Sand Lake Refuge. Differential vulnerability to hunting between snow and Canada geese resulted from differences m feeding-flight behavior.

  16. Late Cenozoic sea-level changes and the onset of glaciation: impact on continental slope progradation off eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.J.W.; Normark, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Late Cenozoic sedimentation from four varied sites on the continental slopes off southeastern Canada has been analysed using high-resolution airgun multichannel seismic profiles, supplemented with some single channel data. Biostratigraphic ties are available to exploratory wells at three of the sites. Uniform, slow accumulation of hemipelagic sediments was locally terminated by the late Miocene sea-level lowering, which is also reflected in changes in foraminiferan faunas on the continental shelf. Data are very limited for the early Pliocene but suggest a return to slow hemipelagic sedimentation. At the beginning of the late Pliocene, there was a change in sedimentation style marked by a several-fold increase in accumulation rates and cutting of slope valleys. This late Pliocene cutting of slope valleys corresponds to the onset of late Cenozoic growth of the Laurentian Fan and the initiation of turbidite sedimentation on the Sohm Abyssal Plain. Although it corresponds to a time of sea-level lowering, the contrast with the late Miocene lowstand indicates that there must also have been a change in sediment delivery to the coastline, perhaps as a result of increased rainfall or development of valley glaciers. High sedimentation rates continued into the early Pleistocene, but the extent of slope dissection by gullies increased. Gully-cutting episodes alternated with sediment-draping episodes. Throughout the southeastern Canadian continental margin, there was a change in sedimentation style in the middle Pleistocene that resulted from extensive ice sheets crossing the continental shelf and delivering coarse sediment directly to the continental slope. ?? 1989.

  17. Explaining Geographic Gradients in Winter Selection of Landscapes by Boreal Caribou with Implications under Global Changes in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beguin, Julien; McIntire, Eliot J. B.; Fortin, Daniel; Cumming, Steven G.; Raulier, Frédéric; Racine, Pierre; Dussault, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1) climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2) road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3) an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution. PMID:24194942

  18. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Perchec, Cyrille; Miranda, Dave; Benoit, Amelie; Bariaud, Francoise; Lanz, Margherita; Marta, Elena; Lacourse, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study compares two dimensions of parenting--emotional bonding and control--as perceived by adolescents living in three countries: Canada (province of Quebec), France, and Italy. A cross-sectional sample was composed of 1256 adolescents who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Multiple Correspondence Analyses provided a graphic synthesis of…

  19. Virulence and antigenic characteristics of a cultured Rickettsiales-like organism isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Markham, R J; Groman, D B; Cusack, R R

    1998-05-14

    The present study describes culture, virulence and antigenic characteristics of a Rickettsiales-like organism (RLO) associated with mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Clinical disease was reproduced in naive Atlantic salmon parr by intraperitoneal i.p. inoculation with kidney homogenate from naturally infected fish. Pure cultures of RLO were isolated into chinook salmon embryo (CHSE) cells from kidney of experimentally infected fish. The RLO caused cytopathic effect in cultured CHSE-214 typified by coalescing areas of swollen cells that eventually detached from the substrate. Bacteria in infected culture supernatants reacted with Piscirickettsia salmonis-specific polyclonal sera or monoclonal antibody (MAb) in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. IP inoculation with cultured RLO resulted in mortalities of 100, 62, 22.5 and 0% in Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, rainbow trout and common carp, respectively. Cultured RLO were sensitive to chloramphenicol, flumequine, oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid and insensitive to gentamicin and amphotericin B. RLO antigens were compared with those of 3 strains of P. salmonis from Chilean salmon by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A silver-staining band of about 12 kDa was detected in proteinase K (PK) digests of all RLO strains, and a diffuse band of about 15 kDa was observed in 2 Chilean strains only. No other silver-stained bands were visible in PK digests of any strain examined. The polyclonal serum recognized 9 protein bands and multiple non-protein bands extending from less than 20 kDa to greater than 95 kDa in all isolates. The MAb reacted with an epitope in PK digests that occurred in all 4 strains on structures of widely ranging molecular masses, resulting in a ladder pattern similar to that obtained with polyclonal serum. Treatment of PK digests with periodic acid abolished reactivity with MAb and polyclonal serum. Co-elution of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate and MAb reactivity following size exclusion

  20. Influence of Benthic Macrofauna as a Spatial Structuring Agent for Juvenile Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf, Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Beatriz; Kenchington, Ellen L

    2016-01-01

    We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km-all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna.

  1. Influence of Benthic Macrofauna as a Spatial Structuring Agent for Juvenile Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf, Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km–all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna. PMID:27649419

  2. Role of sediment supply and relative sea-level on sediment delivery to submarine deltas and fans of the Laurentian Channel (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Francus, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Series of submarine canyons and channels observed in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE; Eastern Canada) provide an opportunity to analyze in great detail their morphology, spatial distribution and Holocene activity in a relatively shallow (≤300 m) semi-enclosed basin. Four categories of canyons and channels were identified according to their feeding sources: glacially-fed, river-fed, longshore drift-fed and sediment-starved systems. This presentation will focus on the interaction between glacially-fed, river-fed (deltas) and longshore drift-fed systems. Three main types of deposits were identified in sediment core samples and seismic stratigraphy: turbidites, debrites and hyperpycnites. The analysis of high-resolution multibeam data, seismic profiles and sediment cores reveals the differences in timing of these gravity flow deposits related to submarine fan deposition. Submarine fans related to glacial meltwaters were formed during deglaciation, near 11 ka cal BP. Following the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin in the LSLE, delta progradation allowed the formation of submarine channels by debris and hyperpycnal flows. A reduction of sediment supply from the rivers and a relative sea-level stabilization by 7 ka cal BP then limited the occurrence of these debris and hyperpycnal flows and favoured erosion of the delta fronts. During delta progradation, longshore drift-fed submarine fans were also formed due to high sediment supply, but continued transferring terrigenous material throughout the Holocene. This continued activity was possible because delta fronts eroded and longshore drift transported sediments to the canyons located at the end of a littoral cell. This study highlights that the variability and timing of sediment deposition in submarine deltas and fans is controlled primarily by variations in sediment supply in a formerly glaciated environment.

  3. Morphological Comparison of U3O8 Ore Concentrates from Canada Key Lake and Namibia Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Daniel S.; Tandon, Lav; Martinez, Patrick Thomas

    2016-03-11

    Uranium ore concentrates from two different sources were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ore powders are referred to as Namibia (id. no. 90036, LIMS id. no. 18775) and Canada Key Lake (id. no. 90019, LIMS id. no. 18774). Earlier work identified the ores as the U₃O₈ phase of uranium oxide using x-ray diffraction. Both sets of powders were in the form of dark brown to black powder fines. However, the Canada Key Lake concentrates contained larger chunks of material on the millimeter scale that were easily visible to the unaided eye. The powders were mounted for SEM examination by hand dispersing a small amount onto conductive sticky tape. Two types of applicators were used and compared: a fine-tipped spatula and a foam-tipped applicator. The sticky tape was on a standard SEM “tee” mount, which was tapped to remove loose contamination before being inserted into the SEM.

  4. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  5. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Methods Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Results Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having ‘some university’ was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. Conclusions and Implications for Practice While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors. PMID:27902741

  6. Studying Crust and Upper Mantle Structure in Eastern Canada with High-Resolution Teleseismic Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gao, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Teleseismic receiver function (RF) analysis is an important technique that is widely used in studying the Earth's crust and upper mantle structure. A critical step of this technique is the RF calculation which is an unstable deconvolution procedure. A spline-based RF calculation method is developed, and it is demonstrated that the stacked spline-based RFs have higher resolution than the stacked RFs calculated with the water-level spectral division and iterative deconvolution methods. The better RFs calculated with the spline method lead to improved determination of the optimal Moho depths and Vp/Vs ratios with greater resolution and clarity, albeit compatible optimal Moho depths and Vp/Vs ratios are obtained by employing all three RF calculation methods. In contrast to the iterative deconvolution and water-level spectral division methods, there is less extensive strap of high values on the H-k analysis image and the maximum peak is substantially sharper for the spline method. The broadband seismogram data are acquired at 9 stations of the UQAM / POLARIS Seismograph Network in Quebec in the Superior Province and Greenville Province of the Canadian Shield. Nice PmS converted phase is clearly seen for all the stations. The crustal thickness ranges from 32.5 km to 38.9 km, and the Vp/Vs ratio from 1.68 to 1.83. Several stations show excellent coherent signals of the converted phases on both the radial and tangential RFs over a range of backazimuthal variations. This would indicate evidence for intra-crustal and significant 3D and/or anisotropic structure. More detailed forward and inverse modeling of the lithospheric structure and comparison with other geological and geophysical data and information are in progress.

  7. Comparisons of Watershed Sulfur Budgets in Southeast Canada and Northeast US: New Approaches and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; ...

  8. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objectives To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to

  9. Comparison of pharmacist knowledge, perceptions and training opportunities regarding maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Qatar and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Serena; Kitutu, Freddy E.; Rahhal, Ala’a; Abu Samaha, Rana; Wilby, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacists have great potential to modify and optimize drug therapy in pregnancy and lactation, current literature demonstrates that they do not routinely provide this care and often feel ill equipped to do so. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists’ knowledge and perceptions of maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Uganda and Qatar. Secondary objectives were to determine factors associated with pharmacists’ knowledge and to characterize training opportunities and resources available to practising pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using online software (SurveyMonkey) was sent to the e-mails of potential research participants. Practising pharmacists and resident pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada; the country of Qatar; and the country of Uganda were eligible for inclusion. The survey was designed to assess knowledge and perceptions, and to create a baseline inventory of current practice and information resources used in practice. Results: The mean knowledge assessment scores of pharmacists in Canada, Qatar and Uganda were 62.9%, 53.3%, and 57.7%, respectively (p < 0.05). Pharmacists in British Columbia scored higher on knowledge assessment than pharmacists in Qatar (p < 0.05), but other country comparisons were not significant. No predefined factors (gender, years of experience, practice area or parental status) were found to be significant in determining the knowledge score. More than two-thirds of pharmacists expressed interest in participating in continuing education opportunities in maternal-fetal medicine. Conclusion: Pharmacists have differing levels of knowledge in the area of maternal-fetal medicine. Continuing education and degree curricula should be reviewed and developed to fill the knowledge gaps of student pharmacists and practising pharmacists in maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:25364351

  10. Single nucleotide repeat analysis of B. anthracis isolates in Canada through comparison of pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen R; Janzen, Timothy W; Thomas, Matthew C; Shields, Michael J; Goji, Noriko; Valle, Edith; Amoako, Kingsley K

    2014-03-14

    Several technology platforms have been developed to resolve the phylogenetic placement of B. anthracis. However, these methods lack the resolution to identify differences between closely related strains within an outbreak due to the highly clonal nature of B. anthracis. Single Nucleotide Repeats (SNRs) are a type of rapidly evolving genetic marker that can be used to track epidemiological distribution in the event of an outbreak. Four SNR targets were used to detect and type 35 B. anthracis isolates in our collection; 18 from across Canada obtained between 1972 and 2005 and 17 from the 2006 Anthrax outbreak in north eastern Saskatchewan. A control sequence was developed for pyrosequencing which yielded consistent and accurate reads of SNRs. However, when DNA from the isolates was tested using pyrosequencing the results were inconsistent and did not reflect the number of SNRs obtained by Sanger sequencing. The SNR numbers derived from the Sanger sequencing show two of the four SNR loci could provide information on subtype, whereas the other two were not discriminatory. There is variation in SNRs between strains isolated from different outbreaks, the subset of 2006 outbreak strains showed very little difference in SNR number, and thus suggests low diversity among the strains sampled from the same outbreak.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; S Curren, Meredith; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p'-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico☆

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Curren, Meredith S.; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p′-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p′-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America. PMID:25233368

  13. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  14. Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: Does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. The authors studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant.

  15. Rift flank uplift and thermal evolution of an intracratonic rift basin (eastern Canada) determined by combined apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Rebecca; Schneider, David; Metcalf, James; Flowers, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    As a significant portion of the world's oil reserves are retrieved from rift systems, a better understanding of the timing of thermal evolution and burial history of these systems will increase the potential for the discovery of hydrocarbon-bearing rifts. The Ottawa Embayment of the St. Lawrence Platform of eastern Canada is a reactivated intracratonic rift basin related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean at ca. 620-570 Ma, followed by the formation of the well-developed continental passive margin. Siliciclastic sediments derived from the adjacent uplifted Neoproterozoic Grenville basement provide the basin fill material. Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology allows for low-temperature analysis across the exposed crystalline rift flank into the synrift sedimentary sequence to resolve the unroofing, burial and subsidence history of the region. Samples were collected along a ~250 km NE-SW transect, oblique to the axis of the rift, from Mont-Tremblant, Québec (~900 m) to the central axis of the Paleozoic rift in the Southern Ontario Lowlands (~300 m). Targets included Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province along the rift flank and basinal Cambro-Ordovician Potsdam Group. Samples from the rift flank yield zircon ages from ca. 650 Ma to ca. 560 Ma and apatite ages from ca. 290 Ma to ca. 190 Ma, with a weak positive correlation between age and grain size. Zircon ages demonstrate a strong negative correlation with radiation damage: as eU increases, age decreases. By incorporating (U-Th)/He ages with regional constraints in the thermal modelling program HeFTy, viable temperature time paths for the region can be determined. Through inverse and forward modeling, preliminary rift flank (U-Th)/He ages correspond to post-Grenville cooling with <4 km of post-Carboniferous burial. The data define slow and long episodes of syn- to post-rift cooling with rates between 0.4 and 0.1 °C/Ma. (U-Th)/He dating of samples along the full-length of the transect

  16. Evaluating effects of climate variability, extreme weather events and thinning on carbon and water exchanges in managed temperate forests in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M.; Brodeur, J. J.; Trant, J.; Thorne, R.; Peichl, M.; Kula, M.; Parsaud, A.; Khader, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this study the impact of climate variability and extreme weather events on gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (E) is evaluated in an age-sequence (74-, 39- and 11-years old) of temperate pine (Pinus strobus L.) forests, north of Lake Erie in southern Ontario, Canada using ten years (2003-2012) of eddy covariance flux and meteorological data. Fluxes from conifer stands are also compared with measurements made in an 80-year-old deciduous (Carolinian) forest, established in 2012. All four sites are managed forests and part of the Turkey Point Flux Station and global Fluxnet. Ten-year mean NEP values were 169 (75 to 312), 371 (305 to 456, over 2008-2012) and 141 (-10 to 420) g C/m2/year in the 74-, 39-, and 11-year-old stand, respectively, while mean NEP in the 80-year-old deciduous stand was 286 g C/m2/year in 2012. This region is affected by low frequency climate oscillations, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The study period experienced four distinct extreme weather patterns: warm and dry springs in 2005 and 2012, extremely wet and warm summer in 2006, a summer drought in 2007 and warm summers in 2010 and 2012. In February-March 2012, the 74-year-old stand was selectively thinned and approximately 30% of trees were removed to improve light and water availability and stimulate growth of remaining trees. Thinning and warm/dry spring reduced NEP in the first post-thinning year, with mean annual NEP of 75 g C/m2/year in 2012. Increased supply of dead organic matter and warm temperatures in 2012 increased RE much more than GEP, resulting in lower annual NEP. Heat stress and drought in spring of 2005 reduced NEP of the 74-year stand to 78 g C/m2/year. The impact of this extreme weather event on NEP was similar to that observed in 2012 when stand experienced a drastic structural change, dry spring and warm temperatures throughout the

  17. Snowblading injuries in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, E; Rouah, F; Johnston, K

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate injury patterns of snowbladers and compare them with those of skiers and snowboarders. To determine possible effects of helmet use in these sports on injury to the head and neck. Methods: This prospective case series observational study was conducted by collecting the injury reports from the ski patrol during the 1999–2000 season at Mont Tremblant ski resort, Quebec. All participants in downhill winter sports who presented themselves to the ski patrol with traumatic injury related to their sport were included. A concussion was defined as any loss of consciousness, amnesia, confusion, disorientation, vertigo, or headache that resulted from injury. The ski patroller reported helmet use on the accident report at the time of injury. Results: Snowbladers present with a unique pattern of injury compared with skiers and snowboarders. The incidence of leg, knee, and ankle/foot injuries were 20.5%, 25.6%, and 10.3% respectively. Concussions represented 11% of all injuries. There was no increase in other injury, including neck injury, related to helmet use. Conclusions: Unique injury patterns in snowbladers warrant reconsideration of equipment design. Concussion is a common injury on the ski slope. Although the effects of helmet use on concussion rate are inconclusive based on this study, helmet use did not increase the rate of neck injury, even when adjusted for age. PMID:14665590

  18. Smoke Plume Over Eastern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In late May, a massive smoke plume hundreds of kilometers across blew eastward over New Brunswick toward the Atlantic Ocean. On May 26, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image at 11:40 a.m. local time. By the time MODIS took this picture, the smoke appeared to have completely detached itself from the source, a large fire burning in southwestern Quebec, beyond the western edge of this image. In this image, the smoke appears as a gray-beige opaque mass with fuzzy, translucent edges. The plume is thickest in the southwest and diminishes toward the northeast. Just southwest of the plume is a red outline indicating a hotspot an area where MODIS detected anomalously warm surface temperatures, such as those resulting from fires. This hotspot, however, is not the source for this smoke plume. According to a bulletin from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the southwestern Quebec fire was the source. According to reports from the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre on May 29, that fire was estimated at 63,211 hectares (156,197 acres), and it was classified as 'being held.' At the same time, more than 20 wildfires burned in Quebec, news sources reported, and firefighters from other Canadian provinces and the United States had been brought in to provide reinforcements for the area's firefighters.

  19. Regional differences in rates of plant speciation and molecular evolution: a comparison between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny; Zhang, Wen Heng; Ricklefs, Robert E; Qian, Hong; Chen, Zhi Duan; Wen, Jun; Hua, Jian L

    2004-10-01

    The eastern Asian (EAS)-eastern North American (ENA) floristic disjunction is one of the best-known biogeographic patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent paleontological and molecular analyses have illuminated the origins of the biogeographic pattern, but subsequent diversification and evolution of the disjunct floras in each of the two continents after isolation remains poorly understood. Although similar in climate and floristic composition, EAS has twice as many species as ENA in genera occurring in both regions. Explaining such differences in species diversity between regions with similar environmental conditions (diversity anomalies) is an important goal of the study of the global patterns of biodiversity. We used a phylogenetic approach to compare rates of net speciation and molecular evolution between the two regions. We first identified EAS-ENA disjunct sister clades from ten genera (Asarum, Buckleya, Carpinus, Carya, Cornus, Hamamelis, Illicium, Panax, Stewartia, and Styrax) that represent diverse angiosperm lineages using phylogenetic analyses of ITS (internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA) sequence data. Species richness and substitution rate of ITS between sister clades were compared. The results revealed a pattern of greater species diversity in the EAS counterparts. A positive relationship between species diversity and ITS substitution rate was also documented. These results suggest greater net speciation and accelerated molecular evolution in EAS. The data support the idea that a regional difference in net speciation rate related to topographic heterogeneity contributes to the diversity anomaly between EAS and ENA. The close relationship between rates of ITS evolution and species richness further suggests that species production may be directly linked to rate of nucleotide substitution.

  20. Comparison of earthquake source spectra and attenuation in eastern North America and southeastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.I.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paucity of ground-motion data in stable continental regions (SCRs) remains a key limitation when developing relations that seek to predict effects of strong ground shaking from large damaging earthquakes. It is desirable to combine data from more than one SCR to increase database size, but this raises questions as to whether the source and attenuation properties of the SCRs are equivalent. We compare recently compiled spectral-amplitude databases from small to moderate events (moment magnitudes, 2.0 ??? M ??? 5.0) in both southeastern Australia and eastern North America (ENA). Both are SCRs but are widely separated, spatially and in tectonic history. We statistically compare ground motions by plotting mean and standard deviations of spectral amplitudes for data grouped in magnitude and distance bins. These comparisons show that the source and attenuation properties of the two regions are very similar, in particular, at shorter hypocentral distances R (i.e., R < 70 km). At larger distances, regional attenuation differences are observed that may be attributed to differences in crustal structure. We conclude that it is valid to combine the Australian and ENA ground-motion datasets in the development of ground-motion prediction equations, with some limitations in frequency and distance ranges. These ground-motion relations may serve as generic functions for SCRs around the world.

  1. Clinical characteristics and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: A comparison of Eastern and Western perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammatory disorder with unidentified causes. Both environmental factors and genetic aspects are believed to be crucial to the pathogenesis of IBD. The incidence and prevalence of IBD have recently been increasing throughout Asia, presumably secondary to environmental changes. This increasing trend in IBD epidemiology necessitates specific health care planning and education in Asia. To this end, we must gain a precise understanding of the distinctive clinical and therapeutic characteristics of Asian patients with IBD. The phenotypes of IBD reportedly differ considerably between Asians and Caucasians. Thus, use of the same management strategies for these different populations may not be appropriate. Moreover, investigation of the Asian-specific clinical aspects of IBD offers the possibility of identifying causative factors in the pathogenesis of IBD in this geographical area. Accordingly, this review summarizes current knowledge of the phenotypic manifestations and management practices of patients with IBD, with a special focus on a comparison of Eastern and Western perspectives. PMID:25206259

  2. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  3. Comparison of Magnetic Anomalies of Lithospheric Origin Measured by Satellite and Airborne Magnetometers over Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Coles, R. L.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly data from the OGO 2, 4 and 6 (Pogo) satellites are compared with upward-continued aeromagnetic data between 50 deg -85 deg N latitude and 220 deg - 260 deg E longitude. Agreement is good both in anomaly location and in amplitude, giving confidence that it is possible to proceed with the derivation and interpretation of satellite anomaly maps in all parts of the globe. The data contain a magnetic high over the Alpha ridge suggesting continental composition and a magnetic low over the southern Canada basin and northern Canadian Arctic islands (Sverdrup basin). The low in the Sverdrup basin corresponds to a region of high heat flow, suggesting a shallow Curie isotherm. A ridge of high field, with two distinct peaks in amplitude, is found over the northern portion of the platform deposits and a relative high is located in the central portion of the Churchill province. No features are present to indicate a magnetic boundary between Slave and Bear provinces, but a trend change is evident between Slave and Churchill provinces. South of 60 deg latitude a broad magnetic low is located over very thick (40-50 km) crust, interpreted to be a region of low magnetization.

  4. Parental practices in late adolescence, a comparison of three countries: Canada, France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Bouchard, Céline; Perucchini, Paula

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine parental practices, such as affection, control and conflict, in three countries: Canada, France and Italy. The sample was composed of more than 900 late adolescents with an average age of 17 years, from three large cities: Montreal, Paris and Rome. Participants answered a self-report questionnaire that assessed five measures: emotional bonds with the father and mother, parental supervision, tolerance towards friends, punitiveness for violation of rules, and conflict frequency. Analyses of the results indicated that the country of origin discriminated for most of the parental practice dimensions. Canadian adolescents considered their parents to be more tolerant and rated them as using less punitive measures when rules were broken. Canadian parents also seemed to adopt comparable norms for boys and girls, which could be interpreted as a form of sexual egalitarianism, whereas Italian and French parents appeared less tolerant towards girls. Italian adolescents reported strong emotional bonds with each parent, and also identified more conflicts in their relationships with parents. French adolescents reported weaker emotional bonds with each parent and less parental supervision. Results were interpreted in the light of studies that have reported an influence of cultural background on both parental practices and parental decisions in each of these countries.

  5. Comparison of gridded snow water equivalent products with in situ measurements in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.

    2016-10-01

    Regional-scale estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) are challenging in alpine regions, particularly in areas of high accumulation and dense forest cover, suggesting efforts to improve these estimates may benefit from an evaluation of existing gridded products. Gridded SWE products comprising four reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and MERRA-Land), two land data assimilation system datasets (GLDAS1 and GLDAS2) and two observation-based products (CMC and GlobSnow) have been compared with in-situ measurements over five physiographic regions in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Time series were generated for each survey month (January through June), and median correlation, bias and mean absolute error (MAE) values were found for each product and physiographic region. The best performance in correlation and magnitude of bias and MAE was seen in areas of lowest SWE accumulation and land relief (e.g. the Interior Plains of northern BC), while poorer performance was seen in regions of high accumulation and complex topography (Columbia and Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains). Overall, the performance ranking order is ERA-Interim/Land (best), GLDAS2, MERRA, CMC, GLDAS1, MERRA-Land, GlobSnow and ERA-Interim.

  6. Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. We studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant. It was concluded that, without further development, western shale retorting processes are not adequate for use with eastern shale. The HYTORT process produces oil at a cost nearly competitive with oil from western shale however.

  7. A cross-cultural comparison of pressures to switch left-hand writing: Brazil versus Canada.

    PubMed

    Porac, Clare; Martin, William Lee Berdel

    2007-05-01

    Attempts to switch left-hand preferences towards the right side are socialisation practices found in many countries (Perelle & Ehrman, 1994). Although researchers acknowledge that pressures against left-hand use contribute to the cross-cultural fluctuations in the prevalence of left- versus right-hand preference, there has been little systematic cross-cultural study of how these pressures are applied, and who are the major agents applying the pressures to change. Our study explored specific rightward conversion practices and the results of these practices among individuals from two countries. One sample of participants was from a culture categorised as formal, Brazil, and the second sample was from Canada, a nonformal culture (Hofstede, 2001). Researchers have argued that prevalence rates of right-handedness should be higher in cultures that value conformity, called formal cultures, and lower among members of nonformal cultures where conformity pressures are lax (Medland, Perelle, De Monte, & Ehrman, 2004). The socialisation practices used to foster a change from the left to the right side are also predicted to differ in frequency and in kind in formal versus nonformal cultural settings. These cultural differences are assumed to result in differences in success rates of the conversion attempts, with formal cultures producing higher numbers of successfully converted right-handers. Our findings indicate that the formal versus nonformal cultural explanation for cross-cultural fluctuations in the prevalence of hand preference types does not account for the characteristics of the rightward conversion experiences reported by participants in the two groups. We propose that hypotheses concerning the effects of cultural differences on hand preference formation be expanded to include possible biological or genetic variance between groups.

  8. Collocated comparisons of continuous and filter-based PM2.5 measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Percy, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collocated comparisons for three PM2.5 monitors were conducted from June 2011 to May 2013 at an air monitoring station in the residential area of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, a city located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Extremely cold winters (down to approximately −40°C) coupled with low PM2.5 concentrations present a challenge for continuous measurements. Both the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), operated at 40°C (i.e., TEOM40), and Synchronized Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate (SHARP, a Federal Equivalent Method [FEM]), were compared with a Partisol PM2.5 U.S. Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler. While hourly TEOM40 PM2.5 were consistently ~20–50% lower than that of SHARP, no statistically significant differences were found between the 24-hr averages for FRM and SHARP. Orthogonal regression (OR) equations derived from FRM and TEOM40 were used to adjust the TEOM40 (i.e., TEOMadj) and improve its agreement with FRM, particularly for the cold season. The 12-year-long hourly TEOMadj measurements from 1999 to 2011 based on the OR equations between SHARP and TEOM40 were derived from the 2-year (2011–2013) collocated measurements. The trend analysis combining both TEOMadj and SHARP measurements showed a statistically significant decrease in PM2.5 concentrations with a seasonal slope of −0.15 μg m−3 yr−1 from 1999 to 2014.Implications: Consistency in PM2.5 measurements are needed for trend analysis. Collocated comparison among the three PM2.5 monitors demonstrated the difference between FRM and TEOM, as well as between SHARP and TEOM. The orthogonal regressions equations can be applied to correct historical TEOM data to examine long-term trends within the network. PMID:26727574

  9. Oral rabies vaccination in raccoons: comparison of ONRAB® and RABORAL V-RG® vaccine-bait field performance in Québec, Canada and Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Slate, Dennis; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The control of rabies in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in North America has been conducted mainly through aerial distribution of oral vaccine-baits. The effectiveness of the vaccine-bait used is therefore of prime importance for disease eradication. In a previous field comparison between the ONRAB(®) bait in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, and RABORAL V-RG(®) bait in the state of Maine, USA, the ONRAB bait produced a higher percentage of antibody-positive raccoons under nearly identical bait distribution for the two vaccines. The main objective of the present study was to conduct a similar cross-border comparison of these two vaccine-baits using raccoon sera collected during post-oral rabies vaccination monitoring in Québec, Canada, and Vermont, USA, where ONRAB and V-RG, respectively, were distributed aerially at a targeted density of 150 baits/km(2). A comparison of the equivalency of two serologic tests used in Canada and the USA was also conducted using sera from raccoons and striped skunks. Rabies virus neutralization assay (USA) yielded similar results to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Canada), with agreement between the two tests of 92% for raccoon sera and 96% for skunk sera. With both assays, the percentage of antibody-positive raccoons was greater with ONRAB (51%, n=265) than with V-RG (38%, n=66). These new results support the conclusion from the previous study, that ONRAB vaccine-baits may be more effective for the control of rabies in raccoons.

  10. International comparison of common risk factors of preterm birth between the U.S. and Canada, using PRAMS and MES (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Nagulesapillai, Tharsiya; Metcalfe, Amy; Tough, Suzanne; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of newborn deaths and morbidities. The pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) from the U.S., and the maternity experiences survey (MES) from Canada, which was modeled from PRAMS, were used to examine between-country differences in risk factors of preterm birth. The adjusted risk ratio and population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated for modifiable and semi-modifiable risk factors of PTB, and all measures were compared between the U.S. and Canada. PTB was defined here as a live singleton birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks gestation (using the clinical gestational age estimate) where the baby was living with the mother at the time of the survey. The PTB risk was 7.6 % (SE = 0.2) in the U.S. and 4.9 % (SE = 0.3) in Canada. The a priori high risk category of factors was almost always more prevalent in the U.S. than Canada, suggesting broad social differences, but individually most of these differences were not associated with PTB. The underlying risk of PTB was generally higher in the U.S. in both the higher risk and referent categories, and the risk ratios for most risk factors were similar between the countries. The primary exception was for recurrence of PTB, where the risk ratio (RR) and PAF were much higher in Canada. We observed between-country differences in both the prevalence of risk factors and the adjusted RR. Further between-country comparisons may lead to important inferences as to the influence of modifiable risk factors contributing to PTB.

  11. [Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island.

  12. A 2000-yr-long multi-proxy lacustrine record from eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada reveals first millennium AD cold period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Briner, Jason P.; Axford, Yarrow; Francis, Donna R.; Miller, Gifford H.; Walker, Ian R.

    2011-05-01

    We generate a multi-proxy sub-centennial-scale reconstruction of environmental change during the past two millennia from Itilliq Lake, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. Our reconstruction arises from a finely subsectioned 210Pb- and 14C-dated surface sediment core and includes measures of organic matter (e.g., chlorophyll a; carbon-nitrogen ratio) and insect (Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages. Within the past millennium, the least productive, and by inference coldest, conditions occurred ca. AD 1700-1850, late in the Little Ice Age. The 2000-yr sediment record also reveals an episode of reduced organic matter deposition during the 6th-7th century AD; combined with the few other records comparable in resolution that span this time interval from Baffin Island, we suggest that this cold episode was experienced regionally. A comparable cold climatic episode occurred in Alaska and western Canada at this time, suggesting that the first millennium AD cold climate anomaly may have occurred throughout the Arctic. Dramatic increases in aquatic biological productivity at multiple trophic levels are indicated by increased chlorophyll a concentrations since AD 1800 and chironomid concentrations since AD 1900, both of which have risen to levels unprecedented over the past 2000 yr.

  13. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  14. Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

    2009-04-01

    The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

  15. The Academic Takes It All? A Comparison of Returns to Investment in Education between Graduates and Apprentices in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopatz, Susanne; Pilz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the returns to education of specific occupations in Canada. The purpose is to scrutinize whether and in how far academic and vocational education do differ in monetary benefits regarding individual returns. Therefore, two different methodologies of calculation are used to compute the concrete returns to education. As a result…

  16. Mesozooplankton stable isotope composition in Cyprus coastal waters and comparison with the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Frangoulis, Constantin; Lange, Manfred A.

    2015-03-01

    Here we use bulk and amino acid-specific stable nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) to evaluate seasonal and regional change in mesozooplankton dynamics for the first time in coastal waters of the eastern Mediterranean. Cyprus mesozooplankton δ15N values were significantly higher in late winter (2.3‰) than in summer (1.2‰), and in all cases were less than the δ15N values of mesozooplankton in the northeast Aegean Sea (NEA; 3.4‰). AA-CSIA indicates that these differences can primarily be attributed to seasonal and regional change in mesozooplankton community trophic structure, with overall trophic position increasing by 0.2-0.3 in winter as compared to summer around Cyprus, and trophic position higher in the NEA than in Cyprus by 0.3-0.6. Such differences are most likely related to the larger contribution of carnivorous mesozooplankton observed in winter around Cyprus and in the NEA. Overall, our findings indicate change in bulk mesozooplankton δ15N value in the eastern Mediterranean is primarily driven by change in community trophic position, rather than variability in δ15N value at the base of the food web.

