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Sample records for eastern canada comparison

  1. Comparison of toxaphene congeners levels in five seal species from eastern Canada: what is the importance of biological factors?

    PubMed

    Gouteux, Bruno; Lebeuf, Michel; Hammill, Mike O; Muir, Derek C G; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-15

    Environmentally relevant chlorobornanes (CHBs) were measured in blubber samples of harbor (Phoca vitulina), gray (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica), and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled in different part of the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem (SLME) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in the eastern Canadian Arctic waters. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of six CHBs (Parlar-26, -40/-41, -44, -50, and -62) among the five seal species. Seal species could be separated into three groups based on their respective sigmaCHB mean concentrations (+/-standard error): gray (49+/-3.9 ng/g lipid weight) and harbor (80+/-20 ng/g lipid weight) seals were more contaminated than ringed seals (18+/-7.6 ng/g lipid weight) but less contaminated than harp (370+/-87 ng/g lipid weight) and hooded (680+/-310 ng/g lipid weight) seals. These differences are not expected to be related to different sources of toxaphene contamination, since both the SLME and the eastern Canadian Arctic environments are thought to be mainly contaminated via atmospheric transportfrom the southeastern part of the United States. Thus, biological factors such as sex, age, nutritive condition, metabolism capacity, and diet of the animals collected were considered. Results reported in this study indicated that the diet is likely the main factor accounting for interspecies variations in toxaphene contamination in seals from eastern Canada.

  2. Damping modification factors for eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshvar, Poulad; Bouaanani, Najib

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates damping modification factors in eastern Canada based on historical and simulated records compatible with seismic hazard in this region. Damping modification factors are characterized as a function of magnitude, distance, site condition, and damping ratio. Damping modification factors corresponding to historical and simulated ground motions on rock sites are shown to exhibit the same trends for all damping levels. In addition to period dependency of damping modification factors, we demonstrate their sensitivity to magnitude variations at longer periods. The effect of distance is shown to be less pronounced. It is also observed that soil conditions affect damping modification factors at short as well as longer periods. Period-dependent equations are proposed for practical assessment of damping modification factors corresponding to damping ratios between 1 and 40%, considering different magnitude-distance combinations and soil conditions representative of seismic hazard in eastern Canada.

  3. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  4. Comparison of earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) Fjords: Implications for paleoseismicity and sedimentology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Viel, Matias; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Winiarski, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro J. M.; Ghaleb, Bassam; Jaouen, Alain; Locat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution seismic profiles along with physical and sedimentological properties of sediment cores from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chile) Fjords allowed the identification of several decimeter to meter-thick turbidites. In both fjords, the turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M > 7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M ~ 8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In the Saguenay Fjord, the earthquake-triggered turbidites are sometimes underlying a hyperpycnite associated with the rapid breaching and draining of a natural dam formed by earthquake-triggered landslides. Similar hyperpycnal floods were also recorded in historical and continental geological archives for the 1960 and 1575 AD Chilean subduction earthquakes, highlighting the risk of such flood events several weeks or months after main earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, this paper also emphasizes the sensitivity of fjords to record historic and pre-historic seismicity.

  5. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  6. Identifying spatial and temporal variations in seismicity in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Atkinson, G. M.; Fereidoni, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Cho, N.; Kazemian, J.; Vincent, P.; Gonzalez, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because of the varying internal structures and material strengths that dissipate stress differently. However, because analysis of the actual earthquake fault system remains incomplete due to the inherent difficulty in sampling the solid Earth (Richter, 1958; Kanamori, 1981; Geller et al., 1997), much of the recent research in statistical seismology has centered on investigating the variety of spatial and temporal patterns that exist in local and regional data. In particular, in recent years a combination of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and seismicity data analysis has established the link between variations in seismicity rates and the dynamics of the underlying stress field (Dieterich, 1994; Dieterich et al., 2002; Toda et al., 2002; Rundle et al., 2002; Tiampo et al., 2002, 2006; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005). However, this research has predominantly focused on tectonically-active regions with a relatively high rate of background seismicity. Here we present new work that quantifies seismicity rate changes in the intraplate region of eastern Canada in order to identify spatial and temporal variations in local and regional stress (Tiampo et al, 2002, 2006). Although stable eastern North America generally has much lower seismicity than plate boundary regions, there are areas of substantial seismicity and earthquake hazard. The bulk of the eastern Canadian seismicity is concentrated in both the lower Saint Lawrence seismic zone, downriver from Québec City and the Charlevoix seismic zone to the west of Québec City. Although Mazzotti and Adams (2005) estimate that seismic strain rates in most of eastern Canada are about 10-13 to 10-11/yr, exceptions to these low strain rates can be found in these regions of higher seismic activation. These seismically active zones generally are associated with large lithospheric-scale paleotectonic geologic features and this strong

  7. WRF Simulations of the 20-22 January 2007 Snow Events over Eastern Canada: Comparison with In-Situ and Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Tao, W.-K.; Matsui, T.; Cifelli, R.; Huo, A.; Lang, S.; Tokay, A.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Jackson, G.; Rutledge, S.; hide

    2009-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to improve cold season precipitation measurements in middle and high latitudes through the use of high-frequency passive microwave radiometry. For this, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Goddard microphysics scheme is coupled with a satellite data simulation unit (WRF-SDSU) that has been developed to facilitate over-land snowfall retrieval algorithms by providing a virtual cloud library and microwave brightness temperature (Tb) measurements consistent with the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). This study tested the Goddard cloud microphysics scheme in WRF for two snowstorm events, a lake effect and a synoptic event, that occurred between 20 and 22 January 2007 over the Canadian CloudSAT/CALIPSO Validation Project (C3VP) site in Ontario, Canada. The 24h-accumulated snowfall predicted by the WRF model with the Goddard microphysics was comparable to the observed accumulated snowfall by the ground-based radar for both events. The model correctly predicted the onset and ending of both snow events at the CARE site. WRF simulations capture the basic cloud properties as seen by the ground-based radar and satellite (i.e., CloudSAT, AMSU-B) observations as well as the observed cloud streak organization in the lake event. This latter result reveals that WRF was able to capture the cloud macro-structure reasonably well.

  8. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment for a Site in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Vikram; Arcos, Maria E. M.; Alcinov, Trajce; Lavine, Alexis; Youngs, Robert; Roussel, Patrick; Mullin, Derek

    2016-12-01

    Unlike probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), there is not a well-established methodology for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). The PTHA methodology presented is similar to the widely used PSHA methodology for ground motion, and incorporates both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in calculating the probability of exceeding runup and drawdown values produced by tsunamigenic sources. Evaluating tsunami hazard is more difficult in locations such as the eastern coastline of Canada because of low tsunami recurrence rates and few historical examples. In this study, we evaluated the hazard from local and far-field earthquake and landslide tsunamigenic sources at a site on the Bay of Fundy in New Brunswick, Canada. These sources included local faults, the Puerto Rico subduction zone, fault sources in the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary region, and landslides on the Canadian continental slope and in the Canary Islands. Using a new PTHA methodology that is closely linked to well-established PSHA methodology combined with tide stage probability, we calculated that the return period for a wave runup exceeding the tidal range of +4 m level above mean sea level (highest astronomical tide) is approximately 14,500 years.

  9. Occupational asthma in sawmills of eastern Canada and United States.

    PubMed

    Malo, J L; Cartier, A; Boulet, L P

    1986-09-01

    Eleven individuals with a history of work-related asthma are described. They were employed in 10 different sawmills of northwestern and southeastern Quebec and Maine where coniferous trees (spruces, firs, and pines) are cut into boards. Duration of exposure and symptomatology varied from 1.5 to 40 years and 0.5 to 10 years, respectively. Ten subjects were atopic and seven demonstrated immediate skin reactivity to mixed tree pollens. The diagnosis of occupational asthma was confirmed by significant and sustained changes in serial peak expiratory flow rates at work as compared with a period off work in every individual and significant changes in bronchial responsiveness to histamine at work as compared with a period off work in eight individuals or significant changes in FEV1 at work in the three other subjects. Specific inhalation tests by exposing four workers to sawdust in our laboratory were negative. We conclude that working in this specific type of sawmills of eastern Canada and northeastern United States can cause occupational asthma. Although the causative agent is unknown, the presence of atopy and/or immediate skin reactivity to tree pollens and/or bronchial hyperresponsiveness might be risk factors.

  10. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices.

  11. A focused ethnographic assessment of Middle Eastern mothers' infant feeding practices in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to following complementary feeding guidelines among Middle Eastern mothers and the cultural considerations of practitioners from an emic perspective. This is a two-phase focused ethnographic assessment of infant feeding among 22 Middle Eastern mothers in Western Canada who had healthy infants aged <1 year. Data were collected through four focus groups conducted in Arabic/Farsi, and were further complemented by comprehensive survey data collected in the second phase of study. Mothers' main criterion for choosing infant foods was whether or not foods were Halal, while food allergens were not causes for concern. Vitamin D supplements were not fed to 18/22 of infants, and mashed dates (Halawi), rice pudding (Muhallabia/Ferni) and sugared water/tea were the first complementary foods commonly consumed. Through constant comparison of qualitative data, three layers of influence emerged, which described mothers' process of infant feeding: socio-cultural, health care system and personal factors. Culture was an umbrella theme influencing all aspects of infant feeding decisions. Mothers cited health care professionals' lack of cultural considerations and lack of relevance and practicality of infant feeding guidelines as the main reasons for ignoring infant feeding recommendations. Early introduction of pre-lacteal feeds and inappropriate types of foods fed to infants among immigrant/refugee Middle Eastern mothers in Canada is cause of concern. Involving trained language interpreters in health teams and educating health care staff on cultural competency may potentially increase maternal trust in the health care system and eventually lead to increased awareness of and adherence to best practices with infant feeding recommendations.

  12. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Adrian M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2017-05-04

    We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. In Alaska, digital elevation models based on light detection and ranging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data enabled our fault mapping at scales of 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. Lacking such resources in Yukon, we developed new structure-from-motion digital photogrammetry products from legacy aerial photos to map the fault surface trace at a scale of 1:10,000 east of the international border. The section of the fault that we map, referred to as the Eastern Denali Fault, did not rupture during the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake (moment magnitude 7.9). Seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic evidence, along with a paleoseismic record of past ground-rupturing earthquakes, demonstrate Holocene and contemporary activity on the fault, however. This map of the Eastern Denali Fault surface trace complements other data sets by providing an openly accessible digital interpretation of the location, length, and continuity of the fault’s surface trace based on the accompanying digital topography dataset. Additionally, the digitized fault trace may provide geometric constraints useful for modeling earthquake scenarios and related seismic hazard.

  13. Seismicity and seismotectonics in eastern Canada and vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shutian

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the fundamental nature of seismicity and seismotectonics in eastern Canada and vicinity. The findings have some instructive roles in seismological research and seismic hazard assessments. The first part is focused on developments and refinements to methodologies required for analysis of seismic phenomena. The second part is devoted to case histories, in which these methods are applied with the goal of developing greater insight into the nature of intraplate seismicity. Chapter Two describes a hybrid method for precise determination of earthquake hypocenters. The method partitions the inversion process by separating the inversion into distinct steps. The benefits of splitting the problem up stem from inherent tradeoffs between the focal depth, epicentral location and the origin time in the inversion process. Examples show that the approach yields more accurate solutions than those obtained using the original hypoDD analysis procedure. In Chapter Three a new moment-tensor inversion method is described and tested. The method is tailored for small earthquakes. It is interactive and uses adjustable, independently weighted time windows to isolate crustal phases. The technique is applied to a number of small earthquakes and also verified using a synthetic event. In Chapter Four, the developed techniques are applied to investigate seismicity of the WQSZ in western Quebec. Seismicity in this zone is mainly localized along a hotspot track. A statistical approach is used to delineate spatial clusters of seismicity. The locations of several clusters are consistent with paleoseismic evidence for large prehistoric earthquakes, suggesting these clusters may be exceptionally long-lived aftershock sequences from prehistoric earthquakes. Chapter Five provides an analysis of seismicity and seismotectonics in northern Ontario. Four distinct types of seismic activity are noted. No obvious correlation was found between the seismicity on the Severn

  14. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  15. Recognition of Langue des Signes Quebecoise in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisot, Anne-Marie; Rinfret, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a portrait of two community-level and legal efforts in Canada to obtain official recognition of ASL and LSQ (Langue des signes quebecoise), both of which are recognized as official languages by the Canadian Association of the Deaf (CAD). In order to situate this issue in the Canadian linguistic context, the authors first…

  16. Financing Aboriginal Government: The Case of Canada's Eastern Arctic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1992-01-01

    Describes financial strategies that promote financial autonomy of Native governments. Discusses the creation of trust funds with cash settlements of land claims, continued program funding by the federal government, and financial training for Native peoples in relation to the Nunavut agreement, which created an autonomous Inuit territory in Canada.…

  17. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  18. Telemedicine may help change the face of medical care in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Robb, N

    1997-01-01

    Pilot projects in eastern Canada that use personal computers and telephone lines to link patients and rural physicians with specialists in urban centres indicate that telemedicine may be a cost-effective adjunct to clinical medicine. Dermatology, radiology, cardiology and oncology are among the areas that have been tested in Nova Scotia. Although physicians say telemedicine may have many useful applications, such as providing efficient continuing medical education for doctors in remote communities, they say it must respect traditional referral patterns. PMID:9099171

  19. Insect-induced tree mortality of boreal forests in eastern Canada under a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiongqing; Lei, Yuancai; Ma, Zhihai; Kneeshaw, Dan; Peng, Changhui

    2014-06-01

    Forest insects are major disturbances that induce tree mortality in eastern coniferous (or fir-spruce) forests in eastern North America. The spruce budworm (SBW) (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clemens]) is the most devastating insect causing tree mortality. However, the relative importance of insect-caused mortality versus tree mortality caused by other agents and how this relationship will change with climate change is not known. Based on permanent sample plots across eastern Canada, we combined a logistic model with a negative model to estimate tree mortality. The results showed that tree mortality increased mainly due to forest insects. The mean difference in annual tree mortality between plots disturbed by insects and those without insect disturbance was 0.0680 per year (P < 0.0001, T-test), and the carbon sink loss was about 2.87t C ha(-1) year(-1) larger than in natural forests. We also found that annual tree mortality increased significantly with the annual climate moisture index (CMI) and decreased significantly with annual minimum temperature (T min), annual mean temperature (T mean) and the number of degree days below 0°C (DD0), which was inconsistent with previous studies (Adams et al. 2009; van Mantgem et al. 2009; Allen et al. 2010). Furthermore, the results for the trends in the magnitude of forest insect outbreaks were consistent with those of climate factors for annual tree mortality. Our results demonstrate that forest insects are the dominant cause of the tree mortality in eastern Canada but that tree mortality induced by insect outbreaks will decrease in eastern Canada under warming climate.

  20. Insect-induced tree mortality of boreal forests in eastern Canada under a changing climate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiongqing; Lei, Yuancai; Ma, Zhihai; Kneeshaw, Dan; Peng, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    Forest insects are major disturbances that induce tree mortality in eastern coniferous (or fir-spruce) forests in eastern North America. The spruce budworm (SBW) (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clemens]) is the most devastating insect causing tree mortality. However, the relative importance of insect-caused mortality versus tree mortality caused by other agents and how this relationship will change with climate change is not known. Based on permanent sample plots across eastern Canada, we combined a logistic model with a negative model to estimate tree mortality. The results showed that tree mortality increased mainly due to forest insects. The mean difference in annual tree mortality between plots disturbed by insects and those without insect disturbance was 0.0680 per year (P < 0.0001, T-test), and the carbon sink loss was about 2.87t C ha−1 year−1 larger than in natural forests. We also found that annual tree mortality increased significantly with the annual climate moisture index (CMI) and decreased significantly with annual minimum temperature (Tmin), annual mean temperature (Tmean) and the number of degree days below 0°C (DD0), which was inconsistent with previous studies (Adams et al. 2009; van Mantgem et al. 2009; Allen et al. 2010). Furthermore, the results for the trends in the magnitude of forest insect outbreaks were consistent with those of climate factors for annual tree mortality. Our results demonstrate that forest insects are the dominant cause of the tree mortality in eastern Canada but that tree mortality induced by insect outbreaks will decrease in eastern Canada under warming climate. PMID:25360275

  1. Fall colors in eastern United States and Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    As temperatures dropped and daylight began to shorten, autumn colors began to wash over the deciduous forests of North America. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of the northeastern United States and Canada on September 27, 2014. Washes of orange, brown and yellow are brightest in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, upstate New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and southern Quebec and Ontario. Also, faint traces of phytoplankton blooms can be seen in the offshore waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The transition of autumn leaves from green, to glowing with colors, to browning and dropping to the ground, involve several complex interactions and reactions. However, length of sunlight and the temperature changes are dominant factors. Topography also plays a role, as does latitude. Temperature tends to drop faster at higher elevations and at higher latitudes, and day length shortens more quickly at higher latitudes. Color change tends to begin in the north and sweep southward, and change begins at mountain tops then moves into valleys. As explained by the U.S. Forest Service, certain species of trees produce certain colors. Oaks generally turn red, brown, or russet; hickories become golden bronze; aspen and yellow-poplar turn golden. Maples differ by species. Red maple turns brilliant scarlet; sugar maple, orange-red; and black maple, yellow. Leaves of some trees, such as elms, simply become brown. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Variability and origin of seismic anisotropy across eastern Canada: Evidence from shear wave splitting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Forte, A. M.; Hobbs, T. E.; Calvel, A.; Gonzalez-Monteza, A.; Schow, B.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy in continental regions are frequently interpreted with respect to past tectonic processes, preserved in the lithosphere as "fossil" fabrics. Models of the present-day sublithospheric flow (often using absolute plate motion as a proxy) are also used to explain the observations. Discriminating between these different sources of seismic anisotropy is particularly challenging beneath shields, whose thick (≥200 km) lithospheric roots may record a protracted history of deformation and strongly influence underlying mantle flow. Eastern Canada, where the geological record spans ˜3 Ga of Earth history, is an ideal region to address this issue. We use shear wave splitting measurements of core phases such as SKS to define upper mantle anisotropy using the orientation of the fast-polarization direction ϕ and delay time δt between fast and slow shear wave arrivals. Comparison with structural trends in surface geology and aeromagnetic data helps to determine the contribution of fossil lithospheric fabrics to the anisotropy. We also assess the influence of sublithospheric mantle flow via flow directions derived from global geodynamic models. Fast-polarization orientations are generally ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW across the region, but significant lateral variability in splitting parameters on a ≤100 km scale implies a lithospheric contribution to the results. Correlations with structural geologic and magnetic trends are not ubiquitous, however, nor are correlations with geodynamically predicted mantle flow directions. We therefore consider that the splitting parameters likely record a combination of the present-day mantle flow and older lithospheric fabrics. Consideration of both sources of anisotropy is critical in shield regions when interpreting splitting observations.

  3. Focal mechanisms and variations in tectonic stress fields in eastern Canada (western Quebec and southern Ontario)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh Sadegh, Parisa

    Earthquakes in western Quebec and southern Ontario present a major contribution to the natural hazards in south eastern Canada due to their proximity to major population centres. However, the seismic characteristics of the events in these regions have not been well documented. Improved knowledge of earthquake distribution and seismic controlling mechanisms provides a great benefit for earthquake hazard analysis in eastern Canada. The available information about the tectonic stress indicators, including focal mechanisms, was compiled for Canada prior to 1994. The present research is concentrated mainly on determination of the focal mechanisms and hypocentre locations of the earthquakes after 1993 with M > 3.5 to characterize the present-day regional and local stress fields in southern Ontario and western Quebec. An attempt was also made to differentiate local zones with comparatively homogeneous tectonic stresses orientation and seismic regimes, thus providing information for future re-assessment of the seismic hazard in each region. Considering seismic parameters such as the trend of the epicentres, focal depths and the state of stress of the events along with their tectonic settings, ten distinct clusters have been proposed for western Quebec and two clusters of events were determined for southern Ontario with comparatively consistent focal mechanisms. The locations and characteristics of seismicity clusters appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that they are near the locations of large historic and prehistoric events, and represent exceptionally persistent aftershocks of past large earthquakes.

  4. Supercritical flow bedforms in active (and less active) turbidite systems of Eastern and Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Campbell, Calvin; King, Edward; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bourgault, Daniel; Neumeier, Urs; Francus, Pierre; Gagnon-Poiré, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    Recent high-resolution multibeam bathymetry mapping of lakes, shallow- (<500 m) and deep-marine zones from Eastern and Arctic Canada has imaged numerous deltas, submarine canyons, and turbidite channels on scales of hundreds of metres to hundreds of kilometres in extent. In this presentation, we provide shallow water examples of bedforms from McClure Strait and Baffin Bay fjords (Arctic Canada), the St. Lawrence Estuary and fjord-lakes from Eastern Canada and deep-water examples from offshore Nova Scotia. These systems are affected by sediment density flows triggered by different mechanisms, including delta-front slope failures, hyperpycnal flows, and other unknown processes. Despite great variation in size, geological settings and trigger mechanisms, bedforms observed on flow paths have similar geomorphic expression. Most of the bedforms have a crescentic shape and are characterized by an increase in wavelength and asymmetry as the slope decreases offshore from the shoreline. Repeated multibeam bathymetry mapping and seismic reflection imaging demonstrate that these bedforms migrate upslope by the erosion of their lee side and sediment deposition on their stoss side. Their morphological expression and upslope migration indicate that they were formed by supercritical flows as antidunes and cyclic steps. Further, their morphology suggest that the flows accelerate and increase in discharge and thickness as they evolve downslope. These new datasets thus demonstrate the ubiquity of supercritical flow bedforms in a wide range of environments, from high sediment supply (deltas) to sediment-starved margins.

  5. Federal-provincial agreements for the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program: Annual report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report on the Eastern Canada Acid Rain Program compares the previous year`s emissions of sulphur dioxide in the 7 easternmost provinces to the emission targets in the program. The objective is to cap sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions until the year 2000. Coupled with the US Acid Rain Program it is intended to protect sensitive ecosystems from acid deposition. This report discusses emissions for the latest year, concerns, and steps to be taken. Statistical tables give emissions by province and industry, with information for some major air pollution sources in mineral extraction or electric power generation.

  6. Decadal Variations in Eastern Canada's Taiga Wood Biomass Production Forced by Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Etienne; Nicault, Antoine; Arseneault, Dominique; Bégin, Yves; Karami, Mehdi Pasha

    2017-05-26

    Across Eastern Canada (EC), taiga forests represent an important carbon reservoir, but the extent to which climate variability affects this ecosystem over decades remains uncertain. Here, we analyze an extensive network of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) ring width and wood density measurements and provide new evidence that wood biomass production is influenced by large-scale, internal ocean-atmosphere processes. We show that while black spruce wood biomass production is primarily governed by growing season temperatures, the Atlantic ocean conveys heat from the subtropics and influences the decadal persistence in taiga forests productivity. Indeed, we argue that 20-30 years periodicities in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) as part of the the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) directly influence heat transfers to adjacent lands. Winter atmospheric conditions associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) might also impact EC's taiga forests, albeit indirectly, through its effect on SSTs and sea ice conditions in surrounding seas. Our work emphasizes that taiga forests would benefit from the combined effects of a warmer atmosphere and stronger ocean-to-land heat transfers, whereas a weakening of these transfers could cancel out, for decades or longer, the positive effects of climate change on Eastern Canada's largest ecosystem.

  7. Forest-climate feedbacks mediated through fire in the Eastern boreal forests of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, P. Y.; Girardin, M. P.; Desjardins, R. L.; Gauthier, S.; Karimi-Zindashty, Y.; Worth, D.; Beaudoin, A.; Luo, Y.; Wang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Boreal forests are one of the largest biomes on earth, covering 27% of the world’s forests. In Canada, the dynamics of the boreal forests are largely dominated by large scale disturbances, with crown fires being the most geographically and temporally common. The probability of fire occurrence is strongly coupled to climate, making fire regimes quite variable across the country. Recent trends in fire regimes as well as predicted trends under climate scenarios also vary spatially. We present the results of two studies in which we have evaluated the climate - fire - forest feedbacks in parts of the boreal forest. Results show that feedbacks can be substantial and can alter the importance and even the direction of forest impacts on the climate system. The first feedback investigated was the link between fire-driven changes in forest cover properties and albedo in the boreal forests of Eastern Canada. Repeated disturbances in closed canopy forest dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana) on coarse soils sometimes push stands into an alternate stable open lichen woodland state. These lichen woodlands have a high albedo on account of the pale ground cover. Calculations show that the increase in albedo due to the opening of the canopy has a greater radiative forcing effect than that of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere on account of the burning of the original forest. In these regions, climate-driven fire regimes thus generate a negative feedback to the climate system through their effects on forest cover properties. The second feedback investigated is linked to a recent decrease in fire frequency in Eastern Canada, and how this decrease might be affecting the growth-enhancing effect of a warmer climate because of its impact on the age-class distribution of the forest. The fire regime drives the age class distribution of forest landscapes. Since age class distribution drives landscape-level productivity, we have studied how this effect interacts with climate warming in

  8. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal

    2013-10-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  9. Fire regime zonation under current and future climate over eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Yan; Gauthier, Sylvie; Gray, David R; Le Goff, Héloïse; Lefort, Patrick; Morissette, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Fire is a major disturbance in Canadian forests. Along with fuel and ignition characteristics, climatic conditions are seen as one of the main drivers of fire regimes. Projected changes in climate are expected to significantly influence fire regimes in Canada. As fire regime greatly shapes large-scale patterns in biodiversity, carbon, and vegetation, as well as forest and fire management strategies, it becomes necessary to define regions where current and future fire regimes are homogeneous. Random Forests (RF) modeling was used to relate fire regime attributes prevailing between 1961 and 1990 in eastern Canada with climatic/fire-weather and environmental variables. Using climatic normals outputs from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), we delineated current (1961-1990) and future (2011-2040, 2040-2070, 2071 2100) homogeneous fire regime (HFR) zones. Heterogeneous response of fire regime to climate changes is projected for eastern Canada with some areas (e.g., western Quebec) experiencing very small alterations while others (e.g., southeastern Ontario) are facing great shifts. Overall, models predicted a 2.2- and 2.4-fold increase in the number of fires and the annual area burned respectively mostly as a result of an increase in extreme fire-weather normals and mean drought code. As extreme fire danger would occur later in the fire season on average, the fire season would shift slightly later (5-20 days) in the summer for much of the study area while remaining relatively stable elsewhere. Although fire regime values would change significantly over time, most zone boundaries would remain relatively stable. The information resulting from HFR zonations is clearly of interest for forest and fire management agencies as it reveals zones with peculiar fire regimes that would have been hidden otherwise using predefined administrative or ecological stratifications.

  10. Randomized comparison of ABVD chemotherapy with a strategy that includes radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Ralph M; Gospodarowicz, Mary K; Connors, Joseph M; Pearcey, Robert G; Bezjak, Andrea; Wells, Woodrow A; Burns, Bruce F; Winter, Jane N; Horning, Sandra J; Dar, A Rashid; Djurfeldt, Marina S; Ding, Keyue; Shepherd, Lois E

    2005-07-20

    We report results of a randomized trial comparing ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy alone with treatment that includes radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients with nonbulky clinical stage I to IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma were stratified into favorable and unfavorable risk cohorts. Patients allocated to radiation-containing therapy received subtotal nodal radiation if favorable risk or combined-modality therapy if unfavorable risk. Patients allocated to ABVD received four to six treatment cycles. We evaluated 399 patients. Median follow-up is 4.2 years. In comparison with ABVD alone, 5-year freedom from disease progression is superior in patients allocated to radiation therapy (P = .006; 93% v 87%); no differences in event-free survival (P = .06; 88% v 86%) or overall survival (P = .4; 94% v 96%) were detected. In a subset analyses comparing patients stratified into the unfavorable cohort, freedom from disease progression was superior in patients allocated to combined-modality treatment (P = .004; 95% v 88%); no difference in overall survival was detected (P = .3; 92% v 95%). Of 15 deaths observed, nine were attributed to causes other than Hodgkin's lymphoma or acute treatment-related toxicity. In patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma, no difference in overall survival was detected between patients randomly assigned to receive treatment that includes radiation therapy or ABVD alone. Although 5-year freedom from disease progression was superior in patients receiving radiation therapy, this advantage is offset by deaths due to causes other than progressive Hodgkin's lymphoma or acute treatment-related toxicity.

  11. Changing climate, changing forests: The impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada

    Treesearch

    Lindsey Rustad; John Campbell; Jeffrey S. Dukes; Thomas Huntington; Kathy Fallon Lambert; Jacqueline Mohan; Nicholas. Rodenhouse

    2012-01-01

    Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems provide important insights for forest science, management, and policy. A synthesis of recent research from the northeastern United States and eastern Canada shows that the climate of the region has become warmer and wetter over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme...

  12. Soil nitrous oxide emissions after deposition of dairy cow excreta in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Philippe; Chantigny, Martin H; Ziadi, Noura; Angers, Denis A; Bélanger, Gilles; Charbonneau, Édith; Pellerin, Doris; Liang, Chang; Bertrand, Normand

    2014-05-01

    Urine and dung deposited by grazing dairy cows are a major source of nitrous oxide (NO), a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. In this study, we quantified the emissions of NO after deposition of dairy cow excreta onto two grassland sites with contrasting soil types in eastern Canada. Our objectives were to determine the impact of excreta type, urine-N rate, time of the year, and soil type on annual NO emissions. Emissions were monitored on sandy loam and clay soils after spring, summer, and fall urine (5 and 10 g N patch) and dung (1.75 kg fresh weight dung) applications to perennial grasses in two successive years. The mean NO emission factor (EF) for urine was 1.09% of applied N in the clay soil and 0.31% in the sandy loam soil, estimates much smaller than the default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default value for total excreta N (2%). Despite variations in urine composition and in climatic conditions, these soil-specific EFs were similar for the two urine-N application rates. The time of the year when urine was applied had no impact on emissions from the sandy loam soil, but greater EFs were observed after summer (1.59%) than spring (1.14%) and fall (0.55%) applications in the clay soil. Dung deposition impact on NO emission was smaller than that of urine, with a mean EF of 0.15% in the sandy loam soil and 0.08% in the clay soil. Our results suggest (i) that the IPCC default EF overestimates NO emissions from grazing cattle excreta in eastern Canada by a factor of 4.3 and (ii) that a region-specific inventory methodology should account for soil type and should use specific EFs for urine and dung.

  13. Freezing Rain Diagnostic Study Over Eastern Canada Using the 5th Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, É.; Paquin, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; de Elía, R.

    2015-12-01

    Northeastern North America is often affected by freezing rain events during the cold season. They can have significant consequences (from road accidents, to severe power outages) despite their intensity and duration. The 1998 Ice Storm over Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States is an example of an extreme event with catastrophic consequences. A total of up to 150 mm of ice accumulated during 10 days were observed in some areas. This natural disaster has highlighted the need to better understand how such phenomena will evolve with future climate scenario. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of using regional climate modeling to diagnose the occurrence of freezing rain events over Quebec (Canada). To address this issue, we used the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), from 1979 to 2014. An empirical method (Bourgouin, 2000) developed to determine the type of winter precipitations was chosen to diagnose freezing rain events. The study focused in the Montreal area and the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec, Canada). The sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution was explored by using three resolutions: 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11°. In general, freezing rain was diagnosed consistently at all resolutions but the higher one (0.11°) produced more realistic results due to a better representation of the orography. Using the higher resolution, the results showed that the climatology of the freezing rain occurrence in the Montreal area is comparable to available observations. It also suggested that the role of the specific orography of the region with the St. Lawrence River Valley can impact the characteristics of freezing rain events in this area. Overall, this study will contribute to a better preparedness for such events in the future. High resolution regional climate simulations are essential to improve the reproduction of local scale orographically-forced phenomena.

  14. Problems of seismic hazard estimation in regions with few large earthquakes: Examples from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basham, P. W.; Adams, John

    1989-10-01

    Seismic hazard estimates and seismic zoning maps are based on an assessment of historical and recent seismieity and any correlations with geologic and tectonic features that might define the earthquake potential. Evidence is accumulating that the large earthquakes in eastern Canada ( M ~ 7) may be associated with the rift systems hat surround or break the integrity of the North American craton. The problem for seismic hazard estimation is that the larger historical earthquakes are not uniformly distributed along the Paleozoic St. Lawrence-Ottawa rift system and are too rare on the Mesozoic eastern margin rift to assess the overall seismogenic potential. Multiple source zone models for hazard estimation could include hypotheses of future M = 7 earthquakes at any location along these rift systems, but at a moderate probability (such as that used in the Canadian zoning maps) the resultant hazard will be so diluted that it will not result in adequate design against the near-source effects of such earthquakes. The near-source effects of large, rare earthquakes can, however, be accommodated in conservative codes and standards for critical facilities, if society is willing to pay the price.

  15. Salinity variability along the eastern continental shelf of Canada and the United States, 1973-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisagni, James J.

    2016-09-01

    Continental shelf waters located off the east coast of Canada and the United States are part of a long shelf current system that is partly comprised of colder, less-saline waters originating from high latitudes, including waters from the North Atlantic sub-polar gyre, along with ice-melt and freshwater input from local rivers. A 41-year analysis (1973-2013) of near-surface salinity (NSS) using three hydrographic datasets (Bedford Institute of Oceanography "Climate", NOAA/ESDIM, and Canadian Marine Environmental Data Service (MEDS)) allowed an examination of NSS variability within 11 continental shelf sub-regions, extending from the southern Newfoundland Shelf of eastern Canada to the DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf of the United States. Although the periods of record containing sufficient data vary between sub-regions, regional mean NSS values are lowest within the Gulf of St. Lawrence and highest on the DelMarVa/Hatteras shelf, with largest annual variability within the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After removal of outliers, long-term linear trends computed from annual mean NSS were detected along the Newfoundland Shelf (+0.011 y-1), Western Scotian Shelf (-0.007 y-1), Gulf of Maine (-0.014 y-1), Georges Bank (-0.011 y-1), and DelMarVa/Hatteras Shelf (+0.024 y-1). A long-term quadratic fit to annual mean NSS from the Eastern Scotian Shelf displays a salinity increase through 1992 of +0.026 y-1, decreasing thereafter until 2013 by -0.028 y-1. A quadratic fit for the Western Grand Banks displays a NSS increase through 2007 of +0.022 y-1, decreasing thereafter through 2013 by -0.006 y-1. Annual mean NSS from the Eastern Grand Banks, Tail of the Grand Banks, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Middle Atlantic Bight display no long-term trends. Inter-annual variability (IAV) of NSS residuals shows similar small mean squared error (mse) of 0.02-0.04 for the four northern-most sub-regions (Newfoundland Shelf, Eastern, Tail and Western Grand Banks) and are correlated at 0-year lag. IAV of NSS

  16. Description of a Quality Assurance Process for a Surface Wind Database in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro, J.; Beltrami, H.; García-Bustamante, E.; Hidalgo; Jiménez, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Meteorological data of good quality are important for understanding both global and regional climates. The data are subject to different types of measurement errors that can be roughly classified into three groups: random, systematic and rough errors. Random errors are unavoidable and inherent to the very nature of the measurements as instrumental responses to real physical phenomena, as they are an approximate representation of the reality. Systematic errors are produced by instrumental scale shifts and drifts or by some more or less persistent factors that are not taken into account (changes in the sensor, recalibrations or location displacements). Rough errors are associated with sensor malfunction or mismanagement arising during data processing, transmission, reception or storage. It is essential to develop procedures that allow to identify, and correct if possible, the errors in observed series, in order to improve the quality of the data sets and reach solid conclusions in the studies. This work summarizes the evaluation made to date of the quality assurance process of wind speed and direction data acquired over a wide area in Eastern Canada (including the provinces of Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador), a region of the adjacent maritime areas and a region of the north-eastern U.S. (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York and Vermont). The data set consists of 527 stations, it spans the period 1940-2009 and has been compiled from three different sources: a set of 344 land sites obtained from Environment Canada (1940-2009), a subset of 40 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes (1988-2008) provided by Fisheries and Oceans, and a subset of 143 land sites combining both eastern Canada and north-eastern U.S. provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (1975-2007). The data have been compiled and subsequently a set of quality assurance techniques have been applied to

  17. The Effects of Climate and Fire on Peatland Carbon Dynamics in Central and Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, D.; Adams, C.; Westervelt, A.; Bourakovsky, A.; Hamley, C.; Hall, A.; Camill, P.; Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in subarctic peatlands could change significantly in response to high-latitude warming. To examine the sensitivity of peatland carbon storage to changes in regional climate, moisture, and disturbance, we measured carbon accumulation and peat characteristics in cores through the transition from the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM, ~6-4 ka cal. yr. BP) to the Neoglacial cooling (NGC, ~4-0 ka) as possible analogs to future climate change. We sampled six cores from northern Manitoba and seven cores across southeast Labrador, Canada. These regional contrasts permitted analysis of net moisture regimes on carbon accumulation. We used calibrated 14C dates, percent carbon, and bulk density measurements to determine long-term carbon accumulation rates for the Holocene. Areal charcoal concentrations were measured as a proxy for historic fire severity, which may mediate the climate-carbon accumulation relationship. Carbon accumulation rates in Labrador showed a clear increase of 29.6 ± 2.4 g C m-2 yr-1 during the local HTM and a subsequent decrease of 15.9 ± 2.9 g C m-2 yr-1 during the NGC indicating possible influence of regional temperature on carbon dynamics in eastern Canada. In contrast, the Manitoba peatlands did not show a clear relationship between climate and carbon accumulation. Fires were common and severe in Manitoba and often slowed sedimentation rate and C storage, but were rarely present in Labrador. Local variables, including peatland development and fire, may therefore play a larger role in controlling carbon accumulation in the continental interior. The results from these two subaratic regions complicate general hypotheses that high latitude peatlands will be either carbon sinks or sources in the upcoming decades.

  18. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  19. Strawberry vein banding virus isolates in eastern Canada are molecularly divergent from other isolates.

    PubMed

    Dickison, Virginia; MacKenzie, Tyler D B; Singh, Mathuresh; Lawrence, Janice; Nie, Xianzhou

    2017-02-11

    The complete sequence of a strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) isolate collected in Nova Scotia, Canada, and designated NS8, was determined. The 7,856-nucleotide circular double-stranded DNA genome contains seven open-reading frames (ORFs), which is consistent with other SVBV isolates and other members of the genus Caulimovirus. Comparison of NS8 with other whole-genome sequences retrieved from databases revealed that NS8 shares the highest sequence similarity (96.5% identity) with isolate China (accession number HE681085) and the lowest (88.3% identity) with clone pSVBV-E3 (accession number X97304). Despite the overall high sequence similarity between NS8 and China, the coat protein encoding ORF IV of NS8 shares only 90.9% sequence identity with the China isolate. Phylogenetic analysis at the complete-genome level placed NS8 and all Chinese isolates in one clade and clone pSVBV-E3 in a separate clade. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of all available ORF IV sequences, including those retrieved from databases and newly sequenced samples in this study from Canada, revealed three distinct clades. All Canadian isolates grouped together as one clade, pSVBV-E3 and several others from Europe, Egypt and the USA grouped as a second clade, and isolates from China formed a third clade. These results demonstrate that SVBV is more divergent than previously reported.

  20. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  1. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  2. Quantitative constraints on the lithospheric mantle discontinuity structure in eastern Canada from joint analysis of receiver function and surface wave data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, I. W.; Miller, M. S.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous work has suggested that the Archean craton of central and eastern Canada contains a number of relict slabs, frozen in and radiating out from the center. This observation has been used to suggest that the craton's existence is due to the formation and dying out of ancient (~2 Ga) subduction zones at the craton edges in progressive Wilson cycles, leaving a chemically depleted and buoyant slab after each stage. Miller & Eaton (2010) used teleseismic S receiver functions to image a deep (200-260 km) sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and a number of negative polarity shallower, mid-lithospheric discontinuities. However, noise in the data and insufficient sampling from only 8 seismic stations meant that the discontinuities could only be interpreted using comparisons with results based on surface wave and heat flow analyses. To better understand the discontinuity structure across central and eastern Canada, we utilise data from a combination of 32 permanent and temporary broadband stations including those from the HuBLE experiment. From this extended dataset we attempt to constrain evidence for the observed discontinuities more quantitatively by combining both P and S receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocity data in Monte Carlo based joint inversions for shear wave velocity structure. The crustal thickness and velocity is initially constrained by results from active source experiments and stacking of receiver functions. Our Monte Carlo approach allows us to investigate uncertainty in the Vp, density and attenuation parameters on the inferred Vs result and discontinuities, allowing for better constraints on recently reported internal structure of continental lithosphere in both Canada and other cratonic regions.

  3. Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic heat production, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John

    2017-04-01

    Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive heat sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of heat flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic heat production for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model based on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic heat production of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was

  4. Recent turbidity current activity in sediment-starved submarine canyons (Northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bourgault, Daniel; Neumeier, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are known to be main conduits for the transport of sediments to deep-sea basins, mostly by turbidity currents. Turbidity currents flowing in submarine canyons are mostly triggered by hyperpycnal flows, small to large slope failures and advection of shelf sediment offshore. In these contexts, sediment supply is necessary to maintain canyon activity over time. In 2007, a high-resolution mapping of small-scale submarine canyons offshore Pointe-des-Monts (NW Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada) revealed a series of incisions characterized by the presence of numerous confined crescentic bedforms. The repeat mapping of the canyons in 2012 and 2015 revealed that the bedforms migrated upslope, indicating that they are cyclic steps produced by supercritical flows. Surprisingly, the comparison of multibeam surveys did not show any evidence of slope failures that could have triggered the turbidity currents responsible for recent bedform migration. Additionally, the rocky shores and coastal shelf do not supply sediments to these canyons, thus excluding turbidity current triggers such as advection of shelf sediments or hyperpycnal flows. In this context, we suggest that hydrodynamic processes are responsible for suspending in-situ sediments, which then may flow as turbidity currents when density of the water-sediment mixture is high enough. ADCPs deployed for 3,5 months during the summer of 2015 revealed along-canyon currents following tidal cycles with speeds up to 0.4 m/s, which were not strong enough to produce bedform migration. Therefore, the currents responsible for bedforms occur during infrequent events or during winter conditions, which both require longer instrument time-series to be observed.

  5. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  6. Effects of an Experimental Drought on Balsam Fir Xylogenesis in the Eastern Canada Boreal Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orangeville, L.; Côté, B.; Houle, D.; Morin, H.

    2014-12-01

    A 20-40% reduction in soil moisture is projected for the boreal forest of Eastern Canada for the period 2070-99 relative to 1971-2000. In order to better predict the effects of a reduced water supply on the growth of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), a dominant tree species of the boreal forest, we simulated 2 consecutive years of summer droughts (starting in July) by means of throughfall exclusion. Four 100-m2 plots were established in 2010 with polyethylene sheets maintained 1.3-2 m aboveground and redirecting the water outside the plots. Wood microcores were extracted weekly from mature trees from April to October 2011 to analyse the time dynamics of wood formation in that year. The number of tracheids formed during and before treatment and their anatomical characteristics were determined through microscopic analyses. The growth of lateral and terminal branches and the water potential of balsam fir seedlings were also monitored. Throughfall exclusion significantly reduced soil water content by 5.8% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2011. Xylogenesis was affected significantly by the treatment. Tracheids were 16.1% smaller in diameter and their cell wall was 14.1% thicker during both years. The treatment delayed by more than a week the start of the tracheid differentiation process in the second year with a concomitant decrease (26%) in the number of tracheids produced. The seedlings displayed a 32% reduction in growth and a 40% reduction in leaf water potential. Our results suggest that a future regime of increased frequency and intensity of droughts could have nega­tive effects on the duration of xylogenesis and the amount of carbon sequestrated in balsam fir.

  7. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  8. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2013-10-01

    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the

  9. Devonian-Carboniferous tectonics and basin deformation in the Cabot Strait Area, eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, G.S.; Hall, J.

    1994-11-01

    The Magdalen Basin, in the Cabot Strait-Bay St. George area, was a major depocenter for Devonian-Carboniferous sediments in eastern Canada. Structure within the basin is complex and is characterized by northeast- and east-trending, mainly dextral strike-slip faults associated with the bend in the Appalachian orogenic belt known as the St. Lawrence Promontory. Under the Cabot Strait two linear grabens parallel the major fault trends and preserve up to 6 km of Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, comprising mainly coarse-grained terrigenous clastics with a Lower Carboniferous transgressive episode recorded by marine carbonates, evaporites, and fine-grained clastics. Several unconformities within the sedimentary succession record deformation associated with movement along the regional strike-slip faults. Minor local unconformities are interpreted within the upper Horton (early Visean), upper Barachois (late Westphalian), and post-Pennsylvanian successions. A major unconformity cuts out most of the Namurian and Westphalian section in the study area and can be correlated on a regional scale. Kinematic strain partitioning along the master Cabot fault led to the development of doubly vergent compressional structures within a wrench borderland. This was complicated by transpressive deformation at a restraining bend in the master fault, and by deformation associated with over-stepped ends of splays of the regional fault system. The Magdalen Basin probably formed in an early phase of post-Acadian extension, and was later reactivated by regional strike-slip faults. The presence of thick source and reservoir rocks, as well as diverse trapping possibilities and a favorable burial and maturation history, indicate that the Cabot Strait area has good potential for accumulating and preserving petroleum.