  17. Comparison of low flows from the VIC hydrological model with observations for the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is a land surface hydrological model that simulates daily discharge flows and is used to for understanding and predicting the development and recovery of drought and its impacts, among other things. The ability of the model to accurately represent low flows is central to the development of prediction and early warning systems, as well as for decision-making for water management. In this study we compared VIC simulated streamflow over the eastern US with observed 1-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day low flows, each of which has importance for a different aspect of water use, including water quality standards and reservoir operations. An initial set of 508 USGS observational sites were selected with data ranging from 1959 to 2005. We used a decomposition algorithm to identify those sites with significant step changes (detected by the Pettitt test), and significant autocorrelation (detected by the Ljung-Box test). We removed such sites from further analysis and used the remaining sites for validation of the VIC model. The number of the remaining sites for 1-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day low flows were 395, 433, 453, and 467, respectively. To account for potentially different low flow dates between observations and model, a 4-month window was used for detecting the onset of the low flow periods. A hypothesis test was performed to evaluate how well the model explains the variability of observed low flows (regression analysis). Our results showed that the VIC model in its current state of calibration has the highest regression coefficient with sites that show no trends based on the Mann-Kendall test. The observed data in the northeast and the southeast of the eastern US show an increasing and decreasing trend, respectively, in the size of n-day low flows. The regression model is also consistent with the USGS land use change map over 1973-2000, which indicates deforestation in the northeast and southeast from timber harvesting

  18. Impact of public funding on the development of nanotechnology: A comparison of Quebec, Canada and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmooresnejad, Leila

    Nanotechnology is considered to be the most promising high technology of this century. Worldwide investment in this technology has rapidly increased in the past two decades, and it will likely drive future economic growth. Research in this new science-based technology requires significant public funding to facilitate knowledge production, reduce related uncertainties and risks, and ensure the success of nanotechnology development. Given its potential in a wide range of domains, governments and policymakers have sought to efficiently allocate funding to maximize economic benefits. It is therefore essential to further our understanding of how public funding influences research performance. The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of public funding on nanotechnology development, with a special focus on scientific and technological research outputs. The research objectives are twofold: we first seek to examine this funding influence, and second to explore the impact of collaboration and related scientific and innovative networks on nanotechnology development. Afterwards, our goal is to compare the impact of funding and of nanotechnology collaborative networks between Canada and the US on scientific and technological research outputs. This research deals with the prominent outputs of academic research, publications and patents, and characterizes collaborative networks using the co-publication and co-invention links between scientists and inventors. This thesis contributes significantly to the following research questions: how increased public funding to nanotechnology scientists enhances nanotechnology-related publications and patents in terms of (a) number and (b) quality? Are researchers who hold a more influential network position in co-publication/co-invention networks more productive and more cited? Is the influence of public funding on nanotechnology research different in Canada compared with the US? To answer these questions, information about

  19. Recent peat accumulation rates in minerotrophic peatlands of the Bay James region, Eastern Canada, inferred by 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam A; Ghaleb, Bassam; Garneau, Michelle; Asnong, Hans; Loisel, Julie

    2008-10-01

    (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques are used to characterise recent peat accumulation rates of two minerotrophic peatlands located in the La Grande Rivière hydrological watershed, in the James Bay region (Canada). Several cores were collected during the summer 2005 in different parts of the two selected peatlands. These minerotrophic patterned peatlands are presently affected by erosion processes, expressed by progressive mechanical destruction of their pools borders. This erosion process is related to a water table rise induced by a regional increase of humidity since the last century. The main objective of the present paper is to (1) evaluate if (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques can be applied to build accurate chronologies in these environments and (2) detect changes in the peat accumulation rates in regard to this amplification of humidity. In both sites, unsupported (210)Pb shows an exponential decreasing according to the depth. Chronologies inferred from (210)Pb allow to reconstruct peat accumulation rates since ca. 1855 AD. The (137)Cs data displayed evident mobility and diffusion, preventing the establishment of any sustained chronology based on these measurements. In the two sites, peat accumulation rates inferred from (210)Pb chronologies fluctuate between 0.005 and 0.038 g cm(-2) yr(-1). As a result, the rise of the water table during the last decade has not yet affected peat accumulation rates.

  20. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Svensson, Lovisa; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin´s gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds. PMID:26496629

  1. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile.

    PubMed

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Waldenström, Jonas; Svensson, Lovisa; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin´s gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds.

  2. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  3. Br/Cl ratios and O, H, C, and B isotopic constraints on the origin of saline waters from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leybourne, M. I.; Goodfellow, W. D.

    2007-05-01

    Saline groundwaters were recovered from undisturbed (Restigouche deposit) and active (Brunswick #12 mine) Zn-Pb volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bathurst Mining Camp (BMC), northern New Brunswick, Canada. These groundwaters, along with fresh to brackish meteoric ground and surface waters from the BMC, have been analyzed to determine their major, trace element and stable isotopic (O, H, C, and B) compositions. Saline groundwaters (total dissolved solids = 22-45 g/L) are characterized by relatively high Na/Ca ratios compared to brines from the Canadian Shield and low Na/Cl molar and δ11B isotopic compositions (-2.5‰ to 11.1‰) compared to seawater. Although saline waters from the Canadian Shield commonly have oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions that plot to the left of the global meteoric water line, those from the BMC fall close to the water line. Fracture and vein carbonate minerals at the Restigouche deposit have restricted carbon isotopic compositions of around -5‰ to -6‰. The carbon isotopic compositions of the saline waters at the Restigouche deposit (+12‰ δ13C DIC) are the result of fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon by methanogenesis. We suggest that, unlike previous models for shield brines, the composition of saline waters in the BMC is best explained by prolonged water-rock reaction, with no requirement of precursor seawater. We suggest that elevated Br/Cl ratios of saline waters compared to seawater may be explained by differential uptake of Br and Cl during groundwater evolution through water-rock reaction.

  4. Comparison of culture versus quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis in field samples from naturally infected horses in Canada and Germany.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan; Knowles, Margaret K; Burke, Teresa; Böse, Reinhard; Devenish, John

    2015-07-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) was developed and tested for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis. It was shown to have an analytical sensitivity of 5 colony-forming units (CFU) of T. equigenitalis when applied to the testing of culture swabs that mimicked field samples, and a high analytical specificity in not reacting to 8 other commensal bacterial species associated with horses. As designed, it could also differentiate specifically between T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis. The qPCR was compared to standard culture in a study that included 45 swab samples from 6 horses (1 stallion, 5 mares) naturally infected with T. equigenitalis in Canada, 39 swab samples from 5 naturally infected stallions in Germany, and 311 swab samples from 87 culture negative horses in Canada. When the comparison was conducted on an individual sample swab basis, the qPCR had a statistical sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% and 99.1% when the comparison was conducted on a sample set basis. A comparison was also made on 203 sample swabs from the 5 German stallions taken over a span of 4 to 9 mo following antibiotic treatment. The qPCR was found to be highly sensitive and at least as good as culture in detecting the presence of T. equigenitalis in post-treatment samples. The work demonstrates that the qPCR assay described here can potentially be used to detect the presence of T. equigenitalis directly from submitted sample swabs taken from infected horses and also for determining T. equigenitalis freedom following treatment.

  5. Carbonate comparison of west Florida continental margin with margins of eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Temperate carbonate margins may have as many similarities to clastic margins as to other carbonate systems. An example is the west Florida continental margin north of Florida Bay, a vast area of more than 150,000 km/sup 2/. The facies of this area differ from those of other Holocene carbonates, such as the Bahama Banks, the Great Barrier Reef, and the Caribbean and Pacific bioherms. The west Florida margin is analogous to the predominantly clastic southeastern US in both physiology and sedimentary processes. The shelf facies is a veneer of carbonate sand, primarily molluscan shell fragments, with low sedimentation rates. It is similar to the southeastern US sand veneer with the clastic component removed. Like the US system, the west Florida shelf has a ridge and swale topography replete with sedimentary structures, such as sand waves, with a series of drainage systems incised into its surface at lower stands of sea level. On the outer edge, it is commonly bounded by outcrops with considerable positive relief. The upper slope of the west Florida margin is a calcilutite, a Holocene chalk deposit accumulating at rates of tens of centimeters/1000 years, comparable to the clastic lutite depositional rates of the eastern US continental slope, and two orders of magnitude higher than deep-sea oozes of similar composition. These relatively high rates are probably caused by fines pumped from and across the coarser shelf-sand sheets in both systems.

  6. Comparison of tobacco control policies in the Eastern Mediterranean countries based on Tobacco Control Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M

    2012-08-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region.

  7. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  8. Spatially explicit simulation of hydrologically controlled carbon and nitrogen cycles and associated feedback mechanisms in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, A.; Chen, J. M.; Margolis, H.

    2007-12-01

    Current estimates of terrestrial carbon overlook the effects of topographically-driven lateral flow of soil water. We hypothesize that this component, which occur at a landscape or watershed scale have significant influences on the spatial distribution of carbon, due to its large contribution to the local water balance. To this end, we further developed a spatially explicit ecohydrological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0. We simulated the coupled hydrological and carbon cycle processes in a black spruce-moss ecosystem in central Quebec, Canada. The carbon stocks were initialized using a long term carbon cycling model, InTEC, under a climate change and disturbance scenario, the accuracy of which was determined with inventory plot measurements. Further, we simulated and validated several ecosystem indicators such as ET, GPP, NEP, water table, snow depth and soil temperature, using the measurements for two years, 2004 and 2005. After gaining confidence in the model's ability to simulate ecohydrological processes, we tested the influence of lateral water flow on the carbon cycle. We made three hydrological modeling scenarios 1) Explicit, were realistic lateral water routing was considered 2) Implicit where calculations were based on a bucket modeling approach 3) NoFlow, where the lateral water flow was turned off in the model. The results showed that pronounced anomalies exist among the scenarios for the simulated GPP, ET and NEP. In general, Implicit calculation overestimated GPP and underestimated NEP, as opposed to Explicit simulation. NoFlow underestimated GPP and overestimated NEP. The key processes controlling GPP were manifested through stomatal conductance which reduces under conditions of rapid soil saturation ( NoFlow ) or increases in the Implicit case, and, nitrogen availability which affects Vcmax, the maximum carboxylation rate. However, for NEP, the anomalies were attributed to differences in soil carbon pool decomposition, which determine the heterotrophic

  9. Paleo-environmental gateways in the eastern Canadian arctic - Recent isotope hydrology and diatom oxygen isotopes from Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapligin, B.; Narancic, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake is located on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada between the areas of past warming (Canadian High Arctic to the North) and climatic stability (Northern Quebec and Labrador region to the South). Despite being the largest lake in the Nunavut region with a postglacial marine to lacustrine transition history only a few paleo-environmental investigations were completed in this area. The oxygen isotope composition of diatoms (δ18Odiatom) can provide valuable insights into paleo-environmental conditions. Here, the recent (isotope) hydrology and hydrochemical data from the lake are presented to facilitate the interpretation of a δ18Odiatom record from an 82 cm sediment core (Ni-2B). The well-mixed lake (δ18Owater = -17.4‰) is influenced by a heavier (less negative) isotope composition (-18.80‰) from Amadjuak River draining Amadjuak Lake to the South and water of lighter (more negative) isotopic composition (-16.4‰) from the Isurtuq River originating from Penny Ice Cap in the North-East. From the δ18Owater and δ18Odiatom of the topmost sample of core Ni-2B a Δ18Osilica-water of 1000 ln α(silica-water) = 40.2‰ for sub-recent diatoms of Nettilling Lake was calculated matching the known water-silica fractionation for fossil sediments well and thereby showing the general applicability of this proxy for paleo-reconstructions in this region. Extremely large δ18Odiatom variations in the core of more than 13‰ are mainly induced by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water due to a shift from glaciomarine (δ18Odiatom = +34.6‰) through brackish (+23.4 to +27.2‰) towards lacustrine (+21.5‰) conditions (transition zones glaciomarine to brackish at 69 cm/7300 yr cal. BP and brackish to lacustrine at 35 cm/6000 yr cal. BP) associated with a shift in the degree of salinity. Our study provides the first evidence that paleo-salinity can be reconstructed by δ18Odiatom. Additionally, for the lacustrine section it could be demonstrated that

  10. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  11. Cross-national comparison of adolescent drinking and cannabis use in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Pickett, William; Boyce, Will; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    Background This research examined the prevalence of drinking and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands, countries with substantially different laws and policies relating to these substances. Method Laws regarding drinking and marijuana use were rated for each country. Substance use prevalence data among 10th graders from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey conducted in each country in 2005–06 were examined. Results Laws regarding alcohol and cannabis were found to be strictest in the United States, somewhat less strict in Canada, and least strict in the Netherlands. On most measures of drinking, rates were lower in the United States than in Canada or the Netherlands. With United States as the referent, relative risks (RR) for monthly drinking were 1.30 (1.11–1.53) for Canadian boys and 1.55 (1.31–1.83) for girls, and 2.0 (1.73–2.31) for Dutch boys and 1.92 (1.62–2.27) for Dutch girls. Drunkenness was also higher among Canadian boys and girls and Dutch boys. However, rates of cannabis use did not differ between the countries, except that Dutch girls were less likely to use cannabis in the past year (RR= .67; 0.46–0.96). Conclusions The lower prevalence of adolescent drinking and drunkenness (except among Dutch girls) in the United States is consistent with the contention that strict drinking policies may limit drinking among 10th graders. However, the finding that marijuana use rates did not differ across countries is not consistent with the contention that prohibition-oriented policies deter use or that liberal marijuana policies are associated with elevated adolescent use. Based on these findings, the case for strict laws and policies is considerably weaker for marijuana than for alcohol. PMID:19303761

  12. Lanternfish (Myctophidae) Zoogeography off Eastern Australia: A Comparison with Physicochemical Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Adrian J.; Marshall, N. Justin

    2013-01-01

    In this first attempt to model the distributions of a mesopelagic fish family at this scale in the eastern Australian region (10°S to 57°S), lanternfish species occurrence data spanning a period from 1928 to 2010 were modelled against environmental covariates. This involved: (1) data collation and taxonomic quality checking, (2) classification of trawls into “horizontal” (presence-absence) and “oblique” (presence-only) types, and classification of vertical migration patterns using existing literature and the species occurrence database, (3) binomial GAMs using presence-absence data for representative temperate, subtropical and tropical species to examine depth interactions with environmental covariates and refine the selection of environmental layers for presence-only MAXENT models, (4) Presence-only MAXENT modelling using data from all trawls and the reduced environmental layers, and (5) Multivariate analysis (area-wise and species-wise) of the resulting matrix of logistic score by geographic pixel. We test the hypothesis that major fronts in the region (Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence, Subantarctic Front) represent zoogeographic boundaries. A four-region zoogeographic scheme is hypothesised: Coral Sea region, Subtropical Lower Water region, Subtropical Convergence/South Tasman region and Subantarctic region. The Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence and Subantarctic Front represented zoogeographic boundaries. An additional boundary at ∼25°S (coined the ‘Capricorn’ boundary) was adopted to delineate the Coral Sea from Subtropical Lower Water regions. Lanternfish zoogeographic regions are congruent with some aspects of two prevailing physicochemical biogeographic schema in the region, but neither of these schema alone accurately predicts lanternfish distributions. As lanternfishes integrate vertical ocean processes, the hypothesised lanternfish zoogeography may represent a useful model for a generalised pelagic biogeography that should be

  13. Lanternfish (Myctophidae) zoogeography off eastern Australia: a comparison with physicochemical biogeography.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Adrian J; Marshall, N Justin

    2013-01-01

    In this first attempt to model the distributions of a mesopelagic fish family at this scale in the eastern Australian region (10°S to 57°S), lanternfish species occurrence data spanning a period from 1928 to 2010 were modelled against environmental covariates. This involved: (1) data collation and taxonomic quality checking, (2) classification of trawls into "horizontal" (presence-absence) and "oblique" (presence-only) types, and classification of vertical migration patterns using existing literature and the species occurrence database, (3) binomial GAMs using presence-absence data for representative temperate, subtropical and tropical species to examine depth interactions with environmental covariates and refine the selection of environmental layers for presence-only MAXENT models, (4) Presence-only MAXENT modelling using data from all trawls and the reduced environmental layers, and (5) Multivariate analysis (area-wise and species-wise) of the resulting matrix of logistic score by geographic pixel. We test the hypothesis that major fronts in the region (Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence, Subantarctic Front) represent zoogeographic boundaries. A four-region zoogeographic scheme is hypothesised: Coral Sea region, Subtropical Lower Water region, Subtropical Convergence/South Tasman region and Subantarctic region. The Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence and Subantarctic Front represented zoogeographic boundaries. An additional boundary at ∼25°S (coined the 'Capricorn' boundary) was adopted to delineate the Coral Sea from Subtropical Lower Water regions. Lanternfish zoogeographic regions are congruent with some aspects of two prevailing physicochemical biogeographic schema in the region, but neither of these schema alone accurately predicts lanternfish distributions. As lanternfishes integrate vertical ocean processes, the hypothesised lanternfish zoogeography may represent a useful model for a generalised pelagic biogeography that should be tested for

  14. Sediment transport processes at the head of Halibut Canyon, Eastern Canada margin: An interplay between internal tides and dense shelf water cascading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Pere; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Li, Michael Z.; Prescott, Robert H.; Piper, David J. W.

    2013-04-01

    during one or two tidal cycles. A similar transport mechanism can occur in other submarine canyons along the eastern Canadian margin, as well in other canyoned regions elsewhere, where winter convection generally reaches the shelf-edge.

  15. Firearm Homicide in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand: What Can We Learn from Long-Term International Comparisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine; Singh, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    Although firearm homicide remains a topic of interest within criminological and policy discourse, existing research does not generally undertake longitudinal comparisons between countries. However, cross-country comparisons provide insight into whether "local" trends (e.g., declines in firearm homicide in one particular country) differ…

  16. Stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Martin, Pamela A; Bishop, Christine A; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relative effects of pesticides in current use and persistent residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), we examined endocrine and immune responses in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks from pesticide-sprayed apple orchards and reference sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000 to 2001. Nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five mixtures of pesticides during the egg-incubation and chick-rearing stage. Eggs collected from sprayed orchards contained higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than eggs from reference sites. In 16-d-old tree swallows, no significant differences were found in body mass, basal corticosterone concentration, or the corticosterone stress response following a 10-min restraint of chicks sampled from sprayed orchards and reference sites. Challenge with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), however, produced a higher level of corticosterone secretion in tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards relative to chicks from reference sites. Multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between corticosterone concentrations and exposure to pesticide sprays or p,p'-DDE in tree swallow chicks. In contrast, bluebird chicks from sprayed orchards were less responsive to challenge with ACTH and a significant negative association was found between the response to ACTH challenge and p,p'-DDE concentration in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response was similar between exposure groups in both tree swallow and bluebird nestlings. Examination of immune organs revealed that tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards had significantly greater thymic lymphocyte density and cortical/ medullary ratios and significant splenic B-cell hyperplasia relative to reference chicks. Our results indicate that modulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in songbird chicks tested are most associated

  17. The Association Between HIV Disclosure Status and Perceived Barriers to Care Faced by Women Living with HIV in Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Johnson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Samarina, Anna; Vasquez, Patricia; Hao-Lan, He; Madihlaba, Tshepiso; Martinez-Tristani, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment. BACS and QoL were stratified by dichotomized HIV disclosure status (to anyone outside the healthcare system). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with disclosure. Of 1945 patients enrolled from Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada between July 2012 and September 2013, 1929 were included in the analysis (disclosed, n = 1724; nondisclosed, n = 205). Overall, 55% of patients lived with a husband/partner, 53% were employed, and 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Patients who were with a serodiscordant partner were more likely to disclose (p = 0.0003). China had a disproportionately higher percentage of participants who did not disclose at all (nearly 30% vs. <15% for other regions). Mean BACS severity scores for medical/psychological service barriers and most personal resource barriers were significantly lower for the disclosed group compared with the nondisclosed group (p ≤ 0.02 for all). Compared with the disclosed group, the nondisclosed group reported statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.03) BACS item severity scores for 8 of the 12 potential barriers to care. The disclosed group reported better QoL. Overall, HIV nondisclosure was associated with more severe barriers to accessing healthcare by women with HIV. PMID:27551959

  18. The Association Between HIV Disclosure Status and Perceived Barriers to Care Faced by Women Living with HIV in Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada.

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Mona; Johnson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Samarina, Anna; Vasquez, Patricia; Hao-Lan, He; Madihlaba, Tshepiso; Martinez-Tristani, Marisol; van Wyk, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment. BACS and QoL were stratified by dichotomized HIV disclosure status (to anyone outside the healthcare system). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with disclosure. Of 1945 patients enrolled from Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada between July 2012 and September 2013, 1929 were included in the analysis (disclosed, n = 1724; nondisclosed, n = 205). Overall, 55% of patients lived with a husband/partner, 53% were employed, and 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Patients who were with a serodiscordant partner were more likely to disclose (p = 0.0003). China had a disproportionately higher percentage of participants who did not disclose at all (nearly 30% vs. <15% for other regions). Mean BACS severity scores for medical/psychological service barriers and most personal resource barriers were significantly lower for the disclosed group compared with the nondisclosed group (p ≤ 0.02 for all). Compared with the disclosed group, the nondisclosed group reported statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.03) BACS item severity scores for 8 of the 12 potential barriers to care. The disclosed group reported better QoL. Overall, HIV nondisclosure was associated with more severe barriers to accessing healthcare by women with HIV.

  19. Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors use in Australia and Nova Scotia (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, Nadia; Sketris, Ingrid; Cooke, Charmaine; Tett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors were marketed aggressively and their rapid uptake caused safety concerns and budgetary challenges in Canada and Australia. The objectives of this study were to compare and contrast COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ns-NSAID) use in Nova Scotia (Canada) and Australia and to identify lessons learned from the two jurisdictions. METHODS Ns-NSAID and COX-2 inhibitor Australian prescription data (concession beneficiaries) were downloaded from the Medicare Australia website (2001–2006). Similar Pharmacare data were obtained for Nova Scotia (seniors and those receiving Community services). Defined daily doses per 1000 beneficiaries day−1 were calculated. COX-2 inhibitors/all NSAIDs ratios were calculated for Australia and Nova Scotia. Ns-NSAIDs were divided into low, moderate and high risk for gastrointestinal side-effects and the proportions of use in each group were determined. Which drugs accounted for 90% of use was also calculated. RESULTS Overall NSAID use was different in Australia and Nova Scotia. However, ns-NSAID use was similar. COX-2 inhibitor dispensing was higher in Australia. The percentage of COX-2 inhibitor prescriptions over the total NSAID use was different in the two countries. High-risk NSAID use was much higher in Australia. Low-risk NSAID prescribing increased in Nova Scotia over time. The low-risk/high-risk ratio was constant throughout over the period in Australia and increased in Nova Scotia. CONCLUSIONS There are significant differences in Australia and Nova Scotia in use of NSAIDs, mainly due to COX-2 prescribing. Nova Scotia has a higher proportion of low-risk NSAID use. Interventions to provide physicians with information on relative benefits and risks of prescribing specific NSAIDs are needed, including determining their impact. PMID:19660008

  20. Genetic diversity in a feral horse population from Sable Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Plante, Yves; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Lucas, Zoe; Colling, Dave; de March, Brigitte; Buchanan, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    The present-day Sable Island horse population, inhabiting an island off the eastern coast of Canada, is believed to have originated mainly from horses confiscated from the early French settlers in Nova Scotia in the latter half of the 18th century. In 1960, the Sable Island horses were given legal protected status and no human interference has since been allowed. The objective of this study was to characterize the current genetic diversity in Sable Island horses in comparison to 15 other horse breeds commonly found in Canada and 5 Spanish breeds. A total of 145 alleles from 12 microsatellite loci were detected in 1093 horses and 40 donkeys. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 4.67 in the Sable Island horse population to 8.25 in Appaloosas, whereas the mean observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.626 in the Sable Island population to 0.787 in Asturcons. Various genetic distance estimates and clustering methods did not permit to support that the Sable Island horses originated from shipwrecked Spanish horses, according to a popular anecdote, but closely resemble light draft and multipurpose breeds commonly found in eastern Canada. Based on the Weitzman approach, the loss of the Sable Island horse population to the overall diversity in Canada is comparable or higher than any other horse breed. The Sable Island horse population has diverged enough from other breeds to deserve special attention by conservation interest groups.

  1. Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and

  2. Reconstructing the lake-level history of former glacial lakes through the study of relict wave-cut terraces: the case of Lake Ojibway (eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean; Daubois, Virginie

    2014-05-01

    known geodesic survey markers. Additional WCS were also measured with altimeters. The results suggest that Lake Ojibway experienced at least three different phases, at elevations of 283 m, 289 m, and 300 m (precision ± 0.5 m). For comparison, the near-maximum phase of Lake Ojibway (the only known phase) that was documented about 250 km to the NE would project at an elevation of about 385 m in the study area. Taken together, the position of these WCS in the landscape, their elevation and associated uplift gradients suggest that these lake levels were formed during episodes of long stands associated with late-stage phases of glacial Lake Ojibway. Overall, these results underlie the strong potential of the use of relict and discontinuous wave-cut terraces to reconstruct the lake-level history of former glacial lakes. This approach could also contribute to derive new estimates of meltwater volumes, a critical parameter in evaluating the impact of meltwater discharges on the late-glacial and deglacial climate.

  3. Hazards associated with alkaline glaciovolcanism at Hoodoo Mountain and Mt. Edziza, western Canada: comparisons to the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    The hazards associated with 2010 eruption from Eyjafjallajokull were well documented, and included flooding, pyroclastic activity, and local/regional ash and aerosol dispersal (e.g., Gudmundsson et al, 2010, Session V27). At least two ice-capped, alkaline volcanoes in northwestern British Columbia could produce similar styles of eruptive activity with associated local and regional hazards: Hoodoo Mountain and the Mt. Edziza volcanic complex. Similar to Eyjafjallajokull, both of the Canada volcanoes have likely had multiple Holocene eruptions of lava flows from beneath snow/ice cover, both eruption mildly alkaline basaltic to trachytic lavas, and both also have a history of explosive eruptions. Hoodoo Mountain volcano, which is approximately 17 cubic kilometers in volume, erupts dominantly trachyte-phonolite composition lavas, although it also has closely associated basaltic centers. Most of its history has been dominated by effusive eruptions, but at least one thick sequence of eutaxitic pyroclastic materials has been erupted in the past 50 ka (Edwards et al, 2002). It is presently covered by snow and a 3 km diameter ice cap that feeds a few small, flank alpine glaciers. The Mt. Edziza volcanic complex is much larger, with an estimated total eruptive volume of approximately 650 cubic km; it has had an extended eruptive history during the Plio-Pleistocene (Souther et al, 1984) including basaltic and trachytic eruptions. It presently hosts an ice-filled summit caldera approximately 2.8 by 2 km, which feeds several alpine glaciers radiating outwards in all directions. Edziza has several striking morphological similarities to Eyjafjallajokull, including the similar-sized summit ice cap dominated by silicic eruption products, an overall elongate morphology, and flanking fields of basaltic lava flows. Although Hoodoo and Edziza volcanoes are located in relatively remote parts of British Columbia, eruptions from either would likely partly melt existing snow and ice cover

  4. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  5. A comparison of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Jim, G K; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K; Johnson, J C; Lockwood, P W

    1999-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. One thousand and eighty recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef calves suffering from UF were allocated to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: florfenicol, which was intramuscular (i.m.) florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) at the time of allocation (Day 0) and again 48 h later, or tilmicosin, which was subcutaneous (s.c.) tilmicosin administered once at the rate of 10 mg/kg BW on day 0. Five hundred and forty-four animals were allocated to the florfenicol group and 536 animals were allocated to the tilmicosin group. The chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group than in the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, hemophilosis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the florfenicol and tilmicosin groups. Average daily gain (ADG) from arrival at the feedlot to the time of implanting and ADG from allocation to the time of implanting were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in arrival weight, allocation weight, implanting weight, or ADG from arrival to allocation between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was an advantage of $18.83 CDN per animal in the florfenicol group. The results of this study indicate that florfenicol is superior to tilmicosin for the treatment of UF because of lower chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and BRD mortality rates. However, interpretation of these observations must take into consideration the fact

  6. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Ozone Levels in Quebec (Canada): A Comparison of Kriging, Land-Use Regression (LUR), and Combined Bayesian Maximum Entropy–LUR Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ambient air ozone (O3) is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyperreactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Estimation of O3 exposure is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, various spatiotemporal methods have been developed worldwide. Objectives: We sought to compare the accuracy of three spatiotemporal models to predict summer ground-level O3 in Quebec, Canada. Methods: We developed a land-use mixed-effects regression (LUR) model based on readily available data (air quality and meteorological monitoring data, road networks information, latitude), a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model incorporating both O3 monitoring station data and the land-use mixed model outputs (BME-LUR), and a kriging method model based only on available O3 monitoring station data (BME kriging). We performed leave-one-station-out cross-validation and visually assessed the predictive capability of each model by examining the mean temporal and spatial distributions of the average estimated errors. Results: The BME-LUR was the best predictive model (R2 = 0.653) with the lowest root mean-square error (RMSE ;7.06 ppb), followed by the LUR model (R2 = 0.466, RMSE = 8.747) and the BME kriging model (R2 = 0.414, RMSE = 9.164). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that errors of estimation in the interpolation of O3 concentrations with BME can be greatly reduced by incorporating outputs from a LUR model developed with readily available data. Citation: Adam-Poupart A, Brand A, Fournier M, Jerrett M, Smargiassi A. 2014. Spatiotemporal modeling of ozone levels in Quebec (Canada): a comparison of kriging, land-use regression (LUR), and combined Bayesian maximum entropy–LUR approaches. Environ Health Perspect 122:970–976; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306566 PMID:24879650

  7. Long-term atmospheric nutrient inputs to the Eastern Mediterranean: sources, solubility and comparison with riverine inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçak, M.; Kubilay, N.; Tuǧrul, S.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2010-07-01

    Aerosol and rain samples were collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples were analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variation during the transitional period (March-May, September) when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material were found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7) were associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater were associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Unlike NO3- and NH4+ (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, DIN), there were statistical differences for PO43- and Sidiss solubilities in sea-water and pure-water. Solubilities of PO43- and Sidiss were found to be related with air mass back trajectories and pH. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43- fluxes to NLB were dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively) whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%). N/P ratios (atmosphere ~233; riverine ~28) revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Molar Si/N ratios (atmosphere + riverine) suggested Si limitation which might cause a switch from diatom dominated phytoplankton communities to non-siliceous populations in NLB.

  8. Comparison of changes in glacier area and thickness on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, eastern Tianshan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Puyu; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Wenbin; Li, Huilin; Wu, Lihua; Huai, Baojuan; Zhou, Ping; Jin, Shuang; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Rapid shrinkage and dramatic volume loss of the glaciers on Mt. Bogda in the eastern Tianshan Mountains have resulted in water shortages in the surrounding arid regions of China. Understanding ice thickness and its variation is important to the analysis of changes in glacial volume, which are directly related to regional hydrology and water resources. Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier and Heigou Glacier No. 8 are located on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, respectively. In this paper, the spatial distribution of the ice thickness of these two glaciers and the changes in their area and volume are discussed based on a 2009 survey result and comparison to previous investigations. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier was about 82.3 m and the calculated ice volume was 385.2 × 106 m3 in 2009. It had thinned by 14 ± 8 m (0.30 ± 0.17 m a- 1) from 1962 to 2009, equivalent to an ice volume loss of 65.5 ± 37.4 × 106 m3. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 was 58.7 m and the calculated ice volume was 115.1 × 106 m3 in 2009. The tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 thinned by 13 ± 6 m (0.57 ± 0.26 m a- 1) from 1986 to 2009, which corresponds to an ice volume loss of 25.5 ± 11.8 × 106 m3. The greater thinning and retreat of Heigou Glacier No. 8 than those of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier is partially due to topographic characteristics. The difference can be attributed mainly to the greater increase in temperature on the southern slope than on the northern slope.

  9. Assessment of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada: comparison of detection methods for drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Barrere, V; Falzon, L C; Shakya, K P; Menzies, P I; Peregrine, A S; Prichard, R K

    2013-11-15

    In 2011, a field study was conducted to assess drug resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus was assessed by genetic analysis of eggs; measurement of resistant allele percentages at codons 167, 198 and 200 in the β-tubulin gene was determined on pools of H. contortus eggs using pyrosequencing. Susceptibility to benzimidazoles in gastro-intestinal nematodes was also determined using a Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). In total, 16 farms were assessed with the genetic test. Based on resistant allele frequencies, all of the farms (16/16) tested had benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus; the overall percentage of benzimidazole-resistant H. contortus (estimated prior to treatment using the Hardy-Weinberg formula) was 68.5%. The FECRT and LDA were performed on 11 and 13 farms, respectively. Resistance to fenbendazole was detected on 100% (11/11) of the farms where the FECRT was performed. The LDA revealed the presence of thiabendazole resistance in H. contortus in 92% (12/13) of the farms. Estimated percentages of resistant parasites in H. contortus populations obtained with the two biological tests and the genetic test were compared. The results of the genetic test were in agreement with the biological tests and confirmed that benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus is present in Ontario sheep flocks. Differences between the different methods of drug resistance detection are discussed in terms of cost, time and sampling.

  10. Comparison of uranium-series, radiocarbon, and amino acid data from marine molluscs, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; Miller, G.H.; Andrews, J.T.; Stuiver, M.