  10. The ice storm in eastern Canada 1998 KAMEDO-Report No. 74.

    PubMed

    Riddex, L; Dellgar, U

    2001-01-01

    This is a report of the impact of the ice storm that struck eastern Canada on 04-09 January 1998. The storm deposited ice some 100 mm thick on the ground and on the electric power lines and eventually left 1.4 million households and much of the infrastructure without electrical power. Data were obtained through non-structured interviews of those involved. Most of the larger hospitals were equipped with emergency generating equipment and were able to provide most essential services. For most hospitals, non-emergency services were compromised. Many other medical facilities, including clinics had to be shut down, and smaller hospitals were forced to transfer some patients to larger institutions. In addition, hospitals experienced a marked increase in the number of emergency department visits including an increase in the number of persons with injuries, respiratory tract infections, or heart problems. A marked increase in carbon-monoxide intoxication was observed: 50 persons required the use of hyperbaric oxygen and six persons died of CO poisoning. Prehospital services not only experienced a marked increase in the number of emergency responses, but also were utilized to provide transportation of non-ill or injured persons, equipment, and supplies. Home care was interrupted and many patients dependent upon power had to be transported to hospitals. Many hospitals opened their buildings to provide shelter to the families of many of their employees and medical staff. This helped to keep staffing at a better level than if they had to find shelter and essential services elsewhere. The transmission and sharing of information was severely limited due in part to the loss of power and inability to access television. This led to the distribution of misleading or incorrect information. This storm was exemplary of our dependence upon electrical power and that we are not prepared to cope with the loss of electricity.

  11. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  12. Prevalence and temporal trends of crack injection among injection drug users in eastern central Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Elise; Leclerc, Pascale; Morissette, Carole; Arruda, Nelson; Blanchette, Caty; Blouin, Karine; Alary, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about crack injection and its temporal trends in North America. This article describes the extent of crack injection and examines temporal trends among injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from 2003 to 2010 in the SurvUDI network. IDUs who injected recently (past 6 months) were recruited in harm reduction and health programs in eastern central Canada. Trend analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations. Some IDUs participated multiple times; first interview was retained for the descriptive analyses, while first interview per year was retained for the trend analyses. Of the 4088 IDUs recruited, 15.2% (621) reported crack injection; large variations across sites were noted (range: 0.3-39.5%). Trend analyses were limited to Ottawa (449 crack injectors) and Montréal (121). For Ottawa, a significant decline was observed, from 48.3% to 36.9%, with a prevalence ratio (PR) of 0.97 per year (95% CI: 0.94-0.99). For Montréal, a significant rise was observed, from 6.0% to 18.4%, with a PR of 1.29 per year (95% CI: 1.19-1.40). Strong variations in crack injection exist throughout the SurvUDI network, and reversed temporal trends have been observed in Ottawa and Montréal. These data will be useful to local harm reduction programs to evaluate the need to distribute items required by crack injectors and to develop prevention messages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The History of Occupational Therapy Assistants in Canada: A Comparison with the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvatori, Penny

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the occupational therapy assistant field in Canada and the United States shows rapid growth and development in the latter of formal training, standards, accreditation, regulation, and certification. Canada, in contrast, has no national standards, accreditation, or certification and appears to have resisted professionalization.…

  14. Summertime distribution of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species in the northern high-latitude atmosphere of eastern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Gregory, G. L.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of key reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, PPN, NO3(-), NO(y)), C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, acetone, O3, chemical tracers (C2Cl4, CO), and important meteorological parameters were performed over eastern Canada during July to August 1990 at altitudes between 0 and 6 km as part of an Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE3B). In the free troposphere, PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species constituting a major fraction of NO(y) and was significantly more abundant than NO(x) and HNO3. PAN and O3 were well correlated both in their fine and gross structures. Compared to data previously collected in the Arctic/subarctic atmosphere over Alaska (ABLE3A), the lower troposphere (0-4 km) over eastern Canada was found to contain larger reactive nitrogen and anthropogenic tracer concentrations. At higher altitudes (4-6 km) the atmospheric composition was in many ways similar to what was seen over Alaska and supports the view that a large-scale reservoir of PAN (and NO(y)) is present in the upper troposphere over the entire Arctic/subarctic region. The reactive nitrogen budget based on missions conducted from the North Bay site (missions 2-10) showed a small shortfall, whereas the budget for data collected from the Goose Bay operation (missions 11-19) showed essential balance. It is calculated that 15-20 ppt of the observed NO(x) may find its source from the available PAN reservoir. Meteorological considerations as well as relationships between reactive nitrogen and tracer species suggest that the atmosphere over eastern Canada during summer is greatly influenced by forest fires and transported industrial pollution.

  15. Subtropical air masses over eastern Canada: Their links to extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyakum, John; Wood, Alice; Milrad, Shawn; Atallah, Eyad

    2017-04-01

    We investigate extremely warm, moist air masses with an analysis of 850-hPa equivalent potential temperature (θe) extremes at Montreal, Quebec. The utility of using this metric is that it represents the thermodynamic property of air that ascends during a precipitation event. We produce an analysis of the 40 most extreme cases of positive θe, 10 for each season, based upon standardized anomalies from the 33-year climatology. The analysis shows the cases to be characterized by air masses with distinct subtropical traits for all seasons: reduced static stability, anomalously high precipitable water, and anomalously elevated dynamic tropopause heights. Persistent, slow moving upper- and lower-level features were essential in the build up of high- θe air encompassing much of eastern Canada. The trajectory analysis also showed anticyclonic curvature to all paths in all seasons, implying that the subtropical anticyclone is crucial in the transport of high- θe air. These atmospheric rivers during the winter are characterized by trajectories from the subtropical North Atlantic, and over the Gulf Stream current, northward into Montreal. In contrast, the summer anticyclonic trajectories are primarily continental, traveling from Texas north-northeastward into the Great Lakes, and then eastward into Montreal. The role of the air mass in modulating the strength of a precipitation event is addressed with an analysis of the expression, P = RD, where P is the total precipitation, and R is the precipitation rate, averaged through the duration, D, of the event. Though appearing simple, this expression includes R, (assumed to be same as condensation, with an efficiency of 1), which may be expressed as the product of vertical motion and the change of saturation mixing ratio following a moist adiabat, through the troposphere. This expression for R includes the essential ingredients of lift, air mass temperature, and static stability (implicit in vertical motion). We use this

  16. Subtropical air masses over eastern Canada: Their links to extreme precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyakum, J. R.; Wood, A. L.; Atallah, E.; Milrad, S.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate extremely warm, moist air masses with an analysis of 850-hPa equivalent potential temperature (θe) extremes at Montreal, Quebec. The utility of using this metric is that it represents the thermodynamic property of air that ascends during a precipitation event. We produce an analysis of the 40 most extreme cases of positive θe, 10 for each season, based upon standardized anomalies from the 33-year climatology. The analysis shows the cases to be characterized by air masses with distinct subtropical traits for all seasons: reduced static stability, anomalously high precipitable water, and anomalously elevated dynamic tropopause heights. Persistent, slow moving upper- and lower-level features were essential in the build up of high- θe air encompassing much of eastern Canada. The trajectory analysis also showed anticyclonic curvature to all paths in all seasons, implying that the subtropical anticyclone is crucial in the transport of high- θeair. These atmospheric rivers during the winter are characterized by trajectories from the subtropical North Atlantic, and over the Gulf Stream current, northward into Montreal. In contrast, the summer anticyclonic trajectories are primarily continental, traveling from Texas north-northeastward into the Great Lakes, and then eastward into Montreal. The role of the air mass in modulating the strength of a precipitation event is addressed with an analysis of the expression, P = RD, where P is the total precipitation, and R is the precipitation rate, averaged through the duration, D, of the event. Though appearing simple, this expression includes R, (assumed to be same as condensation, with an efficiency of 1), which may be expressed as the product of vertical motion and the change of saturation mixing ratio following a moist adiabat, through the troposphere. This expression for Rincludes the essential ingredients of lift, air mass temperature, and static stability (implicit in vertical motion). We use this

  17. Trace gas emissions following deposition of excreta by grazing dairy cows in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Pelster, D. E.; Chantigny, M. H.; Angers, D. A.; Liang, C.; Belanger, G.; Ziadi, N.; Charbonneau, E.; Pellerin, D.

    2012-04-01

    The N2O emission factor proposed for cattle excreta N by the Tier I IPCC methodology (EF3) is 2% (IPCC, 2006). While N2O emissions from excreta deposited by grazing animals have been reported in several publications, relatively few estimated EF3 values because measurements did not cover the entire year. This study measured N2O and CH4 flux and crop dry matter (DM) yield over two years (2009 to 2011) from a clay and a sandy loam soil cultivated with Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). A split-plot design was used on each soil type, with different application dates (either spring, summer or autumn application) as main plots and treatment (U-50: urine 50 g N m-2, U-100: urine 100 g N m-2, dung: 60 g N m-2, and control) as the sub-plots. Regardless of application time, annual DM yield increased in all treated plots when compared to the control. Also, DM yields were generally greater when urine as opposed to dung was applied suggesting greater N-availability from the urine application. The CH4 flux from the dung plots increased for only the first two weeks after treatment while the flux from the urine plots was similar to the control plots. Cumulative N2O emissions on the U-50 and U-100 plots increased linearly with urine N rate on both soils, resulting in nearly identical mean emission factors for both urine rates. The emission factor for the urine was three times greater on the clay (1.02% of applied N on both rates) than on the sandy loam soil (0.26% (U100) and 0.31% (U50) of applied N). Cumulative N2O emissions from dung plots also differed between soil types; however the impact of soil type on N2O emissions was opposite to that of urine, with greater losses from the sandy loam (0.15%) compared with the clay soil (0.07%). These results suggest that estimates of soil N2O emissions by grazing cattle in Eastern Canada obtained using the IPCC default methodology are overestimates of actual values and that these estimates for should include a stratification according to

  18. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  19. The Submarine 4-km diameter Corossol Crater, Eastern Canada: Evidence for an impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Michael D.; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Locat, Jacques; Sanfacon, Richard; Duchesne, Mathieu J.

    2014-05-01

    The newly-discovered Corossol Crater lies in the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada; 50°3'N, 66°23'W) and was found in 40-185 metres of water using high-resolution multibeam sonar. It is a 4 km in diameter complex circular structure with a central uplift and concentric rings. Glacial resurfacing indicates that it predates the last phase of glaciation in this area. Dredging on the central uplift recovered many angular clasts of hard grey limestone, which forms the bedrock in much of this area. One 4 cm clast of limestone breccia is somewhat different from the other blocks and has characteristics that suggest that it is an impact breccia. The block comprises fragments of calcite limestone up to 2 mm long. In many parts of the block these fragments have thin black rims. At the edges of the block these rims are brown, presumably reflecting aqueous alteration. Mineral grains in the rims are too small to characterize, but the fact that the ensemble can be oxidized suggests that it contains sulfides. In places the block is cut by veins of fine-grained calcite with euhedral dolomite crystals. The most unusual component is rare droplets up to 2 mm long, commonly fragmented. The droplets comprise a glassy matrix with a composition very close to fluorapatite and opaque crystals that have a composition close to pyrite. A few droplets have up to 5% vesicles. Fluorapatite requires fusion temperatures of about 1600 C, which cannot be achieved at the surface of the Earth by endogenous processes. A single fragmented quartz crystal with planar features was found close to one droplet. Universal stage measurements of the orientation of the planar features give an angle of 42 degrees which is close to that of {10-13} planes. This is the most common set of deformation planes produced during shock metamorphism of quartz. Unfortunately no other grains were found with similar planes. The glassy droplets and shocked quartz together suggest that the clast was produced by an

  20. Comparison of nicarbazin absorption in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S

    2005-09-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat commonly used in the poultry industry, causes reduced hatchability and egg quality in layer hens at a concentration of 125 ppm (8.4 mg/kg) in the feed. Although this effect is undesirable in the poultry industry, NCZ could provide a useful wildlife contraception tool for waterfowl, particularly urban geese. We tested the absorption of NCZ in chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) gavaged with 8.4 mg of NCZ/kg per bird each day for 8 d. Plasma levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) differed significantly among species. Peak plasma DNC levels were 2.87 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, 2.39 +/- 0.15 microg/mL, and 1.53 +/- 0.15 microg/ mL in chickens, mallards, and Canada geese respectively. It took 6 d to obtain peak DNC levels in chickens as opposed to 8 d in mallards and Canada geese. The half life of DNC in plasma was 1.43 d in chickens, 0.72 d in mallards, and 1.26 d in Canada geese. Mallards eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 4 d post-treatment, whereas Canada geese eliminated 100% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Chickens had only eliminated 99% of plasma DNC 8 d post-treatment. Mallard plasma DNC levels were highly correlated with Canada goose plasma DNC levels. This research showed mallards are an ideal model species for the Canada goose for future reproductive studies on NCZ in a laboratory setting. However, levels higher than 8.4 mg/kg must be fed to waterfowl in order to obtain a plasma level comparable to chickens.

  1. Canopy-Forming Seaweeds in Urchin-Dominated Systems in Eastern Canada: Structuring Forces or Simple Prey for Keystone Grazers?

    PubMed Central

    Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed “Desmarestia bed”. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg−1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability

  2. From field to region yield predictions in response to pedo-climatic variations in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JÉGO, G.; Pattey, E.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    to improve regional crop modelling. Although several aspects of the coupling between crop models and RS data have been investigated (e.g., inversion of radiative transfer models and neural networks), extensive verification using multiple years and sites is required prior to implementation of the RS assimilation at the regional scale, in order to evaluate the model robustness and consistency in response to climatic variations. STICS performance was evaluated over several years for spring wheat, soybean and corn yield predictions over two small rainfed agricultural region of Eastern Canada exhibiting a high degree of pedodiversity when LAI derived from EO data was assimilated. Averaged yield predictions of the three crops compared well with measurements (10%

  3. Routine estimate of focal depths for moderate and small earthquakes by modelling regional depth phase sPmP in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S.; Peci, V.; Adams, J.; McCormack, D.

    2003-04-01

    ROUTINE ESTIMATE OF FOCAL DEPTHS FOR MODERATE AND SMALL EARTHQUAKES BY MODELLING REGIONAL DEPTH PHASE sPmP IN EASTERN CANADA Shutian Ma, Veronika Peci, John Adams, and David McCormack(1) (1) National Earthquake Hazards Program, Geological Survey of Canada, 7 Observatory Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0Y3, Canada Shutian Ma (ma@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-947 3520) Veronika Peci (peci@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-995 7100) John Adams (adams@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-995 5519) David McCormack (cormack@seismo.nrcan.gc.ca/613-992 8766) Earthquake focal depths are critical parameters for basic seismological research, seismotectonic study, seismic hazard assessment, and event discrimination. Focal depths for most earthquakes with Mw >= 4.5 can be estimated from teleseismic arrival times of P, pP and sP. For maller earthquakes, focal depths can be stimated from Pg and Sg arrival times recorded at close stations. However, for most earthquakes in eastern Canada, teleseismic signals are too weak and seismograph spacing too sparse for depth estimation. The regional phase sPmP is very sensitive to focal depth, generally well developed at epicentral distances greater than 100 km, and clearly recorded at many stations in eastern Canada for earthquakes with mN >= 2.8. We developed a procedure to estimate focal depth routinely with sPmP. We select vertical waveforms recorded at distances from about 100 to 300 km (using Geotool and SAC2000), generate synthetic waveforms (using reflectivity method) for a typical focal mechanism and for a suitable range of depths, and choose the depth at which the synthetic best matches the selected waveform. The software is easy to operate. For routine work an experienced operator can get a focal depth with waveform modelling within 10 minutes after the waveform is selected, or in a couple of minutes get a rough focal depth from sPmP and Pg or PmP arrival times without waveform modelling. We have confirmed our sPmP modelling results by two comparisons: (1) to depths

  4. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  5. The Gender Wage Gap: A Comparison of Australia and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Data from the 1989 Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey and 1989-90 Australian Income Distribution Survey suggest that a lower rate of return to education and labor market experience and a lower level of wage inequality in Australia are responsible for the smaller gender wage gap in Australia than in Canada. (SK)

  6. Description and key to larvae of Curculio spp. of eastern United States and Canada (coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1985-01-01

    A general description of Curculio larvae is given. Ke y characters are presented to separate 15 of the 16 described species of eastern North America. A brief key for separating Curculio larvae from Conotrachelus and lepidopterous larvae is presented.

  7. Changes in the Style of Neritic Carbonate Production in the Tropics during the End-Ordovician Hirnantian Glaciation : atypical limestone facies from the Anticosti succession, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrochers, A.; Long, D. G. F.; Ghienne, J.-F.

    2012-04-01

    During the End-Ordovician (Hirnantian) glacial maxima, carbonate platforms in the tropics were exposed extensively and their own diverse endemic faunas, displaced to the continental margins, suffered massive extinction. One of the best exposed and most complete stratigraphic records from a paleotropical area spanning the Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary is on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. The Anticosti sequence developed within a far-field Taconic foreland basin along the eastern margin of Laurentia under the influence of high tectonic subsidence and sustained carbonate sediment supply. Our biostratigraphically well-controlled δ13C curves and depth sensitive facies analysis allow us to recognize a distinctive Hirnantian stratigraphic architecture and its related sea level curve at the Milankovitch-cyclicity scales. The sudden appearance of abundant oncolites and calcimicrobial-coral reefs marks the Anticosti succession near the O/S boundary at the same time of a major faunal turnover (conodont, chitinozoan, acritarch, shelly faunas). These microbial limestones, a prominent regional marker unit on Anticosti Island known as the Laframboise Member, formed mainly during the peak interval and falling limb of the main Hirnantian positive isotopic carbon excursion. A comparison with the sequence stratigraphy of Morocco suggests that the Laframboise limestones correspond to the Late Ordovician glacial climax (middle to upper Hirnantian in age), characterised by a continental-scale ice sheet. A comparison between the Laframboise succession and other coeval shallow-water tropical successions in Laurentia, Avalonia, Baltica, Siberia and South China shows that the style of carbonate production changed from one derived largely from various carbonate secreting organisms to one dominated by widespread microbial and/or oolitic production. In contrast to the normal marine shelly faunas of pre- and post- extinction Hirnantian strata, shallow water tropical carbonates appear

  8. (Re)-Introduction to French: Four Education Models to Revitalise an Endangered Group in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy; Jolicoeur, Manon

    2014-01-01

    This study explores early francization models for a linguistic minority currently struggling to preserve its language. The French Acadians of New Brunswick, Canada, represent 30% of the province's total population, yet their numbers and their linguistic vitality are decreasing. New Brunswick has two public school systems: the English language…

  9. (Re)-Introduction to French: Four Education Models to Revitalise an Endangered Group in Eastern Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy; Jolicoeur, Manon

    2014-01-01

    This study explores early francization models for a linguistic minority currently struggling to preserve its language. The French Acadians of New Brunswick, Canada, represent 30% of the province's total population, yet their numbers and their linguistic vitality are decreasing. New Brunswick has two public school systems: the English language…

  10. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Aris, Aziz; Leblanc, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities.

  11. The story of a craton from heart to margins: illuminating cratonic lithosphere with Rayleigh wave phase velocities in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.

  12. Temporal changes in risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion among injection drug users in eastern central Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Elise; Richer, Isabelle; Morissette, Carole; Leclerc, Pascale; Parent, Raymond; Claessens, Christiane; Blanchette, Caty; Alary, Michel

    2011-09-24

    To investigate temporal trends in HIV incidence rates and to assess changes over time in associated risk factors. Since 1995, the SurvUDI network has conducted surveillance among IDUs recruited in harm reduction programmes in eastern central Canada. Among the 11,731 participants, 2903 repeaters were initially HIV-negative. HIV incidence was calculated and compared for two time periods (1995-2002 vs. 2003-2009). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates were used to assess risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Interactions between covariates and time periods were examined. The overall HIV incidence rate was 2.7 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4-3.1]. It significantly decreased from 3.1 per 100 person-years in 1995-2002 to 2.2 person-years in 2003-2009. Sex, needle borrowing, and cocaine as most often injected drug were independent and stable determinants of HIV seroconversion. Age, daily injection, sex work and being recruited in an urban area showed significant interactions with time. Being aged 25 years and older, injecting daily and being recruited in an urban area predicted HIV incidence in 1995-2002 but were no longer risk factors in 2003-2009. HIV incidence increased significantly among younger IDUs and sex work emerged as a new determinant of HIV incidence in 2003-2009. HIV incidence has decreased over time but remains high among IDUs in eastern central Canada. Associations between risk factors and HIV incidence have changed. Further research is needed to better understand HIV transmission among younger IDUs and IDU sex workers.

  13. Regional variation in energy storage strategies in American glass eels from Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Mélanie; Bernatchez, Louis; Tremblay, Réjean; Audet, Céline

    2015-10-01

    Energy status was analyzed in glass eels captured during two early waves of arrival at the mouths of the Mersey River, Nova Scotia, Canada (MR), and Grande-Rivière-Blanche, Québec, Canada (GRB), and according to their salinity preference (freshwater, brackish, or saltwater). Glass eels captured in the GRB estuary were larger, more pigmented, and exhibited higher whole-body glycogen, phospholipid, and sterol and wax ester contents. Those from MR had a higher condition index and a higher whole-body triacylglycerol content, suggesting different patterns of storage and/or use of energy reserves. Within a river, a delay of two weeks in estuarine arrival was characterized by significantly lower energy reserves. No differences in energy storage were observed according to salinity preference. Thus, the results revealed the occurrence of different energy storage strategies according to glass eel migration distance and duration, but not according to salinity preference.

  14. New Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) records with new collection data from New Brunswick and eastern Canada: Tachyporinae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Twenty-three species of Tachyporinae are newly recorded from New Brunswick. This brings the total number of Tachyporinae known from the province to 70. Lordithon campbelli Schülke is newly recorded for Canada and we provide the first documented records of Tachinus addendus Horn and Tachinus frigidus Erichson for New Brunswick. Collection and habitat data are presented and discussed for each species. A list of Tachyporinae species currently known from the province of New Brunswick is presented. PMID:22577318

  15. ESTIMATION OF CRITICAL LOADS OF ACIDITY FOR LAKESIN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP) adopted the Acid Rain Action Plan in June 1998, and issued a series of action items to support its work toward a reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx ) emissions in northeastern North Americ...

  16. ESTIMATION OF CRITICAL LOADS OF ACIDITY FOR LAKESIN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP) adopted the Acid Rain Action Plan in June 1998, and issued a series of action items to support its work toward a reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx ) emissions in northeastern North Americ...

  17. Morphology, petrography, age and origin of Fogo Seamount chain, offshore eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe-Piper, G.; de Jonge, A.; Piper, D. J. W.; Jansa, L. F.

    2003-04-01

    The Fogo Seamounts are located approximately 500 km offshore from Newfoundland to the southwest of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. This complex seamount chain is early Cretaceous in age and is partially buried under later continental slope deposits. It has in the past been ascribed to the passage of a Canary or Azores hot spot. The seamounts are developed along the northeastern transform margin of the Jurassic central Atlantic Ocean. The Narwhal F-99 well was drilled in 1986 on the continental slope into one buried seamount. In this study, we bring together unpublished data on the bathymetry, seismic-reflection character, and distribution of the Fogo Seamounts and interpret new petrographic, geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data from a dredge sample from the central part of the seamount chain and from the Narwhal F-99 well, making comparisons with other offshore volcanic rocks on the eastern Canadian margin. Petrographically, the seamount samples consist of vitrophyric basalt, with clinopyroxene at Narwhal and kaersutite in the dredge sample. Chemically, the samples are olivine basalt with a low Mg number and low concentration of transition metals. Trace element and REE abundances are similar to those of other early Cretaceous volcanic rocks on the southeast Canadian margin. Three petrogenetic types of mafic magma are recognised in the area. The dredge sample is typical OIB rather alkalic basalts and similar to those in other seamount chains. Rocks at Narwhal and Brant have a greater signature of a depleted mantle source (are more tholeiitic). All have Nd isotopes similar to the Newfoundland and New England seamounts. In Orpheus graben to the northwest, there appears to have been greater crustal contamination, either from the crust in the region or from mantle previously enriched in crustal contaminants. The dredge sample gave a 40Ar/39Ar age of 130.3 +/- 1.3 Ma (Hauterivian). A K/Ar age from the Narwhal F-99 well of 127 +/- 6 Ma is inconsistent with

  18. Comparisons of Health Care Systems in the United States, Germany and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ridic, Goran; Gleason, Suzanne; Ridic, Ognjen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to compare health care systems in three highly advanced industrialized countries: The United States of America, Canada and Germany. The first part of the research paper will focus on the description of health care systems in the above-mentioned countries while the second part will analyze, evaluate and compare the three systems regarding equity and efficiency. Finally, an overview of recent changes and proposed future reforms in these countries will be provided as well. We start by providing a general description and comparison of the structure of health care systems in Canada, Germany and the United States. PMID:23678317

  19. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  20. Contrasting reproductive strategies in three deep-sea octocorals from eastern Canada: Primnoa resedaeformis, Keratoisis ornata, and Anthomastus grandiflorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, A.; Hamel, J.-F.

    2011-06-01

    Various aspects of reproduction were studied in three deep-sea octocorals belonging to the order Alcyonacea that co-occur at bathyal depths on the continental edge and the slope of eastern Canada. The main goals were to expand knowledge of deep-water heterotrophic corals and ascertain whether reproductive strategies could explain the known patterns of occurrence. Anthomastus grandiflorus is a gonochoric species with a female-biased sex ratio that exhibits internal fertilization and brooding of planula larvae. Conversely, Primnoa resedaeformis and Keratoisis ornata rely on broadcast spawning and external fertilization; their sexuality remains undetermined as spermatocysts were not found. In P. resedaeformis, the presence of mixed size classes of oocytes in samples from all months, depths, and locations studied suggests continuous oogenesis or overlapping development of oocyte cohorts, indicative of a gametogenic cycle spanning more than a year. No evidence of periodicity was found in this species, although it could have been masked by the striking bathymetric variation in potential relative fecundity (oocytes polyp-1). The two other octocorals displayed a clear annual breeding pattern. Spawning in K. ornata and larval release in A. grandiflorus occurred in late summer and fall, respectively, possibly in response to environmental factors, as supported by shifts in the reproductive peak of A. grandiflorus across latitudes. The three species are presumed to share a nonfeeding larval mode, and data on their reproductive potential do not present any striking disparities. Published data on bycatches and video surveys in Atlantic Canada indicate that the gonochoric brooder A. grandiflorus is more widely distributed than the two free spawners, P. resedaeformis and K. ornata, which is contrary to common dispersal potential paradigms.

  1. The history of occupational therapy assistants in Canada: a comparison with the United States.

    PubMed

    Salvatori, P

    2001-10-01

    In the middle of the twentieth century, the role of occupational therapy assistant was introduced in North America. Although the role, utilization and training of assistant personnel have raised much controversy and debate within the profession, Canada and the United States have taken very different paths in terms of dealing with these issues. This paper focuses on the history of occupational therapy assistants in Canada, using the experience in the United States for comparison purposes. The occupational therapy literature and official documents of the professional associations are used to present a chronology of major historical events in both countries. Similarities and differences emerge in relation to historical roots; training model and standards of education; certification, regulation, and standards of practice; career laddering and career mobility; and professional affiliation. The paper concludes with a summary of issues which require further exploration, debate and resolution if the profession is to move forward in Canada.

  2. Impact of drought and heat events on carbon exchanges in temperate pine forests of different ages in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M. A.; MacKay, S. L.; Khomik, M.; Brodeur, J. J.; Schumacher, J.; Hartmann, H.; Peichl, M.

    2012-04-01

    North American forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle because they offset a large portion of global fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. A substantial fraction of these carbon sequestering forests are located in the north-eastern temperate climate zones, where spring through early summer is the most productive period of the growing season. Therefore, variations in carbon sequestration rates due to environmental constraints during this period may have a profound impact on seasonal and annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of forest ecosystems in the region. Recent studies suggest that, in the future, summer warming and drought events may be shifted to both spring and autumn shoulder seasons and concurrent heat and drought events may exacerbate the negative effects of drought on carbon cycling in these forests. In this study the impact of seasonal and annual climate variability as well as extreme climatic events on gross primary productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (Ec) in an age-sequence (72, 37 and 9 years old) of planted temperate pine (white pine, Pinus strobus L.) forests, north of Lake Erie in southern Ontario, Canada will be examined using eight years (2003-2010) of eddy covariance flux and meteorological data. These sites are known as the Turkey Point Flux Station and had been part of the Canadian Carbon Program (CCP) or the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN. The response of canopy transpiration (Et) and forest growth rates to experimentally reduced precipitation during the early growing season will also be evaluated in the 72-year old forest. A 20 m x 20 m throughfall exclusion setup was established and throughfall was excluded from April 1 to July 3, 2009. During this period 270 mm precipitation (27% of annual total) fell, of which 90% was excluded excluded. Sapflow measurements suggested that Et was 14% less in the drought plot compared to the reference plot

  3. Comparison of avalanche survival patterns in Canada and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Haegeli, Pascal; Falk, Markus; Brugger, Hermann; Etter, Hans-Jürg; Boyd, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Background Current recommendations for rescue and resuscitation of people buried in avalanches are based on Swiss avalanche survival data. We analyzed Canadian survival patterns and compared them with those from Switzerland. Methods We extracted relevant data for survivors and nonsurvivors of complete avalanche burials from Oct. 1, 1980, to Sept. 30, 2005, from Canadian and Swiss databases. We calculated survival curves for Canada with and without trauma-related deaths as well as for different outdoor activities and snow climates. We compared these curves with the Swiss survival curve. Results A total of 301 people in the Canadian database and 946 in the Swiss database met the inclusion criteria. The overall proportion of people who survived did not differ significantly between the two countries (46.2% [139/301] v. 46.9% [444/946]; p = 0.87). Significant differences were observed between the overall survival curves for the two countries (p = 0.001): compared with the Swiss curve, the Canadian curve showed a quicker drop at the early stages of burial and poorer survival associated with prolonged burial. The probability of survival fell quicker with trauma-related deaths and in denser snow climates. Poorer survival probabilities in the Canadian sample were offset by significantly quicker extrication (median duration of burial 18 minutes v. 35 minutes in the Swiss sample; p < 0.001). Interpretation Observed differences in avalanche survival curves between the Canadian and Swiss samples were associated with the prevalence of trauma and differences in snow climate. Although avoidance of avalanches remains paramount for survival, the earlier onset of asphyxia, especially in maritime snow climates, emphasizes the importance of prompt extrication, ideally within 10 minutes. Protective devices against trauma and better clinical skills in organized rescue may further improve survival. PMID:21422139

  4. Three billion years of crustal evolution in eastern Canada: Constraints from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bodin, T.; Menke, W.; Levin, V.

    2016-02-01

    The geological record of SE Canada spans more than 2.5 Ga, making it a natural laboratory for the study of crustal formation and evolution over time. We estimate the crustal thickness, Poisson's ratio, a proxy for bulk crustal composition, and shear velocity (Vs) structure from receiver functions at a network of seismograph stations recently deployed across the Archean Superior Craton, the Proterozoic Grenville, and the Phanerozoic Appalachian provinces. The bulk seismic crustal properties and shear velocity structure reveal a correlation with tectonic provinces of different ages: the post-Archean crust becomes thicker, faster, more heterogeneous, and more compositionally evolved. This secular variation pattern is consistent with a growing consensus that crustal growth efficiency increased at the end of the Archean. A lack of correlation among elevation, Moho topography, and gravity anomalies within the Proterozoic belt is better explained by buoyant mantle support rather than by compositional variations driven by lower crustal metamorphic reactions. A ubiquitous ˜20 km thick high-Vs lower crustal layer is imaged beneath the Proterozoic belt. The strong discontinuity at 20 km may represent the signature of extensional collapse of an orogenic plateau, accommodated by lateral crustal flow. Wide anorthosite massifs inferred to fractionate from a mafic mantle source are abundant in Proterozoic geology and are underlain by high-Vs lower crust and a gradational Moho. Mafic underplating may have provided a source for these intrusions and could have been an important post-Archean process stimulating mafic crustal growth in a vertical sense.

  5. Winter effect on soil microorganisms under different tillage and phosphorus management practices in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yichao; Lalande, Roger; Hamel, Chantal; Ziadi, Noura

    2015-05-01

    Determining how soil microorganisms respond to crop management systems during winter could further our understanding of soil phosphorus (P) transformations. This study assessed the effects of tillage (moldboard plowing or no-till) and P fertilization (0, 17.5, or 35 kg P·ha(-1)) on soil microbial biomass, enzymatic activity, and microbial community structure in winter, in a long-term (18 years) corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation established in 1992 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Soil samples were collected at 2 depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in February 2010 and 2011 after the soybean and the corn growing seasons, respectively. Winter conditions increased the amounts of soil microbial biomasses but reduced the overall enzymatic activity of the soil, as compared with fall levels after corn. P fertilization had a quadratic effect on the amounts of total, bacterial, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi phospholipid fatty acid markers after corn but not after soybean. The soil microbial community following the soybean and the corn crops in winter had a different structure. These findings suggest that winter conditions and crop-year could be important factors affecting the characteristics of the soil microbial community under different tillage and mineral P fertilization.

  6. Historical records of atmospheric metal deposition along the St. Lawrence Valley (eastern Canada) based on peat bog cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratte, Steve; Mucci, Alfonso; Garneau, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    The recent history of atmospheric As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn deposition and the stable Pb isotope signatures were reconstructed from short cores collected at three peat bogs along the St. Lawrence Valley (SLV). The onset of industrial activity was recorded around 1810-1850 AD. As, Cd, Pb and, to a certain extent, Ni deposition rates reached maxima between 1940 and the early 1970s. Trace metals likely originated from coal-burning and ore smelting between 1850 and 1950 AD, and were replaced thereafter, at least in the case of Pb, by the combustion of leaded gasolines until the mid-1980s. Trace metal contents and accumulation rates were greater in the two cores recovered from the southwestern SLV than further northeast, as expected from their proximity to urban and industrial centers of eastern Canada and the U.S. Mid-West and the direction of the prevalent winds. A rapid decrease in metal accumulation rates since the 1970s suggests that mitigation policies were effective in reducing atmospheric metal emissions. Nevertheless, metal accumulation rates and stable Pb isotope signatures have not yet returned to their pre-industrial values.

  7. Declining acidic deposition begins reversal of forest-soil acidification in the northeastern U.S. and eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W.; Shortle, Walter C.; Smith, Kevin T.; Antidormi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO42– deposition of 5.7–76%, over intervals of 8–24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO42– deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with exchangeable Al ratios (P < 0.05) in the O horizon. However, base saturation in the B horizon decreased at one-third of the sites, with no increases. These results are unique in showing that the effects of acidic deposition on North American soils have begun to reverse.

  8. The timing of bud break in warming conditions: variation among seven sympatric conifer species from Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-06-23

    Phenological changes are expected with the ongoing global warming, which could create mismatches in the growth patterns among sympatric species or create synchrony with insect herbivores. In this study, we performed a comparative assessment of the timings of bud break among seven conifer species of Eastern Canada by evaluating seedling development in growth chambers under different temperatures (16, 20 and 24 °C). Bud break occurred earliest in Larix laricina, while Pinus strobus and Pinus resinosa had the latest. Warmer conditions advanced bud break, with the greatest effects being observed at the lower temperatures. Mixed models estimated that one additional degree of temperature produced advancements of 5.3 and 2.1 days at 16 and 20 °C, respectively. The hypothesis of an asynchronous change between species under warming was demonstrated only for the last phenological phases (split buds and exposed shoots), and principally in pines. Abies balsamea showed changes in bud break comparable with the other species analysed, rejecting the hypothesis of mismatches under warmer conditions. The observed non-linear responses of the timings of bud break to warming suggest that the major changes in bud phenology should be expected at the lowest temperatures.

  9. Declining Acidic Deposition Begins Reversal of Forest-Soil Acidification in the Northeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Hazlett, Paul W; Fernandez, Ivan J; Ouimet, Rock; Bailey, Scott W; Shortle, Walter C; Smith, Kevin T; Antidormi, Michael R

    2015-11-17

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been limited, and little is known regarding soil responses to ongoing acidic deposition decreases. In this study, resampling of soils in eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. was done at 27 sites exposed to reductions in wet SO4(2-) deposition of 5.7-76%, over intervals of 8-24 y. Decreases of exchangeable Al in the O horizon and increases in pH in the O and B horizons were seen at most sites. Among all sites, reductions in SO4(2-) deposition were positively correlated with ratios (final sampling/initial sampling) of base saturation (P < 0.01) and negatively correlated with exchangeable Al ratios (P < 0.05) in the O horizon. However, base saturation in the B horizon decreased at one-third of the sites, with no increases. These results are unique in showing that the effects of acidic deposition on North American soils have begun to reverse.

  10. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  11. The timing of bud break in warming conditions: variation among seven sympatric conifer species from Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-06-01

    Phenological changes are expected with the ongoing global warming, which could create mismatches in the growth patterns among sympatric species or create synchrony with insect herbivores. In this study, we performed a comparative assessment of the timings of bud break among seven conifer species of Eastern Canada by evaluating seedling development in growth chambers under different temperatures (16, 20 and 24 °C). Bud break occurred earliest in Larix laricina, while Pinus strobus and Pinus resinosa had the latest. Warmer conditions advanced bud break, with the greatest effects being observed at the lower temperatures. Mixed models estimated that one additional degree of temperature produced advancements of 5.3 and 2.1 days at 16 and 20 °C, respectively. The hypothesis of an asynchronous change between species under warming was demonstrated only for the last phenological phases (split buds and exposed shoots), and principally in pines. Abies balsamea showed changes in bud break comparable with the other species analysed, rejecting the hypothesis of mismatches under warmer conditions. The observed non-linear responses of the timings of bud break to warming suggest that the major changes in bud phenology should be expected at the lowest temperatures.

  12. Refine phosphorus stratification caused by long-term tillage and P fertilisation in maize -soybean rotation in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziadi, Noura; Morel, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The use of conservation tillage for crops production worldwide has increased markedly over recent years. Nutrient distributions under no-till (NT) compared with conventional moldboard tillage (CT) management in the cold, humid region of the eastern Canada need to be assessed for future placement, quantity, and type of fertilizers to efficiently match crop demands. We determined soil-profile distributions of soil total C (TC), total N (TN), and phosphate ions concentration (CP) in soil solution to a depth of 0.4 m after 23 years of continuous CT and NT management at different P fertilization rates on a clay loam soil in eastern Canada cropped with grain maize -soybean rotation. The experimental site was initiated in 1992 in southern Quebec, Canada. In August 2014, soil samples were collected at five profiles: 0 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 20, 20 to 30 and 30 to 40 cm under CT and NT fertilized at three P fertilizations (0 (P0), 17.5 (P0.5), and 35 (P1) kg P ha-1 applied as triple superphosphate on maize at 5 cm depth). To refine CNP stratification analysis for NT-P0 and NT-P1, supplemental soils of the 0-5 cm layer were sampled in P0 and P1 and then cutting into 5 layers of 1 cm. Different patterns for CP in relation to P fertilization under CT and NT were observed at the five profiles. The CP values did not differ significantly within ploughed layer but increased with P fertilization, e.g. 0.031, 0.066, and 0.075 mg P L-1 for P0, P0.5 and P1, respectively. Significant decline was observed in deeper depth beyond the plough. The Cp results in NT-P0 did not differ significantly to those of MP-P0. By contrast, highly significant P stratifications were observed in NT-P0.5 and NT-P1, especially marked in NT-P1 for which the CP value in 0-5 cm layer (0.35 mg P L-1) was 50 times greater than that in 30-40 cm layer (0.007 mg P L-1). To refine the C, N, and P stratifications, supplemental sampling was carried out in the 0-5 cm to cut this layer every 1 cm depth for P0 and P1. Most

  13. Friedreich ataxia in Acadian families from eastern Canada: Clinical diversity with conserved haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, A.; Poirier, J.; Mercier, J.

    1996-09-06

    The gene for Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. The current candidate region of about 150 kb lies between loci FR2 and F8101 near the D9S15/D9S5 linkage group at 9q13-21.1. Linkage homogeneity between classical FRDA and a milder, slowly progressive Acadian variant (FRDA-Acad) has been demonstrated. An extended D9S15-D9S5 haplotype (C6) predominates in FRDA-Acad chromosomes from Louisiana. We studied 10 Acadian families from New Brunswick, Canada. In eight families, affected individuals conformed to the clinical description of FRDA-Acad; in one, 2 sibs presented with spastic ataxia (SPA-Acad). In the last family, 2 sibs had FRDA-Acad, and one had SPA-Acad. We found that SPA-Acad is linked to the FRDA gene region. The C6 haplotype and a second major haplotype (137) were identified. The same ataxia-linked haplotypes segregated with both FRDA-Acad and SPA-Acad in two unrelated families. The parental origins of these haplotypes were different. Our observation of different phenotypes associated with the same combination of haplotypes may point to the influence of the parent of origin on gene expression, indicate the effect of modifier genes, or reflect the presence of different mutations on the same haplotype. Our findings underline the need to investigate families with autosomal-recessive ataxias for linkage to the FRDA region, despite lack of key diagnostic manifestations such as cardiomyopathy or absent deep-tendon reflexes. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Assessing The Value of Hydrological Ensemble Predictions for Rio Tinto Alcan's Hydropower System in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latraverse1, M.; Cote, P.; Larouche1, B.

    2012-04-01

    Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) is a multinational aluminium producer with smelters in Quebec, Canada. RTA also owns and operates power houses on Péribonka and Saguenay Rivers. The system, which is run by RTA's Quebec Power Operations Division, consists of 6 generating stations and 3 major reservoirs, for an installed capacity of 2900 MW. One of the significant issues that had to be resolved for effective operation of this system was to determine the volume of water release per week for all generating stations. Several challenges had to be dealt with before a suitable solution could be found. Last year, RTA started a five year R&D project for improving the management of the hydropower system. This project includes data monitoring, hydrological ensemble prediction (HEP) and stochastic optimization methods. A concomitant presentation (submitted to HS5.7 by Cote et al.) describes the stochastic optimization project that aims to assess the value of using a stochastic solver instead of a deterministic one. Cote et al. evaluated two different stochastic optimization approaches: lag-1 Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) and Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SSDP) algorithms. Both stochastic optimization methods use Hydrological Ensemble Prediction (HEP) to capture the spatio-temporal variability of the inflows. This presentation investigates the value of using different HEP procedures in the operation of RTA's hydropower system with stochastic optimization methods. More precisely, the value of using biased or unbiased HEP, the value of using HEP with a good representation or a misrepresentation of the predictive uncertainties were assessed using a test bench study that mimics real-world RTA's operations. The results indicate that in real world operations, biased HEP or under-dispersed HEP can void the gain obtained by stochastic optimization methods.

  15. Friedreich ataxia in Acadian families from eastern Canada: clinical diversity with conserved haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Poirier, J; Mercier, J; Julien, D; Morgan, K; Roy, M; Gosselin, F; Bouchard, J P; Melançon, S B

    1996-09-06

    The gene for Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. The current candidate region of about 150 kb lies between loci FR2 and F8101 near the D9S15/D9S5 linkage group at 9q13-21.1. Linkage homogeneity between classical FRDA and a milder, slowly progressive Acadian variant (FRDA-Acad) has been demonstrated. An extended D9S15-D9S5 haplotype (C6) predominates in FRDA-Acad chromosomes from Louisiana. We studied 10 Acadian families from New Brunswick, Canada. In eight families, affected individuals conformed to the clinical description of FRDA-Acad; in one, 2 sibs presented with spastic ataxia (SPA-Acad). In the last family, 2 sibs had FRDA-Acad, and one had SPA-Acad. We found that SPA-Acad is linked to the FRDA gene region. The C6 haplotype and a second major haplotype (B7) were identified. The same ataxia-linked haplotypes segregated with both FRDA-Acad and SPA-Acad in two unrelated families. The parental origins of these haplotypes were different. Our observation of different phenotypes associated with the same combination of haplotypes may point to the influence of the parent of origin on gene expression, indicate the effect of modifier genes, or reflect the presence of different mutations on the same haplotypes. Our findings underline the need to investigate families with autosomal-recessive ataxias for linkage to the FRDA region, despite lack of key diagnostic manifestations such as cardiomyopathy or absent deep-tendon reflexes.

  16. Inorganic carbon in a high latitude estuary-fjord system in Canada's eastern Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, D.; Bedard, J. M.; Burt, W. J.; Vagle, S.; Thomas, H.; Azetsu-Scott, K.; McGillis, W. R.; Iverson, S. J.; Wallace, D. W. R.

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly changing conditions in the Arctic can have a significant impact on biogeochemical cycles and can be particularly important in high latitude estuary-fjord systems with abundant and diverse freshwater sources. This study provides a first look into the inorganic carbon system and its relation to freshwater sources in Cumberland Sound in the east coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. These data contribute to the very limited set of inorganic carbon measurements in high latitude estuary-fjord systems. During the ice-free conditions in August 2011, the meteoric freshwater fractions (MW) in the upper 40 m ranged from 11 to 21% and no sea ice melt (SIM) was present in the Sound. Surface waters were undersaturated with pCO2 (260 and 300 μatm), and DIC and TA ranged between 1779 and 1966 μmol DIC kg-1, and 1922 and 2140 μmol TA kg-1, respectively. Aragonite saturation (ΩAr) state ranged from 1.9 in the surface to 1.4 in the subsurface waters. Data show decreasing TA and ΩAr with increasing MW fraction and suggest that Cumberland Sound waters would become aragonite undersaturated (ΩAr < 1) at MW = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.29 to 0.56). Estimated local δ18O (-19.2‰) and TA (174 μmol TA kg-1) end-members indicate MW was most likely a mixture of river water and glacial melt. In August 2012, MW fractions at the surface were between 8 and 11.5%, and SIM between 7 and 23%. Significant interannual variability of summertime SIM could potentially result in ΩAr undersaturation.

  17. The impact of acid rain on the aquatic ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Y.K.G.

    1999-07-01

    In the past environmental management practices have been based on disparate analysis of the impacts of pollutants on selected components of ecosystems. However, holistic analysis of emission reduction strategies is necessary to justify that actions taken to protect the environment would not unduly punish economic growth or vice versa. When environmental management programs are implemented, it would be extremely difficult for the industry to attain the targeted emission reduction in a single year in order to eliminate impacts on ecosystems. It means that targets have to be established as increments or narrowing the gap between the desired level of atmospheric deposition and actual deposition. These targets should also be designed in a way that would balance the impacts on the economy with improvements in environmental quality. Environment Canada in partnership with other organizations has developed an Integrated Assessment Modeling Platform. This platform can identify an emission reduction strategy(ies) that is(are) able to attain the desired environmental protection at a minimum cost to the industry. In this study, an attempt is made to examine the impact on the industry when the level of protection provided to the aquatic ecosystems is implemented using environmental and environmental-economic goals as objectives using Canadian IAM platform. The modeling platform takes into account sources and receptor regions in North America. The results of the analysis indicated that reductions of at least 50% of depositions of SO{sub 2} would require complete removal of emissions from all sources. However, this is not compatible with the paradigm of balancing economy with the environment. Therefore, gradual reductions in emissions as well as depositions were found to be plausible strategy.

  18. Holocene development of maritime ombrotrophic peatlands of the St. Lawrence North Shore in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnan, Gabriel; Garneau, Michelle; Payette, Serge

    2014-07-01

    Macrofossil analyses were used to reconstruct long-term vegetation successions within ombrotrophic peatlands (bogs) from the northern shorelines of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Baie-Comeau) and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Havre-St-Pierre). Over the Holocene, the timing and the ecological context of peatland inception were similar in both regions and were mainly influenced by fluctuations in relative sea level. Peat accumulation started over deltaic sands after the withdrawal of the Goldthwait Sea from 7500 cal yr BP and above silt-clay deposits left by the Laurentian marine transgression after 4200 cal yr BP. In each region, the early vegetation communities were similar within these two edaphic contexts where poor fens with Cyperaceae and eastern larch (Larix laricina) established after land emergence. The rapid transitions to ombrotrophy in the peatlands of Baie-Comeau are associated with particularly high rates of peat accumulation during the early developmental stage. The results suggest that climate was more propitious to Sphagnum growth after land emergence in the Baie-Comeau area. Macrofossil data show that treeless Sphagnum-dominated bogs have persisted over millennia and that fires had few impacts on the vegetation dynamics. This study provides insight into peatland vegetation responses to climate in a poorly documented region of northeastern America.

  19. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.

    2011-01-01

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; however, deposition has been declining since the 1970s, resulting in some recovery in previously acidified aquatic ecosystems. Accurate watershed S mass balances help to evaluate the extent to which atmospheric S deposition is retained within ecosystems, and whether internal cycling sources and biogeochemical processes may be affecting the rate of recovery from decreasing S atmospheric loads. This study evaluated S mass balances for 15 sites with watersheds in southeastern Canada and northeastern US for the period 1985 to 2002. These 15 sites included nine in Canada (Turkey Lakes, ON; Harp Lake, ON; Plastic Lake, ON; Hermine, QC; Lake Laflamme, QC; Lake Clair, QC; Lake Tirasse, QC; Mersey, NS; Moosepit, NS) and six in the US (Arbutus Lake, NY; Biscuit Brook, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Cone Pond, NH; Bear Brook Watershed, ME). Annual S wet deposition inputs were derived from measured bulk or wet-only deposition and stream export was obtained by combining drainage water fluxes with SO42- concentrations. Dry deposition has the greatest uncertainty of any of the mass flux calculations necessary to develop accurate watershed balances, and here we developed a new method to calculate this quantity. We utilized historical information from both the US National Emissions Inventory and the US (CASTNET) and the Canadian (CAPMoN) dry deposition networks to develop a formulation that predicted SO2 concentrations as a function of SO2 emissions, latitude and longitude. The SO2 concentrations were used to predict dry deposition using relationships between concentrations and deposition flux derived from the CASTNET or CAPMoN networks. For the year 2002, we compared the SO2

  20. A comparison of medical physics training and education programs--Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, B M C; Duggan, L; Howlett, S; Clark, B G

    2009-12-01

    An overview and comparison of medical physics clinical training, academic education, and national certification/accreditation of individual professionals in Canada and Australia is presented. Topics discussed include program organization, funding, fees, administration, time requirements, content, program accreditation, and levels of certification/accreditation of individual Medical Physicists. Differences in the training, education, and certification/accreditation approaches between the two countries are highlighted. The possibility of mutual recognition of certified/accredited Medical Physicists is examined.

  1. Gastroschisis outcomes in North America: a comparison of Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Fouad; Cheong, Li Hsia Alicia; Emil, Sherif

    2016-06-01

    Care of infants with gastroschisis is centralized in Canada and noncentralized in the United States. We conducted an outcomes comparison between the two countries and analyzed the determinants of such outcomes. Inpatient mortality and hospital stay of gastroschisis patients from the Canadian Pediatric Surgery Network prospective clinical database for the period 2005-2013 were compared with those from the US Kids Inpatient Database for the period 2003-2012. Potential outcome determinants were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A comparison was made between 695 Canadian patients and 5216 American patients. Complex gastroschisis was found in 16.0% and 13.7% of patients in Canada and the US, respectively; P=0.11. Canada had less premature births, more normal birth weight (BW) infants, less cesarean section deliveries, and more inborn patients compared to the US. For simple gastroschisis, Canadian mortality was lower (1.4% vs. 3.4%; P=.008) and hospital stay was longer (45±38 vs. 41±32days; P=.04). US mortality correlated strongly with low BW (P=.002) and marginally with cesarean section delivery (P=.08). A longer Canadian hospital stay was associated with lower gestational age (P=0.01) and western region (P=0.04), while a longer American hospital stay was associated with medium neonatal intensive care unit gastroschisis volume (P=.03), low socioeconomic status (P=.06), low BW (P=0.06), and public insurance (P=0.07). Outcomes for complex gastroschisis did not differ between Canada and the US. Mortality for simple gastroschisis is higher in the US than in Canada, whereas no outcome differences exist for complex gastroschisis. Outcome determinants are different between the 2 countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methane and carbon dioxide exchange in a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Tracy; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands, in their pristine state, are important long-term sinks of carbon. The extraction of peat for agricultural purposes or for biofuel leads to a shift in the carbon dynamics. Changes in environmental conditions post extraction may also allow for invasive species to establish and spread across the peatland. Many studies have shown the benefits and advantages of various restoration management practices, but few studies have explored the carbon exchange from unrestored peatlands. Our study reports the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from a post-extraction, unrestored peatland in Eastern Québec at both the plant community scale using static chambers, and at the ecosystem scale using an eddy covariance flux tower, over two complete years. Extraction of the Saint-Alexandre-de-Kamouraska peatland (SAK) started in the early 1970's and was halted in 1999. No restoration efforts have been implemented and the remnant ditches remain unblocked. The site consists of sparse patches of Eriophorum and a vast area of bare peat. Consequently, SAK is an overall source of carbon to the atmosphere, releasing an annual total of 153 g C m-2 and 241 g C m-2 in CO2 emissions for 2014 and 2015, respectively, and an average annual total of 1 g C m-2yr-1 in CH4 emissions. Phragmites and Typha, both invasive species, have established themselves in the ditches and are sources of methane; partly explaining the increased emissions in carbon fluxes to the atmosphere post extraction. Results from this study will help managers assess the importance of post-extraction peatland restoration, by comparing the differences in CO2 and CH4 exchange between restored and unrestored peatlands.

  3. Ice sheet load cycling and fluid underpressures in the Eastern Michigan Basin, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, Christopher E.; Provost, Alden M.

    2014-01-01

    Strong fluid underpressures have been detected in Paleozoic strata in the eastern Michigan Basin, with hydraulic heads reaching ~400 m below land surface (~4 MPa underpressure) and ~200 m below sea level in strata where unusually low permeabilities (~10−20–10−23 m2) were measured in situ. Multiple glaciations, including three with as much as 3 km of ice cover at the site in the last 120 ka, suggest a causal link with the underpressures. We examined this possibility using a one-dimensional groundwater flow model incorporating mechanical loading from both ice weight and lithospheric flexure. Because hydrologic and mechanical changes during glaciation are not well characterized and subsurface properties are imperfectly known, the model was used inversely to estimate flexural loads and loosely constrained permeabilities by matching observed pressures. Acceptable matches were obtained for a surprisingly wide range of scenarios with permeabilities close to measured values and plausible flexural loads. Matches were not obtained when too many parameters were preselected, or when permeabilities were constrained to be significantly larger than measured values. In successful model runs groundwater expulsion under glacial-mechanical loads caused the underpressuring, and flexural loads were important if aquifer and sub-glacial pressures were significantly elevated during glaciation. Simulated fluid pressures in the low-permeability strata fluctuated by 30–40 MPa during glacial cycles but resulted in advective transport of only tens of meters or less. Although other mechanisms cannot be ruled out, we conclude that glacial-mechanical forcing of a water-saturated system can explain the observed underpressures.

  4. Assessing Stochastic Optimization for Rio Tinto Alcan's Hydropower System in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, P.; Latraverse, M.; Leconte, R.; Larouche, B.

    2012-04-01

    Rio Tinto Alcan (RTA) is a multinational aluminium producer with smelters in Quebec, Canada. RTA also owns and operates power houses on Péribonka and Saguenay Rivers. The system, which is run by RTA's Quebec Power Operations Division, consists of 6 generating stations and 3 major reservoirs, for an installed capacity of 2900 MW. One of the significant issues that had to be resolved for effective operation of this system was to determine the volume of water release per week for all generating stations. Several challenges had to be dealt with before a suitable solution could be found. Last year, RTA started a five year R&D project for improving the management of the hydropower system. This project includes data monitoring, Hydrological Ensemble Prediction (HEP) and stochastic optimization (SO) methods. Development of SO methods is particularly interesting for RTA since, until now, the decision making process has been based on a deterministic solver even if it is impossible to predict naturally contributed volumes with any accuracy beyond a few days. Moreover, the production at the generating stations follows a non-linear, non-convex function of turbine flow rates and water head. Both of these factors have the effect of requiring that the decision should be based upon solving a non-linear and non-convex stochastic optimization problem. The following presentation describes the first part of the SO project and aims to assess the value of using a stochastic solver instead of a deterministic solver. Two different SO approaches were evaluated: lag-1 Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) and Sampling Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SSDP) algorithms. HEP are used to capture the spatio-temporal variability of the inflows. Scenarios are generated using a hydrological model (HM) by initialising the HM with the same initial conditions (hydrologic state variables). These hydrologic variables are estimated using real-time observations available for the catchment area. Inter

  5. Comparison of (14)C liquid scintillation counting at NIST and NRC Canada.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E; Galea, Raphael; Laureano-Pérez, Lizbeth; Zimmerman, Brian E

    2016-03-01

    An informal bilateral comparison of (14)C liquid scintillation (LS) counting at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been completed. Two solutions, one containing (14)C-labeled sodium benzoate and one containing (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane, were measured at both laboratories. Despite observed LS cocktail instabilities, the two laboratories achieved accord in their standardizations of both solutions. At the conclusion of the comparison, the beta spectrum used for efficiency calculations was identified as inadequate and the data were reanalyzed with different inputs, improving accord. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Comparison of C-14 liquid scintillation counting at NIST and NRC Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Denis E.; Galea, Raphael; Laureano-Pérez, Lizbeth; Zimmerman, Brian E.

    2016-01-01

    An informal bilateral comparison of 14C liquid scintillation (LS) counting at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been completed. Two solutions, one containing 14C-labeled sodium benzoate and one containing 14C-labeled n-hexadecane, were measured at both laboratories. Despite observed LS cocktail instabilities, the two laboratories achieved accord in their standardizations of both solutions. At the conclusion of the comparison, the beta spectrum used for efficiency calculations was identified as inadequate and the data were reanalyzed with different inputs, improving accord. PMID:26585641

  7. Isotopic Clues on Factors Controlling Geochemical Fluxes From Large Watersheds in Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, E.; Helie, J.; Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Gaillardet, J.

    2008-12-01

    A monitoring and monthly sampling program of the Nelson, Ottawa, St. Lawrence, La Grande and Great Whale rivers was started in September 2007. It provides information on the seasonality and sources of geochemical fluxes into the Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic from watersheds covering more than 2.6 106 km2 of the eastern Canadian boreal domain. Measurements of pH and alkalinity, analyses of major ions, strontium and dissolved silica, 2H and 18O of water, concentrations and isotopic properties of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (13C) and uranium (234U/238U) were performed. Lithology more than latitudinal climatic gradients controls the river geochemistry. Rivers draining silicate terrains show lower dissolved U concentrations but greater 234U/238U disequilibria than rivers draining carbonates (average of 1.38 vs. 1.23). Groundwater supplies might exert some control on these U- isotope signatures. No clear seasonality is observed in 234U/238U ratios, but U concentrations are correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in most rivers. Rivers draining carbonates present higher total dissolved carbon concentrations and higher 13C-contents in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in response to the dissolution of soil carbonates. DOC/DIC ratios above 2.4 are observed in rivers draining silicates; their lower 13C-DIC content directly reflects the organic matter oxidation in soils. Total dissolved solids are one order of magnitude or more greater in rivers draining carbonates, showing the strong difference in chemical weathering rates according to the geological setting. The stability in chemical fluxes and water isotopic compositions in the La Grande River, which hosts hydroelectric reservoirs covering more than 12 000 km2, indicates that it is the most buffered hydrological system among the investigated watersheds. Seasonal fluctuations are observed elsewhere, with maximum geochemical fluxes during the spring snowmelt. 2H-18O content of river water

  8. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in Eastern Canada: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mc Geough, E J; Little, S M; Janzen, H H; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a typical nongrazing dairy production system in Eastern Canada. Additionally, as dairying generates both milk and meat, this study assessed several methods of allocating emissions between these coproducts. An LCA was carried out for a simulated farm based on a typical nongrazing dairy production system in Quebec. The LCA was conducted over 6 yr, the typical lifespan of dairy cows in this province. The assessment considered 65 female Holstein calves, of which 60 heifers survived to first calving at 27 mo of age. These animals were subsequently retained for an average of 2.75 lactations. Progeny were also included in the analysis, with bulls and heifers in excess of replacement requirements finished as grain-fed veal (270 kg) at 6.5 mo of age. All cattle were housed indoors and fed forages and grains produced on the same farm. Pre-farm gate GHG emissions and removals were quantified using Holos, a whole-farm software model developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Tier 2 and 3methodologies with modifications for Canadian conditions. The LCA yielded a GHG intensity of 0.92 kg of CO(2) Eq/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk yield. Methane (CH(4)) accounted for 56% of total emissions, with 86% originating from enteric fermentation. Nitrous oxide accounted for 40% of total GHG emissions. Lactating cows contributed 64% of total GHG emissions, whereas calves under 12 mo contributed 10% and veal calves only 3%. Allocation of GHG emissions between meat and milk were assessed as (1) 100% allocation to milk, (2) economics, (3) dairy versus veal animals, and (4) International Dairy Federation equation using feed energy demand for meat and milk production. Comparing emissions from dairy versus veal calves resulted in 97% of the emissions allocated to milk. The lowest allocation of emissions to milk (78

  9. Spatial distribution and viability of Alexandrium tamarense resting cysts in surface sediments from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Stéphanie; Roy, Suzanne; Starr, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 (as defined by Lilly et al., 2007) is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. In August 2008, a major bloom of A. tamarense developed in the SLE and caused major mortality of fish, seabirds and marine mammals notably in the vicinity of a marine park. Eleven months later, surface (0-5 cm) and deeper (5-10 cm) sediments were sampled to determine resting cysts concentrations, locate prospective cyst seedbeds and examine if these had changed following this major bloom. This information is thought to be important to understand inter-annual patterns in algal toxicity, cyst abundance being a good predictor of subsequent bloom magnitude in some regions. Surface cyst distribution was heterogeneous and it confirmed the location of the cyst seedbed previously reported on the north shore near the Manicouagan/aux-Outardes Rivers (>500 cysts cm-3). A zone of cyst accumulation was also observed on the south shore of the SLE (maximum of 1200 cysts cm-3), with higher concentrations relative to previous cyst mapping in the 1980s. A mismatch was observed between the zones with high surface cyst concentrations and those where the highest PSP toxins were detected (used as a proxy for vegetative cells in the water column). Cyst concentrations were negatively correlated with PSP levels from the same sites, suggesting that cysts were formed and deposited away from the major sites of toxicity. Deposition likely took place near the end of the bloom, once it had reached the eastern boundary of the SLE. PSP toxicity was worse near the peak of the bloom, which occurred westward of this region. This highlights the dynamic behaviour of local blooms, influenced by the estuarine and mesoscale circulation. Interestingly, the major bloom of August 2008 was not followed by particularly large cyst deposition or by any major bloom in 2009 in this region. Cyst viability

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999–2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15–19 days earlier on average in the 2080–2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low. PMID:26682889

  11. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on the Timing of the Production Season of Maple Syrup in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Houle, Daniel; Paquette, Alain; Côté, Benoît; Logan, Travis; Power, Hugues; Charron, Isabelle; Duchesne, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup production is an important economic activity in north-eastern North-America. The beginning and length of the production season is linked to daily variation in temperature. There are increasing concerns about the potential impact of climatic change on this industry. Here, we used weekly data of syrup yield for the 1999-2011 period from 121 maple stands in 11 regions of Québec (Canada) to predict how the period of production may be impacted by climate warming. The date at which the production begins is highly variable between years with an average range of 36 days among the regions. However, the average start date for a given region, which ranged from Julian day 65 to 83, was highly predictable (r2 = 0.88) using the average temperature from January to April (TJ-A). A logistic model predicting the weekly presence or absence of production was also developed. Using the inputs of 77 future climate scenarios issued from global models, projections of future production timing were made based on average TJ-A and on the logistic model. The projections of both approaches were in very good agreement and suggest that the sap season will be displaced to occur 15-19 days earlier on average in the 2080-2100 period. The data also show that the displacement in time will not be accompanied by a greater between years variability in the beginning of the season. However, in the southern part of Québec, very short periods of syrup production due to unfavourable conditions in the spring will occur more frequently in the future although their absolute frequencies will remain low.

  13. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia coli Populations in the South Nation River Drainage Basin, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lyautey, Emilie; Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David R.; Wilkes, Graham; Scott, Andrew; Berkers, Tanya; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and diversity of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface waters from multiple watersheds within the South Nation River basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. The basin is composed of mixed but primarily agricultural land uses. From March 2004 to November 2007, a total of 2,004 surface water samples were collected from 24 sampling sites. E. coli densities ranged from undetectable to 1.64 × 105 CFU 100 ml−1 and were correlated with stream order and proximity to livestock production systems. The diversity of 21,307 E. coli isolates was characterized using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR), allowing for the identification of as many as 7,325 distinct genotypes, without capturing all of the diversity. The community was temporally and spatially dominated by a few dominant genotypes (clusters of more than 500 isolates) and several genotypes of intermediary abundance (clustering between 10 and 499 isolates). Simpson diversity indices, assessed on a normalized number of isolates per sample, ranged from 0.050 to 0.668. Simpson indices could be statistically discriminated on the basis of year and stream order, but land use, discharge, weather, and water physical-chemical properties were not statistically important discriminators. The detection of Campylobacter species was associated with statistically lower Simpson indices (greater diversity; P < 0.05). Waterborne E. coli isolates from genotypes of dominant and intermediary abundance were clustered with isolates obtained from fecal samples collected in the study area over the same period, and 90% of the isolates tested proved to share genotypes with fecal isolates. Overall, our data indicated that the densities and distribution of E. coli in these mixed-use watersheds were linked to stream order and livestock-based land uses. Waterborne E. coli populations that were distinct from fecal isolates were detected and, on this basis, were possibly naturalized E. coli strains. PMID

  14. Comparison of hospital pharmacy practice in France and Canada: can different practice perspectives complement each other?

    PubMed

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bussières, Jean-François; Brion, Françoise; Bourdon, Olivier

    2007-10-01

    To compare hospital pharmacy practice in France and Canada by identifying similarities and differences in the two institution's pharmacy activities, resources, drug dispensing processes and responsibilities. Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine (SJ), Montréal, Québec, Canada and Hôpital Robert Debré (RD), Paris, France, are two maternal-child teaching hospitals. They share a similar mission focused on patient care, teaching and research. The data were gathered from annual reports, department strategic plans and by direct observation. The description and comparison of the legal environment, hospital demographics, pharmacy department data, drug dispensing processes and pharmacist activities in the two institutions. The Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine and Hôpital Robert Debré are similar with respect to their mission and general demographics; number of beds, annual hospital expenditures, number of admissions, visits and childbirths. The respective pharmacy departments differ in allocated resources. The main operational differences concern compounding, quality control programs and clinical activities. The French department also manages medical devices, medical gases, blood derivatives and the sterilisation unit. These comparisons highlight the more patient-oriented Canadian hospital pharmacy practice against the more product-oriented French hospital practice Factors contributing to these differences include academic curriculum, the attention paid to the legal environment by professional bodies, staffing patterns and culture. There are differences between the hospital pharmacy practice in the studied hospitals in Canada and France. Hospital pharmacy practice in France seems to be more product oriented, and the practice in Canada seems more patient oriented.

  15. Spatially explicit fire-climate history of the boreal forest-tundra (Eastern Canada) over the last 2000 years.

    PubMed

    Payette, Serge; Filion, Louise; Delwaide, Ann

    2008-07-12

    Across the boreal forest, fire is the main disturbance factor and driver of ecosystem changes. In this study, we reconstructed a long-term, spatially explicit fire history of a forest-tundra region in northeastern Canada. We hypothesized that current occupation of similar topographic and edaphic sites by tundra and forest was the consequence of cumulative regression with time of forest cover due to compounding fire and climate disturbances. All fires were mapped and dated per 100 year intervals over the last 2,000 years using several fire dating techniques. Past fire occurrences and post-fire regeneration at the northern forest limit indicate 70% reduction of forest cover since 1800 yr BP and nearly complete cessation of forest regeneration since 900 yr BP. Regression of forest cover was particularly important between 1500s-1700s and possibly since 900 yr BP. Although fire frequency was very low over the last 100 years, each fire event was followed by drastic removal of spruce cover. Contrary to widespread belief of northward boreal forest expansion due to recent warming, lack of post-fire recovery during the last centuries, in comparison with active tree regeneration more than 1,000 years ago, indicates that the current climate does not favour such expansion.

  16. Changing climate, changing forests: the impacts of climate change on forests of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rustad, Lindsey; Campbell, John; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Huntington, Thomas; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Mohan, Jacqueline; Rodenhouse, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Decades of study on climatic change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems provide important insights for forest science, management, and policy. A synthesis of recent research from the northeastern United States and eastern Canada shows that the climate of the region has become warmer and wetter over the past 100 years and that there are more extreme precipitation events. Greater change is projected in the future. The amount of projected future change depends on the emissions scenarios used. Tree species composition of northeast forests has shifted slowly in response to climate for thousands of years. However, current human-accelerated climate change is much more rapid and it is unclear how forests will respond to large changes in suitable habitat. Projections indicate significant declines in suitable habitat for spruce-fir forests and expansion of suitable habitat for oak-dominated forests. Productivity gains that might result from extended growing seasons and carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization may be offset by productivity losses associated with the disruption of species assemblages and concurrent stresses associated with potential increases in atmospheric deposition of pollutants, forest fragmentation, and nuisance species. Investigations of links to water and nutrient cycling suggest that changes in evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and mineralization rates could result in significant alterations of key ecosystem processes. Climate change affects the distribution and abundance of many wildlife species in the region through changes in habitat, food availability, thermal tolerances, species interactions such as competition, and susceptibility to parasites and disease. Birds are the most studied northeastern taxa. Twenty-seven of the 38 bird species for which we have adequate long-term records have expanded their ranges predominantly in a northward direction. There is some evidence to suggest that novel species, including pests and

  17. Late-Wisconsinan submarine moraines along the north shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    A series of ice-contact submarine fans and morainal banks along the Québec North-Shore of the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada), between the Manicouagan River delta and the Mingan Islands, have been revealed with great detail by recent multibeam echosounder and high-resolution subbottom profiler surveys. These grounding-line landforms are observed between 65 and 190 m water depths and were constructed as the marine-based margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) stabilized or readvanced. Radiocarbon ages obtained from shells sampled in sediment cores collected in glaciomarine deposits 6 km south of a grounding line in the Sept-Iles area indicate a stabilisation that took place around 11 000 14C yr BP (12.5 ka cal BP with a ΔR=120 ± 40 yr). In the Mingan Islands area, organic matter collected in distal deposits of an ice-contact fan is dated at 10 800 14C yr BP (11.6 ka cal BP). The position of the Sept-Iles and Mingan deposits, 20 km south of the ~9.7-9.5 14C kyr BP North-Shore Moraine, suggests that these ice marginal landforms were constructed during the Younger Dryas (YD) cold episode and that they might be the eastward submarine extent of the early YD St. Narcisse morainic system. Superimposed till sheets and morainal banks observed within grounding line deposits indicate that this stability phase was interrupted by local readvances that were marked in some cases by ice streaming. Segments of this morainic system are also visible along the shoreline in some sectors, where they have been generally washed out of fine fragments by waves. Another series of ice-contact deposits and landforms of similar nature observed farther offshore and at greater depths (100-190 m) were formed during a previous phase of stabilisation of the LIS margin. This older morainic system was probably deposited immediately after the opening of the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence.

  18. Identification and dating of a key Late Pleistocene stratigraphic unit in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf (Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Duchesne, Mathieu J.; Gagné, Hubert

    2008-12-01

    A recently acquired ˜8 m-long sediment core along with high-resolution seismic reflection and subbottom profiler sections allowed the identification, characterization and dating of a widespread seismic unit extending from the head of the Laurentian Channel (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary) to Honguedo Strait (Gulf of St. Lawrence), Eastern Canada. This seismic unit (labelled unit 2) is characterized by a series of parallel high-amplitude reflections with thicknesses ranging from 68 m near the head of the Laurentian Channel to <5 m in Honguedo Strait. This seismic unit is generally observed below a very thick sequence of postglacial sediments that can reach >250 m in the St. Lawrence Estuary, leaving it very difficult to be reached by conventional coring operations. Here, we reveal how we were able to trace and core this seismic unit in an area where it lays closer to the seafloor near the southern wall of the Laurentian Channel in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary. This seismic unit consists of two sedimentary facies: sandy mud including ice-rafted debris (IRD) underlying faintly laminated to homogenous and plastic silty clays. Based on the sedimentary facies, we interpret the upper clays as ice-distal glaciomarine sediments and the lower sandier sediments as ice-proximal glaciomarine sediments. This interpretation is further supported by the fact that no seismic nor sediment facies present above seismic unit 2 throughout the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence can be linked to glacial (i.e., ice-contact sediments such as till, moraines, esker, etc) sediments. Seismic unit 2 is highly disturbed by iceberg scouring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence where it is found at shallower depths, indicating that it was deposited during deglaciation. The available AMS 14C dates obtained in the ice-proximal glaciomarine sediments indicate that the lower part of seismic unit 2 was deposited during local re-advances or stillstands of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margins in the Goldthwait Sea that

  19. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region

    PubMed Central

    Vryonides, P.; Haralambous, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2–hmF2) and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:25685433

  20. Comparison of COSMIC measurements with the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Vryonides, P; Haralambous, H

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2007) model over the eastern Mediterranean region with peak ionospheric characteristics (foF2-hmF2) and electron density profiles measured by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites in terms of GPS radio occultation technique and the Cyprus digisonde. In the absence of systematic ionosonde measurements over this area, COSMIC measurements provide an opportunity to perform such a study by considering observations for year 2010 to investigate the behaviour of the IRI-2007 model over the eastern Mediterranean area.

  1. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    PubMed

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  2. Comparison of dosimetric standards of Canada and France for photons at 60Co and higher energies.

    PubMed

    Shortt, K; Ross, C; Seuntjens, J; Delaunay, F; Ostrowsky, A; Gross, P; Leroy, E

    2001-08-01

    We report the results of a comparison of the dosimetric standards of Canada and France for photon beams at 60Co and a few higher energies. The present primary standard of absorbed dose to water for NRC, Canada is based on measurements made with a sealed water calorimeter. The corresponding standard of the LNHB, France is based on measurements made with a graphite calorimeter at 60Co energy and transferred to absorbed dose to water for 60Co and higher-energy photon beams using both ion chambers and Fricke dosemeters as transfer instruments. To make this comparison, we used three graphite-walled NE2571 Farmer chambers. The absorbed dose to water determined by the LNHB was greater than that determined by NRC by 0.20% at 60Co energy. This difference is not significant given the uncertainties on the standards. In order to do the comparison for higher-energy photons, we interpolated the NRC data set at the beam qualities used at the LNHB. When %dd(10)x is used as the method of specifying beam quality, the determination of absorbed dose to water by the LNHB is about 0.2% greater than that determined by NRC and consistent with the results at 60Co. However, when using TPR20,10 as the beam quality specifier, the LNHB determination is greater than the NRC's determination by 0.8% and 1.2% at 12 and 20 MV respectively. This discrepancy, which systematically increases with increasing energy, eventually exceeds the uncertainties in the ratio of the standards, estimated to be 0.7%. This underscores the importance of selecting the method of specifying beam quality, either %dd(10)x or TPR20,10, at least for the 'soft' beams used by NRC in this comparison. In the case of the air kerma standards, which were also compared at 60Co energy, the LNHB determination was greater than NRC's by 0.14%, which is not significant given the uncertainties on the standards.

  3. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  4. Using diatoms to monitor stream biological integrity in Eastern Canada: an overview of 10 years of index development and ongoing challenges.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Campeau, Stéphane; Zugic-Drakulic, Natasa; Winter, Jennifer G; Fortin, Claude

    2014-03-15

    An improved version of the Eastern Canadian Diatom Index (IDEC: Indice Diatomées de l'Est du Canada) was developed, incorporating modifications to optimize diatom-based monitoring in Eastern Canada. The most significant improvement with this version of the IDEC is the extended coverage area including additional reference sites. This new version of the IDEC also incorporated a simplified list of diatom taxa to reduce the variability among analysts as it gains in popularity. Rare taxa (<2%) were excluded and various morphotypes were grouped. The index was created based on three sub-indices that were adapted to cover the range of natural pH and conductivity values allowing us to partial out the strong influence of natural pH and conductivity from the general pollution gradient. The index was created using 648 diatom assemblages including those from nearly 150 reference (or least-disturbed) sites. The reference sites covered a large range of natural characteristics. The diatom assemblages collected in these environments constitute "biotype class A" in each sub-index and represent a realistic goal for restoration. Associated total phosphorus and total nitrogen showed that class A generally reflects conditions that are considered oligotrophic (<0.025 mg L(-1)) or oligo-mesotrophic, while class D at the opposite end of the pollution gradient reflects eutrophic or hyper-eutrophic environments. There is a good correspondence between IDEC values and nutrient criteria, water quality indices based on physico-chemistry measurements, the presence of agricultural activities, and urban areas. The IDEC has a great potential to assist water quality monitoring, particularly when the objective is to assess the trophic status of a watercourse. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A comparison of eastern North American seismic strain-rates to glacial rebound strain-rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.

    1994-01-01

    Glacial rebound strain-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal strain-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed strain-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic strain-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional strain-rates. The predicted glacial rebound strain-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic strain-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound strain-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.

  6. A comparison of eastern North American seismic strain-rates to glacial rebound strain-rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.

    1994-01-01

    Glacial rebound strain-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal strain-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed strain-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic strain-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional strain-rates. The predicted glacial rebound strain-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic strain-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound strain-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.

  7. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  8. Influence of Ohio River Valley Emissions on Fine Particle Sulfate Measured from Aircraft over Large Regions of the Eastern United States and Canada during INTEX-NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sandholm, Scott; Kim, Saewung; Stickel, Robert E.; Huey, L. Gregory; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of fine inorganic aerosol composition were made with a particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to dual ion chromatographs (PILS-IC) as part of the NASA INTEX-NA study. The sampling campaign, which lasted from 1 July to 14 August 2004, centered over the eastern United States and Canada and showed that sulfate was the dominant inorganic species measured. The highest sulfate concentrations were observed at altitudes below 2 km, and back trajectory analyses showed a distinct difference between air masses that had or had not intercepted the Ohio River valley (ORV) region. Air masses encountered below 2 km with a history over the ORV had sulfate concentrations that were higher by a factor of 3.2 and total sulfur (S) concentrations higher by 2.5. The study's highest sulfate concentrations were found in these air masses. The sulfur of the ORV air masses was also more processed with a mean sulfate to total sulfur molar ratio of 0.5 compared to 0.3 in non-ORV measurements. Results from a second, independent trajectory model agreed well with those from the primary analysis. These ORV-influenced air masses were encountered on multiple days and were widely spread across the eastern United States and western Atlantic region.

  9. Influence of Ohio River Valley Emissions on Fine Particle Sulfate Measured from Aircraft over Large Regions of the Eastern United States and Canada during INTEX-NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sandholm, Scott; Kim, Saewung; Stickel, Robert E.; Huey, L. Gregory; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of fine inorganic aerosol composition were made with a particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to dual ion chromatographs (PILS-IC) as part of the NASA INTEX-NA study. The sampling campaign, which lasted from 1 July to 14 August 2004, centered over the eastern United States and Canada and showed that sulfate was the dominant inorganic species measured. The highest sulfate concentrations were observed at altitudes below 2 km, and back trajectory analyses showed a distinct difference between air masses that had or had not intercepted the Ohio River valley (ORV) region. Air masses encountered below 2 km with a history over the ORV had sulfate concentrations that were higher by a factor of 3.2 and total sulfur (S) concentrations higher by 2.5. The study's highest sulfate concentrations were found in these air masses. The sulfur of the ORV air masses was also more processed with a mean sulfate to total sulfur molar ratio of 0.5 compared to 0.3 in non-ORV measurements. Results from a second, independent trajectory model agreed well with those from the primary analysis. These ORV-influenced air masses were encountered on multiple days and were widely spread across the eastern United States and western Atlantic region.

  10. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Gagné, N; Mackinnon, A-M; Boston, L; Souter, B; Cook-Versloot, M; Griffiths, S; Olivier, G

    2007-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from mortalities occurring in populations of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus, brown trout, Salmo trutta, and striped bass, Morone saxatilis, in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The isolated viral strains produced a cytopathic effect on the epithelioma papillosum cyprini cell line. Serum neutralization indicated the virus was VHSV and sequencing identified the rhabdovirus isolates as the North American strain of VHSV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass.

  11. Mercury in the Arctic atmosphere: an analysis of eight years of measurements of GEM at Alert (Canada) and a comparison with observations at Amderma (Russia) and Kuujjuarapik (Canada).

    PubMed

    Steffen, Alexandra; Schroeder, William; Macdonald, Rob; Poissant, Laurier; Konoplev, Alexei

    2005-04-15

    Eight years of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentration measurements from Alert, Nunavut, Canada (between 1995 and 2002) is presented. The annual time series shows a distinct repeating seasonal pattern with an overall annual median concentration for this time period of 1.58 (S.D.=0.04 ng m(-3)). Strong seasonal variation was observed throughout the years with springtime displaying strong variability in the GEM and overall lower median concentrations due to the so-called mercury depletion events (MDEs). Summer concentrations are higher than the annual average and show a decrease in variability. Fall and winter concentrations are distributed around the annual median concentrations and show little variability. The relationship between the springtime depression and the summer increase shows a change in the behaviour of mercury between 1995 and 2002. Preliminary results suggest that during this period an increasing amount of the mercury lost from the atmosphere in the spring is not returned to atmosphere in summer. A comparison of GEM concentration data from three sites--Alert (Canada), Amderma (Russia) and Kuujjuarapik (Canada)--demonstrated similar monthly distribution of GEM between Alert and Amderma, with the latter not showing as high summer concentrations. Monthly distribution of GEM at Kuujjuarapik varied considerably from the other two sites. MDEs were found to occur at each site in the spring yet displayed different characteristics. MDEs appear to start at Alert shortly after polar sunrise but in Amderma their initiation is delayed approximately 2 months following polar sunrise. MDEs occur in Kuujjuarapik in the springtime despite an incomplete development of the polar day-night cycle. In spring, as soon as air temperature attained temperatures consistently above 0 degrees C, MDEs ended immediately at all three sites. Continued studies into MDEs are warranted, but clearly an important component of future studies must focus on the origins of the variation

  12. Health status and health behaviours in neighbourhoods: A comparison of Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kathi; Eyles, John; Ellaway, Anne; Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Health status has been demonstrated to vary by neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, neighbourhood effects may vary between countries. In this study, neighbourhood variations in health outcomes are compared across four socially contrasting neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland and Hamilton, Ontario Canada. Data came from the 2001 wave of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Longitudinal Study and a 2000/2001 cross-sectional survey conducted in Hamilton. The results of the comparison point to important variations in the relationship between neighbourhood SES and health. While both cities display a socioeconomic gradient with respect to various measures of health and health behaviours, for some outcome measures the high SES neighbourhoods in Glasgow display distributions similar to those found in the low SES neighbourhoods in Hamilton. Our results suggest that a low SES neighbourhood in one country may not mean the same for health as a low SES neighbourhood in another country. As such, country context may explain the distribution of health status and health behaviours among socially contrasting neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood variations in health may be context specific. PMID:20022285

  13. Kelp, sea urchins and predators: A review of strong interactions in rocky subtidal systems of Eastern Canada, 1970-1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, K. H.

    Abundance of the sea urchin Stronglocentrotus droebachiensis increased following reduced predation pressure, and dense kelp ( Laminaria and Agarum) beds were overgrazed and destroyed along more than 500 km of coastline in Nova Scotia, Canada. During the same period of time, lobster stocks in this area were reduced to about 10% of their former level. While direct evidence is lacking, indirect evidence suggests very strongly that the population explosion of urchins was triggered by a reduction of lobster stocks below a critical level, and that subsequent destruction of kelp beds caused increased lobster mortality through loss of cover, and reduced production in the food chain supporting lobsters. The whole comprises a positive feedback leading to further decreases in lobster stocks and the present, low-productivity configuration of urchin-dominated barren grounds.

  14. Postpartum haemorrhage in Canada and France: a population-based comparison.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie-Pierre; Basso, Olga; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Dupont, Corinne; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio due to postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is higher in France than in Canada. We explored this difference by comparing PPH features between these two countries. Using data between 2004 and 2006, we compared the incidence, risk factors, causes and use of second-line treatments, of PPH between France (N = 6,660 PPH) and Canada (N = 9,838 PPH). We assessed factors associated with PPH through multivariate logistic models. PPH incidence, overall (4.8% (95% CI 4.7-4.9) in Canada and 4.5% (95% CI 4.4-4.7) in France), and after vaginal delivery (5.3% (95%CI 5.2-5.4) in Canada and 4.8 (95%CI 4.7-4.9) in France), were significantly higher in Canada than in France, but not after caesarean delivery. Women delivering without PPH were similar between the two populations, except for macrosomia (11% in Canada, 7% in France, p<0.001), caesarean delivery (27% in Canada, 18% in France, p<0.001), and episiotomy (17% in Canada, 34% in France, p<0.001). After vaginal delivery, factors strongly associated with PPH were multiple pregnancy, operative delivery and macrosomia in both populations, and episiotomy only in France (Odds Ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.23-1.57)). The use of second-line treatments for PPH management was significantly more frequent in France than in Canada after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. PPH incidence was not higher in France than in Canada and there was no substantial difference in PPH risk factors between the 2 countries. Greater use of second-line treatments in PPH management in France suggests a more frequent failure of first-line treatments and a higher rate of severe PPH, which may be involved in the higher maternal mortality ratio due to PPH.

  15. Modeling sediment and nitrogen export from a rural watershed in eastern Canada using the soil and water assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Nafees Ahmad, Hafiz M; Sinclair, Andrew; Jamieson, Rob; Madani, Ali; Hebb, Dale; Havard, Peter; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K

    2011-01-01

    Watershed simulation models can be used to assess agricultural nonpoint-source pollution and for environmental planning and improvement projects. However, before application of any process-based watershed model, the model performance and reliability must be tested with measured data. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool version 2005 (SWAT2005) was used to model sediment and nitrogen loads from the Thomas Brook Watershed, which drains a 7.84 km rural landscape in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Canada. The Thomas Brook SWAT model was comprised of 28 subbasins and 265 hydrologic response units, most of them containing agricultural land use, which is the main nonpoint nitrogen source in the watershed. Crop rotation schedules were incorporated into the model using field data collected within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices program. Model calibration (2004-2006) and validation (2007-2008) were performed on a monthly basis using continuous stream flow, sediment, and nitrogen export measurements. Model performance was evaluated using the coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) statistics. Study results show that the model performance was satisfactory (NSE > 0.4; > 0.5) for stream flow, sediment, nitrate-nitrogen, and total nitrogen simulations. Annual corn, barley, and wheat yields were also simulated well, with PBIAS values ranging from 0.3 to 7.2%. This evaluation of SWAT demonstrated that the model has the potential to be used as a decision support tool for agricultural watershed management in Nova Scotia. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. A tale of two orogens: Crustal processes in the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson and Grenville Orogens, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Petrescu, L.; Gilligan, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The Precambrian core of North America was assembled in the Proterozoic by a series of collisions between Archean cratons. Among the orogenic belts, two stand out due to their significant spatial extent. The Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) and Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogen extend for thousands of kilometers along strike and hundreds of kilometers across strike. Both have been compared to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibetan Orogen (HKTO). Over the last 20-30 years, active and passive source seismic studies have contributed a wealth of information about the present-day crustal structure and composition of the two orogens in Canada. The Proterozoic orogenic crust is generally thicker than that of neighboring Archean terranes, with a more variable Moho character, ranging from relatively sharp to highly diffuse. Both orogens have a prominent high-velocity lower crustal layer, consistent with long-term preservation of a partially eclogitized root at the base of the crust and similar to that inferred beneath the western HKTO. Crustal structure in the northern THO strongly resembles the lower crustal structure of the HKTO, suggesting that Moho depths may have reached 60-70 km when the orogen was active. A prominent midcrustal discontinuity beneath the central Grenville Province and changes in the patterns of seismic anisotropy in the THO crust beneath Hudson Bay provide geophysical evidence that lower crustal flow likely played a role in the evolution of both orogens, similar to that inferred beneath the present-day HKTO. The seismic evidence from Canada supports the notion of tectonic uniformitarianism, at least as far back as the Paleoproterozoic.

  17. Canine distemper virus-associated encephalitis in free-living lynx (Lynx canadensis) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) of eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Pierre-Yves; McBurney, Scott R; Godson, Dale L; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2009-07-01

    Between 1993 and 1999, encephalitis caused by morbillivirus was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry and histology in six lynx (Lynx canadensis) and one bobcat (Lynx rufus) in the eastern Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Five of the six cases in lynx occurred within an 11-mo period in 1996-97. A second bobcat with encephalitis caused by unidentified protozoa and a nematode larva also had immunohistochemical evidence of neurologic infection by morbillivirus. The virus was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in four of five animals from which frozen tissue samples were available, and it was isolated in cell culture from one of them. To our knowledge, this is the first report of disease caused by CDV in free-living felids in North America.

  18. Petrogenesis of the Elzevir batholith and related trondhjemitic intrusions in the grenville province of eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Moore, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    The Elzevir batholith belongs to a suite of trondhjemitic intrusions emplaced at ca. 1,240 Ma in the Grenville Province of eastern Ontario. New major and trace element data, including REE, combined with isotopic and petrographic data indicate that: 1) the batholith has calc-alkalic affinities; 2) the Elzevir parental magma is very similar to that of dacites in the nearby, coeval metavolcanic rocks; the magma formed by partial melting of crustal material at granulite grade; 3) chemical differences between the plutonic and volcanic rocks can be best explained by accumulation of plagioclase in the plutonic environment; 4) fractionation was dominated by plagioclase and quartz, with lesser biotite and epidote, and minor zircon and apatite. It is suggested that melting of sialic crust took place during the ‘docking’ of a partly-evolved, originally ensimatic arc system against the main cratonic mass to the northwest.