    1981-10-01

    Uranium-series and /sup 14/C dates and the extent of amino acid racemization are reported for 24 marine shell samples from three areas of Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. When the radiometric dates are plotted against the ratio of D-alloisoleucene:L-isoleucene in the shells, five broad age groups are recognized. The uranium-series data indicate that /sup 231/Pa is incompletely retained in most fossil shells and that /sup 230/Th is lost from some of the samples. Therefore, their apparent ages are minimum. However, a few dated samples in each group have yielded useful age results, and the minimum ages of the five groups of samples are estimated as 7,000 to 11,000, greater than or equal to70,000, greater than or equal to136,000, greater than or equal to190,000 and >300,000 yr. Calculated integrated thermal histories based on the epimerization reaction in the mollusc Hiatella arctica Linne give paleotemperature estimates of around -5/sup o/C, compared to the present mean annual air temperature of about -11/sup o/C.

  11. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ismaila, Afisi S; Canty, Angelo; Thabane, Lehana

    2007-01-01

    Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian) approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects. PMID:17845717

  12. Polar Sunrise 2008 Comparison of Lidar Water Vapor Measurements from the IASOA PEARL Observatory in Eureka, Canada and ACE Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, A. L.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Walker, K. A.; Manney, G. L.; Drummond, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Water vapor is an important part of the atmosphere due to its roles in the hydrological cycle, greenhouse heating and ozone chemistry. The stratospheric ozone lidar located at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80.2° N, 86.4° W) is jointly operated by the Canadian Network for Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) and Environment Canada. It has recently been upgraded to measure water vapor at 150 m vertical resolution in the polar troposphere up to about six kilometers, with measurements extending above this at lower vertical resolution. Successful validation of these measurements will allow scientific studies to begin with the coincident measurements from the lidar and suite of CANDAC instruments at PEARL. In concert with the lidar's well-established ozone and temperature profiles these new water vapor measurements will allow incidents of stratosphere-troposphere exchange to be monitored as well as, when combined with other measurements from PEARL instrumentation, detailed studies of ozone chemistry to be performed. With the motion of the polar vortex bringing it overhead and away from PEARL during the course of a campaign, it is possible to look at interactions between upper tropospheric jets and the vortex. Water vapor measurements have been taken and analyzed for eleven nights during the Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaign in February and March 2008. Calibration of the lidar has been obtained by comparing lidar measurements from seven clear nights to water vapor measurements from the regular radiosonde launches at the Eureka Weather Station. A consistent altitude dependent bias between the two instruments is found, giving us confidence in the calibration. Calibrated lidar measurements are currently being compared to water vapour measurements from overpasses by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite, as well as compared to the ozone measurements obtained during the campaign.

  13. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  14. Recognition of strong seasonality and climatic cyclicity in an ancient, fluvially dominated, tidally influenced point bar: Middle McMurray Formation, Lower Steepbank River, north-eastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Bryce V. J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Inclined heterolithic stratification in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, exposed along the Steepbank River in north-eastern Alberta, Canada, accumulated on point bars of a 30 to 40 m deep continental-scale river in the fluvial-marine transition. This inclined heterolithic stratification consists of two alternating lithologies, sand and fine-grained beds. Sand beds were deposited rapidly by unidirectional currents and contain little or no bioturbation. Fine-grained beds contain rare tidal structures, and are intensely bioturbated by low-diversity ichnofossil assemblages. The alternations between the sand and fine-grained beds are probably caused by strong variations in fluvial discharge; that are believed to be seasonal (probably annual) in duration. The sand beds accumulated during river floods, under fluvially dominated conditions when the water was fresh, whereas the fine-grained beds accumulated during the late stages of the river flood and deposition continued under tidally influenced brackish-water conditions during times of low-river flow (i.e. the interflood periods). These changes reflect the annual migration in the positions of the tidal and salinity limits within the fluvial-marine transition that result from changes in river discharge. Sand and fine-grained beds are cyclically organized in the studied outcrops forming metre-scale cycles. A single metre-scale cycle is defined by a sharp base, an upward decrease in sand-bed thickness and upward increases in the preservation of fine-grained beds and the intensity of bioturbation. Metre-scale cycles are interpreted to be the product of a longer term (decadal) cyclicity in fluvial discharge, probably caused by fluctuations in ocean or solar dynamics. The volumetric dominance of river-flood deposits within the succession suggests that accumulation occurred in a relatively landward position within the fluvial-marine transition. This study shows that careful observation can reveal much about the

  15. Comparison of morphology of active cyclic steps created by turbidity currents on Squamish Delta, British Columbia, Canada with flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, Miwa; Yamamoto, Shinya; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Hughes Clarke, John E.; Izumi, Norihiro

    2015-04-01

    Upper-flow-regime bedforms, such as cyclic steps and antidunes, have been reported to be formed by turbidity currents. Their formative conditions are, however, not fully understood because of the difficulty of field surveys in the deep sea. Field observations of turbidity currents and seabed topography on the Squamish delta in Howe Sound, British Columbia, Canada have been undertaken which found bedwaves actively migrating in the upstream direction in channels formed on the prodelta slope. Their topography and behavior suggest that they are cyclic steps formed by turbidity currents. Because Squamish delta is as shallow as around 150 m, and easy to access compared with general submarine canyons, it is thought to be one of the best places for studying characteristics of cyclic steps formed by turbidity currents through field observations. In this study, we have analyzed configurations of cyclic steps with the use of data obtained in the field observation of 2011, and compare them with the data from the flume experiments. On the prodelta slope, three major active channels are clearly developed. In addition to the sonar survey, a 600 kHz ADCP was installed in 150m of water just seaward of the termination of the North Channel. In addition, 1200kHz ADCP and 500kHz M3s are suspended from the research vessel in 60 m of water and 300 m distance from the delta edge. We selected images showing large daily differences. The steps move vigorously at the upper 600m parts of the prodelta slope, so that we measured the steps in this area. From the profiles perpendicular to the bedwave crest lines through the center of channels, wavelength and wave height for each step, mean slope were measured on the software for quantitative image analyses manually. Wave steepness for each step was calculated using the wavelength and wave height measured as above. The mean slope ranges from 6.8° ~ 2.7° (more proximal, steeper), mean wavelength and wave heights of steps range from 24.5 to 87.6m

  16. How unique is the Udachnaya-East kimberlite? Comparison with kimberlites from the Slave Craton (Canada) and SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Weiss, Yakov; Navon, Oded; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2009-11-01

    The origin of alkali carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of unaltered Udachnaya-East kimberlites in Siberia is still controversial. Contrary to existing dogma that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite was either contaminated by the crustal sediments or platform brines, magmatic origin of the groundmass assemblage has been proposed on the basis of melt immiscibility textures, melt inclusion studies, and strontium and neon isotope compositions. We further tested the idea of alkali- and chlorine enrichment of the kimberlite parental melt by studying olivine-hosted melt inclusions and secondary serpentine in kimberlites from the Slave Craton, Canada (Gahcho Kué, Jericho, Aaron and Leslie pipes) and southern West Greenland (Majuagaa dyke). Host olivine phenocrysts closely resemble groundmass olivine from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite in morphology, compositions (high-Fo, low-Ca), complex zoning with cores of varying shapes and compositions and rims of constant Fo. Melt inclusions in olivine consist of several translucent and opaque daughter phases and vapour bubble(s). The daughter crystals studied in unexposed inclusions by laser Raman spectroscopy and in carefully exposed inclusions by WDS-EDS are represented by Na-K chlorides, calcite, dolomite, magnesite, Ca-Na, Ca-Na-K and Ca-Mg-Ba carbonates, bradleyite Na 3 Mg(CO 3)(PO 4), K-bearing nahpoite Na 2(HPO 4), apatite, phlogopite and tetraferriphlogopite, unidentified sulphates, Fe sulphides, djerfisherite, pyrochlore (Na,Ca) 2Nb 2O 6(OH,F), monticellite, Cr-spinel and Fe-Ti oxides. High abundances of Na, K (e.g., (Na + K)/Ca = 0.15-0.85) and incompatible trace elements in the melt inclusions are confirmed by LA-ICPMS analysis of individual inclusions. Heating experiments show that melting of daughter minerals starts and completes at low temperatures (~ 100 °C and 600 °C, respectively), further reinforcing the similarity with the Udachnaya-East kimberlite. Serpentine minerals replacing olivine in some of the studied

  17. Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Garnett

    2012-01-01

    This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in…

  18. Early to middle Pleistocene Arctic coastal ice caps in the Northern Interior Plains of Canada, a comparison with northeastern Siberian coastal uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duk-Rodkin, A.; Barendregt, R. W.; Velichko, A. A.; Galloway, J. M.; McNeil, D.

    2012-12-01

    reached the coast of the NIP, thus providing sufficient moisture for the development of ice-caps during interglacials. In contrast, in eastern Siberia, a triple "rain shadow effect" formed by the Chersky, Suntar-Khayta, and Momsky ranges precluded moisture-bearing air originating from the Sea of Okhotsk to reach the Arctic Ocean. The absence of ice-caps here seems to indicate a frozen Arctic Ocean during most of the Pleistocene. Large scale glaciations (e.g., Cordilleran ice sheets) commenced in NW North America in the late Gauss Chron (Pacific Ocean influence), in Europe during the late Matuyama Chron (Atlantic Ocean influence), and in Siberia during the middle to late Brunhes Chron (Okhotsk Sea influence). In the last million years in Europe (including Russia), glaciations occurred more frequently than in North America, suggesting significant differences in the factors that drive continental versus local glaciations in NW Canada/Alaska and Europe.

  19. Enhancement of acidic gases in biomass burning impacted air masses over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefer, B. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Olson, J. O.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Shipham, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass-burning impacted air masses sampled over central and eastern Canada during the summer of 1990 as part of ABLE 3B contained enhanced mixing ratios of gaseous HNO3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, and what appears to be (COOH)2. These aircraft-based samples were collected from a variety of fresh burning plumes and more aged haze layers from different source regions. Values of the enhancement factor, delta X/delta CO, where X represents an acidic gas, for combustion-impacted air masses sampled both near and farther away from the fires, were relatively uniform. However, comparison of carboxylic acid emission ratios measured in laboratory fires to field plume enhancement factors indicates significant in-plume production of HCOOH. Biomass-burning appears to be an important source of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH to the troposphere over subarctic Canada.

  20. The European study of assisted reproduction families: a comparison of family functioning and child development between Eastern and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cook, R; Vatev, I; Michova, Z; Golombok, S

    1997-09-01

    Developments in reproductive technology over the past 20 years have given infertile couples new opportunities to have children. Although assisted reproduction does not appear to lead to negative consequences with respect to parent-child relationships or the socioemotional development of the child, the outcome for children and their parents may well differ according to the social and cultural environment. The aim of the present study was to compare family functioning and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of assisted reproductive techniques in Western Europe with assisted reproduction families in an Eastern European country (Bulgaria) where there is a history of specific pronatalist interventions. The findings indicate greater difficulties in parental adjustment and child behavior in assisted conception families in Eastern Europe. In addition, Eastern European parents were more uncertain than Western European parents about whether they would tell the child, and Eastern European parents were much more secretive with respect to telling others. Thus the outcomes of assisted reproduction for family functioning and child development appear to be independent, to some extent at least, on the social context in which these techniques are carried out.

  1. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  2. Atmospheric forcing in the occurrence of precipitation extremes in Iberia: comparison between the eastern and western sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Mendes, A. R.

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of severe precipitation deficits in the Iberian Peninsula has major socio-economic and environmental impacts. Several previous studies emphasized the leading role of the large-scale atmospheric flow in the occurrence of long periods with significant precipitation lacks. However, due to the high complexity of the Iberian orography, the sensitivity of the local rain-generating mechanisms to large-scale anomalies is remarkably different from region to region. A principal component analysis of the annual precipitation amounts recorded at a network of meteorological stations over the entire peninsula for the period 1961-1998 corroborates this heterogeneity. With particular significance is the contrast between the western and eastern sectors of the peninsula. In fact, taking into account earlier studies, precipitation in western Iberia is strongly related to large-scale atmospheric patterns over the North Atlantic. On the contrary, precipitation over eastern Iberia is much less associated with these large-scale forcing patterns, but much more linked to local/regional mechanisms. In order to test these hypotheses, eight meteorological stations, four in the western half (Porto, Bragança, Lisboa and Beja) and four in the eastern half (Barcelona, Valencia, Tortosa and Zaragoza) of Iberia are selected taking into account, firstly, the geographical location, and secondly the quality and homogeneity of the respective time series. A set of extremely wet/dry seasons was subsequently chosen for each weather station separately, taking into account the 90th percentile of the respective empirical distributions. The analysis of the different atmospheric fields (precipitation rates, convective precipitation, precipitable water, specific humidity, relative humidity, surface temperature, sea surface pressure, geopotential heights, wind components and vorticity at different isobaric levels) is undertaken by using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction

  3. Canada's Campaign for Immigrants and the Images in "Canada West" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detre, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges that Canadian government officials felt they faced at the end of the nineteenth century was the development of the prairie West. By this time there were large urban centers in eastern Canada, but many Canadians worried that they had not truly ensured the future existence of their country. To do this the government…

  4. Effects of nitrogen oxide emission controls on Eastern US surface ozone: A comparison between urban cores and rural background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls have led to improved air quality over the past two decades, particularly over the Eastern US. In recent work we quantified the effects of the efforts to abate surface ozone (O3) pollution under the NOx State Implementation Plan (NOx SIP Call) for Eastern US background sites (available from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)) using methods from statistical extreme value theory (Rieder et al., 2013). Our analysis showed that the number of summer (JJA) days above the US national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) declined on average by a factor of two between 1988-1998 and 1999-2009 and that probabilistic 1-yr O3 return values declined by about 10 ppb between these two time periods. Here we extend the analysis to observations available from the US EPA Air Quality System (AQS), comprising sites ranging from polluted urban cores to rural sites. We focus on changes in (i) the seasonal and annual average number of days with maximum daily 8-hour average surface O3 above the NAAQS and (ii) probabilistic O3 return values following the NOx SIP Call. Particular focus is given on similarities and differences in surface O3 responses on regional to local level and on contrasting urban cores and rural background sites. References: Rieder H.E., Fiore A.M., Polvani L.M., Lamarque J.-F., Fang Y. (2013): Changes in the frequency and return level of high ozone pollution events over the Eastern United States following emission controls, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 014012, 2013.

  5. Biogeochemistry of Mangrove Soil Organic Matter: a Comparison Between Rhizophoraand AvicenniaSoils in South-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, L. D.; Ittekkot, V.; Patchineelam, S. R.

    1995-06-01

    Soil core samples from Rhizophora mangleL. and Avicennia schauerianaStapf & Leech forests from south-eastern Brazil were analysed for their total organic matter content and their sugars, amino acid and amino sugars composition. Organic carbon and nitrogen contents were higher in Avicenniathan in Rhizophorasoils. The contribution of sugars and amino acids to the total organic carbon pool was constant with depth in Rhizophorasoils whereas in Avicenniasoils it increased. Spectral distribution of sugars and amino acids showed a dominance of Ca-affine monomers, particularly acidic amino acids, and the sugar arabinose. Biogeochemical indicators derived from ratios of individual sugar and amino acid monomers confirm previous studies which showed that organic matter in both soils is mainly of mangrove origin. The results further suggest accumulation of organic matter in Rhizophorasoils and a continuing degradation of organic matter in Avicenniasoils. The latter may thus release more nutrients to adjacent ecosystems than Rhizophorasoils.

  6. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  7. Comparison of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms on Eastern and Western US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Howard, B

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coal is important for planning the CO2 sequestration efforts. In this work, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples from the Central Appalachian Basin and from San Juan Basin. The CO2 sorption isotherms have been completed at 55°C for as received and dried samples. The role of mineral components in coal, the coal swelling, the effects of temperature and moisture, and the error propagation have been analyzed. Changes in void volume due to dewatering and other factors such as temporary caging of carbon dioxide molecules in coal matrix were identified among the main factors affecting accuracy of the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms. The (helium) void volume in the sample cells was measured before and after the sorption isotherm experiments and was used to build the volume-corrected data plots.

  8. Predictors of Vascular Cognitive Impairment Poststroke in a Middle Eastern (Bahrain) Cohort: A Proposed Case-Control Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Al Banna, Mona; Redha, Noor; Al Jishi, Adel; Al Sharoqi, Isa; Taha, Safa; Bakhiet, Moiz; Abdulla, Fatema; Walsh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. Objective The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population. Methods A prospective stroke sample of 200 patients (case group) and 100 healthy aging individuals (control group) will be recruited from the largest medical complex in Bahrain. A neuropsychological battery of cognitive assessments (global, executive, and metacognition) will be conducted on all participants. Participants will be categorized into 4 subgroups (nonvascular cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementia) using standardized cognitive assessment scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, dementia criteria. Biomarkers will include ApoE genotype, soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products, neprilysin, beta-secretase 1, biochemistry, and hematology measurements. Results The primary study outcome is to determine early risk factors for cognitive impairment after stroke in a Bahraini cohort. The study has received full ethical approval from the Bahrain Ministry of Health and from the affiliated university. Conclusions With increasing stroke incidence rates in the Middle East, this research study will provide useful biological and epidemiological data for future development and planning of health policies and guidelines for stroke care within the Gulf region. PMID:27895004

  9. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics - the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winschall, A.; Pfahl, S.; Sodemann, H.; Wernli, H.

    2014-07-01

    Moisture convergence from different sources is an important prerequisite for a heavy-precipitation event. The contributions from different source regions can, however, hardly be quantified from observations, and their assessment based on model results is complex. Two conceptually different numerical methods are widely used for the quantification of moisture sources: Lagrangian approaches based on the analysis of humidity variations along backward trajectories and Eulerian methods based on the implementation of moisture tracers into a numerical model. In this study the moisture sources for a high-impact, heavy-precipitation event that affected eastern Europe in May 2010 are studied with both Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. The precipitation event was connected to a cyclone that developed over northern Africa, moved over the Mediterranean towards eastern Europe and induced transport of moist air towards the Carpathian Mountains. Heavy precipitation and major flooding occurred in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 16 and 18 May 2010. The Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics consistently indicate a wide spatial and temporal range of moisture sources contributing to the event. The source with the largest share is local evapotranspiration from the European land surface, followed by moisture from the North Atlantic. Further contributions come from tropical western Africa (10-20° N) and the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to what could be expected, the Mediterranean contribution of about 10% is relatively small. A detailed analysis of exemplary trajectories corroborates the general consistency of the two approaches, and underlines their complementarity. The Lagrangian method allows for mapping out moisture source regions with computational efficiency, whereas the more elaborate Eulerian model requires predefined moisture sources, but includes also processes such as precipitation, evaporation and turbulent mixing. However, in the Eulerian model

  10. The Elevated Risk for Non-Lethal Post-Separation Violence in Canada: A Comparison of Separated, Divorced, and Married Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownridge, Douglas A.; Chan, Ko Ling; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Ristock, Janice; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Santos, Susy C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to shed light on the potentially differing dynamics of violence against separated and divorced women by their ex-husbands and violence against married women by their current husbands. Using a nationally representative sample of 7,369 heterosexual women from Cycle 13 of Statistics Canada's General Social Survey,…

  11. Google Flu Trends in Canada: a comparison of digital disease surveillance data with physician consultations and respiratory virus surveillance data, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J; Lee, B E; Yasui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The value of Google Flu Trends (GFT) remains unclear after it overestimated the proportion of physician visits related to influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States in 2012-2013. However, GFT estimates (%GFT) have not been examined nationally in Canada nor compared with positivity for respiratory viruses other than influenza. For 2010-2014, we compared %GFT for Canada to Public Health Agency of Canada ILI consultation rates (%PHAC) and to positivity for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinoviruses. %GFT correlated well with %PHAC (ρ = 0·77-0·90) and influenza A positivity (ρ = 0·64-0·96) and overestimated the 2012-2013 %PHAC peak by 0·99 percentage points. %GFT peaks corresponded temporally with peaks in positivity for influenza A and rhinoviruses (all seasons) and RSV and hMPV when their peaks preceded influenza peaks. In Canada, %GFT represented traditional surveillance data and corresponded temporally with patterns in circulating respiratory viruses.

  12. Gendered Motivational Processes Affecting High School Mathematics Participation, Educational Aspirations, and Career Plans: A Comparison of Samples from Australia, Canada, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Helen M. G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Morris, Zoe A.; Durik, Amanda M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United…

  13. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern cottontail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is the most widely distributed cottontail in North America (Chapman et al. 1982). The species is considered to be a generalist that occupies a variety of habitats from southern Canada southward into South America (Chapman et al. 1980). The eastern cottontail's range overlaps that of six other species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and six species of hares (Lepus spp.). Eastern cottontails have been widely transplanted and are believed to be expanding their range northward, particularly in the Northeast (Chapman et al. 1982). The eastern cottontail has been successfully introduced into portions of Oregon and Washington which are outside of the species' natural range (Chapman and Morgan 1973). The eastern cottontail is primarily nocturnal and is a principal game species in the eastern United States.

  15. Comparison of drier- to wetter-interval estuarine roof facies in the Eastern and Western Interior coal basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, A.W.; Feldman, H.R.; Kvale, E.P.; Lanier, Wendy E.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the Carboniferous coals in the eastern interior of the US are associated with siliciclastic roof facies that were deposited within a fluvio-estuarine transition. These facies include a variety of rhythmites, some of which exhibit tidal cycles. Drier-interval coals (Westphalian B-C, Stephanian) tend to be more laterally restricted and more commonly are associated with paleovalleys. Conversely, wetter-interval coals (Westphalian D) are very widespread and are not restricted to paleovalleys. Throughout the Lake Carboniferous, wet paleoclimates associated with these coals lead to valley incision during sea-level lowstand when large tropical rivers downcut older sediments deposited during previous sea-level highstands. During subsequent rise of sea level, these fluvial valleys were flooded and converted to estuaries where tidal ranges and sedimentation rates were significantly amplified. Based on modern analogs and interpretation of many examples of Carboniferous tidal rhythmites, the localized depositional rates in these settings are exceptionally high. The estuaries became sediment sinks, trapping sediment that is pumped in from both fluvial and marine sources. As a result, sedimentation readily keeps pace with rising baselevel. Extensive intertidal flats and shallow subtidal flats are created and prograde over the valley-confined mires. Thick tidal cycles and upright trees (some with attached foliage) record rapid burial of mires. This model is supported with examples of roof facies from the Westphalian B-C of the Eastern Interior Basin, and the Stephanian of the Western Interior Basin. In these areas facies within each cycle range from well-developed, extensive paleosols and coals, to widespread marine shales or limestones. Variations in both sea level and climate resulted in a complex history of valley fill during which coals could be developed at any time (except during widespread flooding). Minable, low-sulfur and low-ash coals occur, but the coals are

  16. ASA24-Canada

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  17. Local Differences in HIV Prevalence: A Comparison of Social Venue Patrons, Antenatal Patients, and STI Patients in Eastern Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F.; McClamroch, Kristi; Ryder, Robert W.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with the HIV prevalence and behavior of STI treatment and antenatal clinic patients in the same area. Methods ANC clinic patients, STI clinic patients and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample onsite, and provided information about obtaining test results. All social venue patrons at all identified social venues in the study area were invited to participate. Results 1,116 pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested. HIV prevalence ranged by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sexworkers at social venues (29%) was higher than the prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships (19%) or among female patrons denying sexwork (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than the smaller group of sexworkers (23 vs 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one sexual partner in the past year. Conclusion Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sexworkers but have high rates of new sexual partnerships. PMID:19525891

  18. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  19. Functional diversity patterns of abyssal nematodes in the Eastern Mediterranean: A comparison between cold seeps and typical deep sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulou, V.; Keklikoglou, K.; Lampadariou, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial patterns in deep sea nematode biological trait composition and functional diversity were investigated between chemosynthetic and typical deep sea ecosystems as well as between different microhabitats within the chemosynthetic ecosystems, in the Eastern Mediterranean. The chemosynthetic ecosystems chosen were two mud volcanoes, Napoli at 1950 m depth and Amsterdam at 2040 m depth which are cold seeps characterized by high chemosynthetic activity and spatial heterogeneity. Typical deep sea ecosystems consisted of fine-grained silt-clay sediments which were collected from three areas located in the south Ionian Sea at 2765 to 2840 m depth, the southern Cretan margin at 1089 to 1998 m depth and the Levantine Sea at 3055 to 3870 m depth. A range of biological traits (9 traits; 31 categories) related to buccal morphology, tail shape, body size, body shape, life history strategy, sediment position, cuticle morphology, amphid shape and presence of somatic setae were combined to identify patterns in the functional composition of nematode assemblages between the two habitats, the two mud volcanoes (macroscale) and between the microhabitats within the mud volcanoes (microscale). Data on trait correspondence was provided by biological information on species and genera. A total of 170 nematode species were allocated in 67 different trait combinations, i.e. functional groups, based on taxonomic, morphological and behavioral characteristics. The Biological Trait Analysis (BTA) revealed significant differences between the mud volcanoes and the typical deep sea sediments indicating the presence of different biological functions in ecologically very different environments. Moreover, chemosynthetic activity and habitat heterogeneity within mud volcanoes enhance the presence of different biological and ecological functions in nematode assemblages of different microhabitats. Functional diversity and species richness patterns varied significantly across the different

  20. Fish composition and assemblage structure in three Eastern English Channel macrotidal estuaries: A comparison with other French estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid; Laffargue, Pascal; Lesourd, Sandric; Lepage, Mario; Girardin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study has analysed for the first time fish composition and assemblage structures of three small macrotidal estuaries of the Eastern English Channel (EEC) and has explored the influences of 19 biotic and abiotic variables on the fish assemblages. Fish from Canche, Authie and Somme estuaries were collected during spring (June 2006 and May 2007) and autumn (September 2006) along the estuarine gradients using a 1.5 m beam trawl. Using identical sampling protocols, the study also analysed and compared for the first time taxonomic and functional aspects of the fish assemblages in 15 estuaries located along the Atlantic and English Channel coasts. SIMPER analysis showed high similarities in fish assemblages in the three EEC estuaries and during either spring or autumn periods. However, intra-estuary similarities were relatively low, indicating that fish assemblage structures (species richnesses or abundances) were more variable within the estuary (salinity gradient) than between estuaries and/or seasons (spring vs autumn). Although numerous environmental variables were included in the study, only 47% of the variability observed in the fish distribution was explained. Fish spatial variations in the EEC estuaries are mostly driven by abiotic variables as opposed to biological interactions. As indicated by CCA, salinity and muddy sediments were the two most important factors structuring the fish assemblages. The macrobenthos being very abundant in the EEC estuaries (580-1121 ind. m -2), the availability of potential prey is probably not a limiting factor in the utilization of estuaries by fish. Contrary to the majority of French estuaries dominated by estuarine species (ES), the fish assemblages of the EEC estuaries are clearly dominated by marine migrant (MM) species (65% on average) with high abundance of juveniles (mostly young-of-the-year). Cluster and SIMPROF's analyses distinguished the functional structure of the 15 estuarine fish assemblages into different

  1. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain: A comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, M A; Cammeraat, L H; Cerdà, A

    2017-03-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other six were conventionally managed, and for each of these six study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots and the other three drip irrigated systems. The outcome of the studied parameters was that soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregate stability were higher for organic farms. Bulk density and pH were only significantly different for organic farms when drip irrigation was applied in comparison with flooded plots. C/N ratio did not vary significantly for the four treatments. Although there are some points of discussion, this research shows that a combination of different management decisions leads to improvement of a couple of soil quality parameters. Organic management practices were found to be beneficial for soil quality, compared to conventional management for soils with comparable textures and applied irrigation water.

  2. Comparison of blood smear, antigen detection, and nested-PCR methods for screening refugees from regions where malaria is endemic after a malaria outbreak in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ndao, Momar; Bandyayera, Etienne; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Gyorkos, Theresa W; MacLean, J Dick; Ward, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    The importation of malaria into a region where it is not endemic raises many concerns, including the timely delivery of appropriate care, safety of the blood supply, and the risk of autochthonous transmission. There is presently no consensus on the best way to screen mobile populations for malaria. Between August 2000 and March 2001, 535 refugees arrived in Quebec, Canada, from Tanzanian camps. Within 4 weeks of resettlement of the first group of 224, the McGill University Centre for Tropical Diseases noted an outbreak of malaria across the province (15 cases over a 3-week period). This group (group 1) was traced and screened for malaria between 3 and 4 months after arrival in Canada. Subsequent groups of 106 and 205 refugees were screened immediately upon arrival in Canada (group 2) and immediately prior to their departure from refugee camps (group 3), respectively. A single EDTA-blood sample was obtained from 521 refugees for testing by thick and thin blood smears (groups 1 and 2), antigen detection (ICT Malaria Pf and OptiMAL; group 1 only), and nested PCR (all groups). Overall, 98 of 521 refugees were found to be infected (18.8%). The vast majority of infections (81 of 98) were caused by Plasmodium falciparum alone. Using PCR as the "gold standard," both microscopy (sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 100%) and antigen detection (ICT sensitivity, 37.5%; ICT specificity, 100%; OptiMAL sensitivity, 29.1%; OptiMAL specificity, 95.6%) performed poorly. None of the PCR-positive subjects were symptomatic at the time of testing, and only two had recently had symptoms compatible with malaria (with or without diagnosis and treatment). Active surveillance of migrants from regions of intense malaria transmission can reduce the risk of morbidity in the migrant population and mitigate against transmission to the host population. Our data demonstrate that PCR is, by far, the most powerful tool for such surveillance.

  3. The role of economic factors on women's risk for intimate partner violence: a cross-national comparison of Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Powers, Ráchael A

    2015-02-01

    National data from Canada and the United States are used to examine the connection between women's economic contributions to the family and their risk for physical and emotional abuse. Analyses show that American women are at a twofold greater risk; however, the relationship between economic variables and the risk of both physical violence and coercive control are more complex. Income serves to reduce the risk of both violence and coercive control for both Canadian and American women, whereas education serves as a clear protective factor for American women, but does not provide the same benefit for Canadian women.

  4. SIM.T-K9.1: Canada/Peru bilateral comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers from 0.01 °C to 419.527 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. D.; Barrientos, A.; Guillen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Thermometry has organized Key Comparison 9 (CCT-K9) as an updated replacement for CCT-K3. A comparison of the fixed-point temperature standards of Peru with those of Canada was carried out following a protocol that closely resembles CCT-K9. The comparison was limited to the fixed points of tin and zinc, with NRC the pilot laboratory and the eventual link to CCT-K9 (currently, CCT-K9 remains a work in progress). The comparison protocol required INDECOPI to select, characterize, and transport (i.e. hand carry) the SPRTs to NRC. Following the measurements at NRC, the SPRTs were returned and re-measured at INDECOPI to close the loop and assess any changes that occurred in the SPRTs over the course of the measurements. The following degrees of equivalence, D, and expanded uncertainties, U (k = 2), were obtained via this comparison. T / °C DINDECOPI / mK U / mK 419.527 1.58 4.6 231.928 -2.12 3.9 SIM.T-K9.1 has demonstrated the compatibility of the fixed points of INDECOPI with those maintained by NRC within the combined uncertainties, and therefore serves to verify the intended calibration and measurement capabilities envisioned for INDECOPI, Peru. The results can be linked to NMIs globally following CCT-K9, with NRC as the linking participant. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnosis of feline herpesvirus, Chlamydophila felis, and Mycoplasma spp. infection in cats with ocular disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bauer, Bianca S; Wen, Xin; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for making a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) infection, and for differentiating this from Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma spp. infection in a clinical setting in Canada. We compared the frequency of positive FHV-1 PCR test results from 48 clinical cases of ocular disease in cats suspected to be due to FHV-1 between 1 research and 2 commercial laboratories in Canada. We also compared PCR results for Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma spp. between the 2 commercial laboratories. The prevalence of FHV-1 infection in the cats ranged from 4% to 21%. The prevalence of Chlamydophila felis was 2% and 17% and the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. was 11% and 27%. Agreement between FHV-1 culture and PCR results at the research laboratory was substantial (kappa = 0.76). There was slight agreement (kappa < 0.20) between the 3 laboratories for FHV-1 PCR and between the 2 commercial laboratories for both Chlamydophila felis (kappa = 0.2) and Mycoplasma spp. (kappa = 0.07) PCR.