  19. Factors influencing mortality in a captive breeding population of Loggerhead Shrike, Eastern subspecies (Lanius ludovicianus ssp.) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Parmley, E Jane; Pearl, David L; Vogt, Nadine A; Yates, Stephanie; Campbell, G Douglas; Steiner, Jessica; Imlay, Tara L; Hollamby, Simon; Tuininga, Ken; Barker, Ian K

    2015-06-09

    The Loggerhead Shrike, Eastern subspecies (Lanius ludovicianus ssp.) (LOSH) is a predatory songbird native to Eastern North America. It is estimated that there are fewer than 55 breeding pairs of this subspecies in North America. Captive breeding plays a critical role in preventing the extirpation of this subspecies from its Canadian range. Unfortunately, high numbers of unexplained deaths among young birds in the captive breeding population threatened the success of this program. This paper describes fledgling mortality in the captive breeding population, and seeks to identify factors associated with fledgling survival and, ultimately, to identify steps to mitigate fledgling mortality. Over the study period (2006-2011) at two breeding sites, 696 LOSH were fledged. Among these, 68 % (n = 474) were released, 10 % (n = 69) were retained in the captive breeding population, and 22 % (n = 155) died. Fledgling survival declined from 99 % in 2006 to 44 % in 2011. The odds of survival were significantly lower for fledglings that were part of a second clutch. As the number of fledglings in a clutch increased, the odds of surviving increased significantly. As the breeding female aged from one to four years of age, there was a marked increase in the odds of a fledgling surviving, which then subsequently declined as females aged further. Based on our analyses, clutch number (first or second), number of fledglings in the brood, and age of breeding females were significant predictors of fledgling survival. Long-term breeding management decisions will have to balance the need to increase the number of individuals and breeding pairs in the wild by releasing large numbers of young, against the need to maintain a genetically viable captive population, until the wild population is large enough to be self-sustaining.

  20. Emerging pollutants in the North Sea in comparison to Lake Ontario, Canada, data.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Jens Arne; Muir, Derek; Ueno, Daisuke; Darling, Colin; Theobald, Norbert; Bester, Kai

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, the concentrations and fate of contaminants such as organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers, musk compounds such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN), musk ketone and musk xylene, the bactericide triclosan, as well as the metabolites HHCB-lactone and triclosan-methyl were compared in the aqueous phase of the German Bight (North Sea). The concentrations of these compounds were around 1 to 10 ng/L in nearshore areas, and the concentrations were lower in the more pristine areas. The highest concentrations were determined for tris-(2-chloro-isopropyl) phosphate in the North Sea with concentration exceeding 10 ng/L even for the offshore samples. The samples contained 1 to 20 ng/L chlorinated organophosphates, approximately 1 ng/L nonchlorinated organophosphates, and 0.3 to 3 ng/L fragrance compounds. Some samples from Lake Ontario (Canada) were analyzed in comparison. Per capita emissions were calculated for both regions. These emissions were compared and turned out to be very similar for the Canadian and German locations. For the North Sea, some observations concerning stability, dilution, and degradation, as well as sources of the respective substances, were performed. These data indicate that the chlorinated organophosphates and some musk fragrances exhibit half lives exceeding the residence times and thus can be considered to be persistent in this ecosystem. In the German Bight, the river Elbe is the dominating source for the more hydrophilic compounds, such as chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants, which are diluted only into the North Sea. However, for the more lipophilic compounds such as the musk fragrances, different input patterns as well as distribution patterns are relevant, though the river Elbe is still a major source of pollution to the German Bight of the North Sea. The data seem to indicate either relevant inputs further west of the sampling area or mobilization from the sediments.

  1. Surveillance of social and geographic inequalities in housing-related issues: the case of the Eastern Townships, Quebec (Canada).

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Généreux, Mélissa; Laverdière, Emélie; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-05-06

    Even though health inequalities are conditioned by many aspects of the environment, much of the existing research focuses on the social environment. This emphasis has the effect to neglect other environmental aspects such as its physical dimension. The physical environment, which is linked to housing conditions, may contribute to the uneven distribution of health. In this study, we examined 19 housing-related issues among a representative sample of 2,000 adults residing in a Quebec (Canada) health region characterized by a mix of rural, semi-rural, and urban areas. The distribution of these issues was examined according to socioeconomic and geographic indicators of social position. Summary measures of inequalities were assessed. Our results showed that the prevalence of nearly all housing-related issues was higher among low-income households compared to more affluent ones. Highly educated individuals showed better housing conditions, whereas different issues tended to cluster in deprived or densely populated areas. To conclude, we observed steep gradients between social class and poor housing conditions. This may explain a substantial part of health inequality on the regional scale. The surveillance of housing-related issues is therefore essential to properly inform and mobilize local stakeholders and to develop interventions that target vulnerable groups on this level.

  2. Informing Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) with numerical modelling: A case-study on shellfish aquaculture in Malpeque Bay (Eastern Canada).

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Bacher, Cédric; Comeau, Luc A

    2015-11-15

    A moratorium on further bivalve leasing was established in 1999-2000 in Prince Edward Island (Canada). Recently, a marine spatial planning process was initiated explore potential mussel culture expansion in Malpeque Bay. This study focuses on the effects of a projected expansion scenario on productivity of existing leases and available suspended food resources. The aim is to provide a robust scientific assessment using available datasets and three modelling approaches ranging in complexity: (1) a connectivity analysis among culture areas; (2) a scenario analysis of organic seston dynamics based on a simplified biogeochemical model; and (3) a scenario analysis of phytoplankton dynamics based on an ecosystem model. These complementary approaches suggest (1) new leases can affect existing culture both through direct connectivity and through bay-scale effects driven by the overall increase in mussel biomass, and (2) a net reduction of phytoplankton within the bounds of its natural variation in the area. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinically relevant depression in old age: An international study with populations from Canada, Latin America and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Ylli, Alban; Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Phillips, Susan P; Guralnik, Jack; Deshpande, Nandini; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-07-30

    Our aim is to assess cross-national variations in prevalence of clinically relevant depression and to examine the relationships of social and health factors with depression in five diverse populations of older adults, from Canada, Brazil, Colombia and Albania. We used the data from the International Mobility in Aging Study. Clinically relevant depression was defined as a score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D). Poisson regressions with robust covariance correction were used to estimate prevalence ratios associated with potential risk factors. Prevalence of clinically relevant depression across research sites varied widely, being consistently higher in women than in men. It was lowest in men from Brazil (6.3%) and highest in women from Albania (46.6%). Low education and insufficient income, living alone, multiple chronic conditions, and poor physical performance were all significantly associated with depression prevalence. Poor physical performance was more strongly associated with depression in men than in women. Similar factors are associated with clinically relevant depression among men and women and across research sites. The large variation in depression prevalence population rates is unexplained by the classical individual factors considered in the study suggesting the impact of country characteristics on depression among older populations.

  4. Comparison of black-white disparities in preterm birth between Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Britt; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S; Bushnik, Tracey; Sheppard, Amanda J; Kaufman, Jay S

    2016-01-05

    A higher risk of preterm birth among black women than among white women is well established in the United States. We compared differences in preterm birth between non-Hispanic black and white women in Canada and the US, hypothesizing that disparities would be less extreme in Canada given the different historical experiences of black populations and Canada's universal health care system. Using data on singleton live births in Canada and the US for 2004-2006, we estimated crude and adjusted risk ratios and risk differences in preterm birth (< 37 wk) and very preterm birth (< 32 wk) among non-Hispanic black versus non-Hispanic white women in each country. Adjusted models for the US were standardized to the covariate distribution of the Canadian cohort. In Canada, 8.9% and 5.9% of infants born to black and white mothers, respectively, were preterm; the corresponding figures in the US were 12.7% and 8.0%. Crude risk ratios for preterm birth among black women relative to white women were 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.66) in Canada and 1.57 (95% CI 1.56 to 1.58) in the US (p value for heterogeneity [pH] = 0.3). The crude risk differences for preterm birth were 2.94 (95% CI 1.91 to 3.96) in Canada and 4.63 (95% CI 4.56 to 4.70) in the US (pH = 0.003). Adjusted risk ratios for preterm birth (pH = 0.1) were slightly higher in Canada than in the US, whereas adjusted risk differences were similar in both countries. Similar patterns were observed for racial disparities in very preterm birth. Relative disparities in preterm birth and very preterm birth between non-Hispanic black and white women were similar in magnitude in Canada and the US. Absolute disparities were smaller in Canada, which reflects a lower overall risk of preterm birth in Canada than in the US in both black and white populations. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  5. An interactive governance and fish chain approach to fisheries rebuilding: a case study of the Northern Gulf cod in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ahmed; Chuenpagdee, Ratana

    2014-09-01

    Rebuilding collapsed fisheries is a multifaceted problem, requiring a holistic governance approach rather than technical management fixes. Using the Northern Gulf cod case study in eastern Canada, we illustrate how a "fish chain" framework, drawn from the interactive governance perspective, is particularly helpful in analyzing rebuilding challenges. The analysis demonstrates that factors limiting rebuilding exist along the entire fish chain, i.e., the pre-harvest, harvest, and post-harvest stages. These challenges are embedded in both the ecological and social systems associated with the Northern Gulf cod fisheries, as well as in the governing systems. A comparative analysis of the pre- and post-collapse of the cod fisheries also reveals governance opportunities in rebuilding, which lie in policy interventions such as integrated and ecosystem-based management, livelihood transitional programs, and cross-scale institutional arrangements. Lessons from the Northern Gulf cod case study, especially the missed opportunities to explore alternative governing options during the transition, are valuable for rebuilding other collapsed fisheries.

  6. Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Franci, Cynthia D; Guillemette, Magella; Pelletier, Emilien; Chastel, Olivier; Bonnefoi, Salomé; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill caused the death of a large number of seabirds in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. However, the long term consequences of oil exposure on migratory birds overwintering in this area have received limited attention. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of oil contamination (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) on the circulating status of prolactin and corticosterone, two hormones that influence reproductive success in birds, in Northern gannets (Morus bassanus) breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Using light-based geolocators, it was found that 23.5% of Northern gannets from Bonaventure Island overwintered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010-2011; the remainder of this population overwintered along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. PAH concentrations (eight compounds) in gannet blood cells were all found to be under the method limits of quantification, which could be the result of the ability of seabirds to metabolize these compounds and the time elapsed between oil exposure and blood sampling. Corticosterone and prolactin levels as well as body mass did not differ between the two major birds' wintering sites. Moreover, levels of both these hormones did not vary from early to late incubation period. Present results suggest that if Bonaventure Island-breeding Northern gannets had been exposed to oil in the Gulf of Mexico in the aftermath of this historical spill, this exposure could not be associated with changes in hormonal status and body mass in breeding individuals.

  7. Survival Comparison of Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in Canada and the United States: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Anne L; Sykes, Jenna; Stanojevic, Sanja; Quon, Bradley S; Marshall, Bruce C; Petren, Kristofer; Ostrenga, Josh; Fink, Aliza K; Elbert, Alexander; Goss, Christopher H

    2017-04-18

    In 2011, the median age of survival of patients with cystic fibrosis reported in the United States was 36.8 years, compared with 48.5 years in Canada. Direct comparison of survival estimates between national registries is challenging because of inherent differences in methodologies used, data processing techniques, and ascertainment bias. To use a standardized approach to calculate cystic fibrosis survival estimates and to explore differences between Canada and the United States. Population-based study. 42 Canadian cystic fibrosis clinics and 110 U.S. cystic fibrosis care centers. Patients followed in the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (CCFR) and U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) between 1990 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare survival between patients followed in the CCFR (n = 5941) and those in the CFFPR (n = 45 448). Multivariable models were used to adjust for factors known to be associated with survival. Median age of survival in patients with cystic fibrosis increased in both countries between 1990 and 2013; however, in 1995 and 2005, survival in Canada increased at a faster rate than in the United States (P < 0.001). On the basis of contemporary data from 2009 to 2013, the median age of survival in Canada was 10 years greater than in the United States (50.9 vs. 40.6 years, respectively). The adjusted risk for death was 34% lower in Canada than the United States (hazard ratio, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.81]). A greater proportion of patients in Canada received transplants (10.3% vs. 6.5%, respectively [standardized difference, 13.7]). Differences in survival between U.S. and Canadian patients varied according to U.S. patients' insurance status. Ascertainment bias due to missing data or nonrandom loss to follow-up might affect the results. Differences in cystic fibrosis survival between Canada and the United States persisted after adjustment for risk factors associated with survival, except for private

  8. Late Cenozoic sea-level changes and the onset of glaciation: impact on continental slope progradation off eastern Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.J.W.; Normark, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    Late Cenozoic sedimentation from four varied sites on the continental slopes off southeastern Canada has been analysed using high-resolution airgun multichannel seismic profiles, supplemented with some single channel data. Biostratigraphic ties are available to exploratory wells at three of the sites. Uniform, slow accumulation of hemipelagic sediments was locally terminated by the late Miocene sea-level lowering, which is also reflected in changes in foraminiferan faunas on the continental shelf. Data are very limited for the early Pliocene but suggest a return to slow hemipelagic sedimentation. At the beginning of the late Pliocene, there was a change in sedimentation style marked by a several-fold increase in accumulation rates and cutting of slope valleys. This late Pliocene cutting of slope valleys corresponds to the onset of late Cenozoic growth of the Laurentian Fan and the initiation of turbidite sedimentation on the Sohm Abyssal Plain. Although it corresponds to a time of sea-level lowering, the contrast with the late Miocene lowstand indicates that there must also have been a change in sediment delivery to the coastline, perhaps as a result of increased rainfall or development of valley glaciers. High sedimentation rates continued into the early Pleistocene, but the extent of slope dissection by gullies increased. Gully-cutting episodes alternated with sediment-draping episodes. Throughout the southeastern Canadian continental margin, there was a change in sedimentation style in the middle Pleistocene that resulted from extensive ice sheets crossing the continental shelf and delivering coarse sediment directly to the continental slope. ?? 1989.

  9. Comparison of black–white disparities in preterm birth between Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Britt; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Bushnik, Tracey; Sheppard, Amanda J.; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A higher risk of preterm birth among black women than among white women is well established in the United States. We compared differences in preterm birth between non-Hispanic black and white women in Canada and the US, hypothesizing that disparities would be less extreme in Canada given the different historical experiences of black populations and Canada’s universal health care system. Methods: Using data on singleton live births in Canada and the US for 2004–2006, we estimated crude and adjusted risk ratios and risk differences in preterm birth (< 37 wk) and very preterm birth (< 32 wk) among non-Hispanic black versus non-Hispanic white women in each country. Adjusted models for the US were standardized to the covariate distribution of the Canadian cohort. Results: In Canada, 8.9% and 5.9% of infants born to black and white mothers, respectively, were preterm; the corresponding figures in the US were 12.7% and 8.0%. Crude risk ratios for preterm birth among black women relative to white women were 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.66) in Canada and 1.57 (95% CI 1.56 to 1.58) in the US (p value for heterogeneity [pH] = 0.3). The crude risk differences for preterm birth were 2.94 (95% CI 1.91 to 3.96) in Canada and 4.63 (95% CI 4.56 to 4.70) in the US (pH = 0.003). Adjusted risk ratios for preterm birth (pH = 0.1) were slightly higher in Canada than in the US, whereas adjusted risk differences were similar in both countries. Similar patterns were observed for racial disparities in very preterm birth. Interpretation: Relative disparities in preterm birth and very preterm birth between non-Hispanic black and white women were similar in magnitude in Canada and the US. Absolute disparities were smaller in Canada, which reflects a lower overall risk of preterm birth in Canada than in the US in both black and white populations. PMID:26553860

  10. Postpartum Haemorrhage in Canada and France: A Population-Based Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Marie-Pierre; Basso, Olga; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Dupont, Corinne; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective Maternal mortality ratio due to postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is higher in France than in Canada. We explored this difference by comparing PPH features between these two countries. Methods Using data between 2004 and 2006, we compared the incidence, risk factors, causes and use of second-line treatments, of PPH between France (N = 6,660 PPH) and Canada (N = 9,838 PPH). We assessed factors associated with PPH through multivariate logistic models. Results PPH incidence, overall (4.8% (95% CI 4.7–4.9) in Canada and 4.5% (95% CI 4.4–4.7) in France), and after vaginal delivery (5.3% (95%CI 5.2–5.4) in Canada and 4.8 (95%CI 4.7–4.9) in France), were significantly higher in Canada than in France, but not after caesarean delivery. Women delivering without PPH were similar between the two populations, except for macrosomia (11% in Canada, 7% in France, p<0.001), caesarean delivery (27% in Canada, 18% in France, p<0.001), and episiotomy (17% in Canada, 34% in France, p<0.001). After vaginal delivery, factors strongly associated with PPH were multiple pregnancy, operative delivery and macrosomia in both populations, and episiotomy only in France (Odds Ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.23–1.57)). The use of second-line treatments for PPH management was significantly more frequent in France than in Canada after both vaginal and caesarean delivery. Conclusion PPH incidence was not higher in France than in Canada and there was no substantial difference in PPH risk factors between the 2 countries. Greater use of second-line treatments in PPH management in France suggests a more frequent failure of first-line treatments and a higher rate of severe PPH, which may be involved in the higher maternal mortality ratio due to PPH. PMID:23826165

  11. Cross-national comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Brown, Rashida; Nguyen, Quynh C; Loopstra, Rachel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-10-31

    Prior cross-national studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have only compared summary indices of inequality but not specific, policy-relevant dimensions of inequality: (a) shape of the socioeconomic gradient in obesity, (b) magnitude of differentials in obesity across socioeconomic levels and, (c) level of obesity at any given socioeconomic level. We use unique data on two highly comparable societies - U.S. and Canada - to contrast each of these inequality dimensions. Data came from the 2002/2003 Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) for obesity (compared to normal weight) by income quintile and education group separately for both nations and, between Canadians and Americans in the same income or education group. In the U.S., every socioeconomic group except the college educated had significant excess prevalence of obesity. By contrast in Canada, only those with less than high school were worse off, suggesting that the shape of the socioeconomic gradient differs in the two countries. U.S. differentials between socioeconomic levels were also larger than in Canada (e.g., PR quintile 1 compared to quintile 5 was 1.82 in the U.S. [95 % CI: 1.52-2.19] but 1.45 in Canada [95 % CI: 1.10-1.91]). At the lower end of the socioeconomic gradient, obesity was more prevalent in the U.S. than in Canada. Our results suggest there is variation between U.S. and Canada in different dimensions of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. Future research should examine a broader set of nations and test whether specific policies or environmental exposures can explain these differences.

  12. Explaining geographic gradients in winter selection of landscapes by boreal caribou with implications under global changes in Eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Beguin, Julien; McIntire, Eliot J B; Fortin, Daniel; Cumming, Steven G; Raulier, Frédéric; Racine, Pierre; Dussault, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1) climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2) road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3) an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution.

  13. Explaining Geographic Gradients in Winter Selection of Landscapes by Boreal Caribou with Implications under Global Changes in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Beguin, Julien; McIntire, Eliot J. B.; Fortin, Daniel; Cumming, Steven G.; Raulier, Frédéric; Racine, Pierre; Dussault, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1) climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2) road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3) an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution. PMID:24194942

  14. Characteristics of Shear Wave Velocity Structures Beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Eastern Canada from Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, A.; Kao, H.; Cassidy, J. F.; Dosso, S. E.; Spence, G.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous ambient seismic noise waveforms collected from 2005-2008 at 24 broadband stations located in and around the Gulf St. Lawrence (GSL) are processed to derive Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. We conduct both surface wave tomography inversion and trans-dimensional Bayesian inversion to characterize the 3-D shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath the GSL up to 20 km depth. Our results indicate that the entire GSL region can be divided into three broad sections. In the northern GSL, the Grenville Province (i.e., the Proterozoic edge) is dominated by high Vs. However, scattered low Vs structures can be found to correspond to well-known anorthorsite sites. In contrast, the central section corresponds to a weak belt with generally low Vs. The southernmost section of the GSL is characterized by high Vs structures belonging to the Meguma and Avalon terranes. The basement structure at the eastern segment of the Appalachian Structural Front is characterized by relatively low-Vs. Prominent low Vs are found to coincide with locations of most graben structures and sedimentary basins in the GSL. Both the depth of the sedimentary basement and the geometry of major sedimentary basins are well imaged with the thickest sedimentary layer (over 15 km) found near the western edge of the Magdalen basin. At both shallow and mid-crust depths, prominent high Vs are found near the boundaries of the Ordovician-Silurian Anticosti and the Carboniferous Magdalen Basins. The deepest prominent low Vs structures correspond to displaced/deformed Humber zone sediments buried deep beneath Dunnage zone of Newfoundland. High Vs structures with variable thicknesses are found to overlie parts of the Canadian Maritime Basins. These top high Vs structures are generally very thin (<3 km) and can be explained as the manifestation of top volcanic layers in the region.

  15. Does post-fire abiotic habitat filtering create divergent plant communities in black spruce forests of eastern Canada?

    PubMed

    Collier, Laura C Siegwart; Mallik, Azim U

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the role of post-fire residual organic matter (ROM) thickness as a driver of community assembly in eastern Newfoundland. We hypothesized that if post-fire community assembly is predominantly controlled by ROM thickness (an abiotic habitat filter), then post-fire species composition and functional traits should correspond to the depth and distribution of ROM. However, if species interactions (biotic filter) are the primary constraints on community assembly, then post-fire species composition and their functional traits should be independent of the depth and distribution of ROM. We tested these predictions in three relatively mature plant communities, Kalmia angustifolia heath, black spruce (Picea mariana)-Kalmia shrub savannah and black spruce forest. Through pre-fire stand reconstruction, we found evidence that the three communities originated from black spruce forest. ROM thickness in heath was almost twice that of shrub savannah and six times more than forest, suggesting a gradient in fire severity. Distribution of ROM corresponded to patterns in vegetation dominance, where thick ROM (>2 cm) filtered out black spruce in favour of Kalmia. ROM thickness was a strong predictor of vegetation composition and function between heath and forest, but this was not found between the shrub savannah and forest. We attribute this to species interactions and allelopathy, which may have become important when ROM thickness was suitable for both seed (black spruce) and vegetative (Kalmia) regenerating species. Thus, priority effects or "who came first" may have lead to shrub savannah formation when ROM thickness was ~2 cm. We conclude that abiotic habitat filtering of thick ROM (>2 cm) on (primarily) species' regeneration traits was the primary driver of community divergence from forest to heath and shrub savannah.

  16. A comparison of methods used to obtain age ratios of snow and Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Linder, R.L.; Springer, P.F.

    1969-01-01

    The validity of group counts, cannon-net catches, and hunter-bag checks for estimating productivity of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii-parvipes complex) was studied at Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge during the falls of 1965 and 1966. Age ratios of snow geese obtained from net-trapped samples were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than from group counts at the same site. Immature snow geese were shot in a significantly greater (P < 0.01) proportion than they existed in the population as determined by group counts. Cannon-net catches and hunter-bag checks of snow and Canada geese yielded age ratios which were biased because of behavioral characteristics of the geese. Immatures of both species were less wary of trap equipment and immature snow geese were more vulnerable to the gun than adults. It was believed that age ratios from group counts of snow geese were more representative of the population than those from net catches and hunter-bag checks. Sex ratios of net-trapped geese showed a preponderance of males for adult Canada and adult and immature snow geese, whereas females were predominant in the immature segment of Canada geese. Hunter selectivity of blue- or white-phase snow geese was not observed at Sand Lake Refuge. Differential vulnerability to hunting between snow and Canada geese resulted from differences m feeding-flight behavior.

  17. Virulence and antigenic characteristics of a cultured Rickettsiales-like organism isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in eastern Canada.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Markham, R J; Groman, D B; Cusack, R R

    1998-05-14

    The present study describes culture, virulence and antigenic characteristics of a Rickettsiales-like organism (RLO) associated with mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon in eastern Canada. Clinical disease was reproduced in naive Atlantic salmon parr by intraperitoneal i.p. inoculation with kidney homogenate from naturally infected fish. Pure cultures of RLO were isolated into chinook salmon embryo (CHSE) cells from kidney of experimentally infected fish. The RLO caused cytopathic effect in cultured CHSE-214 typified by coalescing areas of swollen cells that eventually detached from the substrate. Bacteria in infected culture supernatants reacted with Piscirickettsia salmonis-specific polyclonal sera or monoclonal antibody (MAb) in an indirect fluorescent antibody test. IP inoculation with cultured RLO resulted in mortalities of 100, 62, 22.5 and 0% in Atlantic salmon, coho salmon, rainbow trout and common carp, respectively. Cultured RLO were sensitive to chloramphenicol, flumequine, oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid and insensitive to gentamicin and amphotericin B. RLO antigens were compared with those of 3 strains of P. salmonis from Chilean salmon by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A silver-staining band of about 12 kDa was detected in proteinase K (PK) digests of all RLO strains, and a diffuse band of about 15 kDa was observed in 2 Chilean strains only. No other silver-stained bands were visible in PK digests of any strain examined. The polyclonal serum recognized 9 protein bands and multiple non-protein bands extending from less than 20 kDa to greater than 95 kDa in all isolates. The MAb reacted with an epitope in PK digests that occurred in all 4 strains on structures of widely ranging molecular masses, resulting in a ladder pattern similar to that obtained with polyclonal serum. Treatment of PK digests with periodic acid abolished reactivity with MAb and polyclonal serum. Co-elution of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate and MAb reactivity following size exclusion

  18. Thyroid function in nestling tree swallows and eastern bluebirds exposed to non-persistent pesticides and p, p'-DDE in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Bishop, Christine A; Martin, Pamela A; Boermans, Herman J; Hunter, Bruce

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the associated effects of pesticides and persistent residues of p,p'-DDE on thyroid function in 16-day-old tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and 12-day-old eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis). Apple orchards sprayed with pesticides in current use and reference sites were chosen for study in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000-2001. We assessed thyroid hormone concentrations (plasma and muscle thyroxine [T4], and triiodothyronine [T3]) and the response to a challenge with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as parameters of thyroid histology. Individual nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five pesticide mixtures. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE in eggs from both species were highest in orchard sites, and ranged from 0.05 to 5.44 mg/kg wet weight for tree swallows, and from 0.17 to 95.4 mg/kg for eastern bluebirds. In 2000, tree swallows from sprayed orchards had elevated plasma T4 concentrations, and thyroid glands with collapsed follicles, hypertrophic epithelia, and higher follicular epithelial cells relative to chicks from reference sites. Plasma T4 concentration was positively correlated with the total number of pesticide mixtures applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. In 2001, basal plasma T3 concentration in tree swallow chicks did not differ between orchard and reference sites, though there were differences among orchards; T3 was positively correlated with total number of individual sprays applied during egg incubation through chick rearing. Tree swallows challenged with TSH showed no significant difference in thyroid hormone concentration or follicular epithelial cell height between exposure groups; however, a significantly greater proportion of chicks from reference sites were found to have thyroids with focal or diffuse hypertrophic epithelia relative to orchard chicks. In 2001, bluebirds from sprayed orchards had significantly higher T3 concentrations in response to TSH

  19. Influence of Benthic Macrofauna as a Spatial Structuring Agent for Juvenile Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf, Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km–all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna. PMID:27649419

  20. Estimating the Curie point depth using aeromagnetic data with a fractal model in the Province of Québec, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Giroux, Bernard; Bouligand, Claire

    2017-04-01

    New technologies that allow geothermal energy production in colder conditions result in interest for geothermal exploration in low heat flux regions that were previously overlooked. The Province of Québec, eastern Canada, is such a case. It is a large and cold area with a low amount of heat flux measurements, and mapping the Curie point depth is appealing as an exploration tool due to the scarcity of the direct data. For that purpose, we have revisited a methodology to estimate the Curie point depth using a fractal source distribution model and aeromagnetic data. Our methodology relies on a statistical model of crustal magnetization having a constant magnetization direction and random magnetization amplitude. The shape of the radial average of the logarithm of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is predicted using this model. The model parameters (thickness and depth to the top of the magnetic layer, the fractal exponent β and the constant C') are obtained by calculating the best fit between the theoretical and observed radial power spectra using a non-linear least-square algorithm. Rather than using a constant value for the fractal exponent β over the whole study area, which would overcorrect the shape of the radially averaged power spectra in some zones, we propose a new calibration workflow based on heat flux measurements and lithology. This workflow includes the use of sequential Gaussian simulations (SGS) of heat flux data to enlarge the limited available dataset. The use of SGS also allows quantifying the uncertainty and the range of the predicted Curie point depths. This work contributes to mapping the Curie point depth at large scale and help identifying potential areas for further detailed exploration programs and potential geothermal energy production in the Province of Québec.

  1. Influence of Benthic Macrofauna as a Spatial Structuring Agent for Juvenile Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) on the Eastern Scotian Shelf, Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Beatriz; Kenchington, Ellen L

    2016-01-01

    We examined the habitat of juvenile haddock on the eastern Scotian Shelf (off Nova Scotia, Canada) in relation to grab-sampled benthic macrofaunal invertebrate species assemblages in order to determine whether there were significant differences in benthic macrofauna between areas of historically persistent high and low juvenile haddock abundance. Our analyses were conducted over two spatial scales in each of two years: among banks (Emerald, Western and Sable Island), approximately 60 km distant from each other, and between areas of high and low juvenile haddock abundance at distances of 10 to 30 km-all in an area that had not experienced groundfishing in the decade prior to sampling. We also examined fine-scale (10s of metres) within-site variability in the macrofauna and used surficial sediment characteristics, along with hydrographic variables, to identify environmental correlates. PERMANOVA identified statistically significant differences in biomass, density and composition of the benthos associated with juvenile haddock abundance; however it was difficult to determine whether the results had biological relevance. Post hoc tests showed that these differences occurred only on Sable Island Bank where both fish and benthos may have been independently responding to sediment type which was most different there (100% sand in the area of low haddock abundance vs. 22% gravel in the area of high haddock abundance). In total, 383 benthic taxa representing 13 phyla were identified. Annelida was the most specious phylum (36.29% of taxa, representing 33 families), followed by Arthropoda (with Crustaceans, mostly Amphipoda, accounting for 25.07% of the total number of taxa). The strongest pattern in the macrofauna was expressed at the largest scale, between banks, accounting for approximately 25% of the variation in the data. Emerald Bank, deeper, warmer and saltier than the Western and Sable Island Banks, had a distinctive fauna.

  2. Role of sediment supply and relative sea-level on sediment delivery to submarine deltas and fans of the Laurentian Channel (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normandeau, Alexandre; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Francus, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Series of submarine canyons and channels observed in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE; Eastern Canada) provide an opportunity to analyze in great detail their morphology, spatial distribution and Holocene activity in a relatively shallow (≤300 m) semi-enclosed basin. Four categories of canyons and channels were identified according to their feeding sources: glacially-fed, river-fed, longshore drift-fed and sediment-starved systems. This presentation will focus on the interaction between glacially-fed, river-fed (deltas) and longshore drift-fed systems. Three main types of deposits were identified in sediment core samples and seismic stratigraphy: turbidites, debrites and hyperpycnites. The analysis of high-resolution multibeam data, seismic profiles and sediment cores reveals the differences in timing of these gravity flow deposits related to submarine fan deposition. Submarine fans related to glacial meltwaters were formed during deglaciation, near 11 ka cal BP. Following the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin in the LSLE, delta progradation allowed the formation of submarine channels by debris and hyperpycnal flows. A reduction of sediment supply from the rivers and a relative sea-level stabilization by 7 ka cal BP then limited the occurrence of these debris and hyperpycnal flows and favoured erosion of the delta fronts. During delta progradation, longshore drift-fed submarine fans were also formed due to high sediment supply, but continued transferring terrigenous material throughout the Holocene. This continued activity was possible because delta fronts eroded and longshore drift transported sediments to the canyons located at the end of a littoral cell. This study highlights that the variability and timing of sediment deposition in submarine deltas and fans is controlled primarily by variations in sediment supply in a formerly glaciated environment.

  3. Adolescent Dating Aggression in Canada and Italy: A Cross-National Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy; Williams, Tricia S.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared rates of dating aggression among 16-year-old adolescents in Canada and Italy, as well as differential associations with dyadic risk factors. 664 Canadians (297 boys, 367 girls) and 578 Italians (315 boys, 263 girls) indicated the frequency of physical aggression towards a romantic partner. They also rated the level of conflict…

  4. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Perchec, Cyrille; Miranda, Dave; Benoit, Amelie; Bariaud, Francoise; Lanz, Margherita; Marta, Elena; Lacourse, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study compares two dimensions of parenting--emotional bonding and control--as perceived by adolescents living in three countries: Canada (province of Quebec), France, and Italy. A cross-sectional sample was composed of 1256 adolescents who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Multiple Correspondence Analyses provided a graphic synthesis of…

  5. Parental Practices in Late Adolescence, a Comparison of Three Countries: Canada, France and Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Bouchard, Celine; Perucchini, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines parental practices in late adolescence in three countries: Canada, France and Italy. Analyses of results indicated that the country of origin discriminated for most of the parental practice dimensions. Results were interpreted in the light of studies that have reported an influence of cultural background on both parental practices and…

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Practices: A Cross-National Comparison of Canada, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Perchec, Cyrille; Miranda, Dave; Benoit, Amelie; Bariaud, Francoise; Lanz, Margherita; Marta, Elena; Lacourse, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study compares two dimensions of parenting--emotional bonding and control--as perceived by adolescents living in three countries: Canada (province of Quebec), France, and Italy. A cross-sectional sample was composed of 1256 adolescents who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Multiple Correspondence Analyses provided a graphic synthesis of…

  7. The bias in self-reported obesity from 1976 to 2005: a Canada-US comparison.

    PubMed

    Connor Gorber, Sarah; Tremblay, Mark S

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the bias in self-reported estimates of obesity has changed over time and followed different patterns in Canada and the United States. Using age-standardized data from three waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the Canadian Heart Health Survey (CHHS) in Canada, discrepancies were compared between reported and measured estimates of height, weight, and obesity (based on the BMI) from 1976 to 2005. Results indicated that obesity increased in both countries, but rates were higher in the United States. The discrepancy between self-reported and measured obesity was small in the United States with reported data underestimating measured prevalence by about 3%; this stayed relatively constant over time. In Canada, the discrepancy was large and doubled in the past decade (from 4 to 8%). In the United States, self-reported data may be more accurate in monitoring changes in obesity over time, as the estimates have consistently remained about 3% below the measured estimates, whereas in Canada, monitoring obesity based solely on self-reported height and weight may produce inaccurate estimates because of the increasing discrepancy between self-reported and measured data.

  8. A Tale of Two Orogens: Comparing Crustal Processes in the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson and Grenville Orogens, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Gilligan, A.; Petrescu, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Precambrian core of North America is an assemblage of Archean cratons and Proterozoic orogenic belts, preserving over 3 billion years of Earth history. Here we focus on two of the largest collisional orogens, using recent and ongoing seismological studies to probe their present-day structure and tectonic history. The 1.8 Ga collision between the Western Churchill and Superior cratons, along with microcontinental and island arc terranes, formed the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), a collisional belt similar in scale and shape to the present-day Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). In the Mesoproterozoic, a series of collisions reworked the SE margin of the Superior craton and added new material over a period of several hundred Ma, culminating in the Grenvillian orogeny and the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. The Grenville Orogen is thought to have been a large, hot, long-lived plateau which subsequently underwent orogenic collapse. While similar in spatial scale, the Trans-Hudson and Grenville Orogens have significantly different tectonic histories, notably in terms of longevity and tectonic evolution. Comparison of these collisional belts with each other, and with the HTKO, provide valuable insights into plate-tectonic history. Recently a number of broadband seismograph installations have allowed a detailed study of present-day crustal structure beneath the THO and the Grenville. Receiver-function and surface wave studies provide information on crustal thickness variations, bulk crustal composition and crustal heterogeneity. The crust beneath the orogens is generally thicker, more mafic and more heterogeneous than that beneath neighbouring Archean and Phanerozoic domains, with significant along-strike variability and Moho complexity. We review and interpret the new crustal structure information in the context of the tectonic processes affecting the two contrasting orogens.

  9. Studying Crust and Upper Mantle Structure in Eastern Canada with High-Resolution Teleseismic Receiver Function Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gao, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Teleseismic receiver function (RF) analysis is an important technique that is widely used in studying the Earth's crust and upper mantle structure. A critical step of this technique is the RF calculation which is an unstable deconvolution procedure. A spline-based RF calculation method is developed, and it is demonstrated that the stacked spline-based RFs have higher resolution than the stacked RFs calculated with the water-level spectral division and iterative deconvolution methods. The better RFs calculated with the spline method lead to improved determination of the optimal Moho depths and Vp/Vs ratios with greater resolution and clarity, albeit compatible optimal Moho depths and Vp/Vs ratios are obtained by employing all three RF calculation methods. In contrast to the iterative deconvolution and water-level spectral division methods, there is less extensive strap of high values on the H-k analysis image and the maximum peak is substantially sharper for the spline method. The broadband seismogram data are acquired at 9 stations of the UQAM / POLARIS Seismograph Network in Quebec in the Superior Province and Greenville Province of the Canadian Shield. Nice PmS converted phase is clearly seen for all the stations. The crustal thickness ranges from 32.5 km to 38.9 km, and the Vp/Vs ratio from 1.68 to 1.83. Several stations show excellent coherent signals of the converted phases on both the radial and tangential RFs over a range of backazimuthal variations. This would indicate evidence for intra-crustal and significant 3D and/or anisotropic structure. More detailed forward and inverse modeling of the lithospheric structure and comparison with other geological and geophysical data and information are in progress.

  10. Aspects of atmospheric pollutant origin and deposition revealed by multielemental observations at a rural location in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, L. A.

    1988-04-01

    During autumn 1984, at a location in central Ontario, a study of the elemental composition of aerosols and precipitation was undertaken to determine the feasibility of making daily multielemental measurements on a routine basin, to probe the potential for gaining insight into pollutant origin from multielemental composition, and to estimate trace element deposition to an acid-sensitive watershed. The concentrations of Ti, Br, Mn, In, Na, V, Al, Ca, Se, As, Sb, Pb, Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, and Cd in aerosol and of Pb, Mg, Ca, As, Br, I, Mn, and V in precipitation were measurable routinely, using neutron activation, X ray fluorescence, and plasma emission spectroscopy. Standard high volume samplers for total aerosols below 15 μm diameter as well as dichotomous samplers and Andersen impactors for size fractionation were operated simultaneously with two wet-only precipitation collectors. Aerosol data revealed four components: one soil (Mg-Ti-Al-Ca-Fe) and three anthropogenic (Se-Sb-Pb-Cd-Br; Mass-Cu-SO4=; In-As). Ranked in order of increasing mass fraction in 2.1- to 10-μm diameter particles are the elements Pb, S, Se, Br, As, Cl, Na, V, In, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Ti, and Ca. A comparison of air parcel origin on high- and low-concentration days, using 3-day back trajectories, revealed major source regions of SO4=, Pb, In, As, and Al. The element In is an excellent tracer of smelter emissions to the north. Although the estimated mean ratio of In/Se in smelter emissions from central Ontario is close to that used in the regional aerosol apportionment model of Rahn and Lowenthal, its variability is greater than they propose. In 21 precipitation events, strong correlations were found between H+-SO4 =, Ca++-Mg++, NO3--NH4+-Cl--V, and Pb-Br. The mass ratio of Br/Pb was higher in precipitation (0.47) than in aerosols (0.27), possibly because of precipitation scavenging of HBr gas in addition to Br in aerosols. In ascending order, the estimated dry-deposited fraction of total deposition of

  11. Morphological Comparison of U3O8 Ore Concentrates from Canada Key Lake and Namibia Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Daniel S.; Tandon, Lav; Martinez, Patrick Thomas

    2016-03-11

    Uranium ore concentrates from two different sources were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ore powders are referred to as Namibia (id. no. 90036, LIMS id. no. 18775) and Canada Key Lake (id. no. 90019, LIMS id. no. 18774). Earlier work identified the ores as the U₃O₈ phase of uranium oxide using x-ray diffraction. Both sets of powders were in the form of dark brown to black powder fines. However, the Canada Key Lake concentrates contained larger chunks of material on the millimeter scale that were easily visible to the unaided eye. The powders were mounted for SEM examination by hand dispersing a small amount onto conductive sticky tape. Two types of applicators were used and compared: a fine-tipped spatula and a foam-tipped applicator. The sticky tape was on a standard SEM “tee” mount, which was tapped to remove loose contamination before being inserted into the SEM.

  12. Comparison of stroke warning sign campaigns in Australia, England, and Canada.

    PubMed

    Trobbiani, Kym; Freeman, Kate; Arango, Manuel; Lalor, Erin; Jenkinson, Damian; Thrift, Amanda G

    2013-10-01

    Public awareness of the signs of stroke is essential to ensure that those affected by stroke arrive at the hospital in time for lifesaving therapies. It is unclear how well stroke awareness campaigns improve awareness of stroke signs and whether people translate this into action. We evaluated stroke awareness campaigns conducted in England, Australia, and Canada using pre- and post-campaign surveys. We assessed the proportion of people who could name the main signs of stroke, and compared the proportion naming these correctly between locations. We also assessed whether people would call emergency services in the event of a stroke. Proportion responding correctly was compared using chi-square analysis. The amount spent on the campaigns was different in each country. The post-campaign survey was conducted among 400 people in Australia, 1921 in England, and 2703 in Canada. Sixty-eight per cent of people in Australia and 57% in Canada could name two or more signs of stroke (P < 0.001). After the campaign, knowledge of each of the elements of the campaign (face, arm, speech, time) was significantly greater in England than in Australia (P < 0.001 for each item). A high proportion of participants reported that they would call emergency services in the event of a stroke (97% in England, 90% in Australia, and 67% in Canada). Knowledge of stroke signs and the action to be taken can be improved with awareness campaigns. The effectiveness of these campaigns may be enhanced by spend on media, media mix, and key messages. It is critical to ensure that campaigns provide the clear and bold message that prompt action is an essential ingredient to reduce death and disability following stroke. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  13. International Defensive Medicine in Neurosurgery: Comparison of Canada, South Africa, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sandra C; Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Roytowski, David; Rutka, James T; Gormley, William B; Smith, Timothy R

    2016-11-01

    Perception of medicolegal risk has been shown to influence defensive medicine behaviors. Canada, South Africa, and the United States have 3 vastly different health care and medicolegal systems. There has been no previous study comparing defensive medicine practices internationally. An online survey was sent to 3672 neurosurgeons across Canada, South Africa, and the United States. The survey included questions on the following domains: surgeon demographics, patient characteristics, physician practice type, surgeon liability profile, defensive behavior-including questions on the frequency of ordering additional imaging, laboratory tests, and consults-and perception of the liability environment. Responses were analyzed, and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the correlation of medicolegal risk environment and defensive behavior. The response rate was 30.3% in the United States (n = 1014), 36.5% in Canada (n = 62), and 41.8% in South Africa (n = 66). Canadian neurosurgeons reported an average annual malpractice premium of $19,110 (standard deviation [SD] = $11,516), compared with $16,262 (SD = $7078) for South African respondents, $75,857 (SD = $50,775) for neurosurgeons from low-risk U.S. states, and $128,181 (SD = $79,355) for those from high-risk U.S. states. Neurosurgeons from South Africa were 2.8 times more likely to engage in defensive behaviors compared with Canadian neurosurgeons, while neurosurgeons from low-risk U.S. states were 2.6 times more likely. Neurosurgeons from high-risk U.S. states were 4.5 times more likely to practice defensively compared with Canadian neurosurgeons. Neurosurgeons from the United States and South Africa are more likely to practice defensively than neurosurgeons from Canada. Perception of medicolegal risk is correlated with reported neurosurgical defensive medicine within these countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparisons of Watershed Sulfur Budgets in Southeast Canada and Northeast US: New Approaches and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; ...

  15. Comparisons of Watershed Sulfur Budgets in Southeast Canada and Northeast US: New Approaches and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; ...

  16. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Methods Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Results Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having ‘some university’ was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. Conclusions and Implications for Practice While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors. PMID:27902741

  17. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  18. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  19. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objectives To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to

  20. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33-1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand

  1. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33-1.59). Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand; however, specific positive safety assets that might

  2. Actors involved in the regulation of clinical research: comparison of Finland to England, Canada, and the USA.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina

    2015-04-07

    The relevance and quantity of clinical research has caused concern and regulation is claimed to hinder clinical research. This paper compares clinical research regulations in Finland to those of England, Canada, and the USA around 2010-2011. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts. For the analysis, a theoretical framework was made, data from various sources was synthesized, and features of the systems were simplified and classified. The various specific names and terms used in the data were changed into general ones. Common structures for the regulation existed in all four countries, but the details and scope varied. The research regulated within the main system was determined by research type (Finland), the financer of the health system (England), or research site (Canada, USA). Only Finland had specific legislation on medical research. The overriding impression of the regulatory systems was one of complexity. All countries had extra regulation for drug research. The types of drug research covered varied from trials with unlicensed (new) products or new indications (USA and Canada), to all types of interventional drug research (England), where 'interventional' was interpreted broadly (Finland). The complexity of regulations had led to the creation of various big and small businesses to help researchers and sponsors. There was notable variation in the role played by the public research funder. The role played by health care was difficult to study and seemed to involve varying interests as researchers were also health care employees. Research ethics committees were important and their tasks also included aspects other than ethics. This study revealed that a comparison between countries can provide useful insights into the distinctive aspects of each country's system, as well as identifying common features that require international action.

  3. Comparison of pharmacist knowledge, perceptions and training opportunities regarding maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Qatar and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Serena; Kitutu, Freddy E.; Rahhal, Ala’a; Abu Samaha, Rana; Wilby, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although pharmacists have great potential to modify and optimize drug therapy in pregnancy and lactation, current literature demonstrates that they do not routinely provide this care and often feel ill equipped to do so. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists’ knowledge and perceptions of maternal-fetal medicine in Canada, Uganda and Qatar. Secondary objectives were to determine factors associated with pharmacists’ knowledge and to characterize training opportunities and resources available to practising pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using online software (SurveyMonkey) was sent to the e-mails of potential research participants. Practising pharmacists and resident pharmacists in British Columbia, Canada; the country of Qatar; and the country of Uganda were eligible for inclusion. The survey was designed to assess knowledge and perceptions, and to create a baseline inventory of current practice and information resources used in practice. Results: The mean knowledge assessment scores of pharmacists in Canada, Qatar and Uganda were 62.9%, 53.3%, and 57.7%, respectively (p < 0.05). Pharmacists in British Columbia scored higher on knowledge assessment than pharmacists in Qatar (p < 0.05), but other country comparisons were not significant. No predefined factors (gender, years of experience, practice area or parental status) were found to be significant in determining the knowledge score. More than two-thirds of pharmacists expressed interest in participating in continuing education opportunities in maternal-fetal medicine. Conclusion: Pharmacists have differing levels of knowledge in the area of maternal-fetal medicine. Continuing education and degree curricula should be reviewed and developed to fill the knowledge gaps of student pharmacists and practising pharmacists in maternal-fetal medicine. PMID:25364351

  4. Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: Does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. The authors studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant.

  5. Evaluating effects of climate variability, extreme weather events and thinning on carbon and water exchanges in managed temperate forests in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M.; Brodeur, J. J.; Trant, J.; Thorne, R.; Peichl, M.; Kula, M.; Parsaud, A.; Khader, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this study the impact of climate variability and extreme weather events on gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE), net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and evapotranspiration (E) is evaluated in an age-sequence (74-, 39- and 11-years old) of temperate pine (Pinus strobus L.) forests, north of Lake Erie in southern Ontario, Canada using ten years (2003-2012) of eddy covariance flux and meteorological data. Fluxes from conifer stands are also compared with measurements made in an 80-year-old deciduous (Carolinian) forest, established in 2012. All four sites are managed forests and part of the Turkey Point Flux Station and global Fluxnet. Ten-year mean NEP values were 169 (75 to 312), 371 (305 to 456, over 2008-2012) and 141 (-10 to 420) g C/m2/year in the 74-, 39-, and 11-year-old stand, respectively, while mean NEP in the 80-year-old deciduous stand was 286 g C/m2/year in 2012. This region is affected by low frequency climate oscillations, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The study period experienced four distinct extreme weather patterns: warm and dry springs in 2005 and 2012, extremely wet and warm summer in 2006, a summer drought in 2007 and warm summers in 2010 and 2012. In February-March 2012, the 74-year-old stand was selectively thinned and approximately 30% of trees were removed to improve light and water availability and stimulate growth of remaining trees. Thinning and warm/dry spring reduced NEP in the first post-thinning year, with mean annual NEP of 75 g C/m2/year in 2012. Increased supply of dead organic matter and warm temperatures in 2012 increased RE much more than GEP, resulting in lower annual NEP. Heat stress and drought in spring of 2005 reduced NEP of the 74-year stand to 78 g C/m2/year. The impact of this extreme weather event on NEP was similar to that observed in 2012 when stand experienced a drastic structural change, dry spring and warm temperatures throughout the

  6. Rift flank uplift and thermal evolution of an intracratonic rift basin (eastern Canada) determined by combined apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Rebecca; Schneider, David; Metcalf, James; Flowers, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    As a significant portion of the world's oil reserves are retrieved from rift systems, a better understanding of the timing of thermal evolution and burial history of these systems will increase the potential for the discovery of hydrocarbon-bearing rifts. The Ottawa Embayment of the St. Lawrence Platform of eastern Canada is a reactivated intracratonic rift basin related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean at ca. 620-570 Ma, followed by the formation of the well-developed continental passive margin. Siliciclastic sediments derived from the adjacent uplifted Neoproterozoic Grenville basement provide the basin fill material. Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology allows for low-temperature analysis across the exposed crystalline rift flank into the synrift sedimentary sequence to resolve the unroofing, burial and subsidence history of the region. Samples were collected along a ~250 km NE-SW transect, oblique to the axis of the rift, from Mont-Tremblant, Québec (~900 m) to the central axis of the Paleozoic rift in the Southern Ontario Lowlands (~300 m). Targets included Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province along the rift flank and basinal Cambro-Ordovician Potsdam Group. Samples from the rift flank yield zircon ages from ca. 650 Ma to ca. 560 Ma and apatite ages from ca. 290 Ma to ca. 190 Ma, with a weak positive correlation between age and grain size. Zircon ages demonstrate a strong negative correlation with radiation damage: as eU increases, age decreases. By incorporating (U-Th)/He ages with regional constraints in the thermal modelling program HeFTy, viable temperature time paths for the region can be determined. Through inverse and forward modeling, preliminary rift flank (U-Th)/He ages correspond to post-Grenville cooling with <4 km of post-Carboniferous burial. The data define slow and long episodes of syn- to post-rift cooling with rates between 0.4 and 0.1 °C/Ma. (U-Th)/He dating of samples along the full-length of the transect

  7. Evolution of the Precambrian Crust and Sub-Continental Lithsophere in Eastern Canada: Constraints from Probabilistic Inversion and H-k Stacking of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, L.; Bastow, I. D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Levin, V. L.; Menke, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Cratons are continental nuclei that have been tectonically quiescent for at least a billion years. They show distinct geological and geophysical signatures from younger continental regions. Some Precambrian crustal generation models suggest a change in tectonic processes at the end of the Archean, marking the onset of modern-style plate tectonics and different lithospheric growth mechanisms. Eastern Canada comprises Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic terranes, recording tectonic events spanning ~3 Ga of Earth history. It is a natural laboratory to test hypotheses concerning craton genesis and Precambrian plate tectonics. To constrain structural variations across this region, a new broadband seismograph network has been deployed from southernmost Hudson Bay to coastal Nova Scotia. The main profile crosses major tectonic boundaries between the Superior craton, the Proterozoic Grenville and Phanerozoic Appalachian provinces. A profile of crustal structure across the major tectonic terranes was constructed from transdimensional Bayesian receiver function inversions. 1D structure beneath individual stations is described in terms of two parameters: shear wavespeed variation with depth, and likelihood of discontinuity, both defined probabilistically. A clear Moho can be identified at about 36-42 km with variable transition width. Moreover, a persistent sub-continental lithospheric impedance contrast is detected at 52-57 km beneath most stations. The ubiquity of this feature across a profile spanning 3 Ga of lithospheric processes could imply that post-cratonization chemical modification may have homogenized the uppermost mantle. Small age-dependent variations in mean bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratios are revealed from receiver function H-k stacking: ~1.71, ~1.77 and ~1.75 for the Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic respectively. Crustal thickness also varies systematically with age, with Moho depths of ~35 km for the Archean and Phanerozoic but up to 10 km thicker in some

  8. Snowblading injuries in Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, E; Rouah, F; Johnston, K

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate injury patterns of snowbladers and compare them with those of skiers and snowboarders. To determine possible effects of helmet use in these sports on injury to the head and neck. Methods: This prospective case series observational study was conducted by collecting the injury reports from the ski patrol during the 1999–2000 season at Mont Tremblant ski resort, Quebec. All participants in downhill winter sports who presented themselves to the ski patrol with traumatic injury related to their sport were included. A concussion was defined as any loss of consciousness, amnesia, confusion, disorientation, vertigo, or headache that resulted from injury. The ski patroller reported helmet use on the accident report at the time of injury. Results: Snowbladers present with a unique pattern of injury compared with skiers and snowboarders. The incidence of leg, knee, and ankle/foot injuries were 20.5%, 25.6%, and 10.3% respectively. Concussions represented 11% of all injuries. There was no increase in other injury, including neck injury, related to helmet use. Conclusions: Unique injury patterns in snowbladers warrant reconsideration of equipment design. Concussion is a common injury on the ski slope. Although the effects of helmet use on concussion rate are inconclusive based on this study, helmet use did not increase the rate of neck injury, even when adjusted for age. PMID:14665590

  9. Smoke Plume Over Eastern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In late May, a massive smoke plume hundreds of kilometers across blew eastward over New Brunswick toward the Atlantic Ocean. On May 26, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image at 11:40 a.m. local time. By the time MODIS took this picture, the smoke appeared to have completely detached itself from the source, a large fire burning in southwestern Quebec, beyond the western edge of this image. In this image, the smoke appears as a gray-beige opaque mass with fuzzy, translucent edges. The plume is thickest in the southwest and diminishes toward the northeast. Just southwest of the plume is a red outline indicating a hotspot an area where MODIS detected anomalously warm surface temperatures, such as those resulting from fires. This hotspot, however, is not the source for this smoke plume. According to a bulletin from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the southwestern Quebec fire was the source. According to reports from the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre on May 29, that fire was estimated at 63,211 hectares (156,197 acres), and it was classified as 'being held.' At the same time, more than 20 wildfires burned in Quebec, news sources reported, and firefighters from other Canadian provinces and the United States had been brought in to provide reinforcements for the area's firefighters.

  10. Creating patient safety capacity in a nation's health system: A comparison between Israel and Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Injuries to patients by the healthcare system (i.e., adverse events) are common and their impact on individuals and systems is considerable. Over the last decade, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to improve patient safety. Given the complexity and extent of the activities required to address the issue, coordinating and organizing them at a national level is likely beneficial. Whereas some capacity and expertise already exist in Israel, there is a considerable gap that needs to be filled. In this paper two countries, Canada and Israel, are examined and some of the essential steps for any country are considered. Possible immediate next steps for Israel are suggested. PMID:22913865

  11. [The Mexican farm workers' program in Canada: a comparison with the U.S. experience].

    PubMed

    Verduzco Igartua, G

    1999-01-01

    "This article describes the main features of an international worker program which has been operating for over twenty-five years, although it been hitherto largely unknown. The article focuses on the economic changes undergone by Canada, which led to the need to supplement its seasonal labor requirements with Caribbean and Mexican temporary workers.... Data on the Canadian program has shown that it has satisfactorily supplemented certain farm work requirements without experiencing any problems that could demerit its success, despite the number of years it has been operating." (EXCERPT)

  12. Single nucleotide repeat analysis of B. anthracis isolates in Canada through comparison of pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Kristen R; Janzen, Timothy W; Thomas, Matthew C; Shields, Michael J; Goji, Noriko; Valle, Edith; Amoako, Kingsley K

    2014-03-14

    Several technology platforms have been developed to resolve the phylogenetic placement of B. anthracis. However, these methods lack the resolution to identify differences between closely related strains within an outbreak due to the highly clonal nature of B. anthracis. Single Nucleotide Repeats (SNRs) are a type of rapidly evolving genetic marker that can be used to track epidemiological distribution in the event of an outbreak. Four SNR targets were used to detect and type 35 B. anthracis isolates in our collection; 18 from across Canada obtained between 1972 and 2005 and 17 from the 2006 Anthrax outbreak in north eastern Saskatchewan. A control sequence was developed for pyrosequencing which yielded consistent and accurate reads of SNRs. However, when DNA from the isolates was tested using pyrosequencing the results were inconsistent and did not reflect the number of SNRs obtained by Sanger sequencing. The SNR numbers derived from the Sanger sequencing show two of the four SNR loci could provide information on subtype, whereas the other two were not discriminatory. There is variation in SNRs between strains isolated from different outbreaks, the subset of 2006 outbreak strains showed very little difference in SNR number, and thus suggests low diversity among the strains sampled from the same outbreak.

  13. Regional differences in rates of plant speciation and molecular evolution: a comparison between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny; Zhang, Wen Heng; Ricklefs, Robert E; Qian, Hong; Chen, Zhi Duan; Wen, Jun; Hua, Jian L

    2004-10-01

    The eastern Asian (EAS)-eastern North American (ENA) floristic disjunction is one of the best-known biogeographic patterns in the Northern Hemisphere. Recent paleontological and molecular analyses have illuminated the origins of the biogeographic pattern, but subsequent diversification and evolution of the disjunct floras in each of the two continents after isolation remains poorly understood. Although similar in climate and floristic composition, EAS has twice as many species as ENA in genera occurring in both regions. Explaining such differences in species diversity between regions with similar environmental conditions (diversity anomalies) is an important goal of the study of the global patterns of biodiversity. We used a phylogenetic approach to compare rates of net speciation and molecular evolution between the two regions. We first identified EAS-ENA disjunct sister clades from ten genera (Asarum, Buckleya, Carpinus, Carya, Cornus, Hamamelis, Illicium, Panax, Stewartia, and Styrax) that represent diverse angiosperm lineages using phylogenetic analyses of ITS (internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA) sequence data. Species richness and substitution rate of ITS between sister clades were compared. The results revealed a pattern of greater species diversity in the EAS counterparts. A positive relationship between species diversity and ITS substitution rate was also documented. These results suggest greater net speciation and accelerated molecular evolution in EAS. The data support the idea that a regional difference in net speciation rate related to topographic heterogeneity contributes to the diversity anomaly between EAS and ENA. The close relationship between rates of ITS evolution and species richness further suggests that species production may be directly linked to rate of nucleotide substitution.

  14. Managing Eastern Redceder

    Treesearch

    E.R. Ferguson; E.R. Lawson; W.R. Maple; C. Mesavage

    1968-01-01

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is the most widely distributed conifer of tree size in the Eastern United States (48). Its range also extends into southeastern Canada. The wood was once favored for domestic use and export because of its exceptional cutting qualities, durability, rich color, and aroma. It has now lost much of its...

  15. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico☆

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; Curren, Meredith S.; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p′-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p′-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America. PMID:25233368

  16. Disability terminology in the media: a comparison of newspaper reports in Canada and Israel.

    PubMed

    Auslander, G K; Gold, N

    1999-05-01

    The terminology used to refer to persons with disability may both reflect and influence attitudes towards them. Negative references may perpetuate negative attitudes and stereotypes. This is of particular importance in the mass media which reaches a broad spectrum of the population. This study looked at disability terminology used in major newspapers in Canada and Israel. It focused on the nature of that terminology and whether its use was related to other factors, such as the disability model reflected in the article, the content of the article (e.g. attributes of the disabled person) and its context (e.g. type of newspaper, feature versus news items). Overall, the use of inappropriate terminology of varying types was quite prevalent in both countries. In addition, in Canada there were a considerable number of articles which had no direct reference to the disability. In general, the terminology used was considerably more positive in articles dealing with individual persons with disabilities (as opposed to groups), with disabled children and with problems of mobility and rights. The results of the study indicate that the choice of terminology cannot be explained by journalistic expedience and conciseness alone.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals in primiparous women: a comparison from Canada and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Bryan; Davis, Karelyn; Liang, Chun Lei; S Curren, Meredith; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Foster, Warren; Needham, Larry; Wong, Lee-Yang; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Marro, Leonora; Leech, Tara; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2014-12-01

    Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p'-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE, β-HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America.

  18. Canada's global position in life expectancy: a longitudinal comparison with the healthiest countries in the world.

    PubMed

    Fang, Raymond; Millar, John S

    2009-01-01

    To assess the global position of Canadian life expectancy and to determine the areas of greatest negative impact on life expectancy. Using retrospective data on life expectancy at birth (LE(0) and age-standardized mortality rates, Canada was compared with 13 other countries with the longest LE(0). Linear regression models were used to produce trends and projections of LE(0) until 2010. Canadian women and men currently rank 8th and 5th, respectively, in LE(0) among the 14 nations. Canada has one of the smallest annual LE(0) improvement rates among the countries studied. Canadian women progressed significantly slower than nine countries and Canadian men progressed slower than five. Women are improving at only half the rate of men due to narrowing gaps in most mortality risks--mostly for cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and injury. These trends lowered projected LE(0) ranks of Canadians, especially for women, for 2010. LE(0) of Canadians is slipping relative to most of the other 13 countries, and more so for women than men. This phenomenon is explained by historically higher mortality rates from ischemic heart disease, cancer and respiratory system disease for all Canadians, coupled with recently lower improvement rates in most mortality risks for Canadian women and in cancers and diabetes for Canadian men. Improving the health and wellness of Canadians, particularly women, demands a priority focus on enhanced chronic disease detection and management as well as strategies to reduce obesity and tobacco use by addressing the determinants of these behavioural risk factors.

  19. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  20. Comparison of earthquake source spectra and attenuation in eastern North America and southeastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, T.I.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paucity of ground-motion data in stable continental regions (SCRs) remains a key limitation when developing relations that seek to predict effects of strong ground shaking from large damaging earthquakes. It is desirable to combine data from more than one SCR to increase database size, but this raises questions as to whether the source and attenuation properties of the SCRs are equivalent. We compare recently compiled spectral-amplitude databases from small to moderate events (moment magnitudes, 2.0 ??? M ??? 5.0) in both southeastern Australia and eastern North America (ENA). Both are SCRs but are widely separated, spatially and in tectonic history. We statistically compare ground motions by plotting mean and standard deviations of spectral amplitudes for data grouped in magnitude and distance bins. These comparisons show that the source and attenuation properties of the two regions are very similar, in particular, at shorter hypocentral distances R (i.e., R < 70 km). At larger distances, regional attenuation differences are observed that may be attributed to differences in crustal structure. We conclude that it is valid to combine the Australian and ENA ground-motion datasets in the development of ground-motion prediction equations, with some limitations in frequency and distance ranges. These ground-motion relations may serve as generic functions for SCRs around the world.

  1. Comparison of storm surges in eastern and western Louisiana lake estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Li, C.; Milan, B.; Weeks, E.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal Louisiana experiences hurricane storm surges, mostly in summer, on an irregular inter-annual basis and winter storm surges on a quasi-regular seasonal basis every late fall to the following spring. Some of the important fish habitats in southern Louisiana are shallow lake estuaries with seasonally variable river discharges. They are surrounded by wetlands and with very limited connections with the coastal ocean through narrow channels ( 100 m wide). The storm surge related flushing of these systems are of importance to the sediment transport, wetland and ecosystem health, and the surrounding community. In the present work, we present a comparison between two such semi-enclosed lake-estuarine systems, one in the west and one in the east of the southern Louisiana coast - the Calcasieu Lake Estuary and Lake Pontchartrain Estuary. Data for several storm surges have been collected by our team. These data are analyzed for both systems, focusing on the basin scale oscillation and flushing of the systems in response to the atmospheric forcing. We have applied a Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to provide insight to how the atmospheric forcing evolves. Using the WRF model output as forcing, we applied a hydrodynamic model for the response of these lake estuaries. With the extensive data and model experiments, we are able to compare the storm surges and flushing of the two lake estuarine systems in the western and eastern Louisiana.

  2. Clinical characteristics and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: A comparison of Eastern and Western perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing intestinal inflammatory disorder with unidentified causes. Both environmental factors and genetic aspects are believed to be crucial to the pathogenesis of IBD. The incidence and prevalence of IBD have recently been increasing throughout Asia, presumably secondary to environmental changes. This increasing trend in IBD epidemiology necessitates specific health care planning and education in Asia. To this end, we must gain a precise understanding of the distinctive clinical and therapeutic characteristics of Asian patients with IBD. The phenotypes of IBD reportedly differ considerably between Asians and Caucasians. Thus, use of the same management strategies for these different populations may not be appropriate. Moreover, investigation of the Asian-specific clinical aspects of IBD offers the possibility of identifying causative factors in the pathogenesis of IBD in this geographical area. Accordingly, this review summarizes current knowledge of the phenotypic manifestations and management practices of patients with IBD, with a special focus on a comparison of Eastern and Western perspectives. PMID:25206259

  3. Sylvatic trichinosis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E

    1988-10-01

    Pepsin digestion of musculature from 2253 animals revealed that sylvatic trichinosis occurred in various species of mammals from the eastern to the western Arctic and extended down into the Rocky Mountain and Foothills regions of western Canada. Infections were demonstrated in Arctic fox, red fox, wolf, raccoon, coyote, lynx, bobcat and dog.

  4. Comparison of Canadian medical graduates and international medical graduates in Canada: 1989-2007.

    PubMed

    Mok, Philip S; Baerlocher, Mark O; Abrahams, Caroline; Tan, Eva Y; Slade, Steve; Verma, Sarita

    2011-08-01

    To compare Canadian medical graduates (CMGs) and international medical graduates (IMGs) who completed postgraduate medical education in Canada from 1989 to 2007 by age, gender, specialty, and practice characteristics. Data on all CMGs and IMGs who completed residencies or fellowships in Canada from 1989 to 2007 were extracted from the Canadian Post-M.D. Education Registry. Data from 1989-1993 and 2003-2007 were pooled for analysis. A total of 8,501 CMGs and 1,828 IMGs completed post-MD training at Canadian institutions between 1989 and 1993 inclusive; 7,734 CMGs and 1,879 IMGs completed such training between 2003 and 2007. From 1989-1993 to 2003-2007, the average age of CMGs increased from 29.8 to 31.1 years, and average age of IMGs increased from 36.1 to 37.0 years. From 1989-1993 to 2003-2007, the percentage of women increased from 41% (3,471/8,501) to 52% (4,016/7,734) and from 28% (509/1,828) to 42% (791/1,879) for CMGs and IMGs, respectively. The proportion of CMGs who trained in family medicine declined from 54% (4,568/8,501) to 38% (2,921/7,734) from 1989-1993 to 2003-2007. The percentage of IMGs who trained in family medicine increased from 19% (344/1,828) to 37% (699/1,879) during the same period. IMGs tended to be older, more likely to be men, and more likely to pursue family medicine than their CMG counterparts. These differences have implications in designing future health care policy and recruiting physicians from abroad. Other countries could look at their own physician demographics using this study's methods.

  5. New PBO GPS Station Construction: Eastern Region Network Enhancements and Multiple-Monument Stability Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.; Austin, K. E.; Berglund, H. T.; Blume, F.; Feaux, K.; Mann, D.; Mattioli, G. S.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network consists of 1100 continuously operating, permanent GPS stations throughout the United States. The majority of this network was constructed using NSF-MREFC funding as part of the EarthScope Project during FY2003-FY2008. Since FY2009, UNAVCO has operated and maintained PBO through a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF. Construction of new, permanent GPS monuments in the PBO network was the result of two change orders to the original PBO O&M CA. Change Order 33 (CO33) allocated funds to construct additional GPS stations at six locations in the Eastern Region of PBO. Three of these locations were designed to replace poorly performing existing GPS monuments in Georgia, Texas and New York. The remaining three new locations were selected to fill in gaps in network coverage in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and North Dakota. Construction of all six new sites was completed in September 2013. Important scientific goals for CO33 include improvement of the stable North American reference frame, measurement of the vertical signal associated with the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment, and improved constraints on surface deformation and possible earthquakes, which occur in the low-strain tectonic setting of the eastern North American Plate. Change Order 35 (CO35) allocated funds to construct two additional geodetic monuments at five existing PBO stations in order to test and compare the long-term stability of various monument designs under near-identical geologic conditions. Sites were chosen to yield a variety of geographic, hydrologic and geologic conditions, including both fine-grained alluvium and crystalline bedrock. At each location, three different monuments (deep drill braced, short drill braced/driven-braced, mast/pillar) were built with 10 meter spacing, with shared power systems and data telemetry infrastructure. Construction of these multi-monument test locations began in October 2012 and finished in September 2013. See G010- Berglund

  6. Comparison between weather station data in south-eastern Italy and CRU precipitation datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglietta, D.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly precipitation data in south-eastern Italy from 1920 to 2005 have been extensively analyzed. Data were collected in almost 200 weather stations located 10-20km apart from each other and almost uniformly distributed in Puglia and Basilicata regions. Apart from few years around world war II, time series are mostly complete and allow a reliable reconstruction of climate variability in the considered region. Statistically significant trends have been studied by applying the Mann-Kendall test to annual, seasonal and monthly values. A comparison has been made between observations and precipitation data given by the Climate Research Unit (CRU), University of East Anglia, with both low (30') and high (10') space resolution grid. In particular, rainfall records, time series behaviors and annual cycles at each station have been compared to the corresponding CRU data. CRU time series show a large negative trend for winter since 1970. Trend is not significant if the whole 20th century is considered (both for the whole year and for winter only). This might be considered as an evidence of recent acceleration towards increasingly dry conditions. However correlation between CRU data and observations is not very high and large percent errors are present mainly in the mountains regions, where observations show a large annual cycle, with intense precipitation in winter, which is not present in CRU data. To identify trends, therefore observed data are needed, even at monthly scale. In particular observations confirm the overall trend, but also indicate large spatial variability, with locations where precipitation has even increased since 1970. Daily precipitation data coming from a subset of weather stations have also been studied for the same time period. The distributions of maximum annual rainfalls, wet spells and dry spells were analyzed for each station, together with their time series. The tools of statistical analysis of extremes have been used in order to evaluate

  7. Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. We studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant. It was concluded that, without further development, western shale retorting processes are not adequate for use with eastern shale. The HYTORT process produces oil at a cost nearly competitive with oil from western shale however.

  8. A Comparison of Market Needs to the Species and Quality Composition of the Eastern Hardwood

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Many markets for hardwood lumber have experienced growth in recent years. Eastern and Central hardwood lumber production reached an estimated 11.2 billion board feet in 1988, a twenty year high. Wood furniture, flooring, and exports have also experienced growth in the last ten years. During the same period, annual growth on eastern hardwood forests has exceeded annual...

  9. A comparison of health access between permanent residents, undocumented immigrants and refugee claimants in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ruth M; Klei, A G; Hodges, Brian D; Fisman, David; Kitto, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the immigrant experience accessing healthcare is essential to improving their health. This qualitative study reports on experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of immigrants in Toronto, Canada: permanent residents, refugee claimants and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants who are on the Canadian Border Services Agency deportation list are understudied in Canada due to their precarious status. This study will examine the vulnerabilities of this particular subcategory of immigrant and contrast their experiences seeking healthcare with refugee claimants and permanent residents. Twenty-one semi-structured, one-on-one qualitative interviews were conducted with immigrants to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing healthcare. The open structure of the interviews enabled the participants to share their experiences seeking healthcare and other factors that were an integral part of their health. This study utilized a community-based participatory research framework. The study identifies seven sections of results. Among them, immigration status was the single most important factor affecting both an individual's ability to seek out healthcare and her experiences when trying to access healthcare. The healthcare seeking behaviour of undocumented immigrants was radically distinct from refugee claimants or immigrants with permanent resident status, with undocumented immigrants being at a greater disadvantage than permanent residents and refugee claimants. Language barriers are also noted as an impediment to healthcare access. An individual's immigration status further complicates their ability to establish relationships with family doctors, access prescriptions and medications and seek out emergency room care. Fear of authorities and the complications caused by the above factors can lead to the most disadvantaged to seek out informal or black market sources of healthcare. This study reaffirmed previous findings that fear of deportation

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk profile and microvascular complications of diabetes: comparison of Indigenous cohorts with diabetes in Australia and Canada.

    PubMed

    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Cunningham, Joan; Zinman, Bernard; Mamakeesick, Mary; Harris, Stewart B; Connelly, Philip W; Shaw, Jonathan; O'Dea, Kerin; Hanley, Anthony J

    2012-03-28

    Indigenous populations of Australia and Canada experience disproportionately high rates of chronic disease. Our goal was to compare cardiovascular (CVD) risk profile and diabetes complications from three recent comprehensive studies of diabetes complications in different Indigenous populations in Australia and Canada. We compared participants from three recent studies: remote Indigenous Australians (2002-2003, n = 37 known diabetes), urban Indigenous Australians (2003-2005, n = 99 known diabetes), and remote Aboriginal Canadians (2001-2002, n = 188 known diabetes). The three groups were similar for HbA1c, systolic BP, diabetes duration. Although leaner by body-mass-index criteria, remote Indigenous Australians displayed a more adverse CVD risk profile with respect to: waist-hip-ratio (1.03, 0.99, 0.94, remote Indigenous Australians, urban Indigenous Australians, remote Canadians, p < 0.001); HDL-cholesterol (0.82, 0.96, 1.17 mmol/L, p < 0.001); urine albumin-creatinine-ratio (10.3, 2.4, 4.5 mg/mmol); and C-reactive protein. With respect to diabetes complications, microalbuminuria (50%, 25%, 41%, p = 0.001) was more common among both remote groups than urban Indigenous Australians, but there were no differences for peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy or peripheral vascular disease. Although there are many similarities in diabetes phenotype in Indigenous populations, this comparison demonstrates that CVD risk profiles and diabetes complications may differ among groups. Irrespective, management and intervention strategies are required from a young age in Indigenous populations and need to be designed in consultation with communities and tailored to community and individual needs.

  11. Parental practices in late adolescence, a comparison of three countries: Canada, France and Italy.

    PubMed

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Bouchard, Céline; Perucchini, Paula

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine parental practices, such as affection, control and conflict, in three countries: Canada, France and Italy. The sample was composed of more than 900 late adolescents with an average age of 17 years, from three large cities: Montreal, Paris and Rome. Participants answered a self-report questionnaire that assessed five measures: emotional bonds with the father and mother, parental supervision, tolerance towards friends, punitiveness for violation of rules, and conflict frequency. Analyses of the results indicated that the country of origin discriminated for most of the parental practice dimensions. Canadian adolescents considered their parents to be more tolerant and rated them as using less punitive measures when rules were broken. Canadian parents also seemed to adopt comparable norms for boys and girls, which could be interpreted as a form of sexual egalitarianism, whereas Italian and French parents appeared less tolerant towards girls. Italian adolescents reported strong emotional bonds with each parent, and also identified more conflicts in their relationships with parents. French adolescents reported weaker emotional bonds with each parent and less parental supervision. Results were interpreted in the light of studies that have reported an influence of cultural background on both parental practices and parental decisions in each of these countries.

  12. Comparison of gridded snow water equivalent products with in situ measurements in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.

    2016-10-01

    Regional-scale estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) are challenging in alpine regions, particularly in areas of high accumulation and dense forest cover, suggesting efforts to improve these estimates may benefit from an evaluation of existing gridded products. Gridded SWE products comprising four reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, ERA-Interim/Land, MERRA and MERRA-Land), two land data assimilation system datasets (GLDAS1 and GLDAS2) and two observation-based products (CMC and GlobSnow) have been compared with in-situ measurements over five physiographic regions in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Time series were generated for each survey month (January through June), and median correlation, bias and mean absolute error (MAE) values were found for each product and physiographic region. The best performance in correlation and magnitude of bias and MAE was seen in areas of lowest SWE accumulation and land relief (e.g. the Interior Plains of northern BC), while poorer performance was seen in regions of high accumulation and complex topography (Columbia and Rocky Mountains and Coast Mountains). Overall, the performance ranking order is ERA-Interim/Land (best), GLDAS2, MERRA, CMC, GLDAS1, MERRA-Land, GlobSnow and ERA-Interim.

  13. Comparison of Magnetic Anomalies of Lithospheric Origin Measured by Satellite and Airborne Magnetometers over Western Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Coles, R. L.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly data from the OGO 2, 4 and 6 (Pogo) satellites are compared with upward-continued aeromagnetic data between 50 deg -85 deg N latitude and 220 deg - 260 deg E longitude. Agreement is good both in anomaly location and in amplitude, giving confidence that it is possible to proceed with the derivation and interpretation of satellite anomaly maps in all parts of the globe. The data contain a magnetic high over the Alpha ridge suggesting continental composition and a magnetic low over the southern Canada basin and northern Canadian Arctic islands (Sverdrup basin). The low in the Sverdrup basin corresponds to a region of high heat flow, suggesting a shallow Curie isotherm. A ridge of high field, with two distinct peaks in amplitude, is found over the northern portion of the platform deposits and a relative high is located in the central portion of the Churchill province. No features are present to indicate a magnetic boundary between Slave and Bear provinces, but a trend change is evident between Slave and Churchill provinces. South of 60 deg latitude a broad magnetic low is located over very thick (40-50 km) crust, interpreted to be a region of low magnetization.

  14. Depression literacy among older Chinese immigrants in Canada: a comparison with a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Yvonne; Konnert, Candace; Wang, JianLi

    2010-12-01

    Investigations of mental health literacy are important because the recognition of a mental health problem is the first step in seeking appropriate mental health care. Lack of recognition is a significant barrier to accessing mental health resources. Older Chinese immigrants are at increased risk for depression; however, there is no research investigating their depression literacy, including their beliefs about treatment, etiology, and prognosis. This study investigated depression literacy among 53 older Chinese immigrants in Canada (aged 55-87 years) and compared their literacy to Canadian-born participants of the same age who were part of a larger population-based survey. Depression literacy was assessed through interviews using a case vignette and included the following indices: rates of correct identification of depression; perceived efficacy of various people, professions and treatments; and perceptions of etiology and prognosis. In the Chinese sample, 11.3% correctly identified depression in the case vignette. In contrast, 74.0% of participants in the population-based survey correctly identified depression. Differences in the perceptions of helpful people and interventions, etiology, and prognosis were also noted between the samples. Both samples strongly endorsed physical activity as helpful in the treatment of depression. In light of these results, it is clear that older Chinese immigrants would benefit from information regarding the symptoms, etiology, and treatment of depression, and that this information may begin to address the serious underutilization of mental health services among this group. Our discussion highlights practice implications and promising interventions.

  15. Sedimentological Comparison of Recent Storm and Tsunami Deposits from the South-Eastern Coastline of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam; Srinivasalu, Seshachalam; Anandasabari, Karthik; Pham, Dat; Carson, Stephen; Pilarczyk, Jessica; Hussain, Mohammad; Yap, Wenshu; Jones, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Storm and tsunami deposits have been identified and described from many siliciclastic coastlines globally, but detailed comparison of both known storm and tsunami deposits from the same coastlines are lacking. An opportunity to compare storm and tsunami sedimentary deposits was recognised following sediment deposition by Cyclone Thane (25th to 31st December 2011) that were superimposed on sediments deposited during the Indian Ocean Tsunami (26th December 2004) in a pit (DPM3a) near Cuddalore, on the south-eastern Indian coastline. A second pit, at Silver Beach (SB1) was located 2 km south of Pit DPM3a, was examined for comparison with Pit DPM3a. Pit DPM3a contained four distinct units, an oldest intertidal unit, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and a reworked aeolian sand that is capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. Pit SB1 contained an oldest intertidal deposit, an estuarine beach and capped by the Cyclone Thane deposit. The identification of these units was verified from satellite imagery. The pits were examined at 1cm increments for grainsize and grain shape characteristics, loss on ignition, heavy mineral concentrations and microfossils. Representative samples from each unit were collected for detailed mineralogy analysis using X-ray Diffraction. A suite of statistical analyses, including exploratory data analysis techniques, analysis of variance and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to compare the measured parameters and the individual deposits within and between pits DPM3a and SB1. Individual deposits showed significant differences in many of the parameters, but no individual variable was diagnostic of the deposits. PCA of Pit DPM3a suggested that the proportion of heavy minerals was the strongest parameter to distinguish the storm deposit from the tidal, aeolian and tsunami deposit, but that significant overlap between the deposits occurred. The application of DFA showed that in Pit DPM3a, the storm deposit

  16. Comparison of dietary intake between Francophones and Anglophones in Canada: data from CCHS 2.2.

    PubMed

    Batal, Malek; Makvandi, Ewa; Imbeault, Pascal; Gagnon-Arpin, Isabelle; Grenier, Jean; Chomienne, Marie-Hélène; Bouchard, Louise

    2013-06-04

    To compare the dietary intake and food choices between Francophone Canadians in a state of linguistic minority (outside of Quebec) and the English-speaking majority. We used the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.2 (general health and 24-hour dietary recalls) to describe dietary intake of Francophone Canadians (excluding Quebec) and compare them to the English-speaking majority. The linguistic variable was determined by languages spoken at home, first language learned and still understood, language of interview, and language of preference. The mean differences in daily nutrient and food intake were assessed by t and chi-square tests. Differences in total energy and daily food intakes by language groups were not observed in the sample; however, significant differences in weekly consumption were found in different age and sex categories: lower fruits and vegetables consumption, and vitamins and macronutrients intakes for older Francophone men and higher intakes of energy and saturated fat from "unhealthy" foods for Francophone men 19-30 years of age. Based on the Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Range (AMDR), approximately 50% of the sample exceeded their acceptable energy intake from saturated fats, and 80% were below their required intake of linoleic fatty acid. We confirmed that belonging to Francophone minorities in Canada affects food choices and nutritional well-being of this population. The most vulnerable groups identified by our study were Francophone men in the youngest (19-30) and older (50 and over) age categories. The extent to which the cultural setting influences the diet and, in turn, the health of the minority population needs further examination.

  17. A cross-cultural comparison of pressures to switch left-hand writing: Brazil versus Canada.

    PubMed

    Porac, Clare; Martin, William Lee Berdel

    2007-05-01

    Attempts to switch left-hand preferences towards the right side are socialisation practices found in many countries (Perelle & Ehrman, 1994). Although researchers acknowledge that pressures against left-hand use contribute to the cross-cultural fluctuations in the prevalence of left- versus right-hand preference, there has been little systematic cross-cultural study of how these pressures are applied, and who are the major agents applying the pressures to change. Our study explored specific rightward conversion practices and the results of these practices among individuals from two countries. One sample of participants was from a culture categorised as formal, Brazil, and the second sample was from Canada, a nonformal culture (Hofstede, 2001). Researchers have argued that prevalence rates of right-handedness should be higher in cultures that value conformity, called formal cultures, and lower among members of nonformal cultures where conformity pressures are lax (Medland, Perelle, De Monte, & Ehrman, 2004). The socialisation practices used to foster a change from the left to the right side are also predicted to differ in frequency and in kind in formal versus nonformal cultural settings. These cultural differences are assumed to result in differences in success rates of the conversion attempts, with formal cultures producing higher numbers of successfully converted right-handers. Our findings indicate that the formal versus nonformal cultural explanation for cross-cultural fluctuations in the prevalence of hand preference types does not account for the characteristics of the rightward conversion experiences reported by participants in the two groups. We propose that hypotheses concerning the effects of cultural differences on hand preference formation be expanded to include possible biological or genetic variance between groups.

  18. Comparison of mercury concentrations in landlocked, resident, and sea-run fish (Salvelinus spp.) from Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Heidi; Gantner, Nikolaus; Kidd, Karen A; Muir, D C G; Reist, James D

    2011-06-01

    Mercury concentrations ([Hg]) in Arctic food fish often exceed guidelines for human subsistence consumption. Previous research on two food fish species, Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), indicates that anadromous fish have lower [Hg] than nonanadromous fish, but there have been no intraregional comparisons. Also, no comparisons of [Hg] among anadromous (sea-run), resident (marine access but do not migrate), and landlocked (no marine access) life history types of Arctic char and lake trout have been published. Using intraregional data from 10 lakes in the West Kitikmeot area of Nunavut, Canada, we found that [Hg] varied significantly among species and life history types. Differences among species-life history types were best explained by age-at-size and C:N ratios (indicator of lipid); [Hg] was significantly and negatively related to both. At a standardized fork length of 500 mm, lake trout had significantly higher [Hg] (mean 0.17 µg/g wet wt) than Arctic char (0.09 µg/g). Anadromous and resident Arctic char had significantly lower [Hg] (each 0.04 µg/g) than landlocked Arctic char (0.19 µg/g). Anadromous lake trout had significantly lower [Hg] (0.12 µg/g) than resident lake trout (0.18 µg/g), but no significant difference in [Hg] was seen between landlocked lake trout (0.21 µg/g) and other life history types. Our results are relevant to human health assessments and consumption guidance and will inform models of Hg accumulation in Arctic fish. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  19. Collocated comparisons of continuous and filter-based PM2.5 measurements at Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Xiaoliang; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Percy, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collocated comparisons for three PM2.5 monitors were conducted from June 2011 to May 2013 at an air monitoring station in the residential area of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, a city located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Extremely cold winters (down to approximately −40°C) coupled with low PM2.5 concentrations present a challenge for continuous measurements. Both the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM), operated at 40°C (i.e., TEOM40), and Synchronized Hybrid Ambient Real-time Particulate (SHARP, a Federal Equivalent Method [FEM]), were compared with a Partisol PM2.5 U.S. Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler. While hourly TEOM40 PM2.5 were consistently ~20–50% lower than that of SHARP, no statistically significant differences were found between the 24-hr averages for FRM and SHARP. Orthogonal regression (OR) equations derived from FRM and TEOM40 were used to adjust the TEOM40 (i.e., TEOMadj) and improve its agreement with FRM, particularly for the cold season. The 12-year-long hourly TEOMadj measurements from 1999 to 2011 based on the OR equations between SHARP and TEOM40 were derived from the 2-year (2011–2013) collocated measurements. The trend analysis combining both TEOMadj and SHARP measurements showed a statistically significant decrease in PM2.5 concentrations with a seasonal slope of −0.15 μg m−3 yr−1 from 1999 to 2014.Implications: Consistency in PM2.5 measurements are needed for trend analysis. Collocated comparison among the three PM2.5 monitors demonstrated the difference between FRM and TEOM, as well as between SHARP and TEOM. The orthogonal regressions equations can be applied to correct historical TEOM data to examine long-term trends within the network. PMID:26727574

  20. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Treesearch

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  1. Oral rabies vaccination in raccoons: comparison of ONRAB® and RABORAL V-RG® vaccine-bait field performance in Québec, Canada and Vermont, USA.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Slate, Dennis; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The control of rabies in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in North America has been conducted mainly through aerial distribution of oral vaccine-baits. The effectiveness of the vaccine-bait used is therefore of prime importance for disease eradication. In a previous field comparison between the ONRAB(®) bait in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, and RABORAL V-RG(®) bait in the state of Maine, USA, the ONRAB bait produced a higher percentage of antibody-positive raccoons under nearly identical bait distribution for the two vaccines. The main objective of the present study was to conduct a similar cross-border comparison of these two vaccine-baits using raccoon sera collected during post-oral rabies vaccination monitoring in Québec, Canada, and Vermont, USA, where ONRAB and V-RG, respectively, were distributed aerially at a targeted density of 150 baits/km(2). A comparison of the equivalency of two serologic tests used in Canada and the USA was also conducted using sera from raccoons and striped skunks. Rabies virus neutralization assay (USA) yielded similar results to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Canada), with agreement between the two tests of 92% for raccoon sera and 96% for skunk sera. With both assays, the percentage of antibody-positive raccoons was greater with ONRAB (51%, n=265) than with V-RG (38%, n=66). These new results support the conclusion from the previous study, that ONRAB vaccine-baits may be more effective for the control of rabies in raccoons.

  2. Nutrient fluxes in forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada: comparisons with humid forest systems

    Treesearch

    Dale W. Johnson; Richard B. Susfalk; Randy A. Dahlgreen; Virginia Boucher; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    1998-01-01

    Preliminary results of studies on nutrient fluxes in forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada were compared to those from more humid and polluted ecosystems. Snowmelt, soil solution, soil, and streamwater were collected from Jeffrey and lodgepole pine (Pinus jeffreyii [Grev. and Balf.] and Pinus contorta Dougl.) stands in Little Valley...

  3. [Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E; Ramírez, Alonso; Umaña, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Cocos Island, Costa Rica: species and comparison with other islands of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Cocos Island is an oceanic island in the Eastern Pacific, at 496km from Cabo Blanco, Costa Rica. This 24 km2 island is surrounded by a protected marine area of 9640 km2. it was declared National Park in 1978 and a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1997. Freshwater macroinvertebrate fauna was collected in 20 sites covering three rivers (Genio, Chatam and Sucio) and two creeks (Minuto and an unnamed creek behind the park rangers' house). Tank bromeliads or phytotelmata were also examined for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Physicochemical parameters were determined in 13 study sites. Additionally, a comparison with other islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was conducted to determine the most important factors controlling the diversity in Tropical Pacific islands. A total of 455 individuals were collected belonging to 20 taxa (mostly identified to genus level) from 15 families of aquatic insects. Other macroinvertebrates such as Palaemonid shrimps, Hidrachnida and Oligochaeta were also collected. The family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) was the most abundant, followed by Chironomidae (Diptera). Diptera was the order of insects with the highest taxonomic richness. A relationship between distance and the number of families was observed supporting the premises of the Theory of island Biogeography. This relationship was improved by correcting area by island elevation, indicating that mountainous islands had the richest faunas, potentially due to high cloud interception that feeds freshwater environments favoring the establishment of aquatic fauna. Physicochemical variables were similar in all sites, possibly due to the geology and the absence of significant sources of pollution on the island.