  6. The October 2015 flash - floods in south eastern France: first discharge estimations and comparison with other flash-floods documented in the framework of the Hymex project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Lebouc, Laurent; Ayral, Pierre Alain; Brunet, Pascal; Delrieu, Guy; Douvinet, Johnny; Dramais, Guillaume; Javelle, Pierre; Johannet, Anne; Adamovic, Marko; Adnes, Cyriel; Cantet, Philippe; Chapuis, Margot; Coutouis, Adrien; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Gonzalez-Sosa, Enrique; Ruin, Isabelle; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Shabou, Saif; Whilhelm, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    On the 3rd of October 2015, an outstanding hydrometeorological event hit the Mediterranean coast in the Alpes-Maritimes region in south-eastern France. Despite this rainstorm event was very short in time (approximatively 2 hours of intense rainfall), it caused a large rainfall accumulation reaching up to 180 mm. Intense flash floods were observed on all rivers of the affected area, including mostly small watersheds of less than 60 km². They caused 21 fatalities and particularly high damages because of the density of urban areas located in the downstream coastal part of the affected area. The towns of Mandelieu, Cannes, and Antibes were particularly affected. On several watersheds, the reported floods seem be the largest observed from human memory, and may therefore become reference events for flood risk prevention. A post event survey was organised in the framework of the Hymex project in order to document the characteristics of the floods which occurred in a large majority on ungauged rivers, and also destroyed some of the existing stream gauges. A total of 36 peak discharge values were estimated, enabling a detailed description of observed hydrological reactions. This dataset confirms the very large peak discharge values, which remain however significantly below the magnitude of other recent floods observed in other regions of France, and below the existing envelope curves. It may also be observed that the magnitude of this new event is relatively close to what was observed in june 2010 in the nearby Var region. These two events, both being among the largest observed locally from human memory, suggest that the position of the envelope curve should be lower in this eastern part of the French Mediterranean coast, if compared to the Cevennes region which fixes up to now the position of the envelope curve for the whole French territory. A rainfall-runoff analysis of this flood is now in progress to confirm that the runoff rates are not particularly high if compared

  7. Comparison, cross-validation and consolidation of the results from two different geodynamic projects working in the eastern Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosious, B.; Dinter, G.; van der Hoeven, A.; Mocanu, V.; Nutto, M.; Schmitt, G.; Spakman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1995 several projects/programmes are working in the Vrancea-region in Romania with partly different intensions. First of all, the CERGOP project installed the CEGRN-network and performed GPS-measurements ('95,'96,'97,'99,'01), mainly to realise a geodetic reference frame for local geodynamic projects. In the framework of the Collaborative Research Center CRC461 "Strong Earthquakes" the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (GIK) Densified the network up to 35 stations and carried out three GPS-campaigns ('97, '98 and '00). First results of this project were presented at the EGS-meeting 2001 in Nice. In 2002 a new geodynamic research project was initiated at the Delft Institute of Earth-Oriented Space Research (DEOS). In the context of this project, 4 permanent stations and 10 new campaign stations were installed, which leads to a common network of about 50 stations. In tight cooperation with the GIK and the University of Bucarest (Departement of Geophysics) the currently last GPS-campaign was successfully carried out in 2002. Now the great challenge and at the same time the great difficulty is a correct combination of all available GPS datasets particularly in consideration of station excentricities and variations of antenna- and receiver-types. Different evalutation strategies and software packages (Bernese-GPS-Software, GIPSY) were used to analyse the GPS data and to estimate the station velocities. Main focus of this joint-presentation is the comparison of the results from the German and Dutch geodynamic projects. The results of the two working groups are cross-validated and finally joined together in a most reasonable solution. Even if three-dimensional analysis is in work, the presentation is limited to the horizontal component.

  8. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Cyclones originating over the tropical Atlantic may undergo the process of extratropical transition as they move northeastward along the coast of North America. Interaction with eastward-moving mid-latitude cyclones or frontal systems can result in the formation of spatially larger, more powerful storms, marked by frontal characteristics, changes (either increases or decreases) in wind speed and track velocity, and less predictable tracks coupled with increased precipitation and potential for storm surge. Of the 330 tropical cyclones formed over the North Atlantic from 1991 to 2011, 134 (40.6%) underwent partial or total extratropical transition. The dynamics and threats of extratropical transitions have not been extensively studied. Consequently, forecasters refer to approaching storms as "hurricanes," although they are frequently extratropical in character by the time they reach New York and New England, and almost always have undergone partial or complete transition before making landfall in Atlantic Canada. In rare instances, extratropical transitions may continue to progress eastwards across the North Atlantic. In a typical summer-autumn, Atlantic Canada is impacted by 5 to 7 storms of tropical origin. Due to variations in track and interaction to form extratropical transitions, the number of summer and early autumn storm events in Atlantic Canada is not linked to the total number of hurricanes in any specific year. Overall tropical cyclone frequency in the North Atlantic cannot be directly correlated with temperature variations, or with the frequency or magnitude of summer and early autumn storms in Atlantic Canada. Extratropical transition "Igor" directly impacted more than 40,000 km2 of eastern Newfoundland on 20-22 September 2010. Current estimates of damage to human property exceed 165 million, and one human life was lost. River flooding resulted from rainfall in excess of 150 mm/24 h in several locations, with peak stream flow locally exceeding 600 m3/s

  9. The elevated risk for non-lethal post-separation violence in Canada: a comparison of separated, divorced, and married women.

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Douglas A; Chan, Ko Ling; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Ristock, Janice; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Santos, Susy C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to shed light on the potentially differing dynamics of violence against separated and divorced women by their ex-husbands and violence against married women by their current husbands. Using a nationally representative sample of 7,369 heterosexual women from Cycle 13 of Statistics Canada's General Social Survey, available risk markers were examined in the context of a nested ecological framework. Separated women reported nine times the prevalence of violence and divorced women reported about four times the prevalence of violence compared with married women. The strongest predictors of violence against married women, namely, patriarchal domination, sexual jealousy, and possessiveness, were not significant predictors of violence against separated and divorced women. This suggested that post-separation violence is a complex phenomenon the dynamics of which can be affected by much more than domination and ownership.

  10. Carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a rotation of three different crops in southern Alberta, Canada: a comparison of sustainable and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, S; Cárcamo, H A; Larney, F J; Spence, J R

    2008-10-01

    Carabids were sampled in 2000 (pretreatment year) and 2003-2005 in experimental plots in southern Alberta, Canada, after a rotation of beans, wheat, and potato under sustainable and conventional farming practices. Each phase of the rotation was present in every year. Crop type had a stronger effect than sustainable treatment on carabid-expected species richness, diversity, and species composition. However, carabid activity density was consistently higher in plots under sustainable treatments than those maintained conventionally. Potato plots, which were sprayed with insecticide for pest control, showed a significantly lower carabid activity density than the other crops. These results support other studies showing the beneficial effect of sustainable farming on activity density of carabid beetles.

  11. A Comparison of Particle and Organic Carbon Fluxes to the Deep Canada Basin Between 2004-2005 and 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinton, T. I.; Hwang, J.; Manganini, S. J.; Griffith, D.; Krishfield, R. A.; Honjo, S.

    2008-12-01

    Two of the most blatant impacts of climate change in the Arctic are destabilization of permafrost soils, and a reduction in sea-ice cover, altering carbon cycling both on land and in the ocean. In particular, higher terrestrial carbon fluxes to the ocean, and both enhanced and an offshore extension of marine productivity, are anticipated. However, the fate of this carbon (i.e., remineralization versus burial) in the Arctic Ocean, as well as the extent to which the deep basin waters and underlying sediments will sequester carbon in the face of rapidly changing sea-ice, hydrographic and biogeochemical conditions, remain unknown. Answers to these questions are crucial to our understanding of whether the Arctic will serve as a net carbon dioxide source or sink to the atmosphere, and how pelagic ecosystems will respond to these perturbations. In this study, we compare the flux of particulate carbon and associated elements to the deep Arctic Ocean from a bottom-tethered sediment trap deployed at 3000m in the southwest Canada Basin during 2004-2005 and 2007-2008. Particle fluxes and compositions are compared in the context of different seasonal sea-ice and hydrographic conditions between these deployment periods. Overall particle fluxes during the 2004-5 deployment were extremely low, and mass flux variations were temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary productivity in overlying surface waters. Moreover, geochemical analyses showed that the sinking particulate matter was characterized by aged organic carbon and abundant lithogenic material, which together suggest that the majority of the particulate organic carbon entering the deep Canada Basin was supplied from the surrounding margins (Hwang et al. 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11607). These data will be compared with particle fluxes during the 2007-2008 year when summer sea ice was less extensive.

  12. Comparison of mercury and zinc profiles in peat and lake sediment archives with historical changes in emissions from the Flin Flon metal smelter, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Outridge, P M; Rausch, N; Percival, J B; Shotyk, W; McNeely, R

    2011-01-01

    The copper-zinc smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba, was historically the largest single Hg point-source in Canada, as well as a major source of Zn. Although emissions were reported by industry to have declined significantly since the late 1980s, these reductions have never been independently verified. Here, the histories of Hg and Zn deposition over the past century or more were determined at five lake sediment and three peat study sites in the surrounding region. At sites spanning the range from heavy to minor pollution, lake sediment Hg and Zn concentration and flux profiles increased significantly in the early 1930s after the smelter opened. Two of the three peat archives were wholly or partially compromised by either physical disturbances or biogeochemical transitions which reduced their effectiveness as atmospheric metal deposition recorders. But the remaining peat records, including a detailed recent 20 yr record at a moderately polluted site, appeared to show that substantive reductions in metal levels had occurred after the late 1980s, coincident with the reported emission reductions. However, the lake sediment results, taken at face value, contradicted the peat results in that no major declines in metal concentrations or fluxes occurred over recent decades. Mercury and Zn fluxes have in fact increased substantially since 1988 in most lakes. We suggest that this discrepancy may be explained by catchment soil saturation by historically deposited metals which are now mobilizing and leaching into lakes, as has been reported from other smelter polluted systems in Canada, whereas the upper sections of the peat cores reflected recent declines in atmospheric deposition. However, further research including instrumented wet and dry deposition measurements and catchment/lake mass balance studies is recommended to test this hypothesis, and to provide definitive data on current atmospheric metal deposition rates in the area.

  13. Density, destinations or both? A comparison of measures of walkability in relation to transportation behaviors, obesity and diabetes in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Richard H; Creatore, Maria I; Weyman, Jonathan T; Fazli, Ghazal; Matheson, Flora I; Gozdyra, Peter; Moineddin, Rahim; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Shriqui, Vered Kaufman; Booth, Gillian L

    2014-01-01

    The design of suburban communities encourages car dependency and discourages walking, characteristics that have been implicated in the rise of obesity. Walkability measures have been developed to capture these features of urban built environments. Our objective was to examine the individual and combined associations of residential density and the presence of walkable destinations, two of the most commonly used and potentially modifiable components of walkability measures, with transportation, overweight, obesity, and diabetes. We examined associations between a previously published walkability measure and transportation behaviors and health outcomes in Toronto, Canada, a city of 2.6 million people in 2011. Data sources included the Canada census, a transportation survey, a national health survey and a validated administrative diabetes database. We depicted interactions between residential density and the availability of walkable destinations graphically and examined them statistically using general linear modeling. Individuals living in more walkable areas were more than twice as likely to walk, bicycle or use public transit and were significantly less likely to drive or own a vehicle compared with those living in less walkable areas. Individuals in less walkable areas were up to one-third more likely to be obese or to have diabetes. Residential density and the availability of walkable destinations were each significantly associated with transportation and health outcomes. The combination of high levels of both measures was associated with the highest levels of walking or bicycling (p<0.0001) and public transit use (p<0.0026) and the lowest levels of automobile trips (p<0.0001), and diabetes prevalence (p<0.0001). We conclude that both residential density and the availability of walkable destinations are good measures of urban walkability and can be recommended for use by policy-makers, planners and public health officials. In our setting, the combination of both

  14. Comparison of atmospheric PM2.5-bounded mercury species and their correlation with bromine and iodine at coastal urban and island sites in the eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Na; Duan, Lian; Xiu, Guangli; Zhao, Mengfei; Qian, Guanlei

    2017-01-01

    A year-long observation of PM2.5-bounded mercury (PBM) and its species was conducted at a urban site (Shanghai, Xuhui; XH) and an island site (Shengsi, SS) in eastern China from September 2014 to August 2015. The seasonal variation of mercury species including hydrochloric soluble particle-phase mercury (HPM), element soluble particle-phase mercury (EPM) and residual soluble particle-phase mercury (RPM), as well as particulate halogen (Br, I) were determined. Annual average concentration of PBM at urban was 0.32 ± 0.13 ng·m- 3, and was 0.22 ± 0.18 ng·m- 3 at island, which might be attributed to anthropogenic sources. Include more results here, such as EPM, RPM, and with comparison like ;The speciated mercury in PM2.5 was found to be HPM > RPM > EPM at the urban site, while RPM > HPM > EPM at island site, respectively.; The speciated mercury in PM2.5 showed distinct different concentrations between the two sites. HPM concentration is the highest at urban, but RPM showed the largest fraction at island. Higher mass contents of all PM2.5-bounded mercury species were found at island site than those at urban site, which indicated atmospheric mercury is more easily scavenged by particles at ocean atmosphere. Additionally, the correlation between bromine and mercury was stronger at urban site than that at island site, while iodine had the stronger correlation with mercury at island site than that urban site. These results showed marine aerosols played an important role to the transport of mercury.

  15. Organochlorines and mercury in waterfowl harvested in Canada.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Malone, Brian J

    2006-03-01

    Samples of breast muscle from 32 species of waterfowl collected from 123 sites across Canada were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBz), chlordane-related compounds (CHL), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), DDT, mirex, dieldrin, PCBs and mercury. SigmaDDT, SigmaCBz and SigmaPCB were the compounds most frequently found above trace levels. SigmaHCH and SigmaMirex were detected the least often. Mercury was detected in all of the mergansers, over 50% of dabbling, bay and sea ducks, and in less than 2% of the geese analysed. The highest levels of contaminants were generally found in birds feeding at higher trophic levels such as sea ducks and mergansers. With the exception of a few samples of mergansers and long-tailed ducks from eastern Canada, which contained SigmaPCB concentrations of 1.0-2.4 mg kg(-1), SigmaPCB levels were less than 1 mg kg(-1) wet weight. Only one merganser from eastern Canada had a SigmaDDT concentration (2.6 mg kg(-1) ww) which was greater than 1 mg kg(-1) ww. The highest SigmaCHL (0.10 mg kg(-1) ww) was also found in mergansers from eastern Canada. Levels of total mercury in breast muscle were either low (< 1 mg kg(-1) ww) or below detection limits with the exception of a few samples of mergansers from eastern Canada which contained mercury concentrations of 1.0-1.5 mg kg(-1) ww. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and mercury levels found in samples of breast muscle of ducks and geese analysed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these waterfowl were safe to eat.

  16. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  17. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  18. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  20. A comparison of three-dimensional electrical conductivity models of several epithermal/porphyry type deposits in Western Canada, derived from ZTEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, J.; Lee, B.; Abbassi, B.; Liu, L.; Unsworth, M. J.; Richards, J. P.; Cheng, L.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian Cordillera is host to numerous porphyry deposits which supply a substantial amount of the world's Cu, Mo and Au. With most near-surface mineralized systems already discovered, and in some cases mined, further exploration requires the development of geophysical deep-penetrating methods that can rapidly detect and characterize possible targets. The airborne Z-axis Tipper Electromagnetic (ZTEM) method with a penetration depth down to two kilometers is designed to image the electrical conductivity structure of the subsurface. The electrical response of mineral alterations associated with porphyry mineralization has shown to be more enigmatic than other deposit types. Therefore, the ZTEM data sets over three known Ag-Au epithermal/Cu-porphyry style deposits in British Columbia, Canada are analysed together with available geological information. In detail, we compare three-dimensional (3-D) models of electrical conductivity of the deposits, which were derived by the inversion of airborne ZTEM data and, where available, supported by ground MT data. The models are validated by petrophysical measurements and complemented by other geophysical models and geological evidence from borehole data.

  1. A comparison of the South China Sea and Canada Basin: two small marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended margins and central zones of sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Both the South China Sea and Canada Basin preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated the nature of strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the South China Sea but our results for the Beaufort Sea are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow is suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may continue even after sea-floor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  2. An international comparison of women's health issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore: the CIDA-SEAGEP Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2004-11-19

    This was an international study of women's health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women's health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university researchers, and local experts), self-administered questionnaires, courtesy calls, and literature searches were used to collect data. The participating countries identified women's health as an important issue, especially for reproductive health (developing countries) and senior's health (developed countries). Cancer, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, poverty, social support, caring role for family, and informing, educating, and empowering people about women's health issues were the main concerns. Based on this study, 17 recommendations were made on surveillance, research, and programs and policies. A number of forthcoming changes in women''s health patterns in developing countries were also predicted.

  3. An international comparison of the association among literacy, education, and health across the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, and Bermuda: implications for health disparities.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between education and health is well-established, but theoretical pathways are not fully understood. Economic resources, stress, and health behaviors partially explain how education influences health, but further study is needed. Previous studies show that health literacy mediates the education-health relationship, as do general literacy skills. However, little is known whether such mediation effects are consistent across different societies. This study analyzed data from the International Assessment of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey conducted in Canada, the United States, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and Bermuda to investigate the mediation effects of literacy on the education-health relationship and the degree of such mediation in different cultural contexts. Results showed that literacy skills mediated the effect of education on health in all study locations, but the degree of mediation varied. This mediation effect was particularly strong in Bermuda. This study also found that different types of literacy skills are more or less important in each study location. For example, numeracy skills in the United States and prose (reading) literacy skills in Italy were stronger predictors of health than were other literacy skills. These findings suggest a new direction for addressing health disparities: focusing on relevant types of literacy skills.

  4. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  5. Comparison of the environmental effects on variation in yearly litter decay and soil respiration rates over four years in forested and harvested sites across Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Thompson, E.; Cameron, A.; Pare', D.; Lavigne, M.; Amiro, B.; Smyth, C.; Black, A.; Barr, A.; Margolis, H.

    2008-12-01

    Soil respiration includes CO2 respired by plant roots and by soil biota decomposing plant detritus. Detrital C stocks and fluxes are being studied at 16 sites at 7 stations of the Fluxnet Canada Research Network, including paired mature and clearcut forest sites at 5 upland stations (BC, SK, ON, QC, NB). All sites were instrumented for in situ measurements of soil moisture and temperature and many sites also included coincident measurements of soil respiration by chambers. Cumulative litter decay was measured using surface placed litterbags with one of four standard material types (aspen leaves -AL, black spruce needles BS, Douglas fir needles DF and birch wood sticks BW). Six replicate plots were located at each site, each plot contained sufficient numbers of surface litterbags of each material type to allow for four annual collections (2004 - 2007). As well unconfined birch chopsticks were placed at three depths down the soil profile (surface, 5cm, 15cm) and replaced annually to examine interannual variability of decay. After four years cumulative decay, litter rank by %mass remaining had AL

  6. Reconstructing source polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns from semipermeable membrane devices in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada: comparison to commercial mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2002-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were placed in the Fraser River near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, between August 6 and September 30, 1996. This location is near a large urban and industrial region (population 2,000,000) and is expected to be representative of other large, modern cities. After exposure to the ambient water column, SPMD samples were analyzed for a suite of 36 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners plus all homologue groups from mono- through hexa-brominated. Observed congener patterns differed significantly from that of the commercial penta- and octa-BDE mixtures. A reconstruction approach was developed based on an aquatic transport model and utilizing published octanol-water partition coefficients, calculated SPMD uptake rates, and predicted water concentrations by using the EcoFate multimedia mass balance aquatic simulation model for the 13 major PBDE congeners. In combination, composite technical mixtures were created by combining commercial penta-BDE mixtures (Bromkal 70-SDE and Great Lakes Chemicals DE-71) with commercial octa-BDE mixtures (Bromkal 79-8DE and Great Lakes Chemicals DE-79) in their relative 2000 North American production volumes. The reconstructed SPMD patterns more closely approximated the composite technical mixtures and suggest that PBDEs in such an industrial region arise primarily from penta- and octa-BDE source mixtures.

  7. Gendered motivational processes affecting high school mathematics participation, educational aspirations, and career plans: a comparison of samples from Australia, Canada, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen M G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Morris, Zoe A; Durik, Amanda M; Keating, Daniel P; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-11-01

    In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United States (Ns = 358, 471, 418, respectively) in Grades 9/10 at Time 1 and Grades 11/12 at Time 2. The 3 samples came from suburban middle to upper-middle socioeconomic backgrounds, primarily of Anglo-European descent. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed stereotypic gender differences in educational and occupational outcomes only among the Australian sample. Multigroup structural equation models identified latent mean differences where male adolescents held higher intrinsic value for math in the Australian sample and higher ability/success expectancy in both North American samples. Ability/success expectancy was a key predictor in the North American samples, in contrast to intrinsic value in the Australian sample. Attainment/utility ("importance") values were more important for female adolescents' career choices, except in the Australian sample. Findings are interpreted in relation to gender socialization practices, degree and type of early choice, and specialization across settings. Implications are discussed for long-term math engagement and career selection for female and male adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Geochemistry of hypabyssal kimberlites from Lac de Gras, Canada: Comparisons to a global database and applications to the parent magma problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Pearson, D. G.; Tappe, S.; Nowell, G. M.; Dowall, D. P.

    2009-11-01

    We present 104 whole-rock geochemical analyses of hypabyssal kimberlite from the Lac de Gras field. Screens using Yb versus Al 2O 3 and ln Si/Al versus ln Mg/Yb effectively discriminate crustally contaminated samples. The remaining "non-contaminated" kimberlites samples have variable (5 to 50%) entrainment of cratonic peridotite. It is problematic to effectively screen for small amounts (< 5%) of digested crust in samples with higher (> 20%) contents of peridotite contamination. We utilize the Lac de Gras data suite to calculate, by two different methods, parent magma compositions and identify two (and potentially three) geochemically distinct parent magma types. The Lac de Gras parent magma compositions are compared to those calculated from other localities in Canada, Greenland, South Africa and Russia. Together, these calculated parent magmas define a range, albeit limited, of viable, yet distinct, kimberlite parent magma compositions. Geochemically, kimberlite parent magmas have high volatile contents (H 2O and CO 2), high MgO, and low SiO 2, Al 2O 3 and alkalis, with K > Na and Na + K/Al < 1. It is difficult to reconcile differences between various calculated kimberlite parent magma compositions from different cratonic areas as merely due to the effects of craton specific lithospheric mantle contamination, indicating the intra- and inter-cratonic variation of parent magma compositions reflect differing source region characteristics and/or partial melting regimes.

  9. Je voyage au Canada (Travelling to Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Normand

    Designed for use in a bilingual program, this basic French reader centers around a trip to Canada. It contains reading selections, two short poems, the words and music of a song entitled "La cigale et la fourmi," and several oral and written exercises. (PMP)

  10. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  11. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  12. Geodynamics of the Eastern Pacific Region, Caribbean and Scotia Arcs. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Cabre, R.

    1983-01-01

    This book analyze the geodynamic phenomena related to the interaction of the eastern Pacific with the Americas between Canada and the Antarctic peninsula. Studies include the Cordilleran arcs and Juan de Fuca plate.

  13. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  14. A land use regression model for ambient ultrafine particles in Montreal, Canada: A comparison of linear regression and a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Ryswyk, Keith Van; Goldstein, Alon; Bagg, Scott; Shekkarizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Existing evidence suggests that ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) (<0.1µm) may contribute to acute cardiorespiratory morbidity. However, few studies have examined the long-term health effects of these pollutants owing in part to a need for exposure surfaces that can be applied in large population-based studies. To address this need, we developed a land use regression model for UFPs in Montreal, Canada using mobile monitoring data collected from 414 road segments during the summer and winter months between 2011 and 2012. Two different approaches were examined for model development including standard multivariable linear regression and a machine learning approach (kernel-based regularized least squares (KRLS)) that learns the functional form of covariate impacts on ambient UFP concentrations from the data. The final models included parameters for population density, ambient temperature and wind speed, land use parameters (park space and open space), length of local roads and rail, and estimated annual average NOx emissions from traffic. The final multivariable linear regression model explained 62% of the spatial variation in ambient UFP concentrations whereas the KRLS model explained 79% of the variance. The KRLS model performed slightly better than the linear regression model when evaluated using an external dataset (R(2)=0.58 vs. 0.55) or a cross-validation procedure (R(2)=0.67 vs. 0.60). In general, our findings suggest that the KRLS approach may offer modest improvements in predictive performance compared to standard multivariable linear regression models used to estimate spatial variations in ambient UFPs. However, differences in predictive performance were not statistically significant when evaluated using the cross-validation procedure.

  15. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds.

  16. Potential sources and processes affecting speciated atmospheric mercury at Kejimkujik National Park, Canada: comparison of receptor models and data treatment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Liao, Yanyin; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2017-01-01

    Source apportionment analysis was conducted with positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods using concentrations of speciated mercury (Hg), i.e., gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and other air pollutants collected at Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. The results were largely consistent between the 2 years for both methods. The same four source factors were identified in each year using PMF method. In both years, factor photochemistry and re-emission had the largest contributions to atmospheric Hg, while the contributions of combustion emission and industrial sulfur varied slightly between the 2 years. Four components were extracted with air pollutants only in each year using PCA method. Consistencies between the results of PMF and PCA include (1) most or all PMF factors overlapped with PCA components, (2) both methods suggest strong impact of photochemistry but little association between ambient Hg and sea salt, and (3) shifting of PMF source profiles and source contributions from one year to another was echoed in PCA. Inclusion of meteorological parameters led to identification of an additional component, Hg wet deposition in PCA, while it did not affect the identification of other components. The PMF model performance was comparable in 2009 and 2010. Among the three Hg forms, the agreements between model-reproduced and observed annual mean concentrations were excellent for GEM, very good for PBM, and acceptable for GOM. However, on a daily basis, the agreement was very good for GEM but poor for GOM and PBM. Sensitivity tests suggest that increasing sample size by imputation is not effective in improving model performance, while reducing the fraction of concentrations below method detection limit, by either scaling GOM and PBM to higher concentrations or combining them to reactive mercury, is effective. Most of the data

  17. Comparison between weather radar and rain gauges data of precipitations that triggered debris flows in the Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    High intensity and short duration (usually 15-30 minutes) rainfalls are able to generate sudden and abundant runoff in rocky cliffs that can entrain large quantities of sediments and originate debris flow phenomena. A rain gauge network has been set up in two different areas of Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps) far each other about 15 km: Fiames (Cortina d'Ampezzo) and Rovina di Cancia (Borca di Cadore). The first network is composed of 9 rain gauges in an area of 1 km2, while the second is composed of 6 rain gauges in an area of 2 km2. In both the areas, the rain gauges are positioned both upstream and downstream the initiation areas of the occurring debris flows. Another single rain gauge is positioned close to the initiation area of Rudavoi debris flow (Auronzo di Cadore) and is far about 5 km from the Fiames rain gauges network. All the rain gauges sample precipitation depth at 5 minutes intervals. In the years 2009-2015 records of rainfalls that triggered 22 debris flows were taken. In most cases, the recorded rainfalls show an higher variability both along distance (200-500 m) and along altitude (200-600 m). Precipitation data recorded by the rain gauges are then compared with those estimated by means of a C-Band weather radar about 70 km away from there, to verify the possible interchangeability of the two measurement systems. Rainfall depths estimated by radar are provided with the temporal interval of the rain gauges (5 minutes) but with a different spatial scale (500 x 500 m raster resolution). To avoid the observation scale gap between the different techniques, in addition to standard comparisons between point gauge and radar rainfall measures, mean areal precipitations were derived from rain gauge network and compared with radar data. Results seem to demonstrate that radar tends to underestimate precipitation evaluated from rain gauges network, both on different measurement scales and on mean spatial data. On average, underestimation regards both

  18. Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg

  19. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  20. Comparison of Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and weighing-lysimeter evapotranspiration for two sparse-canopy sites in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomlinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report compares evapotranspiration estimated with the Bowen-ratio and eddy-correlation methods with evapotranspiration measured by weighing lysimeters for two sparse-canopy sites in eastern Washington. The sites are located in a grassland area (grass lysimeter site) and a sagbrush- covered area (sage lysimeter site) on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. Lysimeter data were collected at the sites from August 1990 to November 1994. Bowen-ratio data were collected for varying periods from May 1993 to November 1994. Additional Bowen-ratio data without interchanging air- temperature and vapor-pressure sensors to remove sensor bias (fixed-sensor system) were collected from October 1993 to June 1994. Eddy-correlation data were collected at the grass lysimeter site from March to April 1994, and at the sage lysimeter site from April to May 1994. The comparisons of evapotranspiration determined by the various methods differed considerably, depending on the periods of record being compared and the sites being analyzed. The year 1993 was very wet, with about 50 percent more precipitation than average; 1994 was a very dry year, with only about half the average precipitation. The study showed that on an annual basis, at least in 1994, Bowen-ratio evapotranspiration closely matched lysimeter evapotranspiration. In 1993, Bowen-ratio and lysimeter evapotranspiration comparisons were variable. Evapotranspiration estimated with the Bowen-ratio method averaged 5 percent more than evapotranspiration measured by lysimeters at the grass lysimeter site from October 1993 to November 1994, and 3 percent less than lysimeters at the sage lysimeter site from November 1993 to October 1994. From March 24 to April 5, 1994, at the grass lysimeter site, the Bowen-ratio method estimated 11 percent less, the Bowen-ratio method utilizing the fixed sensor system about 7 percent more, and the eddy-correlation method about 28 percent less evapotranspiration than the

  1. Economic evaluation of nivolumab for the treatment of second-line advanced squamous NSCLC in Canada: a comparison of modeling approaches to estimate and extrapolate survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Goeree, Ron; Villeneuve, Julie; Goeree, Jeff; Penrod, John R; Orsini, Lucinda; Tahami Monfared, Amir Abbas

    2016-06-01

    Background Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in the world and is associated with significant mortality. Nivolumab demonstrated statistically significant improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were previously treated. The cost-effectiveness of nivolumab has not been assessed in Canada. A contentious component of projecting long-term cost and outcomes in cancer relates to the modeling approach adopted, with the two most common approaches being partitioned survival (PS) and Markov models. The objectives of this analysis were to estimate the cost-utility of nivolumab and to compare the results using these alternative modeling approaches. Methods Both PS and Markov models were developed using docetaxel and erlotinib as comparators. A three-health state model was used consisting of progression-free, progressed disease, and death. Disease progression and time to progression were estimated by identifying best-fitting survival curves from the clinical trial data for PFS and OS. Expected costs and health outcomes were calculated by combining health-state occupancy with medical resource use and quality-of-life assigned to each of the three health states. The health outcomes included in the model were survival and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs). Results Nivolumab was found to have the highest expected per-patient cost, but also improved per-patient life years (LYs) and QALYs. Nivolumab cost an additional $151,560 and $140,601 per QALY gained compared to docetaxel and erlotinib, respectively, using a PS model approach. The cost-utility estimates using a Markov model were very similar ($152,229 and $141,838, respectively, per QALY gained). Conclusions Nivolumab was found to involve a trade-off between improved patient survival and QALYs, and increased cost. It was found that the use of a PS or Markov model produced very similar estimates of expected cost

  2. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  3. Canada: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B

    2009-01-01

    Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in other countries.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  5. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  6. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  7. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  8. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  9. Comparison of Methods to Identify Pathogens and Associated Virulence Functional Genes in Biosolids from Two Different Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Luke; Elias, Miria; Xiang, Shurong; Madey, Ewa; Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian; Beaudette, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of treated municipal wastewater residues (biosolids) as fertilizers is an attractive, inexpensive option for growers and farmers. Various regulatory bodies typically employ indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella) to assess the adequacy and efficiency of the wastewater treatment process in reducing pathogen loads in the final product. Molecular detection approaches can offer some advantages over culture-based methods as they can simultaneously detect a wider microbial species range, including non-cultivable microorganisms. However, they cannot directly assess the viability of the pathogens. Here, we used bacterial enumeration methods together with molecular methods including qPCR, 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare pre- and post-treatment biosolids from two Canadian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Our results show that an anaerobic digestion WWTP was unsuccessful at reducing the live indicator organism load (coliforms, generic E. coli and Salmonella) below acceptable regulatory criteria, while biosolids from a dewatering/pelletization WWTP met these criteria. DNA from other pathogens was detected by the molecular methods, but these species were considered less abundant. Clostridium DNA increased significantly following anaerobic digestion treatments. In addition to pathogen DNA, genes related to virulence and antibiotic resistance were identified in treated biosolids. Shotgun metagenomics revealed the widest range of pathogen DNA and, among the approaches used here, was the only approach that could access functional gene information in treated biosolids. Overall, our results highlight the potential usefulness of amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics as complementary screening methods that could be used in parallel with culture-based methods, although more detailed comparisons across a wider range of sites would be needed. PMID:27089040

  10. Calculating Mean Length of Utterance for Eastern Canadian Inuktitut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Shanley E. M.; Dench, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Although virtually all Inuit children in eastern Arctic Canada learn Inuktitut as their native language, there is a critical lack of tools to assess their level of language ability. This article investigates how mean length of utterance (MLU), a widely-used assessment measure in English and other languages, can be best applied in Inuktitut. The…

  11. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  12. Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

  13. Switchgrass biomass and chemical composition for biofuel in eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Madakadze, I.C.; Stewart, K.; Peterson, P.R.; Coulman, B.E.; Smith, D.L.

    1999-08-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is one of several warm-season grasses that have been identified as potential biomass crops in North America. A two-year field study was conducted, on a free-draining sandy clay loam (St. Bernard, Typic Hapludalf), to characterize the growth and evaluate changes in biomass accumulation and composition of switchgrass at Montreal, QC. Three cultivars, Cave-in-Rock, Pathfinder, and Sunburst, were grown in solid stands in a randomized complete block design. Canopy height, dry matter (DM) accumulation and chemical composition were monitored biweekly throughout the growing season. Average maximum canopy heights were 192.5 cm for Cave-in-Rock, 169.9 for Pathfinder, and 177.8 for Sunburst. The respective end-of-season DM yields were 12.2, 11.5, and 10.6 Mg/ha. Biomass production among cultivars appeared to be related to time of maturation. Nitrogen concentration of DM decreased curvilinearly from 25 g/kg at the beginning of the season to 5 g/kg DM at season's end. Both acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations increased to a maximum early in the season, after which no changes were detected. The average maximum values of ADF and NDF were, respectively, 647.6 and 849.0 g/kg DM for Cave-in-Rock, 669.1 and 865.2 for Pathfinder, and 661.8 and 860.9 for Sunburst. Changes in canopy height, DM accumulation, and chemical composition could all be described by predictive regression equations. These results indicate that switchgrass has potential as a biomass crop in a short-season environment.