  4. A model inter-comparison study of forest growth on two coastal and boreal forest landscapes in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, P. Y.; Wang, Z.; Grant, R. F.; Arain, A.; Chen, B.; Chen, J.; Coops, N.; Govind, A.; Guindon, L.; Hember, R.; Kurz, W. A.; Peng, C.; Price, D. T.; Stinson, G.; Sun, J.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Projection of carbon stocks in Canada is presently accomplished using CBM-CFS3, an inventory-based model. We have performed a comparison exercise among 6 process-based models of forest growth (Can-IBIS, INTEC, ECOSYS, 3PG, TRIPLEX, CN-CLASS) and CBM-CFS3 as part of an effort to better capture inter-annual climate variability in the carbon accounting of Canada's forests. Comparisons were made on multi-decadal simulations for a Pacific Coastal Douglas-fir forest (2500ha, Oyster River, British Columbia) and a Boreal Black Spruce forest (3825ha, Chibougamau, Quebec). Models were initiated using reconstructions of forest composition and biomass from 1920 (Oyster River, OR) and 1928 (Chibougamau, CH), followed by transition to current forest composition as derived from recent forest inventories (OR 1999, CH 1998). Forest management events and natural disturbances over the simulation period were provided as maps and disturbance impacts on a number of carbon pools were simulated using the same transfer coefficients parameters as CBM-CFS3. Simulations were conducted from 1920 to 2006 for OR, and from 1928 to 1998 for CH. For CH, final above-ground tree biomass in 1998 was also extracted from the independent forest inventory. The coastal OR area initially contained about four times more ecosystem C than the boreal CH area. CBM- CFS3 simulations suggest a decline in ecosystem carbon by about 200 Mg C ha-1, dominated by a loss of biomass and woody debris C, over the 86-year period in OR as the entire area transitioned from coastal old- growth to second growth conditions. In CH, a smaller proportion of the area was affected by management and the CBM-CFS3 estimated a small net increase in total ecosystem C of about 11 Mg C ha-1 over 70 years, almost all attributed to increased biomass. Changes in tree biomass at CH were 10% less than estimates derived by difference between successive inventories. The source of this small simulation bias is attributable to the underlying growth

  5. Research ethics committees in the regulation of clinical research: comparison of Finland to England, Canada, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina

    2016-01-19

    The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized. In Finland, RECs were regulated by a medical research law, whereas in the other countries many related laws and rules guided RECs; drug trials had specific additional rules. In England and the USA, there was a REC control body. In all countries, members were voluntary and included lay-persons, and payment arrangements varied. Patient protection was the main ethics criteria, but other criteria (research advancement, availability of results, payments, detailed fulfilment of legislation) varied. In all countries, RECs had been given administrative duties. Variations by country included the mandate, practical arrangements, handling of multi-site research, explicitness of proportionate handlings, judging scientific quality, time-limits for decisions, following of projects, role in institute protection, handling conflicts of interests, handling of projects without informed consent, and quality assurance research. The division of work between REC members and secretariats varied in checking of formalities. In England, quality assurance of REC work was thorough, fairly thorough in the USA, and not performed in Finland. The work of RECs in the four countries varied notably. Various deficiencies in the system require action, for which international comparison can provide useful insights.

  6. International comparison of common risk factors of preterm birth between the U.S. and Canada, using PRAMS and MES (2005-2006).

    PubMed

    Garn, Joshua V; Nagulesapillai, Tharsiya; Metcalfe, Amy; Tough, Suzanne; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of newborn deaths and morbidities. The pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) from the U.S., and the maternity experiences survey (MES) from Canada, which was modeled from PRAMS, were used to examine between-country differences in risk factors of preterm birth. The adjusted risk ratio and population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated for modifiable and semi-modifiable risk factors of PTB, and all measures were compared between the U.S. and Canada. PTB was defined here as a live singleton birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks gestation (using the clinical gestational age estimate) where the baby was living with the mother at the time of the survey. The PTB risk was 7.6 % (SE = 0.2) in the U.S. and 4.9 % (SE = 0.3) in Canada. The a priori high risk category of factors was almost always more prevalent in the U.S. than Canada, suggesting broad social differences, but individually most of these differences were not associated with PTB. The underlying risk of PTB was generally higher in the U.S. in both the higher risk and referent categories, and the risk ratios for most risk factors were similar between the countries. The primary exception was for recurrence of PTB, where the risk ratio (RR) and PAF were much higher in Canada. We observed between-country differences in both the prevalence of risk factors and the adjusted RR. Further between-country comparisons may lead to important inferences as to the influence of modifiable risk factors contributing to PTB.

  7. International Comparison of Common Risk Factors of Preterm Birth Between the U.S. and Canada, Using PRAMS and MES (2005–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Garn, Joshua V.; Nagulesapillai, Tharsiya; Metcalfe, Amy; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of newborn deaths and morbidities. The pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) from the U.S., and the maternity experiences survey (MES) from Canada, which was modeled from PRAMS, were used to examine between-country differences in risk factors of preterm birth. The adjusted risk ratio and population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated for modifiable and semi-modifiable risk factors of PTB, and all measures were compared between the U.S. and Canada. PTB was defined here as a live singleton birth between 28 and 37 completed weeks gestation (using the clinical gestational age estimate) where the baby was living with the mother at the time of the survey. The PTB risk was 7.6 % (SE = 0.2) in the U.S. and 4.9 % (SE = 0.3) in Canada. The a priori high risk category of factors was almost always more prevalent in the U.S. than Canada, suggesting broad social differences, but individually most of these differences were not associated with PTB. The underlying risk of PTB was generally higher in the U.S. in both the higher risk and referent categories, and the risk ratios for most risk factors were similar between the countries. The primary exception was for recurrence of PTB, where the risk ratio (RR) and PAF were much higher in Canada. We observed between-country differences in both the prevalence of risk factors and the adjusted RR. Further between-country comparisons may lead to important inferences as to the influence of modifiable risk factors contributing to PTB. PMID:25060811

  8. A 2000-yr-long multi-proxy lacustrine record from eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada reveals first millennium AD cold period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Briner, Jason P.; Axford, Yarrow; Francis, Donna R.; Miller, Gifford H.; Walker, Ian R.

    2011-05-01

    We generate a multi-proxy sub-centennial-scale reconstruction of environmental change during the past two millennia from Itilliq Lake, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. Our reconstruction arises from a finely subsectioned 210Pb- and 14C-dated surface sediment core and includes measures of organic matter (e.g., chlorophyll a; carbon-nitrogen ratio) and insect (Diptera: Chironomidae) assemblages. Within the past millennium, the least productive, and by inference coldest, conditions occurred ca. AD 1700-1850, late in the Little Ice Age. The 2000-yr sediment record also reveals an episode of reduced organic matter deposition during the 6th-7th century AD; combined with the few other records comparable in resolution that span this time interval from Baffin Island, we suggest that this cold episode was experienced regionally. A comparable cold climatic episode occurred in Alaska and western Canada at this time, suggesting that the first millennium AD cold climate anomaly may have occurred throughout the Arctic. Dramatic increases in aquatic biological productivity at multiple trophic levels are indicated by increased chlorophyll a concentrations since AD 1800 and chironomid concentrations since AD 1900, both of which have risen to levels unprecedented over the past 2000 yr.

  9. Indians: An Introduction to Canada's Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Hope

    An introduction to Canada Natives briefly identifies the seven different culture areas which existed in Canada before the white man came, and the Indian tribes who lived in those areas. The booklet then gives more extensive description of the history and culture of the Huron (farmers of the Eastern Woodlands), the Blackfoot (Plains), the Ojibwa…

  10. Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

    2009-04-01

    The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

  11. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  12. Comparison of drug coverage in Canada before and after the establishment of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance

    PubMed Central

    Milliken, Debbie; Venkatesh, Jaya; Yu, Rebecca; Su, Zhuo; Thompson, Melissa; Eurich, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine whether establishment of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance (pCPA) was associated with significant changes in drug listing decisions across Canada. Analysis and results This study included drug indications that received a Common Drug Review or pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review listing recommendation within 3 years before (‘pre-PCPA era’ group; n=79) and 3 years after (‘PCPA era’ group; n=91) the pCPA was established in August 2010. At the time of this study (30 April 2014), nine pCPA-participating jurisdictions had listed 35–59% of drug indications in the pre-pCPA era group and a nearly identical range, 36–59%, in the pCPA era group. Within the pCPA-era group, 31 drug indications (34%) had completed pCPA negotiations (‘pCPA negotiation’ subgroup); the jurisdictions had listed 39–77% of these drug indications. Comparison of the pCPA era group to the pre-pCPA era group indicated that the proportion listed did not change significantly in any jurisdiction, and time-to-listing increased significantly in New Brunswick and decreased significantly in Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario. When the pCPA negotiation subgroup was compared to the pre-pCPA era group, the proportion listed increased significantly in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland and Labrador, and time-to-listing increased significantly in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and decreased significantly in Manitoba and Ontario. A sensitivity analysis suggested more favourable results regarding the pCPA's impact. Conclusions While the pCPA might have had a varied effect on time-to-listing, this study's primary analysis did not observe a significant impact on the overall proportion of new drug indications listed across jurisdictions. This may be due to the fact that, at the time of this study, only a limited number of drug indications had completed pCPA negotiations. This study provides a framework for future evaluations of

  13. Comparison of drug coverage in Canada before and after the establishment of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Debbie; Venkatesh, Jaya; Yu, Rebecca; Su, Zhuo; Thompson, Melissa; Eurich, Dean

    2015-09-04

    This study was conducted to determine whether establishment of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance (pCPA) was associated with significant changes in drug listing decisions across Canada. This study included drug indications that received a Common Drug Review or pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review listing recommendation within 3 years before ('pre-PCPA era' group; n=79) and 3 years after ('PCPA era' group; n=91) the pCPA was established in August 2010. At the time of this study (30 April 2014), nine pCPA-participating jurisdictions had listed 35-59% of drug indications in the pre-pCPA era group and a nearly identical range, 36-59%, in the pCPA era group. Within the pCPA-era group, 31 drug indications (34%) had completed pCPA negotiations ('pCPA negotiation' subgroup); the jurisdictions had listed 39-77% of these drug indications. Comparison of the pCPA era group to the pre-pCPA era group indicated that the proportion listed did not change significantly in any jurisdiction, and time-to-listing increased significantly in New Brunswick and decreased significantly in Alberta, Manitoba, and Ontario. When the pCPA negotiation subgroup was compared to the pre-pCPA era group, the proportion listed increased significantly in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Newfoundland and Labrador, and time-to-listing increased significantly in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and decreased significantly in Manitoba and Ontario. A sensitivity analysis suggested more favourable results regarding the pCPA's impact. While the pCPA might have had a varied effect on time-to-listing, this study's primary analysis did not observe a significant impact on the overall proportion of new drug indications listed across jurisdictions. This may be due to the fact that, at the time of this study, only a limited number of drug indications had completed pCPA negotiations. This study provides a framework for future evaluations of the pCPA's impact as it continues to evolve. Published by the

  14. Comparison of Lamiaceae medicinal uses in eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia and in Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium of Simple Medicaments (13th century CE).

    PubMed

    El-Gharbaoui, Asmae; Benítez, Guillermo; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Merzouki, Abderrahmane

    2017-04-18

    Transmission of traditional knowledge over time and across culturally and historically related territories is an important topic in ethnopharmacology. Here, we contribute to this knowledge by analysing data on medicinal uses in two neighbouring areas of the Western Mediterranean in relation to a historical text that has been scarcely mentioned in historical studies despite its interest. This paper discusses the sharing of popular knowledge on the medicinal uses of plants between eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia (Spain), focusing on one of the most useful plant families in the Mediterranean area: Lamiaceae. Moreover, we used the classical work of Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE) The Compendium of Simple Medicaments and Foods as a basis to contrast the possible link of this information, analysing the influence of this historical text on current popular tradition of medicinal plant use in both territories. For data collection, we performed ethnobotanical field research in the eastern part of Morocco, recording current medicinal uses for the Lamiaceae. In addition, we systematically reviewed the ethnobotanical literature from eastern Andalusia, developing a database. We investigated the possible historical link of the shared uses and included in this database the information from Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium. To compare the similarity and diversity of the data, we used Jaccard's similarity index. Our field work provided ethnobotanical information for 14 Lamiaceae species with 95 medicinal uses, serving to treat 13 different pathological groups. Of the total uses recorded in Morocco, 30.5% were shared by eastern Andalusia and found in Ibn al-Baytar's work. There was a higher similarity when comparing current uses of the geographically close territories of eastern Morocco and eastern Andalucía (64%) than for eastern Morocco and this historical text (43%). On the other hand, coincidences between current uses in eastern Andalusia and the ones related in the Compendium

  15. Mesozooplankton stable isotope composition in Cyprus coastal waters and comparison with the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Frangoulis, Constantin; Lange, Manfred A.

    2015-03-01

    Here we use bulk and amino acid-specific stable nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) to evaluate seasonal and regional change in mesozooplankton dynamics for the first time in coastal waters of the eastern Mediterranean. Cyprus mesozooplankton δ15N values were significantly higher in late winter (2.3‰) than in summer (1.2‰), and in all cases were less than the δ15N values of mesozooplankton in the northeast Aegean Sea (NEA; 3.4‰). AA-CSIA indicates that these differences can primarily be attributed to seasonal and regional change in mesozooplankton community trophic structure, with overall trophic position increasing by 0.2-0.3 in winter as compared to summer around Cyprus, and trophic position higher in the NEA than in Cyprus by 0.3-0.6. Such differences are most likely related to the larger contribution of carnivorous mesozooplankton observed in winter around Cyprus and in the NEA. Overall, our findings indicate change in bulk mesozooplankton δ15N value in the eastern Mediterranean is primarily driven by change in community trophic position, rather than variability in δ15N value at the base of the food web.

  16. A risk assessment approach to DDE exposure based on the case of the eastern screech-owl (Megascops asio) in apple orchards of southern Quebec,Canada.

    PubMed

    Richards, N L; Mineau, P; Bird, D M

    2005-10-01

    As part of a larger study assessing exposure of the Eastern screech-owl to pesticides in apple orchards from consumption of contaminated small-mammal prey, we evaluated the potential for owls in orchards of southern Quebec to be exposed to persistent contaminants with emphasis on DDE. Levels were highest in short-tailed shrews (0.94 to 26.29 microg/g wet wt). Based on a worst-case scenario, it is possible that consumption of small-mammal prey in orchards of the study area may result in exposure to DDE at a level associated with significant eggshell thinning; however, consumption of other prey, (e.g., robins) may represent a more important threat. Other organochlorines and persistent contaminants such as trace metals and PCBs, reported elsewhere, were found at negligible levels only. Based on an evaluation of the data used, we identify critical information required to enhance the proposed risk assessment.

  17. Comparison of low flows from the VIC hydrological model with observations for the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Sheffield, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is a land surface hydrological model that simulates daily discharge flows and is used to for understanding and predicting the development and recovery of drought and its impacts, among other things. The ability of the model to accurately represent low flows is central to the development of prediction and early warning systems, as well as for decision-making for water management. In this study we compared VIC simulated streamflow over the eastern US with observed 1-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day low flows, each of which has importance for a different aspect of water use, including water quality standards and reservoir operations. An initial set of 508 USGS observational sites were selected with data ranging from 1959 to 2005. We used a decomposition algorithm to identify those sites with significant step changes (detected by the Pettitt test), and significant autocorrelation (detected by the Ljung-Box test). We removed such sites from further analysis and used the remaining sites for validation of the VIC model. The number of the remaining sites for 1-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day low flows were 395, 433, 453, and 467, respectively. To account for potentially different low flow dates between observations and model, a 4-month window was used for detecting the onset of the low flow periods. A hypothesis test was performed to evaluate how well the model explains the variability of observed low flows (regression analysis). Our results showed that the VIC model in its current state of calibration has the highest regression coefficient with sites that show no trends based on the Mann-Kendall test. The observed data in the northeast and the southeast of the eastern US show an increasing and decreasing trend, respectively, in the size of n-day low flows. The regression model is also consistent with the USGS land use change map over 1973-2000, which indicates deforestation in the northeast and southeast from timber harvesting

  18. A comparison of Holocene fluctuations of the eastern and western margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, L.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowell, T. V.; Hall, B. L.; Applegate, P. J.; Howley, J.; Axford, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Determining how the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) responded to past temperature fluctuations is important for assessing its future stability in a changing climate. We present a record of the Holocene extents of the western GrIS margin near Kangerlussuaq (67.0°N, 50.7°W) and compare this with the past fluctuations of Bregne ice cap (71°N, 25.6° W), a small ice cap in the Scoresby Sund region 90 km from the eastern GrIS margin, to examine the mechanisms that influenced past ice margin fluctuations. The past extents of the Bregne ice cap are a proxy for the climatic conditions that influenced the nearby GrIS margin. We used glacial geomorphic mapping, 10Be dating of boulders and bedrock, and sediment cores from proglacial and non-glacial lakes. In western Greenland, 10Be ages on the Keglen moraines, 13 km west of the current GrIS margin and the Ørkendalen moraines, ≤2 km west of the current ice margin date to 7.3 × 0.1 ka (n=6) and 6.8 × 0.3 ka (n=9), respectively. Fresh moraines, ≤50 m from the current ice margin date to AD 1830-1950 and are likely associated with advances during the Little Ice Age (LIA). In some areas, the LIA moraines lie stratigraphically above the Ørkendalen moraines, indicating the GrIS was inboard of the Ørkendalen limit from 6.8 ka to the 20th century. In eastern Greenland, 10Be ages show that Bregne ice cap retreated within its late Holocene limit by 10.7 ka. A lack of clastic sediment in a proglacial lake suggests the ice cap was smaller or completely absent from ~10-2.6 ka. A snowline analysis indicates that temperatures ~0.5°C warmer than present would render the entire ice cap into an ablation zone. Glacial silts in the proglacial lake at ~2.6 and ~1.9 cal kyr BP to present indicate advances of Bregne ice cap. Fresh moraines ≤200 m of Bregne ice cap were deposited ≤2.6 cal kyr BP and mark the largest advance of the Holocene. Both the western GrIS margin and Bregne ice cap were influenced by Northern Hemisphere summer

  19. Comparison of Buprenorphine and Butorphanol Analgesia in the Eastern Red-Spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The experimental use of amphibian models in biomedical research increases yearly, but there is a paucity of reports concerning analgesic use in many of these species. In this study, buprenorphine given by intracoelomic injection and butorphanol added to the tank water were compared for analgesic effect in the eastern red-spotted newt after bilateral forelimb amputations. Newts undergoing anesthesia but not surgery and newts having surgery but not given analgesia postoperatively were used as control groups. Animals were tested for food consumption, spontaneous movement, response to tapping on the tank, response to being touched, and body posture. Both buprenorphine by intracoelomic injection and butorphanol in tank water significantly promoted resumption of normal behavior after bilateral surgical amputation of the forelimbs. The difference between analgesic treatment and no analgesic treatment was maintained until 72 h after surgery. PMID:19383214

  20. Winter-time variability of the eastern Arabian Sea: A comparison between 2003 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvekar, Jayu; D'Mello, Joshua Rosario; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Banerjee, Priyanka; Sharma, Vrinda; Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi

    2017-06-01

    The eastern Arabian Sea (EAS) is a region of complex interplay between several spatially and temporally varying oceanographic processes. Using two sets of in situ data collected from the same stations, separated by a decade, we show that warming and cooling in the EAS were linked to the long-term variability of this region. Though the warming in the southern part of EAS was consistent with the basin-wide rise in sea surface temperature in the Arabian Sea (AS), the enhanced freshening was a remote response to episodic events mediated by the strengthening of interbasin exchange between Bay of Bengal and AS through East India Coastal Current and West India Coastal Current. The increased stratification in the southern part of EAS led to the decline in the chlorophyll over the decade. In contrast, enhanced chlorophyll in the northern part of the EAS over the decade was linked to the increased wind speed.

  1. The Academic Takes It All? A Comparison of Returns to Investment in Education between Graduates and Apprentices in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopatz, Susanne; Pilz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the returns to education of specific occupations in Canada. The purpose is to scrutinize whether and in how far academic and vocational education do differ in monetary benefits regarding individual returns. Therefore, two different methodologies of calculation are used to compute the concrete returns to education. As a result…

  2. Site index comparisons for forest species in the Upper Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada

    Treesearch

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn; Ronald E. McRoberts; D. Kaisershot

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes six studies that compare site index relations between 24 hardwood and conifer species in the Upper Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada. These six studies have many regression models and graphs for comparing site index between forest species thus providing tools for estimating site index for alternative tree species based on direct...

  3. Canada and the United States--Government and Political Parties--A Comparison. A Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    In this Learning Activity Packet (LAP) students, mostly in small groups, analyze and compare a few major features of the Canadian and American governments. The LAP is divided into six learning objectives: 1) Both the United States and Canada are sovereign nations. What is sovereignty? What are nations?; 2) People throughout the world are governed…

  4. Recent peat accumulation rates in minerotrophic peatlands of the Bay James region, Eastern Canada, inferred by 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam A; Ghaleb, Bassam; Garneau, Michelle; Asnong, Hans; Loisel, Julie

    2008-10-01

    (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques are used to characterise recent peat accumulation rates of two minerotrophic peatlands located in the La Grande Rivière hydrological watershed, in the James Bay region (Canada). Several cores were collected during the summer 2005 in different parts of the two selected peatlands. These minerotrophic patterned peatlands are presently affected by erosion processes, expressed by progressive mechanical destruction of their pools borders. This erosion process is related to a water table rise induced by a regional increase of humidity since the last century. The main objective of the present paper is to (1) evaluate if (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating techniques can be applied to build accurate chronologies in these environments and (2) detect changes in the peat accumulation rates in regard to this amplification of humidity. In both sites, unsupported (210)Pb shows an exponential decreasing according to the depth. Chronologies inferred from (210)Pb allow to reconstruct peat accumulation rates since ca. 1855 AD. The (137)Cs data displayed evident mobility and diffusion, preventing the establishment of any sustained chronology based on these measurements. In the two sites, peat accumulation rates inferred from (210)Pb chronologies fluctuate between 0.005 and 0.038 g cm(-2) yr(-1). As a result, the rise of the water table during the last decade has not yet affected peat accumulation rates.

  5. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  6. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  7. Br/Cl ratios and O, H, C, and B isotopic constraints on the origin of saline waters from eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leybourne, M. I.; Goodfellow, W. D.

    2007-05-01

    Saline groundwaters were recovered from undisturbed (Restigouche deposit) and active (Brunswick #12 mine) Zn-Pb volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bathurst Mining Camp (BMC), northern New Brunswick, Canada. These groundwaters, along with fresh to brackish meteoric ground and surface waters from the BMC, have been analyzed to determine their major, trace element and stable isotopic (O, H, C, and B) compositions. Saline groundwaters (total dissolved solids = 22-45 g/L) are characterized by relatively high Na/Ca ratios compared to brines from the Canadian Shield and low Na/Cl molar and δ11B isotopic compositions (-2.5‰ to 11.1‰) compared to seawater. Although saline waters from the Canadian Shield commonly have oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions that plot to the left of the global meteoric water line, those from the BMC fall close to the water line. Fracture and vein carbonate minerals at the Restigouche deposit have restricted carbon isotopic compositions of around -5‰ to -6‰. The carbon isotopic compositions of the saline waters at the Restigouche deposit (+12‰ δ13C DIC) are the result of fractionation of dissolved inorganic carbon by methanogenesis. We suggest that, unlike previous models for shield brines, the composition of saline waters in the BMC is best explained by prolonged water-rock reaction, with no requirement of precursor seawater. We suggest that elevated Br/Cl ratios of saline waters compared to seawater may be explained by differential uptake of Br and Cl during groundwater evolution through water-rock reaction.

  8. Geophysical investigation and reconstruction of lithospheric structure and its control on geology, structure, and mineralization in the Cordillera of northern Canada and eastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, N.

    2015-10-01

    A reconstruction of the Tintina fault is applied to regional geophysical and topographic data, facilitating the definition of west trending lineaments within the lower crust and/or mantle lithosphere, oblique to the NW trending structure of the Cordilleran terranes. The lineaments, which exhibit a range of geophysical and geological signatures, are interpreted to be related to the Liard transfer zone, continuous to the Denali fault, that divided lower and upper plates during late Proterozoic-Cambrian rifting of the Laurentian margin. Three-dimensional gravity models show a density increase in the lower crust and mantle lithosphere to the north. The transfer zone also divides bimodal mantle xenolith suites to the south from unimodal suites to the north. These conclusions suggest that extended North American basement, related to Laurentian margin rifting that would have brought mantle lithosphere rocks to a shallow depth, continuously underlies a thin carapace of accreted terranes in western Yukon and eastern Alaska. The interpreted continuity of North American basement reaffirms that if oroclinal bending of the Intermontane terranes occurred, then it was prior to its emplacement upon the rifted basement. Examination of the spatial relationships between mineral occurrences and postaccretionary, Cretaceous lithospheric lineaments, from their manifestation in geophysical, geological, and topographic data, suggest that the late Proterozoic lineaments influenced Mesozoic mineralization through influence on the development of the shallow crustal structure, intrusion, and exhumation and erosion.

  9. Impact of public funding on the development of nanotechnology: A comparison of Quebec, Canada and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmooresnejad, Leila

    Nanotechnology is considered to be the most promising high technology of this century. Worldwide investment in this technology has rapidly increased in the past two decades, and it will likely drive future economic growth. Research in this new science-based technology requires significant public funding to facilitate knowledge production, reduce related uncertainties and risks, and ensure the success of nanotechnology development. Given its potential in a wide range of domains, governments and policymakers have sought to efficiently allocate funding to maximize economic benefits. It is therefore essential to further our understanding of how public funding influences research performance. The main purpose of this thesis is to analyze the impact of public funding on nanotechnology development, with a special focus on scientific and technological research outputs. The research objectives are twofold: we first seek to examine this funding influence, and second to explore the impact of collaboration and related scientific and innovative networks on nanotechnology development. Afterwards, our goal is to compare the impact of funding and of nanotechnology collaborative networks between Canada and the US on scientific and technological research outputs. This research deals with the prominent outputs of academic research, publications and patents, and characterizes collaborative networks using the co-publication and co-invention links between scientists and inventors. This thesis contributes significantly to the following research questions: how increased public funding to nanotechnology scientists enhances nanotechnology-related publications and patents in terms of (a) number and (b) quality? Are researchers who hold a more influential network position in co-publication/co-invention networks more productive and more cited? Is the influence of public funding on nanotechnology research different in Canada compared with the US? To answer these questions, information about

  10. A comparison of molecular markers and morphology for Neidium taxa (Bacillariophyta) from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Keely E; Hamilton, Paul B; Pick, Frances R

    2017-06-01

    Historically, a morphological species concept has applied shape subjectively in the delimitation of diatom species. This has led to confusion between taxa within the benthic diatom genus Neidium. Samples from Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland (Canada) and New York (USA) were examined for Neidium taxa under LM and SEM. Fourier shape analysis showed that shape as a taxonomic character was not able to discern all species. Isolated individuals from the samples were amplified and sequenced for three chloroplast molecular markers (rbcL, psbC, and psbA) and one nuclear ribosomal molecular marker (18S). Phylogenetic reconstructions were completed with the concatenated chloroplast and 18S dataset using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The concatenated chloroplast dataset exhibited a species-level resolution phylogeny of Neidium taxa. The 18S dataset had a lower level of sequence divergence and was unable to differentiate between Neidium taxa. We present emended species descriptions and sequence data for four previously described species: Neidium sacoense, N. longiceps, N. fossum, and N. affine. We describe three novel species (Neidium lowei, N. promontorium, and N. potapovae) and identify two forms with unique molecular signatures. The distinguishing features of N. lowei are its size, valve shape, and longitudinal canal structure. Distinguishing features of N. promontorium are its valve shape, longitudinal canal and apex formation, and surface depression along the axial area. Neidium potapovae is distinguished by its size, formation of valve and apices and single longitudinal canal. This paper demonstrates how future phylogenetic treatments using single cell multigene sequencing can help resolve taxonomic confusion within diatoms. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Carbonate comparison of west Florida continental margin with margins of eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Temperate carbonate margins may have as many similarities to clastic margins as to other carbonate systems. An example is the west Florida continental margin north of Florida Bay, a vast area of more than 150,000 km/sup 2/. The facies of this area differ from those of other Holocene carbonates, such as the Bahama Banks, the Great Barrier Reef, and the Caribbean and Pacific bioherms. The west Florida margin is analogous to the predominantly clastic southeastern US in both physiology and sedimentary processes. The shelf facies is a veneer of carbonate sand, primarily molluscan shell fragments, with low sedimentation rates. It is similar to the southeastern US sand veneer with the clastic component removed. Like the US system, the west Florida shelf has a ridge and swale topography replete with sedimentary structures, such as sand waves, with a series of drainage systems incised into its surface at lower stands of sea level. On the outer edge, it is commonly bounded by outcrops with considerable positive relief. The upper slope of the west Florida margin is a calcilutite, a Holocene chalk deposit accumulating at rates of tens of centimeters/1000 years, comparable to the clastic lutite depositional rates of the eastern US continental slope, and two orders of magnitude higher than deep-sea oozes of similar composition. These relatively high rates are probably caused by fines pumped from and across the coarser shelf-sand sheets in both systems.

  12. Influences of sea ice on the Eastern Bering Sea: NCAR CESM simulations and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Curchitser, Enrique; Ladd, Carol; Stabeno, Phyllis; Wang, Muyin

    2014-11-01

    We examine the influences of sea ice on the Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) regional oceanography on seasonal and inter-annual time scales using the National Center for Atmospheric Research-Community Earth System Model (NCAR CESM) simulations, comparing the modeling results with satellite and in situ observations when possible. While the modeled mean seasonal cycle of ice cover in the EBS middle shelf is generally within the uncertainty range of satellite observations, in the northern domain (north of 59°N), the simulation reaches its annual maximum in April instead of in March, as observed by satellite remote sensing; modeled ice reduction in late spring in the region is also slower than observations. Despite this bias, the simulation captures the observed seasonal transit of freshwater from the north to the south via ice advection; en route, the sea ice melts, cooling and freshening the local water column. On inter-annual time scales, modeling results suggest that extensive ice cover persisting into spring in the central EBS leads to cold anomalies in the bottom water, especially on the middle and inner shelves of the southern domain. The corresponding salinity anomalies are positive in the northern coastal domain, and weak but negative in the southern middle shelf. The associated 10-m ocean current anomalies are southward on the shelf and directed offshore in the slope region. Comparing years 1961-2005 versus years 2005-2050, the Probability Distribution Function of ice cover on the EBS middle shelf shifts northward by ~2° latitude.

  13. Comparison of tobacco control policies in the Eastern Mediterranean countries based on Tobacco Control Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M

    2012-08-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region.

  14. Geophysical Investigation and Reconstruction of Lithospheric Structure and its Control on Geology, Structure and Mineralisation in the Cordillera of Northern Canada and Eastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, N.

    2015-12-01

    A reconstruction of the Tintina fault is applied to regional gravity, aeromagnetic and topographic data, facilitating the definition of E-W trending lineaments within the lower crust and/or mantle lithosphere, oblique to the dominantly NW-trending structure of the Cordilleran terranes. The lineaments, which are continuous to the Denali fault, exhibit a range of geophysical and geological signatures. They are interpreted to be related to the Liard transfer zone that divided lower and upper plates during late Proterozoic-Cambrian rifting of the Laurentian margin. Density models derived from the 3-D inversion of reconstructed gravity data reflect a change from NW-trending structure in the upper to middle crust, to E-W trending structure below. These deeper structures are associated with a small increase in the density of the lower crust and mantle lithosphere to the north. The transfer zone also divides bimodal mantle xenolith suites, derived from late Tertiary to Recent alkaline basalts, to the south from unimodal suites to the north. These conclusions suggest that extended North American basement, related to Laurentian margin rifting, that would have brought mantle lithosphere rocks to a shallow depth, continuously underlies a thin carapace of accreted terranes in western Yukon and eastern Alaska. The interpreted continuity of North American basement reaffirms that if oroclinal bending of the Intermontane terranes occurred, then it was prior to its emplacement upon the rifted basement. Examination of the spatial relationships between mineral occurrences and post-accretionary, Cretaceous lithospheric lineaments, from their manifestation in geophysical, geological, and topographic data, suggests that the late Proterozoic lineaments influenced Mesozoic mineralization through influence on the development of the shallow crustal structure, intrusion, and exhumation and erosion.

  15. Spatially explicit simulation of hydrologically controlled carbon and nitrogen cycles and associated feedback mechanisms in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, A.; Chen, J. M.; Margolis, H.

    2007-12-01

    Current estimates of terrestrial carbon overlook the effects of topographically-driven lateral flow of soil water. We hypothesize that this component, which occur at a landscape or watershed scale have significant influences on the spatial distribution of carbon, due to its large contribution to the local water balance. To this end, we further developed a spatially explicit ecohydrological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0. We simulated the coupled hydrological and carbon cycle processes in a black spruce-moss ecosystem in central Quebec, Canada. The carbon stocks were initialized using a long term carbon cycling model, InTEC, under a climate change and disturbance scenario, the accuracy of which was determined with inventory plot measurements. Further, we simulated and validated several ecosystem indicators such as ET, GPP, NEP, water table, snow depth and soil temperature, using the measurements for two years, 2004 and 2005. After gaining confidence in the model's ability to simulate ecohydrological processes, we tested the influence of lateral water flow on the carbon cycle. We made three hydrological modeling scenarios 1) Explicit, were realistic lateral water routing was considered 2) Implicit where calculations were based on a bucket modeling approach 3) NoFlow, where the lateral water flow was turned off in the model. The results showed that pronounced anomalies exist among the scenarios for the simulated GPP, ET and NEP. In general, Implicit calculation overestimated GPP and underestimated NEP, as opposed to Explicit simulation. NoFlow underestimated GPP and overestimated NEP. The key processes controlling GPP were manifested through stomatal conductance which reduces under conditions of rapid soil saturation ( NoFlow ) or increases in the Implicit case, and, nitrogen availability which affects Vcmax, the maximum carboxylation rate. However, for NEP, the anomalies were attributed to differences in soil carbon pool decomposition, which determine the heterotrophic

  16. Paleo-environmental gateways in the eastern Canadian arctic - Recent isotope hydrology and diatom oxygen isotopes from Nettilling Lake, Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapligin, B.; Narancic, B.; Meyer, H.; Pienitz, R.

    2016-09-01

    Nettilling Lake is located on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada between the areas of past warming (Canadian High Arctic to the North) and climatic stability (Northern Quebec and Labrador region to the South). Despite being the largest lake in the Nunavut region with a postglacial marine to lacustrine transition history only a few paleo-environmental investigations were completed in this area. The oxygen isotope composition of diatoms (δ18Odiatom) can provide valuable insights into paleo-environmental conditions. Here, the recent (isotope) hydrology and hydrochemical data from the lake are presented to facilitate the interpretation of a δ18Odiatom record from an 82 cm sediment core (Ni-2B). The well-mixed lake (δ18Owater = -17.4‰) is influenced by a heavier (less negative) isotope composition (-18.80‰) from Amadjuak River draining Amadjuak Lake to the South and water of lighter (more negative) isotopic composition (-16.4‰) from the Isurtuq River originating from Penny Ice Cap in the North-East. From the δ18Owater and δ18Odiatom of the topmost sample of core Ni-2B a Δ18Osilica-water of 1000 ln α(silica-water) = 40.2‰ for sub-recent diatoms of Nettilling Lake was calculated matching the known water-silica fractionation for fossil sediments well and thereby showing the general applicability of this proxy for paleo-reconstructions in this region. Extremely large δ18Odiatom variations in the core of more than 13‰ are mainly induced by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water due to a shift from glaciomarine (δ18Odiatom = +34.6‰) through brackish (+23.4 to +27.2‰) towards lacustrine (+21.5‰) conditions (transition zones glaciomarine to brackish at 69 cm/7300 yr cal. BP and brackish to lacustrine at 35 cm/6000 yr cal. BP) associated with a shift in the degree of salinity. Our study provides the first evidence that paleo-salinity can be reconstructed by δ18Odiatom. Additionally, for the lacustrine section it could be demonstrated that

  17. Climate variability and management impacts on carbon uptake in a temperate pine forest in Eastern Canada using flux data from 2003 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M. A.; Brodeur, J. J.; Thorne, R.; Peichl, M.; Huang, S.; Khomik, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperate forests play an important role in global carbon cycle. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of climate variability and management regime on carbon uptake in a 75-year old temperate pine (Pinus strobus L.) forest, near Lake Erie in southern Ontario, Canada using eleven years (2003 to 2013) of eddy covariance flux data. These fluxes are compared with similar measurements made in an 80-year-old deciduous (Carolinian) forest, established in 2012. Both forests are managed stands and part of the Turkey Point Flux Station and global Fluxnet. Mean net ecosystem productivity, NEP, in the conifer stand is 145 (range 35 to 277) g C m2 y-1 over the 2003 to 2013 period, while mean NEP in the deciduous stand is 271 (226 and 317) g C m2 y-1 from 2012 to 2013. The study period experienced four distinct extreme weather patterns: warm and dry springs in 2005 and 2012, extremely wet and warm summer in 2006, a summer drought in 2007 and warm summers in 2010 and 2012. In February-March 2012, the conifer stand was selectively thinned and approximately 30% of trees were removed to improve light and water availability and stimulate growth of remaining trees. Thinning reduced NEP in the first post-thinning year, with mean annual NEP of 48 g C m2 y-1 in 2012. Increased supply of dead organic matter and warm temperatures in 2012 increased ecosystem respiration much more than photosynthesis, resulting in lower annual NEP. Heat stress and drought in spring of 2005 reduced NEP of the conifer stand to 35 g C m2 y-1. The impact of this extreme weather event on NEP was similar to that observed in 2012 when the stand experienced a drastic structural change, a dry spring and warm temperatures throughout the growing season. Observed fluxes from this forest and other Fluxnet sites were used to develop and validate a C and N coupled dynamic vegetation model, CLASS-CTEM-N that was applied to simulate terrestrial ecosystem's carbon, water and energy budgets at 0.5 x 0.5 degree spatial

  18. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile.

    PubMed

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Waldenström, Jonas; Svensson, Lovisa; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin´s gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds.

  19. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Svensson, Lovisa; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin´s gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds. PMID:26496629

  20. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  1. Comparison of policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture in the Eastern Mancha aquifer (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, S.; Llopis-Albert, C.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Stalder, A.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Henriquez-Dole, L.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture has given rise to different legal frameworks. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is the most recent one. This work aims to help in the definition of the most cost-efficient policy to control non-point groundwater to attain the objectives established in the WFD. In this study we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of different policies for controlling groundwater nitrate pollution from agriculture. The policies considered were taxes on nitrogen fertilizers, water price, taxes on emissions and fertilizer standards. We used a hydro-economic model, where we maximized the farmer's benefits. The benefits were calculated as sum of crop revenue minus variable and fixed cost per hectare minus the damage costs from nitrogen leaching. In the cost-effectiveness analysis we considered the costs as the reduction on benefits due to the application of a policy and the effectiveness the reduction on nitrate leaching. The methodology was applied to Eastern Mancha aquifer in Spain. The aquifer is part of the Júcar River Basin, which was declared as EU Pilot Basin in 2002 for the implementation of the WFD. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has provoked a steady decline of groundwater levels and a reduction of groundwater discharged into the Júcar River, as well as nitrate concentrations higher than those allowed by the WFD at certain locations (above 100 mg/l.). Crop revenue was calculated using production functions and the amount of nitrate leached was estimated by calibrated leaching functions. These functions were obtained by using an agronomic model (a GIS version of EPIC, GEPIC), and they depend on the water and the fertilizer use. The Eastern Mancha System was divided into zones of homogeneous crop production and nitrate leaching properties. Given the different soil types and climatic

  2. A geographical comparison of mercury in seabirds in the eastern Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Gaston, Anthony J; Grant Gilchrist, H; Mallory, Mark L; Provencher, Jennifer F

    2014-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a potentially toxic metal ubiquitous in arctic biota. Livers of adult thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) sampled from several locations in the eastern Canadian Arctic during 2007-2008 were analyzed for total Hg in order to assess geographical patterns. Thick-billed murres were collected from five colonies (Coats Island, Digges Island, Akpatok Island, Prince Leopold Island, Minarets) and northern fulmars from two colonies (Prince Leopold Island, Minarets). Murres at the two high Arctic colonies of Prince Leopold Island and the Minarets had significantly higher (two-fold) Hg concentrations (4.13 ± 019 μg g(-1) dw and 4.41 ± 0.33 μg g(-1) dw, respectively) than at the three low Arctic colonies (colony means of 1.62, 1.99 and 2.15 μg g(-1) dw). The differences in Hg concentrations observed between high and low Arctic murre colonies may reflect a combination of different source regions for Hg, as well as a recent dietary shift among low Arctic murres. Fulmars from Prince Leopold Island had significantly higher Hg levels (6.99 ± 1.13 μg g(-1) dw) than those from the Minarets (3.42 ± 0.53 μg g(-1) dw) which may reflect different Hg deposition and methylation patterns on both summer and winter feeding areas. Although there is no evidence linking Hg to adverse population effects in either murres or fulmars at the colonies sampled, levels in some Canadian Arctic marine birds have increased over recent decades and, therefore, continued monitoring, particularly of the high Arctic colonies, is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of quality control for trauma management between Western and Eastern European trauma center.

    PubMed

    Calderale, Stefano Massimiliano; Sandru, Raluca; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone; Beuran, Mircea; Ribaldi, Sergio; Coletti, Massimo; Gambale, Giorgio; Paun, Sorin; Russo, Livio; Baldoni, Franco

    2008-11-19

    Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings.

  4. Lanternfish (Myctophidae) zoogeography off eastern Australia: a comparison with physicochemical biogeography.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Adrian J; Marshall, N Justin

    2013-01-01

    In this first attempt to model the distributions of a mesopelagic fish family at this scale in the eastern Australian region (10°S to 57°S), lanternfish species occurrence data spanning a period from 1928 to 2010 were modelled against environmental covariates. This involved: (1) data collation and taxonomic quality checking, (2) classification of trawls into "horizontal" (presence-absence) and "oblique" (presence-only) types, and classification of vertical migration patterns using existing literature and the species occurrence database, (3) binomial GAMs using presence-absence data for representative temperate, subtropical and tropical species to examine depth interactions with environmental covariates and refine the selection of environmental layers for presence-only MAXENT models, (4) Presence-only MAXENT modelling using data from all trawls and the reduced environmental layers, and (5) Multivariate analysis (area-wise and species-wise) of the resulting matrix of logistic score by geographic pixel. We test the hypothesis that major fronts in the region (Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence, Subantarctic Front) represent zoogeographic boundaries. A four-region zoogeographic scheme is hypothesised: Coral Sea region, Subtropical Lower Water region, Subtropical Convergence/South Tasman region and Subantarctic region. The Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence and Subantarctic Front represented zoogeographic boundaries. An additional boundary at ∼25°S (coined the 'Capricorn' boundary) was adopted to delineate the Coral Sea from Subtropical Lower Water regions. Lanternfish zoogeographic regions are congruent with some aspects of two prevailing physicochemical biogeographic schema in the region, but neither of these schema alone accurately predicts lanternfish distributions. As lanternfishes integrate vertical ocean processes, the hypothesised lanternfish zoogeography may represent a useful model for a generalised pelagic biogeography that should be tested for

  5. Lanternfish (Myctophidae) Zoogeography off Eastern Australia: A Comparison with Physicochemical Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Adrian J.; Marshall, N. Justin

    2013-01-01

    In this first attempt to model the distributions of a mesopelagic fish family at this scale in the eastern Australian region (10°S to 57°S), lanternfish species occurrence data spanning a period from 1928 to 2010 were modelled against environmental covariates. This involved: (1) data collation and taxonomic quality checking, (2) classification of trawls into “horizontal” (presence-absence) and “oblique” (presence-only) types, and classification of vertical migration patterns using existing literature and the species occurrence database, (3) binomial GAMs using presence-absence data for representative temperate, subtropical and tropical species to examine depth interactions with environmental covariates and refine the selection of environmental layers for presence-only MAXENT models, (4) Presence-only MAXENT modelling using data from all trawls and the reduced environmental layers, and (5) Multivariate analysis (area-wise and species-wise) of the resulting matrix of logistic score by geographic pixel. We test the hypothesis that major fronts in the region (Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence, Subantarctic Front) represent zoogeographic boundaries. A four-region zoogeographic scheme is hypothesised: Coral Sea region, Subtropical Lower Water region, Subtropical Convergence/South Tasman region and Subantarctic region. The Tasman Front, Subtropical Convergence and Subantarctic Front represented zoogeographic boundaries. An additional boundary at ∼25°S (coined the ‘Capricorn’ boundary) was adopted to delineate the Coral Sea from Subtropical Lower Water regions. Lanternfish zoogeographic regions are congruent with some aspects of two prevailing physicochemical biogeographic schema in the region, but neither of these schema alone accurately predicts lanternfish distributions. As lanternfishes integrate vertical ocean processes, the hypothesised lanternfish zoogeography may represent a useful model for a generalised pelagic biogeography that should be

  6. Comparison of culture versus quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis in field samples from naturally infected horses in Canada and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Nadin-Davis, Susan; Knowles, Margaret K.; Burke, Teresa; Böse, Reinhard; Devenish, John

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) was developed and tested for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis. It was shown to have an analytical sensitivity of 5 colony-forming units (CFU) of T. equigenitalis when applied to the testing of culture swabs that mimicked field samples, and a high analytical specificity in not reacting to 8 other commensal bacterial species associated with horses. As designed, it could also differentiate specifically between T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis. The qPCR was compared to standard culture in a study that included 45 swab samples from 6 horses (1 stallion, 5 mares) naturally infected with T. equigenitalis in Canada, 39 swab samples from 5 naturally infected stallions in Germany, and 311 swab samples from 87 culture negative horses in Canada. When the comparison was conducted on an individual sample swab basis, the qPCR had a statistical sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% and 99.1% when the comparison was conducted on a sample set basis. A comparison was also made on 203 sample swabs from the 5 German stallions taken over a span of 4 to 9 mo following antibiotic treatment. The qPCR was found to be highly sensitive and at least as good as culture in detecting the presence of T. equigenitalis in post-treatment samples. The work demonstrates that the qPCR assay described here can potentially be used to detect the presence of T. equigenitalis directly from submitted sample swabs taken from infected horses and also for determining T. equigenitalis freedom following treatment. PMID:26130847

  7. Comparison of culture versus quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis in field samples from naturally infected horses in Canada and Germany.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan; Knowles, Margaret K; Burke, Teresa; Böse, Reinhard; Devenish, John

    2015-07-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) was developed and tested for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis. It was shown to have an analytical sensitivity of 5 colony-forming units (CFU) of T. equigenitalis when applied to the testing of culture swabs that mimicked field samples, and a high analytical specificity in not reacting to 8 other commensal bacterial species associated with horses. As designed, it could also differentiate specifically between T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis. The qPCR was compared to standard culture in a study that included 45 swab samples from 6 horses (1 stallion, 5 mares) naturally infected with T. equigenitalis in Canada, 39 swab samples from 5 naturally infected stallions in Germany, and 311 swab samples from 87 culture negative horses in Canada. When the comparison was conducted on an individual sample swab basis, the qPCR had a statistical sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% and 99.1% when the comparison was conducted on a sample set basis. A comparison was also made on 203 sample swabs from the 5 German stallions taken over a span of 4 to 9 mo following antibiotic treatment. The qPCR was found to be highly sensitive and at least as good as culture in detecting the presence of T. equigenitalis in post-treatment samples. The work demonstrates that the qPCR assay described here can potentially be used to detect the presence of T. equigenitalis directly from submitted sample swabs taken from infected horses and also for determining T. equigenitalis freedom following treatment.