  14. Chronology of a Small Glacier in Eastern British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bray, J R

    1964-04-17

    The age of trees growing on the moraines of a small, high-altitude glacier in the Canadian Rockies suggests that the date of the maximum post-Pleistocene ice advance was around A.D. 1714, with another later advance about 1832. These two dates are synchronous with the two major periods of recent ice advance in the area.

  15. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  16. Community Radio in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Results are presented of a survey of 20 community radio organizations operating in Canada. For each of the 20 agencies, information is provided relating to: (1) the name and address of the organization; (2) the name and population of the community served; (3) the station's call letters, frequency, and power; (4) the date of the station's license;…

  17. Teaching Canada: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    This resource bibliography with over 500 descriptive annotations on Canada, a product of a conference on Canadian Studies held at the University of Maine, Orono, in September, 1969, is designed to make teachers of social studies and other fields at both the elementary and secondary levels more aware of the variety of available teaching materials…

  18. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  19. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost…

  20. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  1. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  2. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  3. IYPE in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  4. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease.

  5. A geochemical comparison of alkalic lavas in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, peninsular Baja California and intraplate volcanoes in the eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, L.; Castillo, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is a continental volcanic arc built along the southern edge of the North American plate. The volcanic rocks along TMVB are compositionally diverse and the origin of its alkalic lavas with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like composition is highly controversial. Alkalic lavas from four regions in the western, central, and eastern TMVB [e.g., Verma and Hasenaka, Geochem. J., 58, 2004; Petrone et al., Geol. S. Am. S., 402, 2006; Orozco-Esquivel et al., Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 93, 2007] are compared with similar OIB-like alkalic lavas from peninsular Baja California [e.g., Storey et al., Terra Nova, 1, 1989; Castillo, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 120, 2008] and intraplate volcanoes in the eastern Pacific [Tian et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, 2011] in order to ascertain their geochemical similarities and differences and to constrain the compositions of their respective magma sources. A few of the alkalic lavas from TMVB have very similar trace element and isotopic compositions as the OIB-like alkalic lavas from peninsular Baja California and intraplate volcanoes in the eastern Pacific. Majority of the TMVB alkalic lavas, however, are compositionally more heterogeneous, similar to the less-alkalic Nb-enriched basalts in peninsular Baja California representing OIB-like alkalic lavas that had been contaminated by other mantle components and/or crustal materials. Thus, data seem to indicate that all the OIB-like alkalic lavas can be traced to a similar source, the compositionally heterogeneous Pacific asthenosphere.

  6. Supporting document for the Canada-wide acid rain strategy for post-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-01-01

    This report presents background and other information on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, which puts in place a framework for addressing the remaining acid rain problem in eastern Canada, for ensuring that new acid rain problems do not occur elsewhere in Canada, and for ensuring that Canada meets its international commitments on acid rain. Background information is included on the first and second Sulphur Protocols of 1985 and 1994, the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement, and progress to date in meeting emission targets. Key features of the strategy are then presented with respect to such matters as sulphur dioxide emission reductions, pollution prevention, and research. Finally, the positions of members of the multi-stakeholder task group who developed the supporting documentation for the strategy are outlined.

  7. Chapter 34: Geology and petroleum potential of the rifted margins of the Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Three sides of the Canada Basin are bordered by high-standing, conjugate rift shoulders of the Chukchi Borderland, Alaska and Canada. The Alaska and Canada margins are mantled with thick, growth-faulted sediment prisms, and the Chukchi Borderland contains only a thin veneer of sediment. The rift-margin strata of Alaska and Canada reflect the tectonics and sediment dispersal systems of adjacent continental regions whereas the Chukchi Borderland was tectonically isolated from these sediment dispersal systems. Along the eastern Alaska-southern Canada margin, termed herein the 'Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin', the rifted margin is deformed by ongoing Brooks Range tectonism. Additional contractional structures occur in a gravity fold belt that may be present along the entire Alaska and Canada margins of the Canada Basin. Source-rock data inboard of the rift shoulders and regional palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source-rock intervals: Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Albian), Upper Cretaceous (mostly Turonian) and Lower Palaeogene. Burial history modelling indicates favourable timing for generation from all three intervals beneath the Alaska and Canada passive margins, and an active petroleum system has been documented in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources indicates the greatest potential in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin and significant potential in the Canada and Alaska passive margins. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  8. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  9. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  10. Comparison of Soil Geochemistry and Nitrogen Cycling beneath Eastern Hemlock and Black Birch Regrowth Forest, West Whately, MA, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Blanchett, S.; Sweezy, T.; Mansen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Ecological forest successions associated with introduction of invasive species, human disturbance, and climate change may alter biogeochemical cycles within forested New England watersheds. Spread of the invasive insect hemlock wooly adelgid (Adelges tsungae, HWA) to eastern North America is causing decline and mortality of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). To evaluate whether changes in nutrient cycling could be altered by this disturbance, we investigated differences in soil geochemistry in secondary growth forest located at the MacLeish Field Station, Whately, MA, where HWA occurrences recently have been observed. Eastern hemlock on this property was selectively logged 20 years ago, with black birch regrowth succeeding hemlock. We hypothesize that such a succession could repeat should hemlock on the property experience mortality due to the HWA. Between 2010-2011, we measured soil pH, exchangeable acidity (Al3+ and H+), exchangeable base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), and nitrogen mineralization rates of soil cores collected beneath a hemlock stand and beneath an adjacent, younger black birch stand that succeeded hemlock following logging. Although soil pH of organic horizons between hemlock and black birch are both acidic (pH<4.5), the concentration of exchangeable base cations in the organic horizon beneath black birch is approximately 1.5 times higher than hemlock, reflecting its higher total cation exchange capacity. These results suggest that the acidity typically associated with soils that support hemlock forests has not been neutralized by black birch regrowth, and soil acidity may be stabilized by exchangeable Al3+, which is similar for the two sites. More base cations may be becoming available within the cation exchange pool of the black birch soil, possibly reflecting variation in inputs of base cations from throughfall and leaf litter. Net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates determined for incubated soil cores, measured between

  11. Noble gases in anhydrous mantle xenoliths from Tasmania in comparison with other localities from eastern Australia: Implications for the tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czuppon, György; Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsuda, Jun-ichi; Everard, John; Sutherland, Lin

    2010-11-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths from Tasmanian basalts were analysed for elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases, for greater understanding of the evolution of the underlying subcontinental lithosphere. The noble gas isotopic compositions indicate contributions of radiogenic and MORB-like components to the xenoliths. The MORB-like component is characterized by 3He/ 4He ratios between 7 and 9 Ra while the radiogenic component shows lower 3He/ 4He ratios than those in MORB (8.75 ± 2.14 Ra, Graham, 2002). The identified radiogenic component in xenoliths from Tasmania may stem from subduction events, during which the mantle wedge and subcontinental lithospheric mantle were metasomatised by U- and Th-rich fluids. As subduction processes have played important role in the evolution of Eastern Australia during the Paleozoic, the radiogenic component is probably associated with this event. Incorporation of MORB-like noble gases in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Tasmania is likely related to extensional rifting and associated opening of the Tasman Sea in the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The identified noble gas components of the xenoliths are consistent with the geochemical character of the host basalt based on the radiogenic isotope and trace element systematics. This agreement and the petrographic observations (e.g. fluid inclusion trails connected with the reaction rim of the minerals close to the host basalt, spongy texture) indicate that fluids (noble gases, CO 2) most likely propagated from the host basalts to the xenoliths forming fluid inclusions. The observed noble gas isotopic heterogeneity in mantle-derived xenoliths from Tasmanian to North Queensland reflects isotopic heterogeneity at regional scale in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern Australia.

  12. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  13. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  14. The Effect of Domestic and Economic Stress on Suicide Rates in Canada and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed rates of birth, divorce, marriage, and unemployment in Canada and United States in comparison to rates of suicide from 1950 to 1985. Found no association between marriage and suicide in Canada, in U.S. marriage had protective effect. Divorce rates were associated positively and birth rates associated negatively with suicide in both…

  15. New records for Aceria anthocopes (Acari: Eriophyidae) occurring on Canada thistle in Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-two Canada thistle infestations in eastern Colorado and Wyoming and western Nebraska were surveyed in 2004 for the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.). Mites were abundant at 41% of the sites, present in lesser numbers at 53% of the sites, and no mites were found at 6% of the sites. In 2...

  16. Physician assistants in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ian W.; Hooker, Roderick S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyze the health policies related to physician assistants (PAs) and to understand the factors influencing this medical work force movement. Quality of evidence This work combines a review of the literature and qualitative information, and it serves as a historical bookmark. The approach was selected when attempts to obtain reports or literature using customary electronic bibliography (PubMed, CINAHL, Google Scholar, EBSCO, and MEDLINE) searches in English and French, from 1970 through 2010, identified only 14 documents (including gray literature) of relevance. Reports, provincial documents, and information from developers of the PA movement supplemented the literature base. Main message The historical development of the role of PAs in Canada spans 2 decades. There are now more than 250 PAs, most working in family medicine and emergency medicine. Enabling legislation for PAs has been formalized in Manitoba, and 3 provinces have recognized PAs in various policy statements or initiatives. Three universities and 1 military training centre have enrolled more than 120 students in PA programs. Retired PAs of the Canadian Forces, returning ex-patriot Canadians who had trained as PAs in PA programs in the United States, and American immigrants are working as PAs in Canada. Demonstration projects are under way to better understand the usefulness of PAs in various medical settings. Conclusion For a public health policy enactment of this size and effect, the literature on PAs in Canada is sparse and limited. In spite of this, PA employment is expanding, family medicine practices are using PAs, and there is enabling legislation planned. The result will likely be increased use of PAs. Documentation about PAs, review of their use, and outcomes research are needed to evaluate this new type of clinician in Canadian society. PMID:21402955

  17. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  18. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ..., NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker... Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada) Ltd., PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo...

  19. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  20. On the influence of the asthenospheric flow on the tectonics and topography at a collision-subduction transition zones: Comparison with the eastern Tibetan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternai, Pietro; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Jolivet, Laurent; Faccenna, Claudio; Gerya, Taras; Becker, Thorsten Wolfgang; Menant, Armel

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic and topographic evolution of southeast Asia is attributed to the indentation of India into Eurasia, gravitational collapse of the uplifted terrains and the dynamics of the Sunda and other western Pacific subduction zones, but their relative contributions remain elusive. Here, we analyse 3D numerical geodynamic modelling results involving a collision-subduction system and show that vigorous asthenospheric flow due to differential along-strike slab kinematics may contribute to the surface strain and elevations at collision-subduction transition zones. We argue that protracted northward migration of the collisional front and Indian slab during south to south-westward rollback subduction along the Sunda margin might have produced a similar asthenospheric flow. This flow could have contributed to the southeast Asia extrusion tectonics and uplift of the terrains around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis and protruding from southeast Tibet. Therefore, we suggest that the tectonics and topographic growth east and southeast of Tibet are controlled not only by crustal and lithospheric deformation but also by asthenospheric dynamics.

  1. Comparison the Effects of Health Indicators on Male and Female Labor Supply, Evidence from Panel Data of Eastern Mediterranean Countries 1995-2010

    PubMed Central

    HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah; HADIAN, Mohamad; GHOLAMPOOR, Hanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Skilled labor force is very important in economic growth. Workers become skilled when they are healthy and able to be educated and work. In this study, we estimated the effects of health indicators on labor supply. We used labor force participation rate as the indicator of labor supply. We categorized this indicator into 2 indicators of female and male labor force participation rates and compared the results of each estimate with the other. Methods This study was done in eastern Mediterranean countries between 1995 and 2011. We used a panel cointegration approach for estimating the models. We used Pesaran cross sectional dependency, Pesaran unit root test, and Westerlund panel cointegration for this issue. At the end, after confirmation of having random effect models, we estimated them with random effects. Results Increasing the fertility rate decreased the female labor supply, but increased the male labor supply. However, public health expenditures increased the female labor supply, but decreased the male labor supply because of substitution effects. Similar results were found regarding urbanization. Gross domestic product had a positive relationship with female labor supply, but not with male labor supply. Besides, out of pocket health expenditures had a negative relationship with male labor supply, but no significant relationships with female labor supply. Conclusion The effects of the health variables were more severe in the female labor supply model compared to the male model. Countries must pay attention to women’s health more and more to change the labor supply. PMID:26060746

  2. A comparison of the nitrogen requirements of the eastern pygmy possum, Cercartetus nanus, on a pollen and on a mealworm diet.

    PubMed

    van Tets, I G; Hulbert, A J

    1999-01-01

    The eastern pygmy possum, Cercartetus nanus, is known to feed both on flower products and on invertebrates. This study compares its ability to meet its nitrogen requirements on pollen and on insect larvae. Captive C. nanus were fed diets in which nitrogen was provided either by Eucalyptus pollen or by the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The apparent digestibility of the nitrogen from both sources was high, with a mean value of 76% for the pollen and 73% for the mealworms. This was much higher than would have been inferred from the common practice of measuring the percentage of empty pollen grains in fecal samples. The truly digestible maintenance nitrogen requirements of C. nanus on pollen were exceptionally low: 2.6 mg N d-1 compared with 9.5 mg N d-1 on mealworms. The value for pollen is the lowest yet recorded for any mammal. The difference between the requirements of C. nanus on the two diets appeared to be related to the composition of the mealworm and pollen protein. The biological value of the pollen nitrogen was exceptionally high for a plant protein, at 72%, whereas the biological value of the mealworm nitrogen was only 42%. This suggests that the amino acid composition of the pollen corresponded more closely to the requirements of C. nanus than the composition of the mealworm protein did. Pollen is an excellent source of nitrogen for C. nanus, and it should be considered as a potential nitrogen source for other flower-feeding animals.

  3. Vitamin D intake and other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency in Middle Eastern people living in the UK: a comparison of cultural and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wassan A; Al-Murrani, Waleed; Kuri, Victor; Rees, Gail A

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about factors affecting vitamin D status in Middle Eastern people living in the UK. A total of 242 questionnaires were returned out of 350 distributed. A total of 85% of the sample was estimated to have a low vitamin D intake (< 5 μg/d). Other risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency included covering skin from sunlight (62% men and 84% women); low use of vitamin D containing supplements (18.5%) and being overweight or obese (49% men and 44% women). Vitamin D intake was lowest in the Kurdish ethnic group (2.18 μg/d) and in those with primary (1.83 μg/d) and secondary school (2.14 μg/d) level education compared to higher education (3.0-3.59 μg/d). Vitamin D intake was highest in those aged 40-49 years (4.0 μg/d), those born in the Levant (4.29 μg/d), and in those who were obese (3.60 μg/d).

  4. Assessment of the Self-Perception of Dental Appearance, Its Comparison with Orthodontist's Assessment and Demand for Treatment in Eastern Nepalese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varun Pratap; Sharma, Amita; Roy, Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of dental appearance among Eastern Nepalese patients using aesthetic component (AC) of the index of orthodontic treatment need (IOTN) and to compare it with that of an orthodontist's assessment using the same scale and determine whether gender, area of residence, and level of education influence subject's self-perception and orthodontist's ratings. Methods. A total of 252 subjects (equal number of male and female) were conveniently selected. The average ages of subjects were 22.33 ± 2.114 years. The level of subject's perception and orthodontist's assessment was analyzed by nonparametric Chi square test. Kappa coefficient was done to verify its agreement. The Spearman's correlation test was used to check the association of educational level and age. Mann-Whitney test was used to check the associations of sex and areas of residence. Results. The demand for treatment was significantly associated with the perception of the subject and orthodontist's assessment. However, age, gender, and educational level were statistically insignificant in influencing subject perception and orthodontist's assessment. Conclusion. Patient's self-perception should be given equal importance while planning orthodontic treatment. PMID:26556416

  5. Comparison of larval development and overwintering stages of the spotted knapweed biological control agents Agapeta zoegana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Cyphocleonus achates (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Montana versus Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Corn, Janelle G; Story, Jim M; White, Linda J

    2009-08-01

    Larval development of insects introduced for biological control of invasive weeds may be constrained if the new climate is more extreme than in their native range. We surveyed larval development in Agapeta zoegana L. and Cyphocleonus achates (Fahraeus), two species of biological control insects introduced from eastern Europe against spotted knapweed in western North America. We dissected spotted knapweed roots collected from five sites in western Montana over 6 yr either in late fall or early spring and measured larval head capsule size to determine the overwintering instar stage. Development of A. zoegana was estimated equally well with late fall or early spring root collections, but C. achates rate of development may be underestimated using fall samples. The larvae of neither species entered diapause in as advanced an instar in western Montana as reported for their native range. Most A. zoegana larvae reached the third (26%) or fourth (20%) instar at diapause, with only 15% reaching sixth instars, as they typically do in their native Eurasia. Almost all (94%) C. achates overwintered as first instars, with most of the remaining (4%) being eggs, some of which were viable in the spring. Only a small number (2%) of C. achates larvae overwintered as second instars, the common overwintering stage in their native range. Slower development may explain, in part, why A. zoegana only has one generation per year in Montana compared with two to three generations per year in Europe.

  6. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  7. Suicide in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McFaull, Steven; Rhodes, Anne E.; Bowes, Matthew; Rockett, Ian R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare Canadian suicide rates with other external causes of death to examine potential poisoning misclassifications as a contributor to suicide underreporting. Method: The study used Statistics Canada mortality data from 2000 to 2011 to calculate sex-and age-specific ratios by external cause of injury codes. Results: The overall Canadian suicide rate, as well as the poisoning suicide rate, declined over the study timeframe by an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 1.0% each year. However, unintentional and undetermined poisonings increased significantly during the timeframe. Unintentional poisoning mortality (primarily narcotics and hallucinogens, including opioids) increased in proportion to suicides for both sexes, although females were consistently higher. The undetermined death to suicide ratio was higher and increasing for females. Poisonings of undetermined intent increased over time to comprise 47% to 80% of the undetermined death category for males and females combined. Conclusions: Canadian poisoning suicide rates declined, in contrast to rising unintentional and undetermined poisoning mortality rates. This trend is similar to that of the United States, supporting the hypothesis that misclassification of poisoning deaths may also be an issue in Canada.

  8. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  9. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  10. Diet of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) in the northern Humboldt Current system and comparison with the diets of clupeoids in this and other eastern boundary upwelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, Pepe; Bertrand, Arnaud; van der Lingen, Carl D.; Garrido, Susana; Rojas de Mendiola, Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Sardines are one of the main small pelagic fish resources in eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS) where they play an important ecological role both as a predator of plankton and as prey of top predators. Sardine trophodynamics have been relatively well studied in three of the EBUS (the Benguela, California and Canary upwelling systems) but not in the Humboldt Current system. In this paper we describe the diet of sardine Sardinops sagax in the northern Humboldt Current system (NHCS) off Peru, using an analytical method which assesses relative dietary importance in terms of estimated prey carbon content. We assessed sardine diet by examining a total of 555 stomachs collected during six surveys conducted off Peru during the period 1996-1998, and compare our results with the diet of anchoveta Engraulis ringens off Peru and with the diets of sardines from the southern Benguela (also S. sagax) and the northern Canary ( Sardina pilchardus) upwelling systems. The diet of sardine off Peru is based primarily on zooplankton, similar to that observed for anchoveta but with several important differences. Firstly, sardine feed on smaller zooplankton than do anchoveta, with sardine diet consisting of smaller copepods and fewer euphausiids than anchoveta diet. Secondly, whilst phytoplankton represents <2% of sardine dietary carbon, this fraction is dominated by dinoflagellates, whereas diatoms are the dominant phytoplankton consumed by anchoveta. Hence, trophic competition between sardine and anchovy in the northern Humboldt Current system is minimized by their partitioning of the zooplankton food resource based on prey size, as has been reported in other systems. Whereas sardine in the NHCS feed on smaller zooplankton than do anchovy in that system, sardine in the NHCS forage on larger prey and obtain a substantial portion of their dietary carbon from euphausiids compared to sardine from the northern Canary and southern Benguela Current systems.

  11. Comparison of Plains Volcanism in the Tempe Terra Region of Mars to the Eastern Snake River Plains, Idaho with Implications for Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weren, S. L.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Hughes, S. S.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plains (ESRP) in Idaho have long been considered a terrestrial analog for the plains volcanism like that evident in Syria Planum and Tempe Terra, Mars. Both the ESRP and Tempe Terra are sediment-blanketed volcanic fields in areas with significant extensional faulting. Similar volcanic features can be observed throughout both study areas using field analysis and DEMs of the ESRP and the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data from Mars. These features include flow fields, low shields, shields with steep summits, and fissure eruptions. A few other volcanic features, such as cinder cones, which suggest variable compositions, volatile interactions, and multiple volcanic events can be seen in both areas. The eruptions in both the ESRP and Tempe Terra generally originate from the fissures creating elongate, multi-vent shields as well as isolated or aligned single vent shields. Many of these show evidence of radial flow patterns from summit craters as well as lava tube fed flows. The volcanoes of Tempe Terra display some of the global latitudinal parameter trends of small volcanoes on Mars. Some of these trends may be explained by the variation of volatile content and compositional variation across Mars. However, within Tempe Terra no significant local latitudinal trends can be seen in edifice attributes and not all variations are explained by global trends. This study builds upon previous studies of the Tempe Terra region and the ESRP in order to develop a more detailed representation of features and topographic data. Using these data we attempt to help constrain the composition and eruptive style of the Tempe Terra volcanoes by correlating them with the similar and quantified ESRP variations.

  12. Erosion Rates of Volcanic-ash Derived Soils in the Blue Mountains of Eastern Oregon, USA: A Comparison Across Sales in Space and Time.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wondzell, S. M.; Clifton, C. F.; Harris, R. M.; Ritchie, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We examined present day rates of erosion in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon to quantify background erosion rates to provide standards for assessing possible accelerated rates of erosion resulting from wild fire or from land-management activities such as prescribed fire. The Skookum Creek watersheds, where stream discharge and sediment yield have been recorded continuously since the watersheds were gauged in 1992, provided a watershed-scale estimate of erosion rates. We installed hillslope erosion plots on north- and south- facing slopes within the watersheds in 2002 and collected data for three years to estimate short-term, hillslope- scale erosion rates. We also collected soil samples and analyzed them for 137Cs to get a 40-yr time- integrated estimate of hillslope erosion rates. Our results showed large differences between whole-watershed sediment yields and hillslope erosion rates measured from plots, suggesting that episodic processes dominated sediment production and transport and therefore controlled watershed-scale sediment budgets. At the hillslope-scale, short-term erosion resulted primarily from digging by small mammals and trampling by elk. Visual observations at the plots suggested that annual down-slope sediment movement was usually less than one meter. There were no significant difference among slope positions, but erosion rates were significantly higher on south-facing aspects and positively correlated to the amount of bare ground. In contrast, the 137Cs data suggested that erosion rates differed with slope position. Higher erosion rates were measured in toe- and mid-slope positions, with little erosion occurring on upper slopes and ridge tops. We examine these results in light of the present-day pattern of surface soils resulting from redistribution of volcanic ash from upper- slope to lower-slope positions and the effects of disturbance, including wildfire and the preferential grazing of riparian and lower-slope positions by domestic livestock.

  13. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  14. Climatic drivers of variability in the response of NPP to elevated CO2. A model-data comparison at two FACE sites in the south eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Dietze, M. C.; Hanson, P. J.; Hickler, T.; Jain, A. K.; Luo, Y.; McCarthy, H. R.; Medlyn, B. E.; Parton, W. J.; Thornton, P. E.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Weng, E.; Oren, R.; Norby, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    In response to elevated CO2, terrestrial plant productivity increases; creating negative feedback on atmospheric CO2 increase. Inter-annual variability (IAV) in the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) response, demonstrated at FACE experiments in Tennessee and North Carolina, was a result of nitrogen dynamics and the water balance. An inter-comparison study, that simulated the FACE experiments with 11 different models, showed that models could reproduce IAV at Duke FACE but were less able at Oak Ridge. The aim of this study was to test whether models could reproduce the experimentally observed relationships between the NPP response and climatic variables. Temperature and soil water were shown to be important drivers of the simulated NPP response. However, models did not demonstrate the same relationships to climate as the observed data. Despite the intensity and duration of the measurement campaigns in comparison with other ecosystem manipulations, fusion of models and data was confounded by the comparatively limited resolution of observed data - 11 years, difficulty in measurement of the full model parameter sets - and difficulty in standardising the diverse parameter sets and initial conditions of the various models. Furthermore, long-term simulations of the FACE experiments, using a 300 year randomised sequence of the 11 years of climatic data, showed that there was wide variability in the NPP response for a particular year of climatic data. Results demonstrate that although IAV in models can correlate with IAV in observations, relationships between NPP and climatic variables may not always be comparable.

  15. Comparison of Magnetic, Geochemical and Biological Proxies Signals in a ca. 2,000 yr Record from the Tropical Lowlands of Eastern Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, M.; Beatriz, O.; Ma. Del Socorro, L.; Rodríguez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Pollen, diatoms, geochemical, magnetic and non-magnetic mineral analyses were conducted on a lacustrine sequence from a maar lake on the tropical lowlands of eastern Mexico. Chronological framework for this lake is based on age determinations by 210-Pb, 137-Cs and 14-C. The studied sequence covers the last ca. 2000 yr, a time of important environmental transformations in the area due to climatic variability as well as human impact since the early Olmec societies until the recent forest clearance of the 20th century. Through these analyses we investigated the processes that affected the magnetic mineralogy in order to construct a model of past environmental changes, and compare it with the biological proxy records (diatoms and pollen) and the archeological record. Inferred climatic changes for this area are further compared with the documented climatic changes in the northern hemisphere of tropical America. Volcanic activity has played a major influence on sediment magnetic properties, as a purveyor of Ti-magnetites/Ti-maghemites, and as a factor of instability in the environment. Moisture availability has been determinant for the diatom and pollen records, and human impact is mostly reflected in the pollen and geochemical records. Direct observations of magnetic minerals and ratios of geochemical (Fe, Ti), and ferrimagnetic (χ f ) and paramagnetic (χ p) susceptibility (χ) data, are used as parameters for magnetite dissolution (χ p/χ, Fe/χ f ), and precipitation (χ f/Ti) of magnetic minerals. Evidence of agricultural practices associated with increased erosion, deforestation, higher evaporation rates, lower lake levels, anoxia and reductive diagenesis in non-sulphidic conditions are inferred for laminated sediments between A.D. 20-850. This deposit matches the period of historical crisis and multiyear droughts that contributed to the collapse of the Maya civilization. Dissolution of magnetite, a high organic content, framboidal pyrite and a change in the

  16. Comparison of female attractiveness and male response among populations of Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in western and eastern U.S. apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Stelinski, L L; McKenzie, D; Gut, L J; Isaacs, R; Brunner, J

    2007-10-01

    Female obliquebanded leafrollers, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), collected from Oregon, Michigan, and New York were deployed in delta traps in Michigan apple orchards to compare their relative attractiveness to Michigan males of the same species. Females originating from Oregon attracted more males than females originating from New York during both generations of leafroller flight in Michigan. Also, females from Oregon attracted more males in Michigan than did "native" Michigan females during the first generation of flight. Analysis of gland extracts from the three populations revealed significantly more of each pheromone component in females originating from Oregon (approximately nine-fold more pheromone per female overall) than those from Michigan. However, there were no significant differences in the relative amounts of each pheromone component between Oregon and Michigan females. A 100:4:5:2 blend of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, Z11-14:OH, and Z11-14:Ald was optimal for catching males in Michigan with no added or detrimental effect of Z11-14:Ald, confirming previous studies. However, 100:1 ratios of Z11-14:OAc relative to either E11-14:OAc or Z11-14:OH (also containing 2% Z11-14:Ald) captured more males in Oregon apple orchards compared with 100:4 and 100:10 ratios of Z11-14:OAc relative to either E11-14:OAc or Z11-14:OH. Addition of increasing amounts of Z11-14:Ald relative to Z11-14:OAc (range, 0-8:100) into a blend also containing 4% E11-14:OAc and 5% Z11-14:OH increased male catch in Oregon but not in Michigan. Our results suggest that pheromone blend quantity rather than blend quality may explain greater attractiveness of western compared with eastern female C. rosaceana to males in Michigan. Also, an optimized generic blend for monitoring male C. rosaceana across North America should contain Z11-14:Ald as has been previously shown, but should not exceed 4:100 ratios of both E11-14:OAc and Z11-14:OH relative to Z11-14:OAc for optimized catch of males in the

  17. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Tectonics of Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    The tectonic history of Atlantic Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North Atlantic Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North Atlantic Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North Atlantic may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.

  19. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  1. A Comparison of Tropical Storm (TS) and Non-TS Gust Factors for Assessing Peak Wind Probabilities at the Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Crawford, Winifred C.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of peak wind speeds is important to the safety of personnel and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), but they are more difficult to forecast than mean wind speeds. Development of a reliable model for the gust factor (GF) relating the peak to the mean wind speed motivated a previous study of GF in tropical storms. The same motivation inspired a climatological study of non-TS peak wind speed statistics without the use of GF. Both studies presented their respective statistics as functions of mean wind speed and height. The few comparisons of IS and non-TS GF in the literature suggest that the non-TS GF at a given height and mean wind speed are smaller than the corresponding TS GF. The investigation reported here converted the non-TS peak wind statistics mentioned above to the equivalent GF statistics and compared the results with the previous TS GF results. The advantage of this effort over all previously reported studies of its kind is that the TS and non-TS data are taken from the same towers in the same locations. That eliminates differing surface attributes, including roughness length and thermal properties, as a major source of variance in the comparison. The results are consistent with the literature, but include much more detailed, quantitative information on the nature of the relationship between TS and non-TS GF as a function of height and mean wind speed. In addition, the data suggest the possibility of providing an operational model for non-TS GF as a function of height and wind speed in a manner similar to the one previously developed for TS GF.

  2. Food control systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, T M; Jukes, D J

    1997-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the responsibilities and jurisdictional boundaries of Health Canada (HC) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) with regard to food regulation in Canada. It examines their interagency coordination within the federal structure and with other levels of government, industry, and the consumer. The international developments are considered with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Canada, United States Trade Agreement (CUSTA) being regarded as likely to have a significant future impact. The federal food safety and quality system is complex and fragmented. Federal food regulation comes under the jurisdiction of four federal departments: HC, AAFC, Industry Canada (IC), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC). All four departments are involved with inspection, surveillance, and the analysis of food sold in Canada. In addition, Canada's ten provincial and two territorial governments have provincial-, regional-, municipal-, and local-level governments that also have jurisdiction over food safety and quality. Consideration is first given to the main legislative provision covering food--the Federal Food and Drugs Act. This Act is administered by several of the Federal Government departments. The role of these departments is examined individually along with additional, more specific legal provisions for which responsibility is not divided (in particular, the Canada Agricultural Products [CAP] Act administered by AAFC, and the Consumer Packaging and Labeling Act [CPLA] administered by IC). The various reviews that have taken place in the recent past and those still in progress are considered, and the final part of this paper looks at the international developments that are likely to have a major impact on the future development of the Canadian food control system.

  3. Comparison of methods for estimating ground-water recharge and base flow at a small watershed underlain by fractured bedrock in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.; Gburek, William J.; Folmar, Gordon J.

    2005-01-01

    This study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, compared multiple methods for estimating ground-water recharge and base flow (as a proxy for recharge) at sites in east-central Pennsylvania underlain by fractured bedrock and representative of a humid-continental climate. This study was one of several within the USGS Ground-Water Resources Program designed to provide an improved understanding of methods for estimating recharge in the eastern United States. Recharge was estimated on a monthly and annual basis using four methods?(1) unsaturated-zone drainage collected in gravity lysimeters, (2) daily water balance, (3) water-table fluctuations in wells, and (4) equations of Rorabaugh. Base flow was estimated by streamflow-hydrograph separation using the computer programs PART and HYSEP. Estimates of recharge and base flow were compared for an 8-year period (1994-2001) coinciding with operation of the gravity lysimeters at an experimental recharge site (Masser Recharge Site) and a longer 34-year period (1968-2001), for which climate and streamflow data were available on a 2.8-square-mile watershed (WE-38 watershed). Estimates of mean-annual recharge at the Masser Recharge Site and WE-38 watershed for 1994-2001 ranged from 9.9 to 14.0 inches (24 to 33 percent of precipitation). Recharge, in inches, from the various methods was: unsaturated-zone drainage, 12.2; daily water balance, 12.3; Rorabaugh equations with PULSE, 10.2, or RORA, 14.0; and water-table fluctuations, 9.9. Mean-annual base flow from streamflow-hydrograph separation ranged from 9.0 to 11.6 inches (21-28 percent of precipitation). Base flow, in inches, from the various methods was: PART, 10.7; HYSEP Local Minimum, 9.0; HYSEP Sliding Interval, 11.5; and HYSEP Fixed Interval, 11.6. Estimating recharge from multiple methods is useful, but the inherent differences of the methods must be considered when comparing

  4. A Comparison of Tropical Storm (TS) and Non-TS Gust Factors for Assessing Peak Wind Probabilities at the Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Crawford, Winifred C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is an important forecast element to ensure the safety of personnel and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in East-Central Florida. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), the organization that issues forecasts for the KSC/CCAFS area, finds that peak winds are more difficult to forecast than mean winds. This difficulty motivated the 45 WS to request two independent studies. The first (Merceret 2009) was the development of a reliable model for gust factors (GF) relating the peak to the mean wind speed in tropical storms (TS). The second (Lambert et al. 2008) was a climatological study of non-TS cool season (October-April) mean and peak wind speeds by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et al. 2004) without the use of GF. Both studies presented their statistics as functions of mean wind speed and height. Most of the few comparisons of TS and non-TS GF in the literature suggest that non-TS GF at a given height and mean wind speed are smaller than the corresponding TS GF. The investigation reported here converted the non-TS peak wind statistics calculated by the AMU to the equivalent GF statistics and compared them with the previous TS GF results. The advantage of this effort over all previously reported studies of its kind is that the TS and non-TS data were taken from the same towers in the same locations. This eliminates differing surface attributes, including roughness length and thermal properties, as a major source of variance in the comparison. The goal of this study is two-fold: to determine the relationship between the non-TS and TS GF and their standard deviations (GFSD) and to determine if models similar to those developed for TS data in Merceret (2009) could be developed for the non-TS environment. The results are consistent with the literature, but include much more detailed, quantitative information on the nature of the relationship between TS and non-TS GF and GFSD as a function

  5. Congenital anomalies in Canada 2013: a perinatal health surveillance report by the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Irvine, B; Luo, W; León, J A

    2015-03-01

    Congenital Anomalies in Canada 2013: A Perinatal Health Surveillance Report is the second national surveillance report from the Public Health Agency of Canada dedicated to congenital anomalies. It provides comprehensive data on congenital anomalies in Canada, focussing on 6 categories of congenital anomalies: Down syndrome, neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, limb deficiency defects and gastroschisis. The report presents national-level birth prevalence data and temporal trends, provincial and territorial estimates, and international comparisons. Known risk factors, prevalence-related impacts of prenatal diagnosis and preventative measures are also discussed.

  6. Recent trends and variability in river discharge across northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, Stephen J.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; MacDonald, Matthew K.; Gauli-Sharma, Bunu

    2016-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of the observed inter-annual variability and inter-decadal trends in river discharge across northern Canada for 1964-2013. The 42 rivers chosen for this study span a combined gauged area of 5.26 × 106 km2 and are selected based on data availability and quality, gauged area and record length. Inter-annual variability in river discharge is greatest for the eastern Arctic Ocean (coefficient of variation, CV = 16 %) due to the Caniapiscau River diversion into the La Grande Rivière system for enhanced hydropower production. Variability is lowest for the study area as a whole (CV = 7 %). Based on the Mann-Kendall test (MKT), no significant (p > 0.05) trend in annual discharge from 1964 to 2013 is observed in the Bering Sea, western Arctic Ocean, western Hudson and James Bay, and Labrador Sea; for northern Canada as a whole, however, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decline of 102.8 km3 25 yr-1 in discharge occurs over the first half of the study period followed by a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase of 208.8 km3 25 yr-1 in the latter half. Increasing (decreasing) trends in river discharge to the eastern Hudson and James Bay (eastern Arctic Ocean) are largely explained by the Caniapiscau diversion to the La Grande Rivière system. Strong regional variations in seasonal trends of river discharge are observed, with overall winter (summer) flows increasing (decreasing, with the exception of the most recent decade) partly due to flow regulation and storage for enhanced hydropower production along the Hudson and James Bay, the eastern Arctic Ocean and Labrador Sea. Flow regulation also suppresses the natural variability of river discharge, particularly during cold seasons.

  7. A Plan to Appreciate Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Yorke

    1971-01-01

    A plan is suggested for establishing a chain of ecology-wildlife interpretation centers throughout Canada emphasizing regional interpretation of the landscape. Wye Marsh Wildlife Center, Midland, Ontario, is described in detail. (BL)

  8. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  9. Can Education Reform Canada's Criminals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the development of the existing correctional programs in Canada's prisons, some theories of criminality, and two competing views on the best way to reform criminals today. Also gives a short review of penitentiary education programs. (RK)

  10. Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.

    PubMed

    Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes.

  11. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  12. The potential and realized spread of wildfires across Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianli; Parisien, Marc-André; Flannigan, Mike D; Parks, Sean A; Anderson, Kerry R; Little, John M; Taylor, Steve W

    2014-08-01

    Given that they can burn for weeks or months, wildfires in temperate and boreal forests may become immense (eg., 10(0) - 10(4) km(2) ). However, during the period within which a large fire is 'active', not all days experience weather that is conducive to fire spread; indeed most of the spread occurs on a small proportion (e.g., 1 - 15 days) of not necessarily consecutive days during the active period. This study examines and compares the Canada-wide patterns in fire-conducive weather ('potential' spread) and the spread that occurs on the ground ('realized' spread). Results show substantial variability in distributions of potential and realized spread days across Canada. Both potential and realized spread are higher in western than in eastern Canada; however, whereas potential spread generally decreases from south to north, there is no such pattern with realized spread. The realized-to-potential fire-spread ratio is considerably higher in northern Canada than in the south, indicating that proportionally more fire-conducive days translate into fire progression. An exploration of environmental correlates to spread show that there may be a few factors compensating for the lower potential spread in northern Canada: a greater proportion of coniferous (i.e., more flammable) vegetation, lesser human impacts (i.e., less fragmented landscapes), sufficient fire ignitions, and intense droughts. Because a linear relationship exists between the frequency distributions of potential spread days and realized spread days in a fire zone, it is possible to obtain one from the other using a simple conversion factor. Our methodology thus provides a means to estimate realized fire spread from weather-based data in regions where fire databases are poor, which may improve our ability to predict future fire activity.

  13. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  14. Sediment thickness in the southern Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.D.; Grantz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection data are used, in conjunction with deep crustal seismic refraction data, to estimate the thickness of sediments in the southern Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. The sediments are interpreted to be of Hauterivian (mid-Early Cretaceous) to Holocene age. Comparison of the seismic reflection character of seismic reflections in the study area with that in other basins indicates that a base-of-sediment-top of oceanic layer 2 reflection is not present above the depth at which the water-bottom multiple obscures all deeper arrivals, which is in conflict with the conclusions drawn from aeromagnetic, refraction, and other reflection studies. Seismic velocity structure, determined from the reflection data, indicates that the reflections above the multiple are from sedimentary strata. In the absence of seismic reflection evidence for the top of layer 2 above the multiple, we estimate total sediment thickness by using the layer 3 refractions and subtracting an average assumed layer 2 thickness from the top of layer 3. Assuming that an average thickness of oceanic layer 2 (1.4 km) overlies layer 3 in the southern Canada Basin, sediment thickness in the study area is estimated to range between 6.5 km where water depth is 3.8 km to greater than 11 km where the water depth is 2 km. This is nearly double that of any previous estimates and should have a significant effect on calculations such as the age of Canada Basin, regional heat flow, and long-term sedimentation rates. ?? 1990.

  15. Comparison of methods for determining streamflow requirements for aquatic habitat protection at selected sites on the Assabet and Charles Rivers, Eastern Massachusetts, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Gene W.; Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    streamflow requirements than would result if the methods were applied to riffles on natural channels with unaltered streamflows. The R2Cross 2-of-3 criteria and the Wetted-Perimeter streamflow requirements for the Assabet and Charles River sites show narrower interquartile ranges and lower median streamflow requirements than for 10 index streamflow-gaging stations in southern New England. This is especially evident for the R2Cross 2-of-3 criteria and Wetted-Perimeter results that were close to half of the flow requirements determined at the 10 southern New England stations. The R2Cross and Wetted-Perimeter methods were also compared to the Range of Variability Approach analysis and the Tennant Method. The median R2Cross 3-of-3 criteria streamflow requirement for the nine riffles is close to the 75th percentile of the monthly mean flows during the summer low-flow period from six streamflow-gaging stations near the Assabet and Charles River Basins having mostly unaltered flow. This streamflow requirement is close to the median Tennant 40-percent-flow requirement for good habitat condi-tion for the same six nearby stations. The R2Cross 2-of-3 criteria and Wetted-Perimeter results were less than the 25th-percentile of monthly mean flows during the summer months for the six stations. These streamflow requirements are in the poor habitat range as indicated by a Tennant analysis of the same six stations. These comparisons indicate that the R2Cross and Wetted-Perimeter methods underestimate streamflow requirements when applied to sites in smaller drainage areas and channels that are runs at higher flows.

  16. Comparison of vertebral δ13C and δ15N records with organism-based isoscapes to identify fish migration, site fidelity and food-web preferences of fishes in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radabaugh, K. R.; Wallace, A. A.; Huelster, S. A.; Hollander, D. J.; Peebles, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geographic variation in stable isotopic composition of dissolved and particulate nitrogen and carbon enables the use of stable isotopes as endogenous markers to track the origin and migration of motile marine species. Variation in river discharge, the light environment, and biological activity result in δ13C and δ15N spatial heterogeneity within coastal marine food webs. SEAMAP (Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program) groundfish surveys at more than 130 locations were used to acquire samples from >1,600 samples of fish muscle and primary producers for bulk δ13C and δ15N analysis, allowing the creation of isoscapes for the West Florida Shelf (eastern Gulf of Mexico, USA). The δ15N isoscapes exhibited strong latitudinal and longitudinal isotopic gradients for all fish species examined, with high interannual and seasonal stability. δ15N was 3-4 % higher in the northwest region of the study compared to the southeast for both Syacium papillosum (dusky flounder) and Synodus foetens (inshore lizardfish). Low individual variability in δ15N values revealed strong site fidelities for these trawl-caught fishes. δ13C isoscapes exhibited depth gradients with greater seasonal and interannual variability. This study assesses the utility of combining isotopic analyses of fish vertebrae with organism-based isoscapes to investigate the migration routes of individual fishes. Unlike muscle isotopes that provide an integrated perspective of recent spatial and temporal environmental variation (at a scale dependent on muscle turnover rates), analysis of δ13C and δ15N along the growth radii of fish vertebrae enables chronological reconstruction of individual histories. When corrected for trophic level and metabolic fractionation, comparison of isotopic life history to the established isoscapes may enable reconstruction of migration routes and changing food-web positions of commercial and recreational fisheries species.

  17. Canadian Seismicity Catalogue - Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T.

    2003-04-01

    The first seismograph station in western Canada was installed in Victoria, BC, in 1898, under the Meteorological Service of Canada. By 1940, seismograph installations in Canada were amalgamated under the Dominion Observatory. The first short-period instruments were installed in western Canada in the early 1950's. The first digital instruments were installed in the mid-1970's. To date there are now 54 digital stations in western Canada that are routinely used in analysis as well as 2 paper-record stations. Detection ability has increased significantly over the past 20 years. Magnitude thresholds for locations vary over space and time reflecting seismicity levels, station distribution, and staffing levels. Currently the magnitude thresholds are (these do not necessarily equate to completeness levels): M=2.5-3.0 for western Canada; M=2.0 in the St Elias Mountains, YT, the northern Coast Mountains, BC, most of southern BC, and southwestern Alberta; M=1.0-1.5 in the Queen Charlotte Islands, southern Coast Mountains, and northern Vancouver Island; M=0.7-0.8 in southern Vancouver Island and the adjacent mainland. Events have been located with a variety of location programs over the years. A number of velocity models have been in use over time, currently resulting in a generic model for all of western Canada, and a model each for offshore, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and Vancouver Island. Recently purchased Antelope software will allow improved ability to maintain and possibly extend current magnitude thresholds as much of the daily analyst housekeeping tasks are decreased. Recent additions to the catalogue are regular computation of P-nodal and moment tensor solutions.

  18. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  19. Winning Scholarships: A Student's Guide to Entrance Awards at Universities and Colleges in Atlantic Canada and Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Michael J.

    This guide takes students through the process of seeking scholarship funds for study at colleges and universities in the provinces of eastern Canada, including Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec. The first several chapters cover the preparatory process, discussing how to win a scholarship, how to make the…

  20. Decadal variability of Arctic sea ice in the Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    A series of spring Arctic flight campaigns surveying a region over the Canada Basin, from 2006 to 2015, has resulted in unique observations that reveal new details of sea ice leads and freeboard evolution, during a decade of significant interannual variability in the Arctic ice cover. The series began in 2006 with a joint NASA/NOAA airborne altimetry campaign over a 1300 km survey line northwest of the Canadian Archipelago extending into the northern Beaufort Sea. Operation IceBridge (OIB) took up this flight line again in 2009 and repeated it annually through 2012. Additional observations have been collected along a 1000+ km flight line, in the southern Canada Basin and eastern Beaufort Sea, between 2009 and 2015. Here we examine laser altimetry, snow radar data, and high-resolution visible imagery to better understand the frequency and distribution of leads and ice floes, the characteristics of first- and multi-year ice types in the survey region, and their impact on the derivation and accuracy of sea ice freeboard. We demonstrate a novel lead detection methodology that depends only upon laser altimeter measurements, and we quantify the impact of low lead frequencies on estimates of instantaneous sea surface height. The analysis reveals a variable springtime freeboard north of 78° N, significantly reduced after 2006, and a notable lead outbreak over the Canada Basin during 2010.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  2. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  3. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response. PMID:26954882

  4. Determinants of clinician adoption of regenerative therapies in the UK and Canada: an ophthalmology perspective.

    PubMed

    Rose, James B; May, Michael; Williams, David J

    2015-05-01

    The determinants of adoption of regenerative medicine therapies are currently poorly understood. This study aims to draw comparison between the UK and Canada in terms of factors likely to affect healthcare adoption of future regenerative therapies in ophthalmology. Conducting semi-structured interviews with senior ophthalmologists in the UK and Canada, their perceptions of factors either enabling or limiting adoption were recorded and analyzed. A number of key concepts were extracted from the interview data, perceived by stakeholders to contribute to adoption. The core factors developed in this work will be of use to those looking to understand the opportunities and risks involved in securing clinician adoption in both the UK and Canada.

  5. The case for a vaccine injury compensation program for Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Keelan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Despite its being deliberated since at least the 1980s, a national vaccine injury compensation program still does not exist in Canada. The omission of such a program stands as a gap in Canadian immunization policy in comparison to many other equivalently developed countries. This article outlines the arguments for a compensation program and the design elements that would be best suited to a program in the Canadian context.

  6. Eastern and Western Approaches to Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsuei, Julia J.

    1978-01-01

    An objective comparison of Eastern and Western approaches to medicine is necessary to further evaluate the validity of Oriental medical techniques such as acupuncture. The development of medicine in Western nations follows the way of hypothetical deduction and the Eastern approach uses the inductive method. The Western approach clearly divides the health from the disease, yet the Eastern approach considers health as a balanced state versus disease as an unbalanced state. The Western approach tends to change the environment and the Eastern way is to prefer to adapt to the environment. There are numerous difficulties in comparing these two approaches. The same terminology may apply to entirely different facts, the teaching and learning methods are quite different, and the evaluation of the treatment is almost not comparable. In order to help understand the Eastern approach better, an understanding is needed of the basic Chinese concepts: the concept of a small universe living in a large universe; the duality concept of yin and yang; the concept of anatomy; the concept of physiology in Chinese medicine—the state of equilibrium expressed by the five elements; the concept of pathophysiology expressed by the external and internal insults; the concept of maintaining and promoting health expressed by the circulation of chi and hsieh; the therapeutic concept in Chinese medicine—the normalization or reestablishment of balance of the body function; the concept of preventive medicine. PMID:664653

  7. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  8. Multicultural Canada: A Graphic Overview = Un Canada Multicuturel: Representation Graphique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledoux, Michel; Pendakur, Ravi

    This graphic overview uses 28 bar and pie graphs to illustrate Canada's ethnic and linguistic diversity. Information was drawn primarily from 1986 census figures. The following categories are examined: (1) ethnic origin; (2) language; (3) visible minorities (nonwhites); (4) aboriginal peoples; and (5) immigration. Information is reported for the…

  9. Systematics of wolves in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.; Federoff, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Cranial morphology of Recent wolves throughout northern and western North America is remarkably consistent. Statistical analysis indicates the presence of four subspecies of gray wolf (Canis lupus) there, which are always distinguishable from the sympatric coyote (C. latrans). A fifth gray wolf subspecies, lycaon, occurs in southeastern Canada, and the red wolf (C. rufus), is found in the southeast. During the early 1900s the coyote moved east of the prairies and hybridized with the native wolves, thereby creating much confusion. Nonetheless, analysis of every available specimen of wild Canis, dating from before the coyote invasion in the region east of the Mississippi River and south of Wisconsin, Michigan, and New York, does indicate the presence of a small wolf, distinct from the coyote and showing the statistical consistency of other wolf populations. That series also has close affinity to specimens of the red wolf collected in Louisiana and Missouri prior to 1925, and to Pleistocene fossils from the east. There was a sharp line of morphological distinction between the wolves of the eastern United States and those of the prairies, but a closer approach by the former to the subspecies lycaon, which in turn intergrades with gray wolf populations in western Ontario and Minnesota. Although gaps in our knowledge remain, a reasonable hypothesis is that the entire forested region from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast originally was inhabited by populations of small wolves, with a subspecific or specific line just south of the eastern Great Lakes. There is no evidence that southeastern North America ever was occupied by large gray wolves and coyotes that hybridized to form the red wolf.

  10. History of Adult Vocational Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Harvey

    This review of adult vocational education in Canada includes an introduction, highlights in the history of adult vocational education in Canada, and a summary. The introduction considers what adult vocational education is and explains the relationship between Canada's constitution and education. The highlights section covers these periods: before…

  11. Let's Celebrate! Canada's Special Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Caroline

    Designed for children ages 8 to 13, this teaching resource presents an explanation of seasons, calendars, and why people celebrate particular days. The four seasons are discussed. Canada's national holidays, and the seasonal, social and religious holidays celebrated by diverse Canadian culture groups are described. A separate section presents…

  12. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  13. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  14. Creative Literature in Canada Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Grace, Ed.; McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The contents of this booklet were presented at a symposium on Canadian creative literature at the University of Toronto in March 1974. Included are five papers, summaries of two talks (one by Bill Sault on the oral tradition of Canada's native peoples and one by Robert Weaver on discovering and encouraging Canadian writers) and of a panel…

  15. Project Canada West. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This first interim report of project Canada West, initiated in April, 1970, includes three papers. "Curriculum Development in Urbanization," by Dr. R. H. Sabey, Acting Executive Director, is an overview of the Project's history, purpose, and the 5 year plan for phases of research development. (See SO 000 283 for complete abstract.) Two…

  16. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  17. Educating Canada's Urban Poor Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Bill; Foster, Rosemary

    2000-01-01

    Presents six critical thoughts and questions about educating poor urban children in Canada. These thoughts were derived from the development of a directory of Canadian educational poverty programs. Findings from that study emphasize the increasing diversity of the student population, the importance of temporary and large-scale funding, and the…

  18. Ungulate predation and ecological roles of wolves and coyotes in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Loveless, Karen M; Rutledge, Linda Y; Patterson, Brent R

    2017-01-08

    Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C. lupus). We investigated intrinsic and extrinsic influences on per capita kill rates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces) during winter by sympatric packs of eastern coyotes, eastern wolves, and admixed canids in Ontario, Canada to clarify the predatory ability and ecological roles of the different canid top predators of eastern North America. Eastern coyote ancestry within packs negatively influenced per capita total ungulate (deer and moose combined) and moose kill rates. Furthermore, canids in packs dominated by eastern coyote ancestry consumed significantly less ungulate biomass and more anthropogenic food than packs dominated by wolf ancestry. Similar to gray wolves in previous studies, eastern wolves preyed on deer where they were available. However, in areas were deer were scarce, eastern wolves killed moose at rates similar to those previously documented for gray wolves at comparable moose densities across North America. Eastern coyotes are effective deer predators, but their dietary flexibility and low kill rates on moose suggest they have not replaced the ecological role of wolves in eastern North America.

  19. Tectonics of Western Canada From GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Flueck, P.; Hyndman, R. D.; Dragert, H.; Craymer, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2002-12-01

    Western Canada can be divided into three main current tectonic domains: The Cascadia subduction zone, the Queen Charlotte transform margin, and the Yukon intraplate deformation region. Well-developed GPS monitoring of present-day deformation has contributed substantially to our knowledge of the dynamics of the Cascadia margin. To the north, although seismicity and plate tectonics model indicate significant deformation, our understanding of the detailed tectonics is still sparse. We present a summary of GPS measurements obtained in western Canada and adjacent regions over the last 10 years that allow us to better apprehend these three tectonic systems. Along the Cascadia margin, the Juan de Fuca (JF) plate subducts beneath North America (NA). The crustal velocity field is well constrained by continuous and campaign GPS data that show a northeastward motion that decreases landward from ~10 to ~5 mm/yr. This deformation pattern indicates significant elastic shortening of the forearc due to the locking of the subduction thrust. The northernmost Cascadia region corresponds to a transition between subduction and transform regimes. GPS campaign data suggest that this transition is accommodated by internal deformation and underthrusting of the Explorer plate beneath the NA margin. Further to the north, the Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) accommodates the strike-slip motion between the Pacific (PA) and the NA plates. The slight obliquity of the PA/NA motion relative to the QCF direction implies some convergence along this margin. GPS campaign data in the Queen Charlotte Islands indicate velocities of 5-15 mm/yr northward with respect to NA. These results suggest a complex interaction between strain loading along the locked QCF, strain loading along a subduction thrust just offshore, and potential long-term deformation of the NA margin up to the Alaska Panhandle. The PA/NA transform margin changes to a convergence system in the Gulf of Alaska, where the Yakutat Terrane is

  20. The eastern migratory caribou: the role of genetic introgression in ecotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Trim, Vicki; Polfus, Jean; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of contemporary animal groups is essential for conservation and management of endangered species like caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In central Canada, the ranges of two caribou subspecies (barren-ground/woodland caribou) and two woodland caribou ecotypes (boreal/eastern migratory) overlap. Our objectives were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype and to assess the potential role of introgression in ecotype evolution. STRUCTURE analyses identified five higher order groups (i.e. three boreal caribou populations, eastern migratory ecotype and barren-ground). The evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype was best explained by an early genetic introgression from barren-ground into a woodland caribou lineage during the Late Pleistocene and subsequent divergence of the eastern migratory ecotype during the Holocene. These results are consistent with the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet and the colonization of the Hudson Bay coastal areas subsequent to the establishment of forest tundra vegetation approximately 7000 years ago. This historical reconstruction of the eastern migratory ecotype further supports its current classification as a conservation unit, specifically a Designatable Unit, under Canada's Species at Risk Act. These findings have implications for other sub-specific contact zones for caribou and other North American species in conservation unit delineation.

  1. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  2. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  3. Modeling survival and movement of resident giant Canada goose populations in the Atlantic flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.; Kendall, W.L.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Moser, Timothy J.; Lien, Ricky D.; VerCauterren, Kurt C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.; Andersen, David E.; Bruggink, John G.; Coluccy, John M.; Graber, David A.; Leafloor, James O.; Luukkonen, David R.; Trost, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of resident giant Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima) has changed markedly in the Atlantic Flyway in recent decades. This change may be related to habitat variation or to changes in hunting regulations. We attempt to assess impacts of hunting regulations on survival, movement, and harvest rate of Canada goose populations from Maine to South Carolina. During 15 June-31 July 1991-1995, a total of 20,923 Canada geese were individually marked with unique metal leg bands and rubber neck collars. Capture-recapture, resighting, and recovery data will be used in a multi-state model of Canada goose populations in New England, the Mid-Atlantic, the Chesapeake Region, and the Carolinas. We plan to model annual survival, movement, and harvest rate as a function of harvest regulations while controlling for collar loss. Inferences will be drawn about the effects of harvest regulations on these parameters. Such inferences should be useful in management of resident Canada goose populations throughout the eastern United States.

  4. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: recommendations for testing and management.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-08-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes.

  5. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: Recommendations for testing and management

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes. PMID:22294790

  6. Civil emergency planning in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J F

    1967-01-28

    THE NATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF CIVILIAN EMERGENCY PLANNING ARE: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments.Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and "shadow agencies" for control of housing, food and manpower.PRESENT UNDERTAKINGS INCLUDE: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior.

  7. Civil Emergency Planning in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J. F.

    1967-01-01

    The national objectives of civilian emergency planning are: (1) protection and preservation of life and property; (2) maintenance of governmental structure; and (3) conservation of resources. The Canada Emergency Measures Organization (E.M.O.) has been developed to accomplish these objectives. E.M.O. co-ordinates other departments and agencies of federal government and its organization is reflected within provincial and municipal governments. Present E.M.O. accomplishments include: an attack warning system; an emergency broadcasting system; emergency government facilities; 400 emergency measure organizations across Canada; plans to implement general readiness; a medical stockpile; and “shadow agencies” for control of housing, food and manpower. Present undertakings include: a national survey of fallout shelters; the equipping of the radiation defence (RADEF); the pre-positioning of the items of the medical stockpile; and the training at the Canadian Emergency Measures College at Arnprior. PMID:6015737

  8. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  9. Occupant restraint use in Canada.

    PubMed

    Boase, Paul; Jonah, Brian A; Dawson, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Legislation regarding seat belt use in Canada is a provincial/territorial responsibility. Each of the 13 jurisdictions has enacted legislation and set the penalties regarding non-use of seat belts and appropriate child restraint systems. The federal government regulates occupant restraint systems and child restraints. In addition, Transport Canada (TC) gathers annual survey data on the use of seat belts and child restraints on Canadian roads and provides research support. National coordination toward the Canadian Road Safety Vision 2010 goal of a 40% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries related to non-belt/child restraint use and a 95% restraint usage rate is provided by the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators' (CCMTA) National Occupant Restraint Program (NORP). The paper examines the history of legislation, provincial/territorial penalties, NORP, and TC involvement in promoting the use of occupant restraints.

  10. Ottawa, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes.

  11. Canada and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    import competition. Wall Street Journal p.10, 21 September 1984. Langan, Fred . Canadian banks reach for a larger chunk of U.S. financial market...202-205, 15 January 1983. Langan, Fred . Canada’s cruise missile debate flares up, but Trudeau keeps cool. Christian Science Monitor 75:4. 29 March...1980. Schmidt, William E. Governors in the West to see Canadian chiefs. New York Times 132:15, 25 June 1983. Schneider, Fred D. Exploring the third

  12. Canada-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-04

    Summits” (named after the Irish heritage shared by the two countries’ leaders, Brian Mulroney and Ronald Reagan), the 1989 U.S.-Canada Free Trade...mining companies and hotel chains that do business with the island nation. Canadians, who are sensitive to being perceived as America’s “junior partner...naval ships, as well as of oil tankers bound for the United States; the Straits of Malacca and Hormuz have been cited as examples. Others, however, such

  13. Women in Physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  14. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers.

  15. Serious fungal infections in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, S F; Cole, D C; Denning, D W; Sheppard, D C

    2017-02-04

    There are currently no nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections in Canada. We estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases using literature review and modeling, as per a methodology previously described by the LIFE program ( http://www.LIFE-worldwide.org ). Among the population of Canada (35.5 million in 2014), it was estimated that approximately 1.8% are affected by a serious fungal infection. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, severe asthma with fungal sensitization, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are the most frequent infections, with population prevalences of 498,688 (1403/100,000), 73,344 (206/100,000), and 61,854 (174/100,000) cases, respectively. Over 3000 invasive fungal infections are estimated to occur annually, with incidences of 2068 cases (5.8/100,000) of invasive candidiasis, 566 cases (1.6/100,000) of invasive aspergillosis, 252 cases (0.71/100,000) of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 99 cases (0.28/100,000) of endemic mycoses, and 63 cases (0.18/100,000) of cryptococcosis. These estimates warrant validation through more formal epidemiological studies in Canada.

  16. Endemic human blastomycosis in Quebec, Canada, 1988-2011.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, I V; St-Germain, G; Pelletier, R; Paradis, M; Sheppard, D C

    2013-06-01

    Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection found in various parts of the world. A review of literature for Quebec, Canada revealed only few case reports with the most recent one dating back to 1993. However, whether Quebec represents an important endemic region for blastomycosis in North America is unknown. In this work we reviewed 158 cases of human blastomycosis documented in Quebec during 1988-2011 using microbiological records available from the provincial public health laboratory. The estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis in the province is was ~0·133 cases per 100 000 individuals with the highest rates of 0·79 and 0·46 cases per 100 000 recorded in South-eastern and South-western Quebec. Moreover, the annual incidence rate significantly increased over the past 20 years. This study for the first time establishes Quebec as an important endemic region for Blastomyces dermatitidis.

  17. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  18. 19 CFR 12.140 - Entry of softwood lumber products from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Interior. “British Columbia Interior” means the Northern Interior Forest Region and the Southern Interior..., Canada; Northwest Territories, Canada; Nunavut Territory, Canada; Ontario, Canada; Saskatchewan,...

  19. Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Linda Y; White, Bradley N; Row, Jeffrey R; Patterson, Brent R

    2012-01-01

    Despite ethical arguments against lethal control of wildlife populations, culling is routinely used for the management of predators, invasive or pest species, and infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that culling of wildlife can have unforeseen impacts that can be detrimental to future conservation efforts. Specifically, we analyzed genetic data from eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) sampled in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada from 1964 to 2007. Research culls in 1964 and 1965 killed the majority of wolves within a study region of APP, accounting for approximately 36% of the park's wolf population at a time when coyotes were colonizing the region. The culls were followed by a significant decrease in an eastern wolf mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype (C1) in the Park's wolf population, as well as an increase in coyote mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The introgression of nuclear DNA from coyotes, however, appears to have been curtailed by legislation that extended wolf protection outside park boundaries in 2001, although eastern wolf mtDNA haplotype C1 continued to decline and is now rare within the park population. We conclude that the wolf culls transformed the genetic composition of this unique eastern wolf population by facilitating coyote introgression. These results demonstrate that intense localized harvest of a seemingly abundant species can lead to unexpected hybridization events that encumber future conservation efforts. Ultimately, researchers need to contemplate not only the ethics of research methods, but also that future implications may be obscured by gaps in our current scientific understanding. PMID:22408723

  20. Intense harvesting of eastern wolves facilitated hybridization with coyotes.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Linda Y; White, Bradley N; Row, Jeffrey R; Patterson, Brent R

    2012-01-01

    Despite ethical arguments against lethal control of wildlife populations, culling is routinely used for the management of predators, invasive or pest species, and infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that culling of wildlife can have unforeseen impacts that can be detrimental to future conservation efforts. Specifically, we analyzed genetic data from eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) sampled in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada from 1964 to 2007. Research culls in 1964 and 1965 killed the majority of wolves within a study region of APP, accounting for approximately 36% of the park's wolf population at a time when coyotes were colonizing the region. The culls were followed by a significant decrease in an eastern wolf mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype (C1) in the Park's wolf population, as well as an increase in coyote mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The introgression of nuclear DNA from coyotes, however, appears to have been curtailed by legislation that extended wolf protection outside park boundaries in 2001, although eastern wolf mtDNA haplotype C1 continued to decline and is now rare within the park population. We conclude that the wolf culls transformed the genetic composition of this unique eastern wolf population by facilitating coyote introgression. These results demonstrate that intense localized harvest of a seemingly abundant species can lead to unexpected hybridization events that encumber future conservation efforts. Ultimately, researchers need to contemplate not only the ethics of research methods, but also that future implications may be obscured by gaps in our current scientific understanding.

  1. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  2. Lead poisoning in Canada geese in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagley, George E.; Locke, Louis N.; Nightingale, Gordon T.

    1967-01-01

    Trainer and Hunt (9) stated that lead poisoning of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) had been reported from three states: North Carolina, Indiana, and Wisconsin. More recently, the Mississippi Flyway Council (8) cited suspected cases of lead poisoning of Canada geese in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, and Maryland. Hanson and Smith (6) also cited cases in widely separated areas of the country, including Texas and Michigan. this paper reports lead poisoning among Canada geese in Delaware, and presents evidence that it is a recurring problem among wintering flocks of Canada geese along the Middle Atlantic Coast.

  3. The Adolescent Chinese Immigrant Student in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lilian Y. O.

    1977-01-01

    The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)

  4. A new species of Haliotis (Gastropoda) from São Tomé & Príncipe Islands, Gulf of Guinea, with comparisons to other Haliotis found in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Owen, Buzz

    2014-07-16

    The Haliotidae from the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa are reviewed. The distribution of the mainland species Haliotis marmorata Linnaeus, 1758 is confirmed and compared to the insular species from the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe which is described as Haliotis geigeri n. sp. Both species are illustrated and compared to the other known Haliotidae from the eastern Atlantic.

  5. Le Point sur L'immersion au Canada (The Argument for...Immersion in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuffot, Jacques

    A discussion of French immersion education in Canada begins with a general examination of language immersion, including the historical context and social climate from which the immersion approach has grown in Canada, its beginnings in Quebec and spread throughout Canada, and the status of the approach in the United States, a number of European…

  6. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  7. Common marsh plants of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, Neil

    1970-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of publications on field identification of North American marsh and water plants. It describes the emergent and semiemergent plants most likely to be found in inland and coastal marshes. It omits hundreds of uncommon marsh plants and plants less characteristic of marshes than of marsh edges, lake and stream shores, or wet meadows. The first of the series, "Pondweeds and Pondweedlike Plants of Eastern North America," Circular 187, was broadened in scope as Resource Publication 44, "Underwater and Floating-leaved Plants of the United States and Canada," and is superseded by it. The present publication, widens the scope of "Bulrushes and Bulrushlike Plants of Eastern North America," Circular 221, and contains most of the species listed therein. This guide is designed for identification of marsh plants without recourse to technical botanical keys. To use it, read pages 1 to 4 and then look at the drawings. To identify a plant, find the group in which it fits, then find a drawing and description that match it.