  8. Sediment transport processes at the head of Halibut Canyon, Eastern Canada margin: An interplay between internal tides and dense shelf water cascading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Pere; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Li, Michael Z.; Prescott, Robert H.; Piper, David J. W.

    2013-04-01

    during one or two tidal cycles. A similar transport mechanism can occur in other submarine canyons along the eastern Canadian margin, as well in other canyoned regions elsewhere, where winter convection generally reaches the shelf-edge.

  9. A comparison of eastern and western Hong Kong phytoplankton from weekly samples (1997-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Mike; Sen-Ming, Tang; Lai, Jessie

    2002-03-01

    Weekly phytoplankton samples were taken from western Hong Kong (Lamma) from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1999 and from Port Shelter in Eastern Hong Kong from January 1998 to December 1999. During that time diatom blooms occurred repeatedly at both sites but never in synchrony. One species would bloom at one site and then weeks later it or another species would bloom at the other site; while the 1998 red tide of the mucus producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium mikimotoi occurred at both sites. It first occurred at the Port Shelter site in March and did not appear at the Lamma site until April. With the single exception of this species, no other dinoflagellate reached bloom concentrations at the Lamma site. In addition, dinoflagellate abundance at the Lamma site was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that at the Port Shelter site. This was correlated with a significantly higher turbidity (i. e. low Secchi transparency) and higher turbulence (stronger currents) at the Lamma site. Annual variation in surface temperature correlated with total surface phytoplankton abundance at both our sample sites. Phytoplankton abundance increased in spring as water temperatures warmed. In fall, as surface water temperatures began to decline and the monsoon rains became less frequent there was a reduction in phytoplankton abundance associated with the reduction in temperature and light. Because so many variables co-occur with temperature (e. g. the amount of rainfall light intensity and light duration etc.) it is not possible to cite temperature as the causal factor associated weth controlling phytoplankton abundance at our two sample sites. Our data support the rather controversial notion that percentage-wise, there are relatively more harmful bloom forming species in nutrient-rich coastal waters than there are in the world's oceans. 16% of the dinoflagellate species and 10.3% of the diatom species observed at our two sample sites were classed as harmful. These percentages were higher than those

  10. Dawson, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-09

    NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image of Dawson, Canada. A boom town in 1898, discovery of gold in the Klondike fueled the massive influx of miners, merchants, and other support professions to this town on the Yukon River.

  11. Use of Diabetes Registry Data for Comparing Indices of Diabetes Management: A Comparison of 2 Urban Sites in Canada and Colombia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stewart; Aschner, Pablo; Mequanint, Selam; Esler, Jim

    2015-12-01

    To demonstrate the use of a multinational diabetes registry for comparing indices of diabetes management among countries with differing levels of income, healthcare systems and ethnic backgrounds. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1742 people with type 2 diabetes attending diabetes clinics in London, Ontario, Canada, and Bogota, Colombia. The data were extracted from the Global Registry and Surveillance System for Diabetes (GRAND). Canadian patients were diagnosed with diabetes at significantly younger ages than Colombian patients (49 years and 53 years, respectively) and were heavier (body mass indices of 33 and 28, respectively). The Colombian patient population had significantly higher mean glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels (9.4% vs. 8.6%) and fewer patients (22% vs. 26%) at the glycemic target (A1C <7.0%) than Canadian patients. In Colombia, 1 or more diabetes-related complications were present in 51% of the study population compared with 37% in Canada. Newly diagnosed Colombians had higher mean A1C levels (9.1% vs. 8.7%) and low-density lipoprotein-C levels (3.3 mmol/L vs. 2.5 mmol/L) than did newly diagnosed Canadians. A multination diabetes registry collecting standardized data facilitates transnational comparison of diabetes clinical parameters for the purpose of identifying potential gaps in care. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves from remote sensing datasets: direct comparison of weather radar and CMORPH over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Efrat; Marra, Francesco; Peleg, Nadav; Mei, Yiwen; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall frequency analysis is used to quantify the probability of occurrence of extreme rainfall and is traditionally based on rain gauge records. The limited spatial coverage of rain gauges is insufficient to sample the spatiotemporal variability of extreme rainfall and to provide the areal information required by management and design applications. Conversely, remote sensing instruments, even if quantitative uncertain, offer coverage and spatiotemporal detail that allow overcoming these issues. In recent years, remote sensing datasets began to be used for frequency analyses, taking advantage of increased record lengths and quantitative adjustments of the data. However, the studies so far made use of concepts and techniques developed for rain gauge (i.e. point or multiple-point) data and have been validated by comparison with gauge-derived analyses. These procedures add further sources of uncertainty and prevent from isolating between data and methodological uncertainties and from fully exploiting the available information. In this study, we step out of the gauge-centered concept presenting a direct comparison between at-site Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves derived from different remote sensing datasets on corresponding spatial scales, temporal resolutions and records. We analyzed 16 years of homogeneously corrected and gauge-adjusted C-Band weather radar estimates, high-resolution CMORPH and gauge-adjusted high-resolution CMORPH over the Eastern Mediterranean. Results of this study include: (a) good spatial correlation between radar and satellite IDFs ( 0.7 for 2-5 years return period); (b) consistent correlation and dispersion in the raw and gauge adjusted CMORPH; (c) bias is almost uniform with return period for 12-24 h durations; (d) radar identifies thicker tail distributions than CMORPH and the tail of the distributions depends on the spatial and temporal scales. These results demonstrate the potential of remote sensing datasets for rainfall

  13. Cross-national comparison of adolescent drinking and cannabis use in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Pickett, William; Boyce, Will; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    Background This research examined the prevalence of drinking and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands, countries with substantially different laws and policies relating to these substances. Method Laws regarding drinking and marijuana use were rated for each country. Substance use prevalence data among 10th graders from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey conducted in each country in 2005–06 were examined. Results Laws regarding alcohol and cannabis were found to be strictest in the United States, somewhat less strict in Canada, and least strict in the Netherlands. On most measures of drinking, rates were lower in the United States than in Canada or the Netherlands. With United States as the referent, relative risks (RR) for monthly drinking were 1.30 (1.11–1.53) for Canadian boys and 1.55 (1.31–1.83) for girls, and 2.0 (1.73–2.31) for Dutch boys and 1.92 (1.62–2.27) for Dutch girls. Drunkenness was also higher among Canadian boys and girls and Dutch boys. However, rates of cannabis use did not differ between the countries, except that Dutch girls were less likely to use cannabis in the past year (RR= .67; 0.46–0.96). Conclusions The lower prevalence of adolescent drinking and drunkenness (except among Dutch girls) in the United States is consistent with the contention that strict drinking policies may limit drinking among 10th graders. However, the finding that marijuana use rates did not differ across countries is not consistent with the contention that prohibition-oriented policies deter use or that liberal marijuana policies are associated with elevated adolescent use. Based on these findings, the case for strict laws and policies is considerably weaker for marijuana than for alcohol. PMID:19303761

  14. A Comparison of Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry Derived Sea-level for Two Eastern Mediterranean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, A. C.; Drakopoulos, P.; Zodiatis, G.

    2003-04-01

    The European Union project GAVDOS is in the process of establishing a radar altimeter calibration and sea-level monitoring site on the island of Gavdos, Crete. This site is in support of the JASON and ENVISAT satellites and within the context of the European Global Sea-level Monitoring System (EUROGLOSS) initiative. The first sea level measurements from this station are only just available and are included here alongside a longer time series from the MedGloss station in Lemessos, Cyprus. This data was collated in order to carry out a sea-level comparison study with a long time series of altimetery derived sea-level for the same areas and a more synoptic view of the Eastern Mediterranean. The altimetry derived sea level data was from the processing and geophysical correction of Topex Poseidon and the relatively recent Jason-1 data referring to satellite tracks overpassing the stations. Similarities and differences observed in the records are discussed and the relative merits and problems with both methodologies of sea level measurement which are relevant for the ongoing calibration work in the GAVDOS project are highlighted.

  15. Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

  16. Stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) exposed to nonpersistent pesticides and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in apple orchards of southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Gregory J; Martin, Pamela A; Bishop, Christine A; Boermans, Herman J

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relative effects of pesticides in current use and persistent residues of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), we examined endocrine and immune responses in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks from pesticide-sprayed apple orchards and reference sites in southern Ontario, Canada, during 2000 to 2001. Nests were exposed to as many as seven individual pesticide applications and up to five mixtures of pesticides during the egg-incubation and chick-rearing stage. Eggs collected from sprayed orchards contained higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than eggs from reference sites. In 16-d-old tree swallows, no significant differences were found in body mass, basal corticosterone concentration, or the corticosterone stress response following a 10-min restraint of chicks sampled from sprayed orchards and reference sites. Challenge with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), however, produced a higher level of corticosterone secretion in tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards relative to chicks from reference sites. Multiple regression analysis revealed no correlation between corticosterone concentrations and exposure to pesticide sprays or p,p'-DDE in tree swallow chicks. In contrast, bluebird chicks from sprayed orchards were less responsive to challenge with ACTH and a significant negative association was found between the response to ACTH challenge and p,p'-DDE concentration in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response was similar between exposure groups in both tree swallow and bluebird nestlings. Examination of immune organs revealed that tree swallow chicks from sprayed orchards had significantly greater thymic lymphocyte density and cortical/ medullary ratios and significant splenic B-cell hyperplasia relative to reference chicks. Our results indicate that modulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in songbird chicks tested are most associated

  17. The Association Between HIV Disclosure Status and Perceived Barriers to Care Faced by Women Living with HIV in Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Johnson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Samarina, Anna; Vasquez, Patricia; Hao-Lan, He; Madihlaba, Tshepiso; Martinez-Tristani, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment. BACS and QoL were stratified by dichotomized HIV disclosure status (to anyone outside the healthcare system). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with disclosure. Of 1945 patients enrolled from Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada between July 2012 and September 2013, 1929 were included in the analysis (disclosed, n = 1724; nondisclosed, n = 205). Overall, 55% of patients lived with a husband/partner, 53% were employed, and 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Patients who were with a serodiscordant partner were more likely to disclose (p = 0.0003). China had a disproportionately higher percentage of participants who did not disclose at all (nearly 30% vs. <15% for other regions). Mean BACS severity scores for medical/psychological service barriers and most personal resource barriers were significantly lower for the disclosed group compared with the nondisclosed group (p ≤ 0.02 for all). Compared with the disclosed group, the nondisclosed group reported statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.03) BACS item severity scores for 8 of the 12 potential barriers to care. The disclosed group reported better QoL. Overall, HIV nondisclosure was associated with more severe barriers to accessing healthcare by women with HIV. PMID:27551959

  18. Seismicity of the St. Lawrence paleorift faults overprinted by a meteorite impact crater: Implications for crustal strength based on new earthquake relocations in the Charlevoix Seismic Zone, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Lamontagne, M.; Pang, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Charlevoix Seismic Zone (CSZ), located along the St. Lawrence River (SLR) ~100 km downstream from Quebec City, is the most active seismic zone in eastern Canada with five historic earthquakes of M 6-7 and ~ 200 events/year reported by the Canadian National Seismograph Network. Cataloged earthquake epicenters outline two broad linear zones along the SLR with little shallow seismicity in between. Earthquakes form diffuse clusters between major dipping faults rather than concentrating on fault planes. Detailed fault geometry in the CSZ is uncertain and the effect on local seismicity of a meteorite impact structure that overprints the paleorift faults remains ambiguous. Here we relocate 1639 earthquakes occurring in the CSZ between 01/1988 - 10/2010 using the double-difference relocation method HypoDD and waveforms primarily from 7 local permanent stations. We use the layered SLR north shore velocity model from Lamontagne (1999), and travel time differences based on both catalog and cross-correlated P and S-phase picks. Of the 1639 relocated earthquakes, 1236 (75.4%) satisfied selection criteria of horizontal and vertical errors less than 2 km and 1 km respectively. Cross-sections of relocated seismicity show hypocenters along distinct active fault segments. Earthquakes located beneath the north shore of the SLR are likely correlated with the NW Gouffre fault, forming a ~10 km wide seismic zone parallel to the river, with dip angle changing to near vertical at the northern edge of the impact zone. In contrast, seismicity beneath the SLR forms a diffuse cloud within the impact structure, likely representing a highly fractured volume. It further implies that faults could be locally weak and subject to high pore-fluid pressures. Seismicity outside the impact structure defines linear structures aligning with the Charlevoix fault. Relocated events of M > 4 all locate outside the impact structure, indicating they nucleated on the NE-SW-oriented paleorift faults.

  19. The Association Between HIV Disclosure Status and Perceived Barriers to Care Faced by Women Living with HIV in Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada.

    PubMed

    Loutfy, Mona; Johnson, Margaret; Walmsley, Sharon; Samarina, Anna; Vasquez, Patricia; Hao-Lan, He; Madihlaba, Tshepiso; Martinez-Tristani, Marisol; van Wyk, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment. BACS and QoL were stratified by dichotomized HIV disclosure status (to anyone outside the healthcare system). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with disclosure. Of 1945 patients enrolled from Latin America, China, Central/Eastern Europe, and Western Europe/Canada between July 2012 and September 2013, 1929 were included in the analysis (disclosed, n = 1724; nondisclosed, n = 205). Overall, 55% of patients lived with a husband/partner, 53% were employed, and 88% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Patients who were with a serodiscordant partner were more likely to disclose (p = 0.0003). China had a disproportionately higher percentage of participants who did not disclose at all (nearly 30% vs. <15% for other regions). Mean BACS severity scores for medical/psychological service barriers and most personal resource barriers were significantly lower for the disclosed group compared with the nondisclosed group (p ≤ 0.02 for all). Compared with the disclosed group, the nondisclosed group reported statistically significantly higher (p ≤ 0.03) BACS item severity scores for 8 of the 12 potential barriers to care. The disclosed group reported better QoL. Overall, HIV nondisclosure was associated with more severe barriers to accessing healthcare by women with HIV.

  20. "Insight" into drug quality: comparison of simvastatin tablets from the US and Canada obtained via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Veronin, Michael A; Lee, Eunah; Lewis, E Neil

    2007-07-01

    Recently, there has been much debate in the US concerning drug importation from Canadian Internet pharmacies. The Food and Drug Administration and US drug manufacturers assert that drugs obtained from international markets via the Internet present a health risk to consumers from substandard products. The public's perception is that drugs from Canada are as safe as those from the US. To determine whether simvastatin tablets obtained via the Internet from Canadian generic manufacturers are comparable in blend uniformity, a major attribute of tablet quality, with the US innovator product. Generic simvastatin tablets from 4 Canadian Internet pharmacy Web sites and the US innovator product were obtained for pharmaceutical analysis. Tablet samples were analyzed using near-infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques, which are designed to detect formulation defects of drug products during the manufacturing process. Digital images were created, revealing the tablets' internal structures. The blend uniformity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the tablet samples from Canada was determined and compared with that of the US innovator product. Results indicated that there is little significant difference in blend uniformity among US innovator and Canadian generic tablets. Results of this study suggest comparable quality assurance manufacturing standards for the US innovator product and the Canadian generic drug products tested. These findings have clinical, legal, and economic implications that should be addressed by policy makers to safeguard consumers who choose to purchase Canadian-manufactured drugs via the Internet.

  1. A comparison of bivalve ( Calyptogena magnifica) growth at two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Richard A.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Cerrato, Robert M.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of specimens of a common deep-sea hydrothermal vent bivalve, Calyptogena magnifica, from two hydrothermal vent sites in the eastern Pacific, have been utilized to develop a mathematical model of the growth of this species based on accurate measurements of: (1) in situ rates of dissolution of the aragonitic outer granular shell layer; and (2) the thickness of the outer shell layer remaining at any given point in time at various distances from the umbo. The model permits the variances of each independently measured variable to be combined into a final confidence limit on age at a given size, making possible statistical comparisons of the calculated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation. This model, in turn, provides a powerful tool for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in rates of biological processes both within and between deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Ontogenetic growth curves for C. magnifica specimens at both hydrothermal sites suggest that growth rates of this species are several orders of magnitude greater than those reported for the one bivalve ( Tindaria callistiformis) analysed to date from a deep-sea, non-vent habitat. These data provide additional evidence that biological processes at submarine hydrothermal vents along the mid-oceanic ridge system proceed at rates that are extremely rapid for a deep-sea environment and are comparable with those from some shallow water temperate environments. Rates of shell dissolution decreased markedly with increasing distance from vent fluids. In a 20 cm distance spanning 10 cm into a bivalve assemblage atop an active vent at Rose Garden (Galapagos Rift) to 10 cm outside the assemblage, dissolution rates of the outer granular layer of C. magnifica declined 100-fold (from 355.4 to 3.5 μm y -1, respectively) in in situ exposures of approximately 210 days. At distances ranging from 1 to 6 m away from active vent sites, no measurable thickness (<1 μm) of C. magnifica shells had

  2. Comparison of the hypoglycemic effect of acarbose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming an Eastern or Western diet: a systematic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qibo; Tong, Yuzhen; Wu, Taixiang; Li, Jieqing; Tong, Nanwei

    2013-06-01

    Because of its mechanism of action, the starch content of a diet might alter the hypoglycemic effect of acarbose. We aimed to determine whether differences in this hypoglycemic effect existed between individuals consuming Eastern and Western diets with significantly different starch contents, a systematic meta-analysis of studies comparing acarbose with placebo or other hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed. Records were retrieved from the Cochrane clinical controlled trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Wanfang, Chinese Technical Periodicals, and ongoing trials databases, and full texts and reference lists were screened. Because no study has directly compared patients consuming different types of diet, fixed- and random-effect models were used to indirectly compare the hypoglycemic effect of acarbose monotherapy with that of placebo and/or comparator drugs in patients with T2DM consuming an Eastern (Eastern Asia) or Western (including Europe and North America) diet. A total of 46 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that, compared with placebo, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were reduced to a significantly greater extent (1.02%) in the Eastern diet (mean [SD], 1.54% [2.00%]) than in the Western diet (mean [SD], 0.52% [1.20%]) P < 0.00001). The ability of acarbose to reduce HbA1c levels in the Eastern (P = 0.20) and Western (P = 0.10) diet groups was similar to that of sulfonylureas, and HbA1c levels were reduced significantly more (0.39%; P < 0.00001) in the Eastern than in the Western diet group. The ability of acarbose to reduce HbA1c levels was similar to those of metformin and nateglinide/repaglinide, but a comparison of its efficacy with different diets was difficult because of the inclusion of few studies in these categories. Analysis of all included studies revealed that acarbose achieved a greater absolute reduction of HbA1c levels in the Eastern diet (mean [SD], 1.26% [1.20%]) than in the Western

  3. Comparison of the Eastern and Western Kentucky coal fields (Pennsylvanian), USA-why are coal distribution patterns and sulfur contents so different in these coal fields?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Chesnut, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 130 Mt of Pennsylvanian coal is produced annually from two coal fields in Kentucky. The Western Kentucky Coal Field occurs in part of the Illinois Basin, an intercratonic basin, and the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field occurs in the Central Appalachian Basin, a foreland basin. The basins are only separated by 140 km, but mined western Kentucky coal beds exhibit significantly higher sulfur values than eastern Kentucky coals. Higher-sulfur coal beds in western Kentucky have generally been inferred to be caused by more marine influences than for eastern Kentucky coals. Comparison of strata in the two coal fields shows that more strata and more coal beds accumulated in the Eastern than Western Kentucky Coal Field in the Early and Middle Pennsylvanian, inferred to represent greater generation of tectonic accommodation in the foreland basin. Eastern Kentucky coal beds exhibit a greater tendency toward splitting and occurring in zones than time-equivalent western Kentucky coal beds, which is also inferred to represent foreland accommodation influences, overprinted by autogenic sedimentation effects. Western Kentucky coal beds exhibit higher sulfur values than their eastern counterparts, but western Kentucky coals occurring in Langsettian through Bolsovian strata can be low in sulfur content. Eastern Kentucky coal beds may increase in sulfur content beneath marine zones, but generally are still lower in sulfur than mined Western Kentucky coal beds, indicating that controls other than purely marine influences must have influenced coal quality. The bulk of production in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field is from Duckmantian and Bolsovian coal beds, whereas production in the Western Kentucky Coal Field is from Westphalian D coals. Langsettian through Bolsovian paleoclimates in eastern Kentucky were favorable for peat doming, so numerous low-sulfur coals accumulated. These coals tend to occur in zones and are prone to lateral splitting because of foreland tectonic and

  4. Firearm Homicide in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand: What Can We Learn from Long-Term International Comparisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine; Singh, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    Although firearm homicide remains a topic of interest within criminological and policy discourse, existing research does not generally undertake longitudinal comparisons between countries. However, cross-country comparisons provide insight into whether "local" trends (e.g., declines in firearm homicide in one particular country) differ…

  5. Firearm Homicide in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand: What Can We Learn from Long-Term International Comparisons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine; Singh, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    Although firearm homicide remains a topic of interest within criminological and policy discourse, existing research does not generally undertake longitudinal comparisons between countries. However, cross-country comparisons provide insight into whether "local" trends (e.g., declines in firearm homicide in one particular country) differ…

  6. Genetic diversity in a feral horse population from Sable Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Plante, Yves; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Lucas, Zoe; Colling, Dave; de March, Brigitte; Buchanan, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    The present-day Sable Island horse population, inhabiting an island off the eastern coast of Canada, is believed to have originated mainly from horses confiscated from the early French settlers in Nova Scotia in the latter half of the 18th century. In 1960, the Sable Island horses were given legal protected status and no human interference has since been allowed. The objective of this study was to characterize the current genetic diversity in Sable Island horses in comparison to 15 other horse breeds commonly found in Canada and 5 Spanish breeds. A total of 145 alleles from 12 microsatellite loci were detected in 1093 horses and 40 donkeys. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 4.67 in the Sable Island horse population to 8.25 in Appaloosas, whereas the mean observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.626 in the Sable Island population to 0.787 in Asturcons. Various genetic distance estimates and clustering methods did not permit to support that the Sable Island horses originated from shipwrecked Spanish horses, according to a popular anecdote, but closely resemble light draft and multipurpose breeds commonly found in eastern Canada. Based on the Weitzman approach, the loss of the Sable Island horse population to the overall diversity in Canada is comparable or higher than any other horse breed. The Sable Island horse population has diverged enough from other breeds to deserve special attention by conservation interest groups.

  7. Reconstructing the lake-level history of former glacial lakes through the study of relict wave-cut terraces: the case of Lake Ojibway (eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean; Daubois, Virginie

    2014-05-01

    known geodesic survey markers. Additional WCS were also measured with altimeters. The results suggest that Lake Ojibway experienced at least three different phases, at elevations of 283 m, 289 m, and 300 m (precision ± 0.5 m). For comparison, the near-maximum phase of Lake Ojibway (the only known phase) that was documented about 250 km to the NE would project at an elevation of about 385 m in the study area. Taken together, the position of these WCS in the landscape, their elevation and associated uplift gradients suggest that these lake levels were formed during episodes of long stands associated with late-stage phases of glacial Lake Ojibway. Overall, these results underlie the strong potential of the use of relict and discontinuous wave-cut terraces to reconstruct the lake-level history of former glacial lakes. This approach could also contribute to derive new estimates of meltwater volumes, a critical parameter in evaluating the impact of meltwater discharges on the late-glacial and deglacial climate.

  8. Palliative care costs in Canada: A descriptive comparison of studies of urban and rural patients near end of life.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Serge; Jacobs, Philip; Turcotte, Véronique; Turcotte, Stéphane; Johnston, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Significant gaps in the evidence base on costs in rural communities in Canada and elsewhere are reported in the literature, particularly regarding costs to families. However, it remains unclear whether the costs related to all resources used by palliative care patients in rural areas differ to those resources used in urban areas. The study aimed to compare both the costs that occurred over 6 months of participation in a palliative care program and the sharing of these costs in rural areas compared with those in urban areas. Data were drawn from two prior studies performed in Canada, employing a longitudinal, prospective design with repeated measures. The urban sample consisted of 125 patients and 127 informal caregivers. The rural sample consisted of 80 patients and 84 informal caregivers. Most patients in both samples had advanced cancer. The mean total cost per patient was CAD 26,652 in urban areas, while it was CAD 31,018 in rural areas. The family assumed 20.8% and 21.9% of costs in the rural and urban areas, respectively. The rural families faced more costs related to prescription medication, out-of-pocket costs, and transportation while the urban families faced more costs related to formal home care. Despite the fact that rural and urban families assumed a similar portion of costs, the distribution of these costs was somewhat different. Future studies would be needed to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of costs incurred by families taking care of a loved one at the end of life and the determinants of these costs in urban versus rural areas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Comparison of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors use in Australia and Nova Scotia (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, Nadia; Sketris, Ingrid; Cooke, Charmaine; Tett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    AIMS Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors were marketed aggressively and their rapid uptake caused safety concerns and budgetary challenges in Canada and Australia. The objectives of this study were to compare and contrast COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ns-NSAID) use in Nova Scotia (Canada) and Australia and to identify lessons learned from the two jurisdictions. METHODS Ns-NSAID and COX-2 inhibitor Australian prescription data (concession beneficiaries) were downloaded from the Medicare Australia website (2001–2006). Similar Pharmacare data were obtained for Nova Scotia (seniors and those receiving Community services). Defined daily doses per 1000 beneficiaries day−1 were calculated. COX-2 inhibitors/all NSAIDs ratios were calculated for Australia and Nova Scotia. Ns-NSAIDs were divided into low, moderate and high risk for gastrointestinal side-effects and the proportions of use in each group were determined. Which drugs accounted for 90% of use was also calculated. RESULTS Overall NSAID use was different in Australia and Nova Scotia. However, ns-NSAID use was similar. COX-2 inhibitor dispensing was higher in Australia. The percentage of COX-2 inhibitor prescriptions over the total NSAID use was different in the two countries. High-risk NSAID use was much higher in Australia. Low-risk NSAID prescribing increased in Nova Scotia over time. The low-risk/high-risk ratio was constant throughout over the period in Australia and increased in Nova Scotia. CONCLUSIONS There are significant differences in Australia and Nova Scotia in use of NSAIDs, mainly due to COX-2 prescribing. Nova Scotia has a higher proportion of low-risk NSAID use. Interventions to provide physicians with information on relative benefits and risks of prescribing specific NSAIDs are needed, including determining their impact. PMID:19660008

  10. Comparison of changes in glacier area and thickness on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, eastern Tianshan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Puyu; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Wenbin; Li, Huilin; Wu, Lihua; Huai, Baojuan; Zhou, Ping; Jin, Shuang; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Rapid shrinkage and dramatic volume loss of the glaciers on Mt. Bogda in the eastern Tianshan Mountains have resulted in water shortages in the surrounding arid regions of China. Understanding ice thickness and its variation is important to the analysis of changes in glacial volume, which are directly related to regional hydrology and water resources. Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier and Heigou Glacier No. 8 are located on the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Bogda, respectively. In this paper, the spatial distribution of the ice thickness of these two glaciers and the changes in their area and volume are discussed based on a 2009 survey result and comparison to previous investigations. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier was about 82.3 m and the calculated ice volume was 385.2 × 106 m3 in 2009. It had thinned by 14 ± 8 m (0.30 ± 0.17 m a- 1) from 1962 to 2009, equivalent to an ice volume loss of 65.5 ± 37.4 × 106 m3. The mean ice thickness of the tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 was 58.7 m and the calculated ice volume was 115.1 × 106 m3 in 2009. The tongue of Heigou Glacier No. 8 thinned by 13 ± 6 m (0.57 ± 0.26 m a- 1) from 1986 to 2009, which corresponds to an ice volume loss of 25.5 ± 11.8 × 106 m3. The greater thinning and retreat of Heigou Glacier No. 8 than those of Fan-shaped Diffluence Glacier is partially due to topographic characteristics. The difference can be attributed mainly to the greater increase in temperature on the southern slope than on the northern slope.

  11. Long-term atmospheric nutrient inputs to the Eastern Mediterranean: sources, solubility and comparison with riverine inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçak, M.; Kubilay, N.; Tuǧrul, S.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2010-07-01

    Aerosol and rain samples were collected at a rural site located on the coastline of the Eastern Mediterranean, Erdemli, Turkey between January 1999 and December 2007. Riverine sampling was carried out at five Rivers (Ceyhan, Seyhan, Göksu, Berdan and Lamas) draining into the Northeastern Levantine Basin (NLB) between March 2002 and July 2007. Samples were analyzed for macronutrients of phosphate, silicate, nitrate and ammonium (PO43-, Sidiss, NO3- and NH4+). Phosphate and silicate in aerosol and rainwater showed higher and larger variation during the transitional period (March-May, September) when air flows predominantly originate from North Africa and Middle East/Arabian Peninsula. Deficiency of alkaline material were found to be the main reason of the acidic rain events whilst high pH values (>7) were associated with high Sidiss concentrations due to sporadic dust events. In general, lowest nitrate and ammonium concentrations in aerosol and rainwater were associated with air flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Unlike NO3- and NH4+ (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen, DIN), there were statistical differences for PO43- and Sidiss solubilities in sea-water and pure-water. Solubilities of PO43- and Sidiss were found to be related with air mass back trajectories and pH. Comparison of atmospheric with riverine fluxes demonstrated that DIN and PO43- fluxes to NLB were dominated by atmosphere (~90% and ~60% respectively) whereas the input of Si was mainly derived from riverine runoff (~90%). N/P ratios (atmosphere ~233; riverine ~28) revealed that NLB receives excessive amounts of DIN and this unbalanced P and N inputs may provoke even more phosphorus deficiency. Molar Si/N ratios (atmosphere + riverine) suggested Si limitation which might cause a switch from diatom dominated phytoplankton communities to non-siliceous populations in NLB.

  12. Hazards associated with alkaline glaciovolcanism at Hoodoo Mountain and Mt. Edziza, western Canada: comparisons to the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    The hazards associated with 2010 eruption from Eyjafjallajokull were well documented, and included flooding, pyroclastic activity, and local/regional ash and aerosol dispersal (e.g., Gudmundsson et al, 2010, Session V27). At least two ice-capped, alkaline volcanoes in northwestern British Columbia could produce similar styles of eruptive activity with associated local and regional hazards: Hoodoo Mountain and the Mt. Edziza volcanic complex. Similar to Eyjafjallajokull, both of the Canada volcanoes have likely had multiple Holocene eruptions of lava flows from beneath snow/ice cover, both eruption mildly alkaline basaltic to trachytic lavas, and both also have a history of explosive eruptions. Hoodoo Mountain volcano, which is approximately 17 cubic kilometers in volume, erupts dominantly trachyte-phonolite composition lavas, although it also has closely associated basaltic centers. Most of its history has been dominated by effusive eruptions, but at least one thick sequence of eutaxitic pyroclastic materials has been erupted in the past 50 ka (Edwards et al, 2002). It is presently covered by snow and a 3 km diameter ice cap that feeds a few small, flank alpine glaciers. The Mt. Edziza volcanic complex is much larger, with an estimated total eruptive volume of approximately 650 cubic km; it has had an extended eruptive history during the Plio-Pleistocene (Souther et al, 1984) including basaltic and trachytic eruptions. It presently hosts an ice-filled summit caldera approximately 2.8 by 2 km, which feeds several alpine glaciers radiating outwards in all directions. Edziza has several striking morphological similarities to Eyjafjallajokull, including the similar-sized summit ice cap dominated by silicic eruption products, an overall elongate morphology, and flanking fields of basaltic lava flows. Although Hoodoo and Edziza volcanoes are located in relatively remote parts of British Columbia, eruptions from either would likely partly melt existing snow and ice cover

  13. Silvical characteristics of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)

    Treesearch

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), as its common and scientific names imply, is a native of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada. It is one of the four North American species of this genus. The genus name means "yew-leaved" and is of Japanese origin. In 1763 the species was named Pinus canadensis...

  14. A Comparison of Dietary Practices at or En Route to School between Elementary and Secondary School Students in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Billette, Jean-Michel; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that dietary quality declines as children age in North America, but few studies have explored whether food environment exposures in secondary schools as opposed to elementary schools are associated with changes in students' school-day food choices. This study examined differences in dietary practices (at or en route to and/or from school) between students in their last years of elementary school (grades 5 to 7) and first year of secondary school (grade 8) in Vancouver, Canada, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and school-level socioeconomic status. Demographic characteristics and dietary data were collected through a cross-sectional survey (n=950 from 26 schools) and combined with school-level socioeconomic data derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Multilevel logistic regression analyses indicated that secondary school students were significantly more likely to report daily consumption of fast foods (odds ratio=1.92; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.12) and minimally nutritious packaged snacks (eg, candy or chocolate bars) (odds ratio=1.60; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.45), and to report regular purchases from off-campus retailers (odds ratio=1.63; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.42). Gender, food insecurity, lower acculturation to Canada, and access to more weekly spending money were associated with nutritionally poor practices. Students attending schools drawing from lower-income neighborhoods were also significantly more likely to consume fast foods and packaged snacks daily. The majority of students sampled did not report consuming healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables, daily at or en route to and/or from school. Intake of fruit, vegetables, and low-fat milk did not differ significantly between elementary and secondary school students. Findings suggest that research and intervention strategies should address modifiable school-level exposures and policies to improve dietary practices for both elementary and secondary school-aged youth, while at the same time

  15. A comparison of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Jim, G K; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K; Johnson, J C; Lockwood, P W

    1999-01-01

    A field trial was performed under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the efficacy of florfenicol and tilmicosin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin upon arrival at the feedlot. One thousand and eighty recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred beef calves suffering from UF were allocated to one of 2 experimental groups as follows: florfenicol, which was intramuscular (i.m.) florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) at the time of allocation (Day 0) and again 48 h later, or tilmicosin, which was subcutaneous (s.c.) tilmicosin administered once at the rate of 10 mg/kg BW on day 0. Five hundred and forty-four animals were allocated to the florfenicol group and 536 animals were allocated to the tilmicosin group. The chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group than in the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in first UF relapse, second UF relapse, hemophilosis mortality, or miscellaneous mortality rates between the florfenicol and tilmicosin groups. Average daily gain (ADG) from arrival at the feedlot to the time of implanting and ADG from allocation to the time of implanting were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group as compared with the tilmicosin group. There were no significant (P > or = 0.05) differences in arrival weight, allocation weight, implanting weight, or ADG from arrival to allocation between the experimental groups. In the economic analysis, there was an advantage of $18.83 CDN per animal in the florfenicol group. The results of this study indicate that florfenicol is superior to tilmicosin for the treatment of UF because of lower chronicity, wastage, overall mortality, and BRD mortality rates. However, interpretation of these observations must take into consideration the fact

  16. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  17. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Ozone Levels in Quebec (Canada): A Comparison of Kriging, Land-Use Regression (LUR), and Combined Bayesian Maximum Entropy–LUR Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Brand, Allan; Fournier, Michel; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ambient air ozone (O3) is a pulmonary irritant that has been associated with respiratory health effects including increased lung inflammation and permeability, airway hyperreactivity, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function. Estimation of O3 exposure is a complex task because the pollutant exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns. To refine the quality of exposure estimation, various spatiotemporal methods have been developed worldwide. Objectives: We sought to compare the accuracy of three spatiotemporal models to predict summer ground-level O3 in Quebec, Canada. Methods: We developed a land-use mixed-effects regression (LUR) model based on readily available data (air quality and meteorological monitoring data, road networks information, latitude), a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) model incorporating both O3 monitoring station data and the land-use mixed model outputs (BME-LUR), and a kriging method model based only on available O3 monitoring station data (BME kriging). We performed leave-one-station-out cross-validation and visually assessed the predictive capability of each model by examining the mean temporal and spatial distributions of the average estimated errors. Results: The BME-LUR was the best predictive model (R2 = 0.653) with the lowest root mean-square error (RMSE ;7.06 ppb), followed by the LUR model (R2 = 0.466, RMSE = 8.747) and the BME kriging model (R2 = 0.414, RMSE = 9.164). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that errors of estimation in the interpolation of O3 concentrations with BME can be greatly reduced by incorporating outputs from a LUR model developed with readily available data. Citation: Adam-Poupart A, Brand A, Fournier M, Jerrett M, Smargiassi A. 2014. Spatiotemporal modeling of ozone levels in Quebec (Canada): a comparison of kriging, land-use regression (LUR), and combined Bayesian maximum entropy–LUR approaches. Environ Health Perspect 122:970–976; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306566 PMID:24879650

  18. Temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging flame retardants in belugas from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) and comparisons with minke whales and Canadian Arctic belugas.

    PubMed

    Simond, Antoine E; Houde, Magali; Lesage, Véronique; Verreault, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    An exponential level increase of the ubiquitous halogenated flame retardant (HFR) class polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been documented during the 1990s in endangered belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. The recent worldwide bans and regulations of PBDE mixtures led to their replacement by alternative HFRs (so-called emerging HFRs) that are increasingly being reported in various environmental compartments. There are, however, limited knowledge on the spatial and temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging HFRs in cetaceans, especially after restrictions on PBDE usage. The first objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HFRs (35 PBDE congeners and 13 emerging compounds) in the blubber of belugas and minke whales (Balænoptera acutorostrata) found dead in the Estuary or Gulf of St. Lawrence as well as belugas from Nunavik (Canadian Arctic) collected as part of the Inuit subsistence hunt. A second objective was to investigate the trends of HFR concentrations in SLE beluga males between 1997 and 2013. PBDEs were the most abundant HFRs in all three whale populations, while hexabromobenzene (HBB), Chlordene Plus (CPlus), Dechlorane Plus (DP), and Dechlorane 604 Component B (Dec-604 CB) were quantified in the majority of blubber samples. Overall, concentrations of emerging HFRs were notably greater in SLE belugas compared to the two other whale populations, with the exception of DP and Dec-604 CB that were found in greater concentrations in Canadian Arctic belugas. No significant trend in blubber PBDE concentrations was found in SLE belugas during this 17-year period. This suggests that global PBDE regulations are too recent to observe changes in PBDE concentrations in belugas from this highly HFR-exposed environment. In contrast, concentrations of HBB and CPlus in SLE belugas decreased slightly from 1997 to 2013, while DP increased up until 2000 and decreased slightly thereafter. The occurrence and

  19. Economic impact of acid rain. [New York; Wisconsin; Canada; Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The environmental and economic impact of acid rain is documented for the eastern United States (New York, Wisconsin) and Canada and Scandinavia. Damage to lakes and other water resources, fisheries, forests and agriculture is emphasized.

  20. Recognition of strong seasonality and climatic cyclicity in an ancient, fluvially dominated, tidally influenced point bar: Middle McMurray Formation, Lower Steepbank River, north-eastern Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Bryce V. J.; Dalrymple, Robert W.

    2016-04-01

    Inclined heterolithic stratification in the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation, exposed along the Steepbank River in north-eastern Alberta, Canada, accumulated on point bars of a 30 to 40 m deep continental-scale river in the fluvial-marine transition. This inclined heterolithic stratification consists of two alternating lithologies, sand and fine-grained beds. Sand beds were deposited rapidly by unidirectional currents and contain little or no bioturbation. Fine-grained beds contain rare tidal structures, and are intensely bioturbated by low-diversity ichnofossil assemblages. The alternations between the sand and fine-grained beds are probably caused by strong variations in fluvial discharge; that are believed to be seasonal (probably annual) in duration. The sand beds accumulated during river floods, under fluvially dominated conditions when the water was fresh, whereas the fine-grained beds accumulated during the late stages of the river flood and deposition continued under tidally influenced brackish-water conditions during times of low-river flow (i.e. the interflood periods). These changes reflect the annual migration in the positions of the tidal and salinity limits within the fluvial-marine transition that result from changes in river discharge. Sand and fine-grained beds are cyclically organized in the studied outcrops forming metre-scale cycles. A single metre-scale cycle is defined by a sharp base, an upward decrease in sand-bed thickness and upward increases in the preservation of fine-grained beds and the intensity of bioturbation. Metre-scale cycles are interpreted to be the product of a longer term (decadal) cyclicity in fluvial discharge, probably caused by fluctuations in ocean or solar dynamics. The volumetric dominance of river-flood deposits within the succession suggests that accumulation occurred in a relatively landward position within the fluvial-marine transition. This study shows that careful observation can reveal much about the

  1. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davesne, Gautier; Fortier, Daniel; Domine, Florent; Gray, James T.

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l.), the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i) to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii) to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST) using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m-3) of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about -1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz), and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind-exposed surface of the summit

  2. Identification and Dating of a key Late Pleistocene Stratigraphic Unit in the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf (Eastern Canada): Implications for the 400-m Thick Quaternary Sequence at the Former Margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, G.; Lajeunesse, P.; Duchesne, M.; Gagné, H.

    2008-12-01

    A recently acquired 8-m long sediment core along with high-resolution seismic-reflection and sub-bottom profiler sections allowed the identification, characterization and dating of a widespread seismic unit extending from the head of the Laurentian Channel (Lower St. Lawrence Estuary) to Honguedo Strait (Gulf of St. Lawrence), Eastern Canada. This seismic unit (termed unit 2) is characterized by a series of parallel high- amplitude reflections with thicknesses ranging from 68 m near the head of the Laurentian Channel to <5 m in Honguedo Strait. This seismic unit is generally observed below a very thick unit of postglacial sediments that can reach >250 m in the St. Lawrence Estuary, leaving it very difficult to be reached by conventional coring operations. Here, we reveal how we were able to trace and core this seismic unit in an area where it lays closer to the seafloor near the southern wall of the Laurentian Channel in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary. This seismic unit consists of two sedimentary facies: sandy mud including ice rafted debris (IRD) underlying faintly laminated to homogenous and plastic silty clays. Based on the sedimentary facies, we interpret the upper clays as ice-distal glaciomarine sediments and the lower sandier sediments as ice- proximal glaciomarine sediments. Seismic unit 2 is highly disturbed by iceberg scouring in the Gulf of St. Lawrence where it is found at shallower depths, indicating that it was deposited during deglaciation. The available AMS 14C dates obtained in the ice-proximal glaciomarine sediments indicate that the lower part of seismic unit 2 was deposited during local re-advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin in the Goldthwait Sea that began at or before the Younger Dryas cold event (11 100 to 10 000 yr BP) and that seismic unit 2 can be used as a chronostratigraphic marker throughout the St. Lawrence Estuary and northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Moreover, because the seismic character of the sediments below seismic

  3. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ismaila, Afisi S; Canty, Angelo; Thabane, Lehana

    2007-01-01

    Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian) approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects. PMID:17845717

  4. Assessment of benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada: comparison of detection methods for drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Barrere, V; Falzon, L C; Shakya, K P; Menzies, P I; Peregrine, A S; Prichard, R K

    2013-11-15

    In 2011, a field study was conducted to assess drug resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep flocks in Ontario, Canada. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus was assessed by genetic analysis of eggs; measurement of resistant allele percentages at codons 167, 198 and 200 in the β-tubulin gene was determined on pools of H. contortus eggs using pyrosequencing. Susceptibility to benzimidazoles in gastro-intestinal nematodes was also determined using a Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT) and a Larval Development Assay (LDA). In total, 16 farms were assessed with the genetic test. Based on resistant allele frequencies, all of the farms (16/16) tested had benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus; the overall percentage of benzimidazole-resistant H. contortus (estimated prior to treatment using the Hardy-Weinberg formula) was 68.5%. The FECRT and LDA were performed on 11 and 13 farms, respectively. Resistance to fenbendazole was detected on 100% (11/11) of the farms where the FECRT was performed. The LDA revealed the presence of thiabendazole resistance in H. contortus in 92% (12/13) of the farms. Estimated percentages of resistant parasites in H. contortus populations obtained with the two biological tests and the genetic test were compared. The results of the genetic test were in agreement with the biological tests and confirmed that benzimidazole resistance in H. contortus is present in Ontario sheep flocks. Differences between the different methods of drug resistance detection are discussed in terms of cost, time and sampling.

  5. Comparison of uranium-series, radiocarbon, and amino acid data from marine molluscs, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; Miller, G.H.; Andrews, J.T.; Stuiver, M.

    1981-10-01

    Uranium-series and /sup 14/C dates and the extent of amino acid racemization are reported for 24 marine shell samples from three areas of Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. When the radiometric dates are plotted against the ratio of D-alloisoleucene:L-isoleucene in the shells, five broad age groups are recognized. The uranium-series data indicate that /sup 231/Pa is incompletely retained in most fossil shells and that /sup 230/Th is lost from some of the samples. Therefore, their apparent ages are minimum. However, a few dated samples in each group have yielded useful age results, and the minimum ages of the five groups of samples are estimated as 7,000 to 11,000, greater than or equal to70,000, greater than or equal to136,000, greater than or equal to190,000 and >300,000 yr. Calculated integrated thermal histories based on the epimerization reaction in the mollusc Hiatella arctica Linne give paleotemperature estimates of around -5/sup o/C, compared to the present mean annual air temperature of about -11/sup o/C.