  8. Prescribing medical cannabis in Canada: Are we being too cautious?

    PubMed

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio

    2015-04-30

    There has been much recent discussion and debate surrounding cannabis in Canada, including the prescribing of medical cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Certain commentators - including the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) - have denounced the prescribing of cannabis for medical purposes due to a perceived lack of evidence related to the drug's efficacy, harms, and mechanism of action. In this commentary, we present arguments in favour of prescribing medical cannabis in Canada. We believe the anti-cannabis position taken by CMA and other commentators is not entirely evidence-based. Using the example of neuropathic pain, we present and summarize the clinical evidence surrounding smoked or vapourized cannabis, including recent evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of cannabis in comparison to existing standard pharmacotherapies for neuropathy. Further, we outline how the concerns expressed regarding cannabis' mechanism of action are inconsistent with current decision-making processes related to the prescribing of many common pharmaceuticals. Finally, we discuss potential secondary public health benefits of prescribing cannabis for pain-related disorders in Canada and North America.

  9. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    PubMed

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry.

  10. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  11. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  12. Revisiting Health Regionalization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Paul; Church, John

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, many of Canada's provinces began to introduce regional health authorities to address problems with their health care systems. With this action, the provinces sought to achieve advances in community decision-making, the integration of health services, and the provision of care in the home and community. The authorities were also to help restrict health care costs. An assessment of the authorities indicates, however, that over the past two decades they have been unable to meet their objectives. Community representatives continue to play little role in determining the appropriate health services for their regions. Gains have been made towards integrating health services, but the plan for a near seamless set of health services has not been realized. Funding for health services remains focused on hospital and physician care, and health care expenditures have until very recently been little affected by regional authorities. This disappointing performance has caused some provinces to abandon their regional authorities, but this article argues that the provision of greater autonomy and a better public appreciation of their role and potential may lead to more successful regional authorities. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to reveal the shortcomings of regional health authorities in Canada while at the same time arguing that changes can be made to increase the chances of more workable authorities.

  13. First-trimester medical abortion practices in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith R.; Hayden, Althea S.; Jones, Heidi E.; White, Katharine O’Connell; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; Norman, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To understand the current availability and practice of first-trimester medical abortion (MA) in Canada. Design Using public sources and professional networks, abortion facilities across Canada were identified for a cross-sectional survey on medical and surgical abortion. English and French surveys were distributed by surface or electronic mail between July and November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures Descriptive statistics on MA practice and facility and provider characteristics, as well as comparisons of MA practice by facility and provider characteristics using χ2 and t tests. Results A total of 78 of 94 (83.0%) facilities responded. Medical abortion represented 3.8% of first-trimester abortions reported (2706 of 70 860) in 2012. Among the facilities offering MA, 45.0% performed fewer than 500 first-trimester abortions a year, while 35.0% performed more than 1000. More MAs were performed in private offices or ambulatory health centres than in hospitals. Sixty-two physicians from 28 of 78 facilities reported providing first-trimester MA; 87.1% also provided surgical abortion. More than three-quarters of MA physicians were female and 56.5% were family physicians. A preponderance (85.2%) of providers offered methotrexate with misoprostol. Nearly all physicians (90.3%) required patients to have an ultrasound before MA, and 72.6% assessed the completion of the abortion with ultrasonography. Most physicians (74.2%) offered MA through 49 days after the onset of the last menstrual period, and 21.0% offered MA through 50 to 56 days; 37.1% reported providing MA to patients who lived more than 2 hours away. Four physicians from 1 site provided MA via telemedicine. Conclusion In Canada, MA provision using methotrexate and misoprostol is consistent with best-practice guidelines, but MA is rare and its availability is unevenly distributed. PMID:28192275

  14. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    The history of developmental psychology in Canada prior to 1960 is concisely recounted. Discussion begins with an account of the scholarly interests and activities of James Mark Baldwin, who brought modern psychology to Canada, and Frederic Tracy, who objected to child-centered approaches to child rearing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the…

  15. The Educational Significance of Canada's Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Allen R.

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical relationship of Canada's educational system to its constitution. Concludes that the significance of the patriation of Canada's constitution for education includes strengthening a drive for bilingual education, promoting equality of opportunity, and continuing education as a provincial concern while unifying, nationally, the…

  16. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  17. Consider Canada: A Handbook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stanley L., Jr.

    If awareness and understanding of Canada, its people, and its culture are to be achieved, the study of this country must be made an appropriate part of the social studies and humanities curricula. This document provides teachers with resource materials on 13 topics about Canada: (1) topics and themes for Canadian Studies; (2) reasons why U.S.…

  18. Non-genetic data supporting genetic evidence for the eastern wolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Two schools of thought dominate the molecular-genetics literature on Canis spp. (wolves) in the western Great Lakes region of the US and Canada: (1) they are hybrids between Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and Canis latrans (Coyote), or (2) they are hybrids between the Gray Wolf and Canis lycaon (Eastern Wolf). This article presents 3 types of non-genetic evidence that bears on the controversy and concludes that all 3 support the second interpretation.

  19. Chapter 41: Geology and petroleum potential of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal programme. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geological basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Petroleum System. Potential petroleum source rocks include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Palaeogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study - the Eurekan Structures AU, NW Greenland Rifted Margin AU, NE Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU - encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable resources. The mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West Greenland-East Canada Province are 10.7 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 75 ?? 1012 cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 52 ?? 1012 cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  20. Projected changes in daily fire spread across Canada over the next century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianli; Parisien, Marc-André; Taylor, Steve W.; Candau, Jean-Noël; Stralberg, Diana; Marshall, Ginny A.; Little, John M.; Flannigan, Mike D.

    2017-02-01

    In the face of climate change, predicting and understanding future fire regimes across Canada is a high priority for wildland fire research and management. Due in large part to the difficulties in obtaining future daily fire weather projections, one of the major challenges in predicting future fire activity is to estimate how much of the change in weather potential could translate into on-the-ground fire spread. As a result, past studies have used monthly, annual, or multi-decadal weather projections to predict future fires, thereby sacrificing information relevant to day-to-day fire spread. Using climate projections from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), historical weather observations, MODIS fire detection data, and the national fire database of Canada, this study investigated potential changes in the number of active burning days of wildfires by relating ‘spread days’ to patterns of daily fire-conducive weather. Results suggest that climate change over the next century may have significant impacts on fire spread days in almost all parts of Canada’s forested landmass; the number of fire spread days could experience a 2-to-3-fold increase under a high CO2 forcing scenario in eastern Canada, and a greater than 50% increase in western Canada, where the fire potential is already high. The change in future fire spread is critical in understanding fire regime changes, but is also imminently relevant to fire management operations and in fire risk mitigation.

  1. Molecular genetic status of Aleutian Canada Geese from Buldir and the Semidi Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Barbara J.; Pearce, John M.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Shields, Gerald F.; Scribner, Kim T.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted genetic analyses of Aleutian Canada Geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) from Buldir Island in the western Aleutians and the Semidi Islands in the eastern portion of their breeding range. We compared data from seven microsatellite DNA loci and 143 base pairs of the control region of mitochondrial DNA from the two populations of Aleutian Canada Geese and another small-bodied subspecies, the Cackling Canada Goose (B. c. minima) which nests in western Alaska. The widely separated island-nesting Aleutian geese were genetically more closely related to each other than to mainland-nesting small-bodied geese. The populations of Aleutian geese were genetically differentiated from one another in terms of mitochondrial DNA haplotype and microsatellite allele frequencies, suggesting limited contemporary gene flow and/or major shifts in gene frequency through genetic drift. The degree of population genetic differentiation suggests that Aleutian Canada Goose populations could be considered separate management units. There was some evidence of population bottlenecks, although we found no significant genetic evidence of non-random mating or inbreeding.

  2. Middle Holocene thermal maximum in eastern Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, D. S.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A new systematic review of diverse Holocene paleoenvironmental records (Kaufman et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., in revision) has clarified the primary multi-centennial- to millennial-scale trends across eastern Beringia (Alaska, westernmost Canada and adjacent seas). Composite time series from midges, pollen, and biogeochemical indicators are compared with new summaries of mountain-glacier and lake-level fluctuations, terrestrial water-isotope records, sea-ice and sea-surface-temperature analyses, and peatland and thaw-lake initiation frequencies. The paleo observations are also compared with recently published simulations (Bartlein et al., Clim. Past Discuss., 2015) that used a regional climate model to simulate the effects of global and regional-scale forcings at 11 and 6 ka. During the early Holocene (11.5-8 ka), rather than a prominent thermal maximum as suggested previously, the newly compiled paleo evidence (mostly sensitive to summer conditions) indicates that temperatures were highly variable, at times both higher and lower than present, although the overall lowest average temperatures occurred during the earliest Holocene. During the middle Holocene (8-4 ka), glaciers retreated as the regional average temperature increased to a maximum between 7 and 5 ka, as reflected in most proxy types. The paleo evidence for low and variable temperatures during the early Holocene contrasts with more uniformly high temperatures during the middle Holocene and agrees with the climate simulations, which show that temperature in eastern Beringia was on average lower at 11 ka and higher at 6 ka than at present (pre-industrial). Low temperatures during the early Holocene can be attributed in part to the summer chilling caused by flooding the continental shelves, whereas the mid-Holocene thermal maximum was likely driven by the loss of the Laurentide ice sheet, rise in greenhouse gases, higher-than-present summer insolation, and expansion of forest over tundra.

  3. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  4. Canada's role on space station.

    PubMed

    Doetsch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the evolution of the Canadian Space Station Program between 1981 and 2003. Discussions with potential international partners, aimed at jointly developing the current International Space Station program, were initiated by NASA in 1982. Canada chose, through the further development of the technologies of Canadarm on the space shuttle, to provide and operate an advanced and comprehensive external robotics system for space station, and to use the space station for scientific and commercial purposes. The program was to become a corner-stone of the new Canadian Space Agency. The development phase of the Canadian Space Station Program has been completed and two of the three major elements are currently operational in space.

  5. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E.; Hasan, Md. Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra

    2008-07-01

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO3 water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (pe: + 5 to - 2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH4, Fe, Mn, NO3-, NH4+, SO42-) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  6. Hydrogeochemical comparison and effects of overlapping redox zones on groundwater arsenic near the Western (Bhagirathi sub-basin, India) and Eastern (Meghna sub-basin, Bangladesh) margins of the Bengal Basin.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; von Brömssen, Mattias; Scanlon, Bridget R; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Fryar, Alan E; Hasan, Md Aziz; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar; Sracek, Ondra

    2008-07-29

    Although arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater in the Bengal Basin has received wide attention over the past decade, comparative studies of hydrogeochemistry in geologically different sub-basins within the basin have been lacking. Groundwater samples were collected from sub-basins in the western margin (River Bhagirathi sub-basin, Nadia, India; 90 samples) and eastern margin (River Meghna sub-basin; Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh; 35 samples) of the Bengal Basin. Groundwater in the western site (Nadia) has mostly Ca-HCO(3) water while that in the eastern site (Brahmanbaria) is much more variable consisting of at least six different facies. The two sites show differences in major and minor solute trends indicating varying pathways of hydrogeochemical evolution However, both sites have similar reducing, postoxic environments (p(e): +5 to -2) with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and similarity in As mobilization mechanism. The trends of various redox-sensitive solutes (e.g. As, CH(4), Fe, Mn, NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-)) indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from source minerals, would tend to remain in solution because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors.

  7. Eastern Europe scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Hafele, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

  8. Neutralizing antibodies to phocine distemper virus in Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Duignan, P J; Saliki, J T; St Aubin, D J; House, J A; Geraci, J R

    1994-01-01

    The first evidence of phocine distemper virus (PDV) infection in Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from Nottingham Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, is reported. Blood samples were collected from three male walruses killed by Inuit hunters in the fall of 1990. Differential virus neutralization test for each animal yielded higher titers against PDV than against other members of the Morbillivirus genus including canine distemper, peste des petits ruminants, rinderpest and measles viruses. Thus, PDV infection may be enzootic in walruses of the eastern Canadian Arctic.

  9. Cow-level prevalence of paratuberculosis in culled dairy cows in Atlantic Canada and Maine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, S L B; Keefe, G P; Barkema, H W; McClure, J; Vanleeuwen, J A; Hanna, P; Sockett, D C

    2004-11-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Mptb) in culled dairy cattle in Eastern Canada and Maine was determined to be 16.1% (95% confidence interval 13.8 to 18.3%) based on a systematic random sample of abattoir cattle. Mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum from 984 cows were examined by histologic and bacteriologic methods. Histological testing was far less sensitive than bacteriologic methods for detecting infected cattle. A seasonal pattern of positive cows was also detected, with the highest proportion of cows being Mptb-positive in June (42.5%). Overall, body condition score was not associated with prevalence of Mptb isolation.

  10. The Plight of Immigrant Physicians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Satkauskas, Remigijus; Pavilanis, Alain

    1990-01-01

    A large number of foreign medical graduates are striving to obtain their licence to practise in Canada. The obstacles created by the federal and provincial medical authorities are numerous and difficult to surmount. The authors define the foreign medical graduate, describe the options and strategies one faces, and present statistics about the Medical Council of Canada Evaluating Examination and postgraduate training positions. Their purpose is to present the plight of foreign medical graduates in Canada to Canadian physicians and to acquaint foreign medical graduates with restrictive licensing procedures. PMID:21249112

  11. Projected Geothermal Energy Development in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Souther, Jack G.

    1980-12-01

    A systematic evaluation of geothermal energy resources in Canada was begun in 1973 with the compilation of an inventory of thermal springs and young igneous centres (11) and a study of the thermal regime of the Central Canada Plains (15). The status of this work is still very preliminary. The nature, distribution and grade of the geothermal resource-base can be estimated within reasonable limits but the impact of future economic and political constraints, and the rate of development of new conversion technologies are more difficult to forecast. Thus, projections of geothermal energy development in Canada are necessarily less precise than estimate of the resource-base.

  12. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed.

  13. New statistical downscaling for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, T. Q.; Cannon, A. J.; Sobie, S.

    2013-12-01

    This poster will document the production of a set of statistically downscaled future climate projections for Canada based on the latest available RCM and GCM simulations - the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2007) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The main stages of the project included (1) downscaling method evaluation, (2) scenarios selection, (3) production of statistically downscaled results, and (4) applications of results. We build upon a previous downscaling evaluation project (Bürger et al. 2012, Bürger et al. 2013) in which a quantile-based method (Bias Correction/Spatial Disaggregation - BCSD; Werner 2011) provided high skill compared with four other methods representing the majority of types of downscaling used in Canada. Additional quantile-based methods (Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogues; Maurer et al. 2010 and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint ; Hunter and Meentemeyer 2005) were evaluated. A subset of 12 CMIP5 simulations was chosen based on an objective set of selection criteria. This included hemispheric skill assessment based on the CLIMDEX indices (Sillmann et al. 2013), historical criteria used previously at the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (Werner 2011), and refinement based on a modified clustering algorithm (Houle et al. 2012; Katsavounidis et al. 1994). Statistical downscaling was carried out on the NARCCAP ensemble and a subset of the CMIP5 ensemble. We produced downscaled scenarios over Canada at a daily time resolution and 300 arc second (~10 km) spatial resolution from historical runs for 1951-2005 and from RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 projections for 2006-2100. The ANUSPLIN gridded daily dataset (McKenney et al. 2011) was used as a target. It has national coverage, spans the historical period of interest 1951-2005, and has daily time resolution. It uses interpolation of station data based on thin-plate splines. This type of method has been shown to have

  14. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  15. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  16. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  17. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  18. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  19. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  20. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck Procedures § 123.41 Truck shipments transiting Canada. (a) Manifest required. Trucks with...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  2. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  3. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  4. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  5. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  6. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  7. 9 CFR 93.419 - Sheep and goats from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats from Canada. 93.419... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.419 Sheep and goats from Canada. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a...

  8. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  9. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  10. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  11. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  12. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  13. Metrics Survey of Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials in Canada and Comparator Jurisdictions between 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, Jean-Marie; Laberge, Normand; Marion, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical trials play a key role in the development of therapies. This survey suggests that between 2005 and 2010, research-based pharmaceutical firms worldwide initiated fewer trials and recruited fewer subjects annually. In contrast, at the country level, the clinical trial activity of such firms increased in emerging countries and in Japan. Canada's trend in the number of new trials followed that of the global industry, but the trend in new sites and newly recruited subjects fell below the global rate. Informal comparisons point to potential issues for Canada in such areas as site capacity, cost per subject and time to first subject-in. When compared to certain Western European countries and the United States, Canada remained well positioned on a number of metrics. Nonetheless, Canada faces mounting challenges from both traditional locations and emerging countries and may require coordinated efforts to remain a place of choice to conduct trials. PMID:23968618

  14. Metrics survey of industry-sponsored clinical trials in Canada and comparator jurisdictions between 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Jean-Marie; Laberge, Normand; Marion, Jean

    2012-11-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical trials play a key role in the development of therapies. This survey suggests that between 2005 and 2010, research-based pharmaceutical firms worldwide initiated fewer trials and recruited fewer subjects annually. In contrast, at the country level, the clinical trial activity of such firms increased in emerging countries and in Japan. Canada's trend in the number of new trials followed that of the global industry, but the trend in new sites and newly recruited subjects fell below the global rate. Informal comparisons point to potential issues for Canada in such areas as site capacity, cost per subject and time to first subject-in. When compared to certain Western European countries and the United States, Canada remained well positioned on a number of metrics. Nonetheless, Canada faces mounting challenges from both traditional locations and emerging countries and may require coordinated efforts to remain a place of choice to conduct trials.

  15. Coaxial Connections: Art Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, James V.

    1984-01-01

    Several avenues of communication that bind art education in the United States and Canada are described. Developments of mutual understanding have tightened the art education relationship between the two countries. (RM)

  16. Teacher Exchange: From Kansas to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Charles

    1976-01-01

    An American community college instructor describes his experience teaching at Seneca College, a two-year institution in suburban Toronto, Canada. Administrative structures, teaching methods, and environments are described and compared. (NHM)

  17. Understanding Canada's Aboriginal Peoples: A Regional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Terry

    1993-01-01

    Reviews materials from history, anthropology, art, and journalism related Canada's aboriginal peoples. Uses a regional geography approach to present information. Includes an extensive annotated bibliography of resources for classroom teachers. (CFR)

  18. Language Policy and Planning in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of language policy formation and planning in Canada covers the following: bilingualism and multiculturalism; Quebec, French, and the constitution; and aboriginal language issues. Language legislation is emphasized. (Contains 52 references.) (LB)

  19. Immunizing Canada geese against avian cholera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    A small flock of captive giant Canada geese were vaccinated with the experimental bac- terin in Nebraska to test its efficacy under field conditions. Only 2 of 157 vaccinates died from avian cholera during an annual spring die-off.

  20. The eastern migratory caribou: the role of genetic introgression in ecotype evolution

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Trim, Vicki; Polfus, Jean; Wilson, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of contemporary animal groups is essential for conservation and management of endangered species like caribou (Rangifer tarandus). In central Canada, the ranges of two caribou subspecies (barren-ground/woodland caribou) and two woodland caribou ecotypes (boreal/eastern migratory) overlap. Our objectives were to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype and to assess the potential role of introgression in ecotype evolution. STRUCTURE analyses identified five higher order groups (i.e. three boreal caribou populations, eastern migratory ecotype and barren-ground). The evolutionary history of the eastern migratory ecotype was best explained by an early genetic introgression from barren-ground into a woodland caribou lineage during the Late Pleistocene and subsequent divergence of the eastern migratory ecotype during the Holocene. These results are consistent with the retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet and the colonization of the Hudson Bay coastal areas subsequent to the establishment of forest tundra vegetation approximately 7000 years ago. This historical reconstruction of the eastern migratory ecotype further supports its current classification as a conservation unit, specifically a Designatable Unit, under Canada’s Species at Risk Act. These findings have implications for other sub-specific contact zones for caribou and other North American species in conservation unit delineation. PMID:26998320

  1. A revised crustal stress orientation database for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Schmitt, Douglas; Haug, Kristine; Ziegler, Moritz; Moeck, Inga

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian database on contemporary crustal stress has not been revised systematically in the past two decades. Here we present the results of our new compilation that contains 514 new data records for the orientation data of maximum compressive horizontal stress and 188 data records that were re-assessed. In total the Canadian stress database has now 1667 data records, which is an increase of about 45%. From these data, a new Canadian Stress map as well as one for the Province of Alberta is presented. To analyse the stress pattern, we use the quasi median on the circle as a smoothing algorithm that generates a smoothed stress map of the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientation on a regular grid. The newly introduced quasi interquartile range on the circle estimates the spreading of the data and is used as a measure for the wave-length of the stress pattern. The result of the hybrid wavelength analysis confirms that long spatial wavelength stress patterns (≥ 1000 km) exist in large areas in Canada. The observed stress pattern is transmitted through the intra-plate regions. The results reveal that shorter spatial wave length variation of the maximum compressive horizontal stress orientation of less than 200 km, prevails particularly in south-eastern and western Canada. Regional stress sources such as density contrasts, active fault systems, crustal structures, etc. might have a significant impact in these regions. In contrast to these variations, the observed stress pattern in the Alberta Basin is very homogeneous and mainly controlled by plate boundary forces and body forces. The influence of curvature of the Rocky Mountains salient in southern Alberta is minimal. The present-day horizontal stress orientations determined herein have important implications for the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy in the Alberta Basin.

  2. Nesting by a yearling Canada goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, L.C.; McGilvrey, F.B.

    1971-01-01

    A free-flying Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior), known to be just under a year old, laid a clutch of four eggs at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. At least half of the 2-year-old females nest at Patuxent, and almost all of the 3-year-olds nest. As far as we know, this is the first record of nesting by a yearling Canada goose.

  3. Accommodating rapid growth in physician supply: lessons from Israel, warnings for Canada.

    PubMed

    Barer, M L; Gafni, A; Lomas, J

    1989-01-01

    Most developing countries find themselves grappling with the implications of rapid growth in physician supply. The purpose of this article is to search for lessons or warnings for Canada (and, ultimately, elsewhere) in the manner in which Israel has chosen to accommodate its huge supply of physicians. Under extremely conservative assumptions about immigration, and assuming rates of domestic training of physicians at levels somewhat lower than at present, Canada's physician supply will continue to grow at rates in excess of general population growth for at least the next 45 years. In this article we describe the Israeli health care system from a perspective of identifying the consequences of accommodating a physician supply about 50 percent higher than that in Canada. A number of key "accommodation attributes" (low physician incomes, restricted access to hospitals for general practitioners, intramedical-professional conflicts over income and authority, a flourishing black market) are argued to be more than simply products of a unique cultural and political system, but also symptoms of a system vastly oversupplied with physicians. Early signs in Canada of similar "products" of a growing physician supply are noted. While a two-country comparison makes drawing lessons somewhat speculative, the coincidence of events suggests that these trends in Canada warrant, if not immediate action, at least careful monitoring.

  4. Accretionary origin for the late Archean Ashuanipi Complex of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Ashuanipi complex is one of the largest massif granulite terrains of the Canadian Shield. It makes up the eastern end of the 2000 km long, lower-grade, east-west belts of the Archean Superior Province, permitting lithological, age and tectonic correlation. Numerous lithological, geochemical and metamorphic similarities to south Indian granulites suggest common processes and invite comparison of tectonic evolution. The Ashuanipi granulite terrain of the Cannadian Superior Province was studied in detail, and an origin through self-melting of a 55 km thick accretionary wedge seems possible.

  5. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  6. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  7. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  8. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  9. Propagation and Excitation of Lg, Sn, and P-Pn Waves from Eastern United States Earthquakes by Regression Analysis of RSTN Data. Seismic Attenuation Studies at United Kingdom Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    and Sn dominate. Seismo- grams of similar nature have also been observed in eastern Canada (Shin 1985, Shin and Herrmann 1987) and at NORESS over...Canada, Lg experiences significant contamination from Sn coda (Shin 1985, Chun et al 1987, Shin and Herrmann 1987). This is suggested by the way that...surface wave data (Mitchell 1981). Other set of numbers comes from coda Q studies (Singh and Herrmann 1983). Finally, a smaller set of results comes

  10. A comparison of the relative efficiency of total and cold-extractable stream sediment chemistry in exploration geochemical surveys in a semi-arid climate, Collo area, north-eastern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounessah, Mustapha; Atkin, Brian P.

    1994-08-01

    A stream sediment survey was conducted in a semi-arid area in north-eastern Algeria. The survey includes a comparative study between results obtained from total analysis (XRF) and cold-extraction analysis (AAS), and assesses the relative success of the two data sets in delineating known mineralization and bedrock types. Samples were collected from ephemeral streams and water-bearing rivers and a sampling density of 1 sample km -2 has been found to be effective in delineating most of the known mineralization and serpentinite bedrock. Anomalies occur mainly in the ephemeral streams but decay downstream after 1000 m, whereas in rivers values only rarely reach concentration levels above the regional background. Known lead, zinc and copper bearing veins, as well as the serpentinites, were well delineated by both analytical techniques. However, the iron mineralization could only be confirmed by the total analysis data set. In addition, new anomalies, similar to those of the sulphide mineralization, were discovered in the SW of the study area. Finally, it is suggested that the cold-extraction technique may offer an acceptable and cheaper alternative to total analysis for outlining serpentinites (cxCo and cxNi) and base-metal mineralization (cxCu, cxPb and cxZn).

  11. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six…

  12. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  13. Seismic anisotropy in the continental crust of northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Colleen A.; Gaherty, James B.

    2013-04-01

    Most studies of the seismic structure of continental crust assume that the wave speeds are isotropic at seismic wavelengths. The ability to measure surface wave propagation speed from the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise provides new opportunities to image the crust and uppermost mantle. We investigate radial anisotropy in the continental crust of northwestern Canada from group-velocity curves of Love and Rayleigh waves obtained from ambient-noise cross-correlation. We test the null hypothesis that the Love and Rayleigh group-speed curves can be simultaneously fit by an earth model containing isotropic seismic velocities throughout the crust. Group velocity is predicted for 200 000 one-dimensional earth models, which are generated by randomly varying the crustal shear velocity and radial anisotropy within a prescribed range. The goodness-of-fit of the predictions is assessed by comparison with two sets of observed dispersion curves that correspond to two tectonically distinct terranes: the Archean/early Proterozoic craton and the transition from craton to Cordillera. The majority of best-fitting models contain VSH > VSV (4-5 per cent) in the middle crust. The finding that the middle/lower crust is seismically anisotropic across a large swath of northwestern Canada, combined with recent observations of anisotropic crust in much of the western United States, suggests that anisotropy may be ubiquitous in the continental crust.

  14. Golden eagles in the U.S. and Canada: Status, trends, and conservation challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kochert, Michael N.; Steenhof, Karen

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to assess status and population trends and to identify mortality factors affecting Golden Eagle populations in the U.S. and Canada. Nesting populations in Alaska and Canada are stable, but some nesting populations in the western U.S. have declined. Small but steady declines in the intermountain West have been associated with shrub loss and declining jackrabbit populations; declines in southern California have been attributed to urbanization. Migration counts in the eastern U.S. suggest a decline in Golden Eagles from the 1930s to the early 1970s, with a stable or increasing trend since the early 1970s. No significant trends in migration counts were reported for Golden Eagles in the western U.S. sincet he mid-1980s. Western migration count sites on the continental divide in the Rocky Mountains at or just north of the U.S.-Canadian border (49-51??N latitude) show potential to provide information on trends of Golden Eagle populations from Alaska and western Canada. Most eagle mortality is human related. This paper illustrates the need for more effective monitoring of Golden Eagle populations in North America.

  15. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  16. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Layberry, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment. PMID:27199600

  17. Terrorism threats and preparedness in Canada: the perspective of the Canadian public.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Stacey; Lemyre, Louise; Clément, Mélanie; Markon, Marie-Pierre L; Lee, Jennifer E C

    2007-06-01

    Although Canada has not experienced a major terrorist attack, an increased global pending threat has put preparedness at the top of the Canadian government's agenda. Given its strong multicultural community and close proximity to the recently targeted United States, the Canadian experience is unique. However, minimal research exists on the public's reactions to terrorism threats and related preparedness strategies. In order for response initiatives to be optimally effective, it is important that the public's opinions regarding terrorism and preparedness be considered. This qualitative study examined perceptions of terrorism threats among Canadians living in Central and Eastern Canada (N = 75) in the fall of 2004. Conceptualizations of terrorism threat, psychosocial impacts, and sense of preparedness were explored in a series of qualitative interviews. Findings revealed that the majority of Canadians did not feel overly threatened by terrorist attacks, due in part to a perception of terrorist threats as related to global sociopolitical events and a positive Canadian identity. In addition, while most respondents did not feel they were individually affected by the threat of terrorism, there was some concern regarding larger societal impacts, such as increased paranoia, discrimination, and threats to civil liberties. Participants' views on preparedness focused largely on the utility of emergency preparedness strategies and the factors that could mitigate or inhibit preparedness at the individual and institutional levels, with a specific focus on education. Finally, the significant relevance of these findings in shaping terrorism preparedness, both in Canada and generally, is discussed.

  18. What Azure blues occur in Canada? A re-assessment of Celastrina Tutt species (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B Christian; Layberry, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    The identity of Celastrina species in eastern Canada is reviewed based on larval host plants, phenology, adult phenotypes, mtDNA barcodes and re-assessment of published data. The status of the Cherry Gall Azure (Celastrina serotina Pavulaan & Wright) as a distinct species in Canada is not supported by any dataset, and is removed from the Canadian fauna. Previous records of this taxon are re-identified as Celastrina lucia (Kirby) and Celastrina neglecta (Edwards). Evidence is presented that both Celastrina lucia and Celastrina neglecta have a second, summer-flying generation in parts of Canada. The summer generation of Celastrina lucia has previously been misidentified as Celastrina neglecta, which differs in phenology, adult phenotype and larval hosts from summer Celastrina lucia. DNA barcodes are highly conserved among at least three North American Celastrina species, and provide no taxonomic information. Celastrina neglecta has a Canadian distribution restricted to southern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and easternmost Alberta. The discovery of museum specimens of Celastrina ladon (Cramer) from southernmost Ontario represents a new species for the Canadian butterfly fauna, which is in need of conservation status assessment.

  19. Jewish immigrant encounters with Canada's Native Peoples: Yiddish writings on Tekahionwake.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    During the mass Jewish immigration of Eastern-European Jews to Canada in the first decades of the twentieth century, Yiddish publications offered a primary forum for a group of local writers to negotiate with their new identities as Canadian Jews. Within this wider process, Montreal writers H.M. Caiserman and B.G. Sack authored studies of Canadian literature in the early 1920s centred on Mohawk-English writer E. Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake). What these essays show is that, despite the long-standing association of Canada's Jewish population with the country's dominant English culture, their status as "other" impelled leading members of the local Yiddish cultural milieu to seek out literary models among other historically marginalized groups. For Caiserman and Sack, Johnson's Native heritage offered a model for resistance to assimilation into Canada's dominant culture. In contrast, the advent of literature responding to the Nazi Holocaust by A.M. Klein and Eli Mandel, Native peoples became a symbol of loss and vanished landscapes.

  20. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  1. William D. Stevenson: Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Mukhida, Karim; Mendez, Ivar

    2007-12-01

    The origins of neurosurgical services in Atlantic Canada are tied to the individual efforts of William D. Stevenson. Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Stevenson completed his senior matriculation in Dunnville, Ontario, before studying medicine at the University of Toronto. He completed the Gallie surgical course in Toronto and then spent 1 year training with Edward Archibald at McGill University. After working for 2 years with the Canadian Mobile Neurosurgical Unit in Europe during the Second World War, Stevenson undertook formal neurosurgical training with Kenneth G. McKenzie, Canada's first neurosurgeon. Stevenson was thereafter recruited to Halifax to start the neurosurgical service at the Victoria General Hospital in January 1948, and he remained head of the division for the next 26 years. His pioneering work laid the foundations for the establishment of a major academic neurosurgical service at Dalhousie University and was crucial for the establishment of neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada. After his retirement, Stevenson moved back to Ontario and began his second career, transferring his passion for neurosurgery to oil painting. His legacy to neurosurgery in Atlantic Canada will be remembered in perpetuity with the annual Neurosurgery Resident Research Award at Dalhousie University, established and named in his honour. This paper focuses on Stevenson's life and work in neurosurgery as Atlantic Canada's first neurosurgeon.

  2. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  3. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C H

    1994-01-01

    Of more than 500 arboviruses recognized worldwide, 5 were first isolated in Canada and 58 were first isolated in the United States. Six of these viruses are human pathogens: western equine encephalitis (WEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and Powassan (POW) viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), LaCrosse (LAC) virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus), and Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus (Reoviridae, Coltivirus). Their scientific histories, geographic distributions, virology, epidemiology, vectors, vertebrate hosts, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical and differential diagnoses, control, treatment, and laboratory diagnosis are reviewed. In addition, mention is made of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), which periodically cause human and equine disease in North America. WEE, EEE, and SLE viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes between birds; POW and CTF viruses, between wild mammals by ticks; LAC virus, between small mammals by mosquitoes; and VEE viruses, between small or large mammals by mosquitoes. Human infections are tangential to the natural cycle. Such infections range from rare to focal but are relatively frequent where they occur. Epidemics of WEE, EEE, VEE, and SLE viruses have been recorded at periodic intervals, but prevalence of infections with LAC and CTF viruses typically are constant, related to the degree of exposure to infected vectors. Infections with POW virus appear to be rare. Adequate diagnostic tools are available, but treatment is mainly supportive, and greater efforts at educating the public and the medical community are suggested if infections are to be prevented. PMID:8118792

  4. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA's publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions.

  5. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  6. NEPTUNE Canada Community Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S.; Bornhold, B.; Barnes, C.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2006-05-01

    In 2007 NEPTUNE Canada will install the first stage of a regional cabled observatory (RCO) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Stage 2 of the RCO is being developed by the US-based ORION Project Office, through the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI). For Stage 1, a 800km fiber-optic cable will loop out from a shore station on Vancouver Island to the Juan de Fuca volcanic spreading ridge. Two seafloor nodes are planned, one to support studies of tectonic and hydrothermal activity on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the other for investigation of a broad range of processes in Barkley Canyon, on the continental slope of Vancouver Island. Each node will provide power and Ethernet communications to instruments that comprise multi-disciplinary community science experiments. These experiments were developed through a 2-year series of workshops and a final competition. Data from all instruments will be available on-line, through the NEPTUNE data management and archive system. Investigations at the Endeavour node will focus on links between seismic activity and hydrothermal emissions and their resulting impact on hydrothermal vent organisms and regional oceanic circulation and geochemical fluxes. This area provides a number of technical challenges, including the laying of the backbone cable over a volcanic terrain, and the placement of instruments and extension cables in areas of abundant high-temperature venting. Planned instruments include broad-band seismometers, acoustic Doppler current meters, video and digital still cameras and chemical sensors. Experiments at the Barkley Canyon site will emphasis the effects of water currents passing through the canyon, and seismic activity. Combined biological and physical oceanographic instruments will monitor the interaction between sediment transport along the axis of the canyon and the bioturbation activity of the fauna. A combined physical/biological experiment in the water column

  7. Dynamic Model Validation with Governor Deadband on the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Liu, Yilu

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the efforts to perform dynamic model validation on the Eastern Interconnection (EI) by modeling governor deadband. An on-peak EI dynamic model is modified to represent governor deadband characteristics. Simulation results are compared with synchrophasor measurements collected by the Frequency Monitoring Network (FNET/GridEye). The comparison shows that by modeling governor deadband the simulated frequency response can closely align with the actual system response.

  8. Trends and Variability in Spring and Autumn 0° C Isotherm Dates over Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsal, B. R.; Prowse, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    Changes to critical temperature thresholds such as the seasonal march of the 0° C isotherm can have significant impacts on a variety of environmental and economic activities including the break/freeze-up dates of lakes and rivers, the timing of spring freshet, the skiing industry, and bird migrations. This study examines trends and variability in spring and autumn 0° C isotherm dates over Canada during the 20th century. Results reveal considerable variability across the country. Significant trends toward earlier springs are observed over most of western Canada including a dramatic shift to earlier dates during the last 20-30 years. Central regions, including most of the Northwest Territories and the high Arctic, are associated with smaller, generally insignificant earlier spring trends. Conversely, extreme eastern areas experience trends toward later springs. During autumn, isotherm dates show little change over the majority of the country. An exception is over the southeast where trends toward later dates are observed. Investigation into the potential causes of observed trends and variability in isotherm dates reveals significant relationships with large scale oscillations over the Pacific and Atlantic. In particular, the North Pacific index (North Atlantic Oscillation) significantly relates to isotherm dates over western (eastern) regions of Canada during both spring and autumn. Relationships weaken toward interior areas including much of the Northwest Territories and the high Arctic. Although significant, a relatively small amount of overall variance in isotherm dates is explained by the oscillations indicating the influence of other factors. Results from this investigation improve the understanding of past trends and variability in critical temperature thresholds such as 0° C isotherm dates. They also provide insight into potential future climatologic impacts given the possibility of climate change.

  9. Modeling Site Amplification in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braganza, S.; Atkinson, G. M.; Ghofrani, H.; Hassani, B.

    2015-12-01

    A critical component in the understanding and interpretation of earthquake ground motions is the role that site effects play. In many parts of eastern North America, the soil layers which overlie glaciated bedrock produce strong and highly variable site responses. We use horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) response spectral ratios as the indicator variable by which to characterize the salient characteristics of site response in eastern Canada. We show that site response can be modeled using two descriptive variables that are readily obtainable: (i) peak resonant frequency (fpeak), as determined from H/V or depth-to-bedrock; and (ii) overall soil type (or stiffness). We use these variables to create a model of site amplification that can be used in the development of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and in real-time interactive ground-motion (IGM) map applications. The key to the site characterization is the relationship between fpeak and drift thickness (depth-to-bedrock), which we derive using H/V data from earthquakes in the region, combined with a detailed digital drift thickness map available online from the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS). The OGS map also provides information on soil type, which is correlated with peak amplitudes (Apeak) of response. We extend the study area to the city of Montreal using similar information from Chouinard and Rosset (2012). H/V spectral shapes may be associated with four main soil categories, which in decreasing order of stiffness are: bedrock, till, sand/clay, and organic soil/fill. The value of Apeak increases as stiffness decreases. We model site response by defining a generic site amplification curve, which is dependent only on fpeak and soil type. The generic curve enables an estimate of site amplification to be made over the entire frequency band of 0.1 to 50 Hz, knowing just the soil thickness and type. These site amplification curves can be applied in the development of regional GMPEs, and in the construction of

  10. Intensity-based climate change policies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Nic; Jaccard, Mark

    2010-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from large industries the Canadian government proposed using a tradable emissions performance standard approach, where the intensity of emissions, rather than the absolute level, is regulated. Unlike a cap and trade system, an emissions performance standard does not guarantee a certain overall level of emission reductions, a fact that has led to significant criticism. However, because of the dynamics of performance standards, they may reduce concerns over reductions in international competitiveness in cases where a country has climate policies that are more aggressive than those of some of its trade partners. Likewise, a performance standard may mesh more efficiently with existing taxes and therefore cause less overall economic impact than an absolute cap and trade system. This paper considers the theoretical arguments for and against such a performance standard system and evaluates it in comparison to a cap and trade system using a dynamic general equilibrium model applied to Canada.

  11. Triazolam blood concentrations in forensic cases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Joynt, B P

    1993-01-01

    Triazolam has been a controversial drug since its appearance on world markets as a hypnotic more than ten years ago. Whole blood concentrations of triazolam as found in forensic cases are cited in several categories; that is, impaired driving: 17 cases; sexual assault: four cases; death due to drugs: 45 cases; drug-related death (drugs contributed to the death but were not the ultimate cause): 20 cases; drug-involved death (drugs were present but were not felt to be a contributing factor): six cases; miscellaneous: one case. The data was gleaned from a forensic toxicology database designed and used by the Forensic Toxicology Sections of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) laboratories in Canada. Triazolam concentrations from selected references are included for comparison.

  12. Ectomycota Associated with Arthropods from Bat Hibernacula in Eastern Canada, with Particular Reference to Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Vanderwolf, Karen J.; Malloch, David; McAlpine, Donald F.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) to North America, agent of white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has increased interest in fungi from underground habitats. While bats are assumed to be the main vector transmitting Pd cave-to-cave, the role of other fauna is unexplored. We documented the fungi associated with over-wintering arthropods in Pd-positive hibernacula, including sites where bats had been recently extirpated or near-extirpated, to determine if arthropods carried Pd, and to compare fungal assemblages on arthropods to bats. We isolated 87 fungal taxa in 64 genera from arthropods. Viable Pd was cultured from 15.3% of arthropods, most frequently from harvestmen (Nelima elegans). Fungal assemblages on arthropods were similar to those on bats. The different fungal assemblages documented among arthropods may be due to divergent patterns of movement, aggregation, feeding, or other factors. While it is unlikely that arthropods play a major role in the transmission dynamics of Pd, we demonstrate that arthropods may carry viable Pd spores and therefore have the potential to transport Pd, either naturally or anthropogenically, within or among hibernacula. This underlines the need for those entering hibernacula to observe decontamination procedures and for such procedures to evolve as our understanding of potential mechanisms of Pd dispersal improve. PMID:27110827

  13. Dissolved carbon dynamics in large boreal rivers from eastern Canada following their impoundment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helie, J.; Rosa, E.; Lalonde, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon cycling in Canadian boreal environments is the focus of a growing number of investigations mainly because of the importance of hydropower and its potential in the area. Here, we document the behaviour of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon as well as particulate organic carbon (DIC-DOC-POC henceforth) in 5 impounded and 2 pristine river systems (respectively: La Grande 3400 m 3s-1, Eastmain 990 m3s-1, St. Lawrence 12 100 m3s-1, Ottawa 1950 m3s-1, Nelson 2370 m3s-1; Great Whales 680 m3s-1 and Koksoak 1895 m3s-1) river systems. These major rivers were sampled monthly at their outlet for one year except at the St. Lawrence River that has been sampled since June of 1997 on a bi-weekly basis. Complementary synoptic surveys were undertaken in August 2008 on the La Grande and Great Whales Rivers. When sampling, water temperature, pH, alkalinity and specific conductivity were measured. Samples were collected for the analysis of i) major ions concentrations; ii) δ13C and concentration of DIC, DOC and POC); iii) δ18O and δ2H of the water molecule; and iv) U series and Sr isotopes. In all the sampled river systems, POC concentrations were at least an order of magnitude smaller than the dissolved forms. Rivers draining carbonates bedrocks (St.Lawrence and Nelson Rivers) present higher concentrations and δ13C-DIC values linked to carbonate dissolution in soils. Conversely, rivers draining silicate-rich watersheds present lower δ13C- DIC values linked to the production of an isotopically light CO2 through oxidation of organic matter in soils and that of soil-derived DOC along river courses. However, isotopic composition of DIC in impounded rivers draining silicate catchments indicate significant CO2 degassing and some isotopic exchange with atmospheric CO2 in reservoirs. A relatively strong relationship is observed between pCO2 and δ13C-DIC across the studied river systems suggesting a continuum between the production of CO2 through DOM oxidation and CO2 degassing. A relationship is also observed between δ13C-DIC values and [DOC]/[DIC] suggesting here that the more DOC is available for degradation, the more it will be oxidized to dissolved CO2. A striking feature of boreal systems is the homogeneity of the isotopic composition of its DOC (-27.4±0.2‰ vs. V-PDB). Moreover, C/N ratios and 14C activities >100% (vs. "modern" carbon) of bulk dissolved organic matter (MOD) measured in the impounded La Grande River also lead to conclude that that this DOC, mostly fresh and young, has a low overall residence time in the catchment basin.

  14. Microbial Experiments on Basal Ice from John Evans Glacier, Eastern Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M.; Foght, J.; Sharp. M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent research on permanent-ice associated microorganisms has focused on surficial ice environments. We present evidence that, to the authors' knowledge, is the first example that aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be cultured at 4C from sediment-rich basal ice from a large polythermal Arctic glacier (John Evans Glacier). This builds on previous work in which we demonstrated that both aerobic and anaerobic microbes exist in viable populations in subglacial meltwaters at the same glacier, and that the populations increase with sediment concentration. This high Arctic glacier (at 80N) may be a reasonable terrestrial analog for martian polar environments, and hence the findings of this study may be important in assisting sampling program development for microbiology in the martian polar regions. Sterile samples of both debris-rich basal ice and debris-poor (clean) glacier ice were taken aseptically from the glacier margin in the spring of 1997 prior to the onset of the melt season to examine whether any observed microbial activity was linked to sediment concentration. The samples were melted slowly in a sterile environment and then incubated at 4C under nutrient-amended and nutrient-unamended conditions for three months. Parallel sterile and poisoned controls were included to account for abiotic processes. In all cases microbiological activity was recorded in the sediment-rich samples amended with growth medium. This indicates that viable anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were present in the debris-rich basal ice. The dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations and sigma-13-C DOC of unamended ice samples were also analyzed. DOC concentrations in the basal ice were 4x higher than in the clean ice. Furthermore, the sigma-13-C values of the DOC suggested different sources for the DOC in the two types of ice. The higher DOC values in the unamended basal ice samples suggest that there is in situ microbial activity in the subglacial sediments. This is supported by the presence of viable microbial populations in the basal sediments. Hence, in situ oxidation/fermentation of organic C in basal sediments beneath the ice is a tenable process in high Arctic subglacial environments. This work shows that bacteria can function in anaerobic conditions at temperatures close to freezing. Similar conditions may exist or may have existed in the basal sediments and ice at the base or margins of the martian polar ice caps. Such environments should therefore be examined for evidence of life on Mars.

  15. Occurrence and significance of Silurian K-bentonite beds at Arisaig, Nova Scotia, eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, Stig M.; Huff, W.D.; Kolata, Dennis R.; Melchin, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The most extensive succession of K-bentonite beds known in the Silurian of North America occurs at Arisaig on the northern coast of Nova Scotia. At least 40 ash beds are present in the Llandoverian Ross Brook Formation and at least four in the early Ludlovian McAdam Brook Formation. Most of the beds are thin (<5 cm), but one bed (the Smith Brook K-bentonite bed) in the late Llandoverian crenulata Zone and another (the McAdam Brook K-bentonite bed) in the early Ludlovian nilssoni Zone each reach a thickness of 20 cm. New graptolite collections provide critical information on the biostratigraphic position of the K-bentonite beds in the Ross Brook Formation. Geochemical data show that the Arisaig ash beds represent calc-alkaline magmas from plate margin, subduction-related volcanic vents. Differences in K-bentonite stratigraphie distribution, combined with paleogeographic considerations, suggest that the volcanoes were located much farther to the south in the Iapetus than the source volcanoes of the British - Baltoscandian Llandoverian K-bentonites.

  16. Petrology and tectonic significance of seamounts within transitional crust east of Orphan Knoll, offshore eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Meredyk, Shawn; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Piper, David J. W.; Edinger, Evan

    2013-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous separation of Newfoundland from Iberia-Ireland is a classic example of a magma-poor continental margin with hyperextension and with widespread minor magmatism resulting in seamounts. This study defines the distribution of seamounts east of Orphan Knoll, and documents and interprets the geochemical character of the one recovered lava sample. Video imagery of lava outcrops, and the sample, were obtained by ROV from Orphan seamount, one of a linear series of small seamounts overlying transitional thinned continental crust on the seaward side of Orphan Knoll. New multibeam bathymetry and legacy seismic data show several seamounts that extend irregularly along the fault-bound NE margin of Orphan Knoll. Whole rock geochemistry shows the sample to be highly alkaline basanite or possibly tephrite. Diopside-hedenbergite, kaersutite and K-feldspar phenocrysts were analyzed by electron microprobe and scanning electron microscope, and alteration minerals including kaolinite were identified by X-ray diffraction. The highly alkaline character of the basanite is similar only to Early Cretaceous volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks erupted through thick continental crust of the Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogeny. The location of the linear set of seamounts is related to margin-parallel faults on the seaward side of Orphan Knoll that provided a pathway for magma, although ENE-trending lineaments in individual seamounts or seamount groups suggest the influence of oceanic fracture zones. A lower gradient crest to Orphan seamount above 2,200 m suggests subaerial erosion, consistent with the presence of kaolinite as an alteration product and the absence of lava pillows at and above this depth.

  17. Egret-Hibernia(!), a significant petroleum system, northern Grand Banks area, offshore eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, L.B.; Hudson, T.L.; Peters, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Egret-Hibernia(!) is a well-explored petroleum system (3.25 billion barrels oil equivalent [BOE]) located in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Labrador - Newfoundland shelf. Rifting and sediment fill began in the Late Triassic. Egret source rock was deposited in the Late Jurassic at about 153 Ma. After this time, alternating reservoir rock and seal rock were deposited with some syndepositional faulting. By the end of the Early Cretaceous, faults and folds had formed numerous structural traps. For the next 100 m.y., overburden rock thermally matured the source rock when it reached almost 4 km (2.5 mi) burial depth. For 2 km (1.25 mi) below this depth, oil and gas were expelled, until the source was depleted. The expelled petroleum migrated updip to nearby faulted, anticlinal traps, where much of it migrated across faults and upsection to the Hibernia Formation (44% recoverable oil) and Avalon Formation (28%). Accumulation size decreased, and gas content increased from west to east, independent of trap size. These changes correspond to a decrease in source rock richness and quality from west to east. Almost all (96%) of the discovered petroleum resides in the Lower Cretaceous or older reservoir rock units. All accumulations found to date are normally pressured in structural traps. Fifty-two exploration wells found eighteen discoveries. Their size ranges from 1.2 to 0.01 billion BOE. Most discoveries were made between 1979 and 1991. The discovery cycle began with larger accumulations and progressed to smaller accumulations. The estimated sizes of the larger accumulations have grown since 1990. Estimated mean value for undiscovered hydrocarbons is 3.8 billion BOE, thereby raising the ultimate size of Egret-Hibernia(!) to 6.19 billion BOE. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Crustal Thickness Variations Across Eastern Canada and Maine From Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, T.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007 and 2009, seven new broadband seismograph stations were installed in central and southern Québec, filling an important gap in network coverage across the region. The majority of the stations are situated within the Archean Superior craton, with a further two located in the Proterozoic Grenville Province. In this study, we examine receiver functions calculated from large teleseismic earthquakes recorded at the station array, together with three older stations - one affiliated to the permanent Canadian National Seismograph Network, one to the temporary Canadian POLARIS array, and a final station belonging to the USArray backbone network. This latter station is located in Maine and provides the opportunity to compare and contrast crustal structure between a region of Paleozoic tectonics (the Appalachian belt) and the Canadian Shield. Data availability was very variable between the stations, primarily due to recording period, since data quality was universally high. Receiver functions were calculated using a multi-taper method implemented by Helffrich (2006), and Moho depths were then estimated using the H-K stacking method of Zhu & Kanamori (2000). Crustal thicknesses across the region lie predominantly in the range 33-42 km, with most Vp/Vs ratios between 1.72 and 1.84, suggesting that the bulk crust is largely felsic in nature, but with some more mafic components in certain regions. In some cases the crustal thickness estimate from H-K stacking was significantly different to values expected from other studies in the region and in the Canadian Shield as a whole. In these cases, detailed inspection of the receiver functions revealed significant back-azimuthal variation in the waveforms and significant energy on the tangential components. These characteristics suggest the presence of dipping and/or anisotropic structure beneath the stations, and more detailed modelling will be necessary to characterise the crust in these regions.

  19. Evaluating the relationship between diploid and tetraploid Vaccinium oxycoccos (Ericaceae) in eastern Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium oxycoccos s. l. is a complex of diploid and polyploid plants. The evolutionary relationship between the cytotypes is uncertain, with conflicting treatments in recent taxonomic studies. To clarify this situation, we investigated the relationships among ploidy, morphology and genetic diversi...

  20. Quality Control and First Insights on the Variability of Surface Wind Observations for North Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E.; González-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro Montesinos, J.; Hidalgo; Jiménez, P.; García-Bustamante, E.; Conte, J.; Casabella, N.; Beltrami, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, a policy change in energy sources has been fostered in Atlantic Canada. The purpose of this has been to reduce the dependency on energy produced abroad and to propose feasible alternatives with the aim of reducing greenhouse emissions. The region offers a high potential for the development of wind energy facilities and studies within the framework of wind resource assessment are encouraged. Studies of this nature rely on the quality of observational data. Henceforth, it is essential to develop procedures that ensure the reliability of observations before they are subjected to any subsequent analysis. This work summarizes the Quality Control process applied to an observational database of surface wind module and direction in North Eastern North America. The data set consists of 525 stations compiled from three different sources: 344 land sites from Environment Canada (EC; 1940-2009) located in the provinces of Atlantic Canada and Quebec; 40 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC; 1988-2008); and 141 land sites over both Eastern Canada and North Eastern USA provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1975-2010). The process comprises different phases that: 1) unify measurement units and recording times; 2) find accidentally duplicated periods of data within a time series or between different stations; 3) check for physical consistency in the ranges of values; 4) detect time intervals of anomalous low and high variability; and 5) look for long term biases in mean and variance. The temporal extension and resolution of the quality controlled database allows to explore the wind variability at different temporal scales, from daily to multidecadal. This contribution will present a first assessment of the wind field climatology in the region, including a description of long term trends, analogous of wind circulation regimes and their relationship to large scale

  1. Is Canada's sex ratio in decline?

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, L; Armson, B A

    1997-01-01

    In this issue (see pages 37 to 41) Dr. Bruce B. Allan and associates report a small but statistically significant decrease--of about 0.2%--in the proportion of male live births in Canada over the period 1970-90. In this editorial, factors that have been reported in the literature to influence sex ratio are examined within a Canadian context. The authors suggest that although the reasons for the apparent decline in the sex ratio in Canada are unclear, the increasing use of ovulation induction may be a contributing factor. Data from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database are discussed with a view to explaining the trend observed in Atlantic Canada, but no obvious explanation emerges. The authors argue that when the period of observation is extended no overall change in the sex ratio is apparent. This would suggest a tendency toward stabilization rather than decline. PMID:9006564

  2. Heartworm in Dogs in Canada in 1983

    PubMed Central

    Slocombe, J. O. D.; McMillan, I.

    1984-01-01

    In late December 1983, 2 800 veterinarians across Canada were sent a questionnaire in order to assess the status of heartworm disease in Canada in 1983 and 26% of them responded. Veterinarians reported that 59 504 dogs were blood-tested to check for microfilariae and 771 dogs (1.30% of those tested) were found with Dirofilaria immitis. Heartworm disease was diagnosed in all provinces except New Brunswick and Newfoundland but most (733) of the cases were in Ontario. Heartworm disease was found most frequently in companion dogs over three years of age maintained mainly outdoors in rural areas. About 31% of the cases were observed with clinical signs of heartworm disease and 64% had a history of not having left Canada. Southwestern Ontario continues to be the focus of the infection and most of the dogs there had not left the province previously. PMID:17422451

  3. Universal prescription drug coverage in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Boothe, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Canada’s universal public healthcare system is unique among developed countries insofar as it does not include universal coverage of prescription drugs. Universal, public coverage of prescription drugs has been recommended by major national commissions in Canada dating back to the 1960s. It has not, however, been implemented. In this article, we extend research on the failure of early proposals for universal drug coverage in Canada to explain failures of calls for reform over the past 20 years. We describe the confluence of barriers to reform stemming from Canadian policy institutions, ideas held by federal policy-makers, and electoral incentives for necessary reforms. Though universal “pharmacare” is once again on the policy agenda in Canada, arguably at higher levels of policy discourse than ever before, the frequently recommended option of universal, public coverage of prescription drugs remains unlikely to be implemented without political leadership necessary to overcome these policy barriers. PMID:27744279

  4. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  5. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    que le gouvernement attache beaucoup d’importance à la protection des infrastructures énergétiques essentielles. Neuf ans après les attaques du 11...pour la défense Canada – CARO; Décembre 2010. Différents gouvernements ont prétendu que la gestion des urgences et la protection des...nouvelles menaces globales ont émergé et ainsi persuadé le gouvernement du Canada (GC) qu’une approche plus intégrée en matière de sécurité était

  6. Arboreal spiders in eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Mallis, Rachael E; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-12-01

    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] is a foundation species in forests of eastern North America that plays a key role in ecosystem function. It is highly susceptible to the exotic invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is causing widespread hemlock mortality. We surveyed the spider communities of eastern hemlock and deciduous canopies over 2 yr, collecting over 4,000 spiders from 21 families. We found that eastern hemlock canopies harbored a more abundant, rich, and diverse spider community than did deciduous canopies. Five spider families were present in our hemlock collections that were absent from the deciduous collections, including Mysmenidae, Theridiosomatidae, Mimetidae, Lycosidae, and Agelenidae. In hemlock canopies there were 4× the number of web builders, consisting primarily of the Tetragnathidae and Araneidae, than active hunters, consisting primarily of the Anyphaenidae and the Salticidae. Ours is the first in depth study of the spider community in eastern hemlock. Spider abundance in hemlock canopies suggest that they may play a role regulating herbivore populations, and could possibly affect the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, either through direct consumption of the adelgids themselves or through interactions with classical biological control agents.

  7. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-01-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian–Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW–NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW–SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW–SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle. PMID:25843968

  8. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-01-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian-Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW-NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW-SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW-SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle.

  9. Slab Detachment Under the Eastern Alps Seen By Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorbani, E.; Bianchi, I.; Bokelmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian-Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW-NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW-SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW-SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle.

  10. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-04-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian-Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW-NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW-SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW-SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle.

  11. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-01-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian-Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW-NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW-SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW-SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle.

  12. Impact of Trans-Boundary Emissions on Modelled Air Pollution in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Moran, Mike; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Menard, Sylvain; Anselmo, David; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The operational air quality model GEM-MACH is run twice daily at the Canadian Meteorological Centre in Montreal, Quebec to produce 48-hour forecasts of hourly O3, NO2, and PM2.5 fields over a North American domain. The hourly gridded anthropogenic emissions fields needed by GEM-MACH are currently based on the 2006 Canadian emissions inventory, a 2012 projected U.S. inventory, and the 1999 Mexican inventory. The Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) processing package was used to process these three national emissions inventories to create the GEM-MACH emissions fields. While Canada is the second-largest country in the world by total area, its population and its emissions of criteria contaminants are both only about one-tenth of U.S. values and roughly 80% of the Canadian population lives within 150 km of the international border with the U.S. As a consequence, transboundary transport of air pollution has a major impact on air quality in Canada. To quantify the impact of non-Canadian emissions on forecasted pollutant levels in Canada, the following two tests were performed: (a) all U.S. and Mexican anthropogenic emissions were switched off; and (b) anthropogenic emissions from the southernmost tier of U.S. states and Mexico were switched off. These sensitivity tests were performed for the summer and winter periods of 2012 or 2011. The results obtained show that the impact of non-Canadian sources on forecasted pollution is generally larger in summer than in winter, especially in south-eastern parts of Canada. For the three pollutants considered in the Canadian national Air Quality Health Index, PM2.5 is impacted the most (up to 80%) and NO2 the least (<10%). Emissions from the southern U.S. and Mexico do impact Canadian air quality, but the sign may change depending on the season (i.e., increase vs. decrease), reflecting chemical processing en route.

  13. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F.; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this. PMID:28182723

  14. An evaluation study of WRF-ARW model with observations during a usual low pressure system over eastern Mediterranean area (Greece) and comparison of the results with an extreme weather event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanouil, George; Vlachogiannis, Diamanto; Sfetsos, Athanasios; Karozis, Stelios; Tasopoulou, Antonia

    2016-04-01

    The accurate simulation of weather conditions is becoming more and more an issue of increased research interest and public demand. Because of the uncertainty in forecasting such phenomena, the investigation of the choice of a proper model configuration to simulate in a satisfactory way usual weather conditions, as well as extreme events is of crucial importance. In the framework of providing reliable weather forecasting, the WRF atmospheric model was employed to simulate the weather conditions during a usual for the area low pressure system that passed over the Greek peninsula during 2015 (September, 18-24). NCEP FNL analysis data were used for model input. The model configuration was setup to include three nested domains with increasing horizontal resolution inwards (11km, 2km and 0.5km respectively), centered in Attica area. The model parameterization was concluded following a number of sensitivity tests, previously carried out for other weather events including extremes in the same area, such as the Cleopatra cyclone. The main meteorological variables were analyzed and evaluation of the results was performed against in-situ measurements by the network of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service stations. The comparison of the September low-pressure event and the Cleopatra case study model results in temperature showed good agreement with the observations in both cases. Study of the precipitation fields yielded significant improvement compared to the analysis data of the NCEP FNL and the comparison between the model results and observed values was found to be good locally at some stations. The overall conclusion was that the model parameterization and applied methodology proved to be an efficient and useful tool for studying and forecasting such events.

  15. Computer Simulations of Canada’s RADARSAT2 GMTI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010837 TITLE: Computer Simulations of Canada’s RADARSAT2 GMTI...ADPO10842 UNCLASSIFIED 45-1 Computer Simulations of Canada’s RADARSAT2 GMTI Shen Chiu and Chuck Livingstone Space Systems and Technology Section, Defence...Associates Ltd. 13800 Commerce Parkway, Richmond, B.C., Canada V6V 2J3 Abstract The detection probability and the estimation accuracy Canada’s RADARSAT2

  16. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  17. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  18. An Environmental Scan of Adventure Therapy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Patrick, Krysten; Corbould, Gordon Marcus; Harper, Nevin J.; Oddson, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    We report on an environmental scan (ES) of adventure therapy (AT) literature, organizations, and activities in Canada. The ES methodology involved (a) an examination of final reports related to a series of national symposiums on AT in Canada, (b) a review of academic literature related to AT in Canada, and (c) a summary of AT programs and courses…

  19. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special Canada goose permit. 21.26 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.26 Special Canada goose permit. (a) What is the special Canada goose permit and what is its purpose? The special...

  20. 77 FR 18970 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Bell Helicopter Textron Canada Limited (BHTC) Model 407 helicopters. This proposed AD is... Helicopter Textron Canada Limited, 12,800 Rue de l'Avenir, Mirabel, Quebec J7J1R4, telephone (450)...

  1. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  2. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  3. A National Understanding: The Official Languages of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The English and French languages have been in everyday use in some part of what is now Canada for almost 400 years. The constitution of Canada states that they have equal status in the Parliament and courts of Canada and in the legislature and courts of the province of Quebec. In 1969 Parliament passed the Official Languages Act, which declared…

  4. Labor Standards in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Richard N.; Roberts, Karen; Clarke, R. Oliver

    This volume attempts to measure and quantify 10 labor standards in the United States and Canada. Its two purposes are to begin to fill the gap in the research by developing a measure of labor standards that can be applied across countries and to apply that measure to the United States (U.S.) and Canada to test a popular hypothesis that Canada has…

  5. Using linked household-level data sets to explain consumer response to bovine spongiform encepalopathy (BSE) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Maynard, Leigh J; Butler, J S; Goddard, Ellen W

    2011-01-01

    Household-level Canadian meat purchases from 2002 to 2008 and a Food Opinions Survey conducted in 2008 were used to explore consumer responses to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) at the national level in Canada. Consumption in terms of the number of unit purchases was analyzed with a random-effects negative binomial model. In this study, household heterogeneity in meat purchases was partially explained using data from a self-reported food opinions survey. Of special interest was the hypothesis that consumers responded consistently to BSE in a one-time survey and in actual meat purchase behavior spanning years. Regional differences appeared, with consumers in eastern Canada reacting most negatively to BSE. Consumers responded more to the perception that food decision makers are honest about food safety than to the perception that they are knowledgeable, in maintaining beef purchases during BSE events.

  6. An Estimate of Avian Mortality at Communication Towers in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Longcore, Travis; Rich, Catherine; Mineau, Pierre; MacDonald, Beau; Bert, Daniel G.; Sullivan, Lauren M.; Mutrie, Erin; Gauthreaux, Sidney A.; Avery, Michael L.; Crawford, Robert L.; Manville, Albert M.; Travis, Emilie R.; Drake, David

    2012-01-01

    Avian mortality at communication towers in the continental United States and Canada is an issue of pressing conservation concern. Previous estimates of this mortality have been based on limited data and have not included Canada. We compiled a database of communication towers in the continental United States and Canada and estimated avian mortality by tower with a regression relating avian mortality to tower height. This equation was derived from 38 tower studies for which mortality data were available and corrected for sampling effort, search efficiency, and scavenging where appropriate. Although most studies document mortality at guyed towers with steady-burning lights, we accounted for lower mortality at towers without guy wires or steady-burning lights by adjusting estimates based on published studies. The resulting estimate of mortality at towers is 6.8 million birds per year in the United States and Canada. Bootstrapped subsampling indicated that the regression was robust to the choice of studies included and a comparison of multiple regression models showed that incorporating sampling, scavenging, and search efficiency adjustments improved model fit. Estimating total avian mortality is only a first step in developing an assessment of the biological significance of mortality at communication towers for individual species or groups of species. Nevertheless, our estimate can be used to evaluate this source of mortality, develop subsequent per-species mortality estimates, and motivate policy action. PMID:22558082

  7. The Virtual Library: Computers in Libraries Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laverna

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a postconference workshop on virtual libraries that was presented at the third annual Computers in Libraries Canada Conference. Highlights include networks; technological change; administrative issues, including organizational structure, staff training, strategic planning, and financial resources; a case study of the University of…

  8. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  9. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  10. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  11. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  12. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  13. The History of Developmental Psychology in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Mary J.

    1999-01-01

    Three distinct periods mark the history of developmental psychology in Canada. Period 1 was dominated by cognitive developmental theorist, James Mark Baldwin. Period 2, defined by the Child Study Movement, began in the 1920s with Mental Hygiene Movement and founding of two child study centers. Period 3, started in the 1950s, focused on…

  14. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  15. What Happened to Charter Schools in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, charter schools have held a precarious existence in Canada. Implemented in the province of Alberta in 1994, only a handful of charter schools remain in the entire nation. In this article, I explore the ideas of school choice and charter schooling and how they have largely disappeared as educational policy issues for Canadians. While…

  16. Historical Writing on Native People in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of native Canadian history. Because of more adequate available documentation, findings showed the most extensive work was on European-Indian contacts resulting from the fur trade. The author cites the need for more work on individual Indian cultural histories as well as a good general history of Canada's indigenous groups.…

  17. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  18. Illegal Immigrants in Canada: Recent Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, W. G.

    1984-01-01

    Naturally protected by its distance from most migrant routes and with a long undefended border with the U.S., a parliamentary system capable of responding rapidly to problems, and a small legal and even smaller illegal immigrant population, Canada has experimented with novel immigration policies to encourage and control its population increase.…

  19. The Canada NewStart Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, E. P.

    This speech described the development and current status of the Canada NewStart Program, in which specially created corporations have been conducting action research on disadvantaged groups (largely Indians and Metis) in remote areas of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and for undereducated persons in economically depressed areas of Prince…

  20. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…