  6. Polar Sunrise 2008 Comparison of Lidar Water Vapor Measurements from the IASOA PEARL Observatory in Eureka, Canada and ACE Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, A. L.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Walker, K. A.; Manney, G. L.; Drummond, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Water vapor is an important part of the atmosphere due to its roles in the hydrological cycle, greenhouse heating and ozone chemistry. The stratospheric ozone lidar located at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80.2° N, 86.4° W) is jointly operated by the Canadian Network for Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) and Environment Canada. It has recently been upgraded to measure water vapor at 150 m vertical resolution in the polar troposphere up to about six kilometers, with measurements extending above this at lower vertical resolution. Successful validation of these measurements will allow scientific studies to begin with the coincident measurements from the lidar and suite of CANDAC instruments at PEARL. In concert with the lidar's well-established ozone and temperature profiles these new water vapor measurements will allow incidents of stratosphere-troposphere exchange to be monitored as well as, when combined with other measurements from PEARL instrumentation, detailed studies of ozone chemistry to be performed. With the motion of the polar vortex bringing it overhead and away from PEARL during the course of a campaign, it is possible to look at interactions between upper tropospheric jets and the vortex. Water vapor measurements have been taken and analyzed for eleven nights during the Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaign in February and March 2008. Calibration of the lidar has been obtained by comparing lidar measurements from seven clear nights to water vapor measurements from the regular radiosonde launches at the Eureka Weather Station. A consistent altitude dependent bias between the two instruments is found, giving us confidence in the calibration. Calibrated lidar measurements are currently being compared to water vapour measurements from overpasses by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite, as well as compared to the ozone measurements obtained during the campaign.

  7. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  8. Study of Lower Tropospheric Ozone Over Central and Eastern China: Comparison of OMI Observation with Global and Regional Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, S.; Deushi, M.; Yamaji, K.; Kajino, M.; Sekiyama, T. T.; Maki, T.; Liu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The lower tropospheric ozone enhancement over Central and Eastern China (CEC) was first confirmed from the UV space-borne measurements by Hayashida et al. (2015) using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) multiple-layer product retrieved by Liu et al. (2010). However clarification of the effect of ozone variation in the UT/LS on the lower tropospheric ozone retrieval is critical because of large smoothing errors in the retrieval scheme. Hayashida et al. (2016) developed a scheme to eliminate the artificial effect of UT/LS ozone enhancement on lower tropospheric ozone retrieval. By applying the UT/LS screening scheme for the OMI data in June 2006, they successfully removed the artificial effect of the UT/LS ozone enhancement on the lower tropospheric ozone retrieval, and demonstrated that the lower tropospheric ozone enhancement over CEC shown by Hayashida et al. (2015) was conclusive. To clarify the reason for ozone enhancement observed in June most significantly, satellite measurements including OMI and MOPITT were compared with simulations by a global chemical transport model MRI-CCM2 (Deushi and Shibata, 2011) and a regional model NHM-Chem (Kajino et al., 2012) for CO, NO2, and ozone. The effects of emissions from the open crop residue burning (OCRB) were also examined by utilizing the emission inventory by Yamaji et al. (2010). Those model simulations could well reproduce the observed ozone enhancement over CEC in June 2006. The difference between the ozone with and without the OCRB effect revealed that the effect of OCRB on ozone enhancement is not critical for lower tropospheric ozone enhancement though it is more significant when focusing on surface ozone. From comparison with MOPITT CO, we can conclude that the CO emission estimated by Yamaji et al. (2010) is probable, though there is still some uncertainty in NO2 emission estimate. References Deushi, M. and Shibata, K. (2011): PMG, 62:1-46. Hayashida S, et al. (2015): ACP, 15:9865-9881. Hayashida S., et

  9. Food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean) and comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagarakis, K.; Coll, M.; Giannoulaki, M.; Somarakis, S.; Papaconstantinou, C.; Machias, A.

    2010-06-01

    A mass-balance trophic model was built to describe the food-web traits of the North Aegean Sea (Strymonikos Gulf and Thracian Sea, Greece, Eastern Mediterranean) during the mid-2000s and to explore the impacts of fishing. This is the first food-web model representing the Aegean Sea, and results were presented and discussed in comparison to other previous ecosystems modelled from the western and the central areas of the basin (South Catalan and North-Central Adriatic Seas). Forty functional groups were defined, covering the entire trophic spectrum from lower to higher trophic levels. Emphasis was placed on commercial invertebrates and fish. The potential ecological role of the invasive ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, and several vulnerable groups (e.g., dolphins) was also explored. Results confirmed the spatial productivity patterns known for the Mediterranean Sea showing, for example, that the total biomass is highest in N.C. Adriatic and lowest in N. Aegean Sea. Accordingly, food-web flows and several ecosystem indicators like the mean transfer efficiency were influenced by these patterns. Nevertheless, all three systems shared some common features evidencing similarities of Mediterranean Sea ecosystems such as dominance of the pelagic fraction in terms of flows and strong benthic-pelagic coupling of zooplankton and benthic invertebrates through detritus. The importance of detritus highlighted the role of the microbial food-web, which was indirectly considered through detritus dynamics. Ciliates, mesozooplankton and several benthic invertebrate groups were shown as important elements of the ecosystem linking primary producers and detritus with higher trophic levels in the N. Aegean Sea. Adult anchovy was shown as the most important fish group in terms of production, consumption and overall effect on the rest of the ecological groups in the model, in line with results from the Western Mediterranean Sea. The five fishing fleets considered (both artisanal and

  10. An international comparison of women's occupational health issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore: the CIDA-SEAGEP study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2005-10-01

    An international comparison study of women's occupational health issues was carried out in 2000 for the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore. The study was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program. The objective was to compare the issues, risk factors, social determinants, and challenges in women's occupational health, according to the status of economic development as defined by the World Bank. Data were collected through 27 key informant interviews of high-ranking government officials and senior researchers, self-administered questionnaires on country or regional statistics and 16 courtesy calls. Results indicated that women's occupational health problems common in these countries or regions included women's long hours of work (double workday), shift work and a caring role for family and friends. Problems reported in developing countries but not developed countries included poor access to training and protective equipment, and insufficient legislation to protect women's rights. Problems reported in developed countries but not in developing countries included obesity, smoking and not including women in health research. This paper provides insights into the changing environment in the workplace, such as increasing participation of women in the paid workforce and changes in gender differences due to the changing country economy, for improving women's occupational health.

  11. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity across the ranges of Pinus monticola and P. strobus: a comparison between eastern and western North American postglacial colonization histories.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Simon; Godbout, Julie; Lamothe, Manuel; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Isabel, Nathalie; Ritland, Kermit

    2015-08-01

    • Premises of the study: Understanding the influence of recent glacial and postglacial periods on species' distributions is key for predicting the effects of future environmental changes. We investigated the influence of two physiographic landscapes on population structure and postglacial colonization of two white pine species of contrasting habitats: P. monticola, which occurs in the highly mountainous region of western North America, and P. strobus, which occurs in a much less mountainous area in eastern North America.• To characterize the patterns of genetic diversity and population structure across the ranges of both species, 158 and 153 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from expressed genes were genotyped on range-wide samples of 61 P. monticola and 133 P. strobus populations, respectively.• In P. monticola, a steep latitudinal decrease in genetic diversity likely resulted from postglacial colonization involving rare long-distance dispersal (LDD) events. In contrast, no geographic patterns of diversity were detected in P. strobus, suggesting recolonization via a gradually advancing front or frequent LDD events. For each species, structure analyses identified two distinct southern and northern genetic groups that likely originated from two different glacial lineages. At a finer scale, and for the two species, smaller subgroups were detected that could be remnants of cryptic refugia.• During postglacial colonization, the western and eastern North American landscapes had different impacts on genetic signatures in P. monticola compared with P. strobus. We discuss the importance of our findings for conservation programs and predictions of species' response to climate change. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Published by the Botanical Society of America.

  12. Nutritional factors associated with decline in Canada

    Treesearch

    Benoit Cote

    1999-01-01

    Forest decline in eastern Canada was particuiarly severe in the early 1980's and is still prevalent in some areas (Bowers and Hopkin 1997). Early public and scientific opinions on the causes of forest decline were often not based on sound scientific knowledge. Factors such as acidic precipitation and ozone were rnost often mentioned as direct causes of forest...

  13. Comparison of Different Methods for Determination of Pyrite Oxidation Rate in Wate Rock Pile at Mine Doyon, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, O.; Nicholson, R.; Gélinas, P.; Lefebvre, R.

    2004-05-01

    Mine Doyon is a gold mine located close to Noranda, Québec, Canada. The South waste rock pile contains mostly highly friable sericite schists with pyrite content up to 7 wt percent. Oxidation of pyrite resulted in the production of acid mine drainage with pH values of about 2.0, and sulfate concentrations in pore water above 200 g/L. The waste rock material is characterized by high permeability allowing thermally driven convective supply of oxygen at temperatures reaching up to 67oC close to the slopes of the pile. Several methods for the determination of pyrite oxidation rate (POR) in waste rock have been compared and evaluated. Methods based on data collected in situ such as the interpretation of oxygen concentration profiles in waste rock pile and pyrite concentrations in solid phase were compared with the oxygen consumption method (OCM) in the laboratory. Analytical 1-D solution based on oxygen and temperature profiles in the pile was used for preliminary determination of POR. Analytical modeling results were used as an input for 2-D numerical model using TOUGH AMD. POR values based on pyrite mass balance (PMB) in solid phase were also calculated, assuming that average pyrite content in the deep, almost non-oxidized zone of the pile represents pre-oxidation conditions. Calculations were performed for prismatic columns with 1 m2 base. An approach based on dissolved sulfate mass balance was not used because of the lack of data from early stage of the pile and the non-conservative behavior of sulfate (precipitation of gypsum and jarosite in the pile). Finally, the oxygen consumption method (OCM) in the laboratory was based on oxygen concentration decline in headspace of closed chamber, where samples of waste rock sprinkled by water were located. Both fresh samples from mining operation and partially weathered samples collected in the pile were used. A range of POR values (mol(O2).kg-1.s-1) were obtained from the various methods. At Site 6 on the slope of the pile

  14. How unique is the Udachnaya-East kimberlite? Comparison with kimberlites from the Slave Craton (Canada) and SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Weiss, Yakov; Navon, Oded; Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2009-11-01

    The origin of alkali carbonates and chlorides in the groundmass of unaltered Udachnaya-East kimberlites in Siberia is still controversial. Contrary to existing dogma that the Udachnaya-East kimberlite was either contaminated by the crustal sediments or platform brines, magmatic origin of the groundmass assemblage has been proposed on the basis of melt immiscibility textures, melt inclusion studies, and strontium and neon isotope compositions. We further tested the idea of alkali- and chlorine enrichment of the kimberlite parental melt by studying olivine-hosted melt inclusions and secondary serpentine in kimberlites from the Slave Craton, Canada (Gahcho Kué, Jericho, Aaron and Leslie pipes) and southern West Greenland (Majuagaa dyke). Host olivine phenocrysts closely resemble groundmass olivine from the Udachnaya-East kimberlite in morphology, compositions (high-Fo, low-Ca), complex zoning with cores of varying shapes and compositions and rims of constant Fo. Melt inclusions in olivine consist of several translucent and opaque daughter phases and vapour bubble(s). The daughter crystals studied in unexposed inclusions by laser Raman spectroscopy and in carefully exposed inclusions by WDS-EDS are represented by Na-K chlorides, calcite, dolomite, magnesite, Ca-Na, Ca-Na-K and Ca-Mg-Ba carbonates, bradleyite Na 3 Mg(CO 3)(PO 4), K-bearing nahpoite Na 2(HPO 4), apatite, phlogopite and tetraferriphlogopite, unidentified sulphates, Fe sulphides, djerfisherite, pyrochlore (Na,Ca) 2Nb 2O 6(OH,F), monticellite, Cr-spinel and Fe-Ti oxides. High abundances of Na, K (e.g., (Na + K)/Ca = 0.15-0.85) and incompatible trace elements in the melt inclusions are confirmed by LA-ICPMS analysis of individual inclusions. Heating experiments show that melting of daughter minerals starts and completes at low temperatures (~ 100 °C and 600 °C, respectively), further reinforcing the similarity with the Udachnaya-East kimberlite. Serpentine minerals replacing olivine in some of the studied

  15. Comparison of morphology of active cyclic steps created by turbidity currents on Squamish Delta, British Columbia, Canada with flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokawa, Miwa; Yamamoto, Shinya; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Hughes Clarke, John E.; Izumi, Norihiro

    2015-04-01

    Upper-flow-regime bedforms, such as cyclic steps and antidunes, have been reported to be formed by turbidity currents. Their formative conditions are, however, not fully understood because of the difficulty of field surveys in the deep sea. Field observations of turbidity currents and seabed topography on the Squamish delta in Howe Sound, British Columbia, Canada have been undertaken which found bedwaves actively migrating in the upstream direction in channels formed on the prodelta slope. Their topography and behavior suggest that they are cyclic steps formed by turbidity currents. Because Squamish delta is as shallow as around 150 m, and easy to access compared with general submarine canyons, it is thought to be one of the best places for studying characteristics of cyclic steps formed by turbidity currents through field observations. In this study, we have analyzed configurations of cyclic steps with the use of data obtained in the field observation of 2011, and compare them with the data from the flume experiments. On the prodelta slope, three major active channels are clearly developed. In addition to the sonar survey, a 600 kHz ADCP was installed in 150m of water just seaward of the termination of the North Channel. In addition, 1200kHz ADCP and 500kHz M3s are suspended from the research vessel in 60 m of water and 300 m distance from the delta edge. We selected images showing large daily differences. The steps move vigorously at the upper 600m parts of the prodelta slope, so that we measured the steps in this area. From the profiles perpendicular to the bedwave crest lines through the center of channels, wavelength and wave height for each step, mean slope were measured on the software for quantitative image analyses manually. Wave steepness for each step was calculated using the wavelength and wave height measured as above. The mean slope ranges from 6.8° ~ 2.7° (more proximal, steeper), mean wavelength and wave heights of steps range from 24.5 to 87.6m

  16. Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Garnett

    2012-01-01

    This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in…

  17. Immigrant Status and Secondary School Performance as Determinants of Post-Secondary Participation: A Comparison of Canada and Switzerland. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 77

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Garnett

    2012-01-01

    This working paper seeks to explore the reasons why educational attainment in the immigrant population varies between North America and Europe. Specifically, the examples of Canada and Switzerland are used as Canada has an immigrant population with a typically higher rate of post-secondary education than that of the domestic population, while in…

  18. The European study of assisted reproduction families: a comparison of family functioning and child development between Eastern and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cook, R; Vatev, I; Michova, Z; Golombok, S

    1997-09-01

    Developments in reproductive technology over the past 20 years have given infertile couples new opportunities to have children. Although assisted reproduction does not appear to lead to negative consequences with respect to parent-child relationships or the socioemotional development of the child, the outcome for children and their parents may well differ according to the social and cultural environment. The aim of the present study was to compare family functioning and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of assisted reproductive techniques in Western Europe with assisted reproduction families in an Eastern European country (Bulgaria) where there is a history of specific pronatalist interventions. The findings indicate greater difficulties in parental adjustment and child behavior in assisted conception families in Eastern Europe. In addition, Eastern European parents were more uncertain than Western European parents about whether they would tell the child, and Eastern European parents were much more secretive with respect to telling others. Thus the outcomes of assisted reproduction for family functioning and child development appear to be independent, to some extent at least, on the social context in which these techniques are carried out.

  19. Early to middle Pleistocene Arctic coastal ice caps in the Northern Interior Plains of Canada, a comparison with northeastern Siberian coastal uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duk-Rodkin, A.; Barendregt, R. W.; Velichko, A. A.; Galloway, J. M.; McNeil, D.

    2012-12-01

    reached the coast of the NIP, thus providing sufficient moisture for the development of ice-caps during interglacials. In contrast, in eastern Siberia, a triple "rain shadow effect" formed by the Chersky, Suntar-Khayta, and Momsky ranges precluded moisture-bearing air originating from the Sea of Okhotsk to reach the Arctic Ocean. The absence of ice-caps here seems to indicate a frozen Arctic Ocean during most of the Pleistocene. Large scale glaciations (e.g., Cordilleran ice sheets) commenced in NW North America in the late Gauss Chron (Pacific Ocean influence), in Europe during the late Matuyama Chron (Atlantic Ocean influence), and in Siberia during the middle to late Brunhes Chron (Okhotsk Sea influence). In the last million years in Europe (including Russia), glaciations occurred more frequently than in North America, suggesting significant differences in the factors that drive continental versus local glaciations in NW Canada/Alaska and Europe.

  20. Enhancement of acidic gases in biomass burning impacted air masses over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefer, B. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Olson, J. O.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Shipham, M. A.; Blake, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass-burning impacted air masses sampled over central and eastern Canada during the summer of 1990 as part of ABLE 3B contained enhanced mixing ratios of gaseous HNO3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, and what appears to be (COOH)2. These aircraft-based samples were collected from a variety of fresh burning plumes and more aged haze layers from different source regions. Values of the enhancement factor, delta X/delta CO, where X represents an acidic gas, for combustion-impacted air masses sampled both near and farther away from the fires, were relatively uniform. However, comparison of carboxylic acid emission ratios measured in laboratory fires to field plume enhancement factors indicates significant in-plume production of HCOOH. Biomass-burning appears to be an important source of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH to the troposphere over subarctic Canada.

  1. Comparison of a UAV-derived point-cloud to Lidar data at Haig Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bash, E. A.; Moorman, B.; Montaghi, A.; Menounos, B.; Marshall, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is expanding rapidly in glaciological research as a result of technological improvements that make UAVs a cost-effective solution for collecting high resolution datasets with relative ease. The cost and difficult access traditionally associated with performing fieldwork in glacial environments makes UAVs a particularly attractive tool. In the small, but growing, body of literature using UAVs in glaciology the accuracy of UAV data is tested through the comparison of a UAV-derived DEM to measured control points. A field campaign combining simultaneous lidar and UAV flights over Haig Glacier in April 2015, provided the unique opportunity to directly compare UAV data to lidar. The UAV was a six-propeller Mikrokopter carrying a Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF1 camera with a 12 Megapixel Live MOS sensor and Lumix G 20 mm lens flown at a height of 90 m, resulting in sub-centimetre ground resolution per image pixel. Lidar data collection took place April 20, while UAV flights were conducted April 20-21. A set of 65 control points were laid out and surveyed on the glacier surface on April 19 and 21 using a RTK GPS with a vertical uncertainty of 5 cm. A direct comparison of lidar points to these control points revealed a 9 cm offset between the control points and the lidar points on average, but the difference changed distinctly from points collected on April 19 versus those collected April 21 (7 cm and 12 cm). Agisoft Photoscan was used to create a point-cloud from imagery collected with the UAV and CloudCompare was used to calculate the difference between this and the lidar point cloud, revealing an average difference of less than 17 cm. This field campaign also highlighted some of the benefits and drawbacks of using a rotary UAV for glaciological research. The vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, combined with quick responsiveness and higher carrying capacity, make the rotary vehicle favourable for high-resolution photos when

  2. Introduction history and population genetics of the invasive grass Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Valliant, Morgan T; Mack, Richard N; Novak, Stephen J

    2007-07-01

    The invasive annual Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) is distributed in Canada primarily south of 52° N latitude in two diffuse ranges separated by the extensive coniferous forest in western Ontario. The grass was likely introduced independently to eastern and western Canada post-1880. We detected regional variation in the grass's genetic diversity using starch gel electrophoresis to analyze genetic diversity at 25 allozyme loci in 60 populations collected across Canada. The Pgm-1a & Pgm-2a multilocus genotype, which occurs in the grass's native range in Eastern Europe, is prevalent in eastern Canada but occurs at low frequency in western Canada. In contrast, the Got-4c multilocus genotype, found in the native range in Central Europe, is widespread in populations from western Canada. Overall genetic diversity of B. tectorum is much higher in eastern Canada than in the eastern U.S., while the genetic diversity in populations in western North America is similar between Canada and the U.S. The distribution of genetic diversity across Canada strongly suggests multiple introduction events. Heterozygous individuals, which are exceedingly rare in B. tectorum, were detected in three Canadian populations. Formation of novel genotypes through occasional outcrossing events could spark adaptive evolution and further range expansion across Canada of this exceedingly damaging grass.

  3. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats’ total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation. PMID:26812397

  4. Critical Analysis of Forest Degradation in the Southern Eastern Ghats of India: Comparison of Satellite Imagery and Soil Quality Index.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Jayakumar, Shanmuganathan; Dhanya, Praveen; Geetha, Rajadurai

    2016-01-01

    India has one of the largest assemblages of tropical biodiversity, with its unique floristic composition of endemic species. However, current forest cover assessment is performed via satellite-based forest surveys, which have many limitations. The present study, which was performed in the Eastern Ghats, analysed the satellite-based inventory provided by forest surveys and inferred from the results that this process no longer provides adequate information for quantifying forest degradation in an empirical manner. The study analysed 21 soil properties and generated a forest soil quality index of the Eastern Ghats, using principal component analysis. Using matrix modules and geospatial technology, we compared the forest degradation status calculated from satellite-based forest surveys with the degradation status calculated from the forest soil quality index. The Forest Survey of India classified about 1.8% of the Eastern Ghats' total area as degraded forests and the remainder (98.2%) as open, dense, and very dense forests, whereas the soil quality index results found that about 42.4% of the total area is degraded, with the remainder (57.6%) being non-degraded. Our ground truth verification analyses indicate that the forest soil quality index along with the forest cover density data from the Forest Survey of India are ideal tools for evaluating forest degradation.

  5. Comparison of transient associations of air pollution and AMI hospitalisation in two cities of Alberta, Canada, using a case-crossover design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Kindzierski, Warren; Kaul, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate reproducibility of outcomes for short-term associations between ambient air pollutants and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospitalisation in 2 urban populations. Design Using a time-stratified design, we conducted independent case-crossover studies of AMI hospitalisation events over the period 1999–2010 in the geographically close and demographically similar cities of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Patients with his/her first AMI hospitalisation event were linked with air pollution data from the National Ambient Pollution Surveillance database and meteorological data from the National Climatic Data Center database. Patients were further divided into subgroups to examine adjusted pollution effects. Effects of pollution levels with 0–3-day lag were modelled using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for daily average ambient temperature, dew point temperature and wind speed. Setting Population-based studies in Calgary/Edmonton. Participants 12 066/10 562 first-time AMI hospitalisations in Calgary/Edmonton. Main outcome measures Association (adjusted OR) between daily ambient air pollution levels and hospitalisation for AMI. Results Among 600 potential air pollution effect variables investigated for the Calgary (Edmonton) population, only 1.17% (0.67%) was statistically significant by using the traditional 5% criterion. None of the effect variables were reproduced in the 2 cities, despite their geographic closeness (within 300 km of each other), and demographic and air pollution similarities. Conclusions Comparison of independent investigations of the effect of air pollution on risk of AMI hospitalisation in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, indicated that none of the air pollutants investigated—CO, NO, NO2, O3 and particulate matter (PM2.5)—showed consistent positive associations with increased risk of AMI hospitalisation. PMID:26553835

  6. Atmospheric forcing in the occurrence of precipitation extremes in Iberia: comparison between the eastern and western sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Mendes, A. R.

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of severe precipitation deficits in the Iberian Peninsula has major socio-economic and environmental impacts. Several previous studies emphasized the leading role of the large-scale atmospheric flow in the occurrence of long periods with significant precipitation lacks. However, due to the high complexity of the Iberian orography, the sensitivity of the local rain-generating mechanisms to large-scale anomalies is remarkably different from region to region. A principal component analysis of the annual precipitation amounts recorded at a network of meteorological stations over the entire peninsula for the period 1961-1998 corroborates this heterogeneity. With particular significance is the contrast between the western and eastern sectors of the peninsula. In fact, taking into account earlier studies, precipitation in western Iberia is strongly related to large-scale atmospheric patterns over the North Atlantic. On the contrary, precipitation over eastern Iberia is much less associated with these large-scale forcing patterns, but much more linked to local/regional mechanisms. In order to test these hypotheses, eight meteorological stations, four in the western half (Porto, Bragança, Lisboa and Beja) and four in the eastern half (Barcelona, Valencia, Tortosa and Zaragoza) of Iberia are selected taking into account, firstly, the geographical location, and secondly the quality and homogeneity of the respective time series. A set of extremely wet/dry seasons was subsequently chosen for each weather station separately, taking into account the 90th percentile of the respective empirical distributions. The analysis of the different atmospheric fields (precipitation rates, convective precipitation, precipitable water, specific humidity, relative humidity, surface temperature, sea surface pressure, geopotential heights, wind components and vorticity at different isobaric levels) is undertaken by using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction

  7. Is Canada odd? A comparison of European and Canadian approaches to choice and regulation of the public/private divide in health care.

    PubMed

    Flood, Colleen M; Haugan, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    Choice is often touted as a means for change within health care systems. Yet 'choice', in this context, takes at least three distinct forms: choice between providers within a publicly funded health care system; choice between competing insurers within a universal plan; and, lastly, choice as between privately financed health care and universal public coverage. In Canada, it is this last form of choice that is under active debate; particularly in light of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Chaoulli, which found a regulation banning private health insurance for medically necessary care was unconstitutional. The argument is frequently made that Canada is an outlier from other countries in having regulation that effectively precludes this kind of choice. This issue is likely to become of concern again in upcoming constitutional challenges where applicants are looking to overturn through judicial challenges Canada's medicare system. This article tests that argument of whether Canada truly is 'odd' from a comparative policy perspective by exploring regulation of choice of privately financed health care in several European countries - the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, England and France. We highlight commonalities as well as differences, showing the extent to which these countries employ regulation to fetter growth of a large privately financed sector. The article's thesis is that Canada, in employing more intrusive forms of regulation, is not an outlier per se but at one point in a regulatory spectrum.

  8. Effects of nitrogen oxide emission controls on Eastern US surface ozone: A comparison between urban cores and rural background sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls have led to improved air quality over the past two decades, particularly over the Eastern US. In recent work we quantified the effects of the efforts to abate surface ozone (O3) pollution under the NOx State Implementation Plan (NOx SIP Call) for Eastern US background sites (available from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET)) using methods from statistical extreme value theory (Rieder et al., 2013). Our analysis showed that the number of summer (JJA) days above the US national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) declined on average by a factor of two between 1988-1998 and 1999-2009 and that probabilistic 1-yr O3 return values declined by about 10 ppb between these two time periods. Here we extend the analysis to observations available from the US EPA Air Quality System (AQS), comprising sites ranging from polluted urban cores to rural sites. We focus on changes in (i) the seasonal and annual average number of days with maximum daily 8-hour average surface O3 above the NAAQS and (ii) probabilistic O3 return values following the NOx SIP Call. Particular focus is given on similarities and differences in surface O3 responses on regional to local level and on contrasting urban cores and rural background sites. References: Rieder H.E., Fiore A.M., Polvani L.M., Lamarque J.-F., Fang Y. (2013): Changes in the frequency and return level of high ozone pollution events over the Eastern United States following emission controls, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 014012, 2013.

  9. Canada's Campaign for Immigrants and the Images in "Canada West" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detre, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges that Canadian government officials felt they faced at the end of the nineteenth century was the development of the prairie West. By this time there were large urban centers in eastern Canada, but many Canadians worried that they had not truly ensured the future existence of their country. To do this the government…

  10. Canada's Campaign for Immigrants and the Images in "Canada West" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detre, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges that Canadian government officials felt they faced at the end of the nineteenth century was the development of the prairie West. By this time there were large urban centers in eastern Canada, but many Canadians worried that they had not truly ensured the future existence of their country. To do this the government…

  11. Large Scale Winter Time Disturbances in Meteor Winds over Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greisiger, K. M.; Portnyagin, Y. I.; Lysenko, I. A.

    1984-01-01

    Daily zonal wind data of the four pre-MAP-winters 1978/79 to 1981/82 obtained over Central Europe and Eastern Europe by the radar meteor method were studied. Available temperature and satellite radiance data of the middle and upper stratosphere were used for comparison, as well as wind data from Canada. The existence or nonexistence of coupling between the observed large scale zonal wind disturbances in the upper mesopause region (90 to 100 km) and corresponding events in the stratosphere are discussed.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern cottontail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is the most widely distributed cottontail in North America (Chapman et al. 1982). The species is considered to be a generalist that occupies a variety of habitats from southern Canada southward into South America (Chapman et al. 1980). The eastern cottontail's range overlaps that of six other species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and six species of hares (Lepus spp.). Eastern cottontails have been widely transplanted and are believed to be expanding their range northward, particularly in the Northeast (Chapman et al. 1982). The eastern cottontail has been successfully introduced into portions of Oregon and Washington which are outside of the species' natural range (Chapman and Morgan 1973). The eastern cottontail is primarily nocturnal and is a principal game species in the eastern United States.

  13. SU-F-19A-02: Comparison of Absorbed Dose to Water Standards for HDR Ir-192 Brachytherapy Between the LCR, Brazil and NRC, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Salata, C; David, M; Almeida, C de; El Gamal, I; Cojocaru, C; Mainegra-Hing, E; McEwen, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare absorbed dose to water standards for HDR brachytherapy dosimetry developed by the Radiological Science Laboratory of Rio de Janeiro State University (LCR) and the National Research Council, Canada (NRC). Methods: The two institutions have separately developed absorbed dose standards based on the Fricke dosimetry system. There are important differences between the two standards, including: preparation and read-out of the Fricke solution, irradiation geometry of the Fricke holder in relation to the Ir-192 source, and determination of the G-value to be used at Ir-192 energies. All measurements for both standards were made directly at the NRC laboratory (i.e., no transfer instrument was used) using a single Ir-192 source (microSelectron v2). In addition, the NRC group has established a self-consistent method to determine the G-value for Ir-192, based on an interpolation between G-values obtained at Co-60 and 250kVp X-rays, and this measurement was repeated using the LCR Fricke solution to investigate possible systematic uncertainties. Results: G-values for Co-60 and 250 kVp x-rays, obtained using the LCR Fricke system, agreed with the NRC values within 0.5 % and 1 % respectively, indicating that the general assumption of universal G-values is appropriate in this case. The standard uncertainty in the determination of G for Ir-192 is estimated to be 0.6 %. For the comparison of absorbed dose measurements at the reference point for Ir-192 (1 cm depth in water, perpendicular to the seed long-axis), the ratio Dw(NRC)/Dw(LCR) was found to be 1.011 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 %, k=1. Conclusion: The agreement in the absorbed dose to water values for the LCR and NRC systems is very encouraging. Combined with the lower uncertainty in this approach compared to the present air-kerma approach, these results reaffirm the use of Fricke solution as a potential primary standard for HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy.

  14. Identification of Dominant Flood Drivers across Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.; Simonovic, S.; Gusain, A.

    2016-12-01

    In recent past, flooding has taken a devastating form causing societal, economic, and environmental losses over the Globe. Reliable information on the cause of occurrence, time, and magnitude of flood events might be useful for effective planning, design and operation of hydraulic structures to minimize losses. In the present study, we used circular statistics to understand the pattern and seasonality in flooding across Canada. A set of analyses is performed on unregulated daily stream flow data from 318 stream gage stations (procure from HYDAT database) with a record of at least 40 years between 1951-2010. Further, an attempt is also made to identify possible primary drivers of flooding across Canada. To accomplish this, daily precipitation record from 561 stations and 10 resolution snowmelt data from ECMWF ERA 20C during 1951-2010 have been used. Majority of stations reported statistically significant negative trend in flood magnitude in south western part, whereas, an increasing trend in frequency of flooding observed in south eastern part of Canada. The results show a strong evidence of regional patterns of seasonality and inter-annual variability in flooding. It is observed, about 42% of flood events occur during spring (March-May) over south eastern part of Canada and are not associated with extreme precipitation, where snowmelt is found to be primary factor for occurrence of flood events. Further, about 44% of flood events occur during summer (June-August) in southwestern region and having strong association with extreme precipitation. Additionally, we observe the negative trend in precipitation driven flood events (summer flooding) in south western part of Canada. The present study on identification of major flood drivers across Canada shows a need to examine the influence of various climate indices quantifying variation of surface temperature anomalies, which will improve flood prediction and consequently flood risk management. Keywords: Canada, Flood

  15. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  16. A comparison of soil climate and biological activity along an elevation gradient in the eastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, R.G.; Chadwick, O.A.; Sowers, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Soil temperature, moisture, and CO2 were monitored at four sites along an elevation transect in the eastern Mojave Desert from January to October, 1987. Climate appeared to be the major factor controlling CO2 partial pressures, primarily through its influence of rates of biological reactions, vegetation densities, and organic matter production. With increasing elevation, and increasing actual evapotranspiration, the organic C, plant density, and the CO2 content of the soils increased. Between January and May, soil CO2 concentrations at a given site were closely related to variations in soil temperature. In July and October, temperatures had little effect on CO2, presumably due to low soil moisture levels. Up to 75% of litter placed in the field in March was lost by October whereas, for the 3 lower elevations, less than 10% of the litter placed in the field in April was lost through decomposition processes. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Comparison of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms on Eastern and Western US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Hur, T -B; Fazio, J; Howard, B

    2013-10-01

    Accurate estimation of carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption capacity of coal is important for planning the CO2 sequestration efforts. In this work, we investigated sorption and swelling behavior of several Eastern and Western US coal samples from the Central Appalachian Basin and from San Juan Basin. The CO2 sorption isotherms have been completed at 55°C for as received and dried samples. The role of mineral components in coal, the coal swelling, the effects of temperature and moisture, and the error propagation have been analyzed. Changes in void volume due to dewatering and other factors such as temporary caging of carbon dioxide molecules in coal matrix were identified among the main factors affecting accuracy of the carbon dioxide sorption isotherms. The (helium) void volume in the sample cells was measured before and after the sorption isotherm experiments and was used to build the volume-corrected data plots.

  18. Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics - the flood event in eastern Europe in May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winschall, A.; Pfahl, S.; Sodemann, H.; Wernli, H.

    2014-07-01

    Moisture convergence from different sources is an important prerequisite for a heavy-precipitation event. The contributions from different source regions can, however, hardly be quantified from observations, and their assessment based on model results is complex. Two conceptually different numerical methods are widely used for the quantification of moisture sources: Lagrangian approaches based on the analysis of humidity variations along backward trajectories and Eulerian methods based on the implementation of moisture tracers into a numerical model. In this study the moisture sources for a high-impact, heavy-precipitation event that affected eastern Europe in May 2010 are studied with both Eulerian and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. The precipitation event was connected to a cyclone that developed over northern Africa, moved over the Mediterranean towards eastern Europe and induced transport of moist air towards the Carpathian Mountains. Heavy precipitation and major flooding occurred in Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia between 16 and 18 May 2010. The Lagrangian and Eulerian diagnostics consistently indicate a wide spatial and temporal range of moisture sources contributing to the event. The source with the largest share is local evapotranspiration from the European land surface, followed by moisture from the North Atlantic. Further contributions come from tropical western Africa (10-20° N) and the Mediterranean Sea. Contrary to what could be expected, the Mediterranean contribution of about 10% is relatively small. A detailed analysis of exemplary trajectories corroborates the general consistency of the two approaches, and underlines their complementarity. The Lagrangian method allows for mapping out moisture source regions with computational efficiency, whereas the more elaborate Eulerian model requires predefined moisture sources, but includes also processes such as precipitation, evaporation and turbulent mixing. However, in the Eulerian model

  19. Predictors of Vascular Cognitive Impairment Poststroke in a Middle Eastern (Bahrain) Cohort: A Proposed Case-Control Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Al Banna, Mona; Redha, Noor; Al Jishi, Adel; Al Sharoqi, Isa; Taha, Safa; Bakhiet, Moiz; Abdulla, Fatema; Walsh, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Poststroke dementia and cognitive impairment are associated with poor long-term outcomes after stroke. The contribution of genetic factors such as the presence of apolipoprotein (ApoE) ɛ4 allele and its association with cognitive impairment poststroke remains inconclusive, particularly in Middle Eastern regions. Objective The aim of this study is to examine all correlates and potential predictors of cognitive impairment including self-awareness and regulation deficits in stroke patients and compare these functions with healthy older adults from a Middle Eastern population. Methods A prospective stroke sample of 200 patients (case group) and 100 healthy aging individuals (control group) will be recruited from the largest medical complex in Bahrain. A neuropsychological battery of cognitive assessments (global, executive, and metacognition) will be conducted on all participants. Participants will be categorized into 4 subgroups (nonvascular cognitive impairment, vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia, vascular dementia, and mixed dementia) using standardized cognitive assessment scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, dementia criteria. Biomarkers will include ApoE genotype, soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products, neprilysin, beta-secretase 1, biochemistry, and hematology measurements. Results The primary study outcome is to determine early risk factors for cognitive impairment after stroke in a Bahraini cohort. The study has received full ethical approval from the Bahrain Ministry of Health and from the affiliated university. Conclusions With increasing stroke incidence rates in the Middle East, this research study will provide useful biological and epidemiological data for future development and planning of health policies and guidelines for stroke care within the Gulf region. PMID:27895004

  20. Comparison of charcoal and tree-ring records of recent fires in the eastern Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    Treesearch

    Cathy Whitlock; Carl N. Skinner; Patrick J. Bartlein; Thomas Minckley; Jerry A. Mohr

    2004-01-01

    Fire-history reconstructions are based on tree-ring records that span the last few centuries and charcoal data from lake-sediment cores that extend back several thousand years. The two approaches have unique strengths and weaknesses in their ability to depict past fire events and fire regimes, and most comparisons of these datasets in western conifer forests have...

  1. Comparison of drier- to wetter-interval estuarine roof facies in the Eastern and Western Interior coal basins, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, A.W.; Feldman, H.R.; Kvale, E.P.; Lanier, Wendy E.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the Carboniferous coals in the eastern interior of the US are associated with siliciclastic roof facies that were deposited within a fluvio-estuarine transition. These facies include a variety of rhythmites, some of which exhibit tidal cycles. Drier-interval coals (Westphalian B-C, Stephanian) tend to be more laterally restricted and more commonly are associated with paleovalleys. Conversely, wetter-interval coals (Westphalian D) are very widespread and are not restricted to paleovalleys. Throughout the Lake Carboniferous, wet paleoclimates associated with these coals lead to valley incision during sea-level lowstand when large tropical rivers downcut older sediments deposited during previous sea-level highstands. During subsequent rise of sea level, these fluvial valleys were flooded and converted to estuaries where tidal ranges and sedimentation rates were significantly amplified. Based on modern analogs and interpretation of many examples of Carboniferous tidal rhythmites, the localized depositional rates in these settings are exceptionally high. The estuaries became sediment sinks, trapping sediment that is pumped in from both fluvial and marine sources. As a result, sedimentation readily keeps pace with rising baselevel. Extensive intertidal flats and shallow subtidal flats are created and prograde over the valley-confined mires. Thick tidal cycles and upright trees (some with attached foliage) record rapid burial of mires. This model is supported with examples of roof facies from the Westphalian B-C of the Eastern Interior Basin, and the Stephanian of the Western Interior Basin. In these areas facies within each cycle range from well-developed, extensive paleosols and coals, to widespread marine shales or limestones. Variations in both sea level and climate resulted in a complex history of valley fill during which coals could be developed at any time (except during widespread flooding). Minable, low-sulfur and low-ash coals occur, but the coals are

  2. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  3. Gendered Motivational Processes Affecting High School Mathematics Participation, Educational Aspirations, and Career Plans: A Comparison of Samples from Australia, Canada, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Helen M. G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Morris, Zoe A.; Durik, Amanda M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United…

  4. Google Flu Trends in Canada: a comparison of digital disease surveillance data with physician consultations and respiratory virus surveillance data, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J; Lee, B E; Yasui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The value of Google Flu Trends (GFT) remains unclear after it overestimated the proportion of physician visits related to influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States in 2012-2013. However, GFT estimates (%GFT) have not been examined nationally in Canada nor compared with positivity for respiratory viruses other than influenza. For 2010-2014, we compared %GFT for Canada to Public Health Agency of Canada ILI consultation rates (%PHAC) and to positivity for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinoviruses. %GFT correlated well with %PHAC (ρ = 0·77-0·90) and influenza A positivity (ρ = 0·64-0·96) and overestimated the 2012-2013 %PHAC peak by 0·99 percentage points. %GFT peaks corresponded temporally with peaks in positivity for influenza A and rhinoviruses (all seasons) and RSV and hMPV when their peaks preceded influenza peaks. In Canada, %GFT represented traditional surveillance data and corresponded temporally with patterns in circulating respiratory viruses.

  5. 2006 : Wood Products Used in New Residential Construction U.S. and Canada, with Comparisons to 1995, 1998 and 2003 : Executive Summary

    Treesearch

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2009-01-01

    The construction of new single family, multifamily, and manufactured housing is an important market for wood products in both the United States and Canada. Annual wood products consumption is dependent on many factors, including the number of new units started, the size of units started, architectural characteristics, and consumer preferences. In 2006, about 39 percent...

  6. The Elevated Risk for Non-Lethal Post-Separation Violence in Canada: A Comparison of Separated, Divorced, and Married Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownridge, Douglas A.; Chan, Ko Ling; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Ristock, Janice; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Santos, Susy C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to shed light on the potentially differing dynamics of violence against separated and divorced women by their ex-husbands and violence against married women by their current husbands. Using a nationally representative sample of 7,369 heterosexual women from Cycle 13 of Statistics Canada's General Social Survey,…

  7. 2006 : Wood Used in Residential Repair and Remodeling U.S. and Canada, with Comparison to 1997 and 2003 : Executive Summary

    Treesearch

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2009-01-01

    The repair and remodeling of residential units in both the United States and Canada is an important market for wood products. Many and varied repair and remodeling activities and projects are undertaken annually. Some require substantial amounts of wood products, some none at all. In 2006, about 28 percent of all solid wood products consumed in the United States and 31...

  8. Linguistic Ecosystems for Foreign-Language Learning in Canada and Japan: An International Comparison of Where Language-Learning Beliefs Come from

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouritzin, Sandra; Nakagawa, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report on international research that compares linguistic ecosystems, that is, socially constructed public attitudes and ideologies concerned with foreign-language (FL) learning, in Canada and Japan. Analyzing responses to three interview questions from 125 interviews with five categories of respondent in each country, we suggest that there are…

  9. Local Differences in HIV Prevalence: A Comparison of Social Venue Patrons, Antenatal Patients, and STI Patients in Eastern Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F.; McClamroch, Kristi; Ryder, Robert W.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with the HIV prevalence and behavior of STI treatment and antenatal clinic patients in the same area. Methods ANC clinic patients, STI clinic patients and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample onsite, and provided information about obtaining test results. All social venue patrons at all identified social venues in the study area were invited to participate. Results 1,116 pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested. HIV prevalence ranged by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sexworkers at social venues (29%) was higher than the prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships (19%) or among female patrons denying sexwork (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than the smaller group of sexworkers (23 vs 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one sexual partner in the past year. Conclusion Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sexworkers but have high rates of new sexual partnerships. PMID:19525891

  10. Indoor viable mold spores--a comparison between two cities, Erfurt (eastern Germany) and Hamburg (western Germany).

    PubMed

    Koch, A; Heilemann, K J; Bischof, W; Heinrich, J; Wichmann, H E

    2000-02-01

    In eastern Germany, the prevalence of allergies is lower than in western Germany for both children and adults. Several reasons for this fact have been discussed, although it is still not completely understood. One purpose of the epidemiologic study "Indoor and genetic factors in asthma and allergy" (INGA) is to compare exposure to mold spores in two German cities. Therefore, 405 homes in Erfurt (east) and Hamburg (west) were visited twice by trained investigators between June 1995 and May 1997. Samples of settled dust were taken by vacuuming from the carpet in the living room. Sieved house dust was diluted and plated on DG18 agar. The analyses were carried out in duplicate in the same laboratory. No significant difference could be shown for the total and for single genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium) in concentration of spores of viable fungi in settled house dust between Erfurt and Hamburg. Seasonal variation of the mold picture, with highest values in August, could be identified both indoors and outdoors. Because outdoor concentration is the main influence on indoor concentration of mold spores from June to October, we recommend sampling from November to May to evaluate exposure to indoor mold spores.

  11. ASA24-Canada

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  12. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  13. Comparison of elemental carbon in lake sediments measured by three different methods and 150-year pollution history in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Han, Y M; Cao, J J; Yan, B Z; Kenna, T C; Jin, Z D; Cheng, Y; Chow, Judith C; An, Z S

    2011-06-15

    Concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) were measured in a 150 yr sediment record collected from Lake Chaohu in Anhui Province, eastern China, using three different thermal analytical methods: IMPROVE_A thermal optical reflectance (TOR), STN_thermal optical transmittance (TOT), and chemothermal oxidation (CTO). Distribution patterns for EC concentrations are different among the three methods, most likely due to the operational definition of EC and different temperature treatments prescribed for each method. However, similar profiles were found for high-temperature EC fractions among different methods. Historical soot(TOR) (high-temperature EC fractions measured by the IMPROVE_A TOR method) from Lake Chaohu exhibited stable low concentrations prior to the late 1970s and a sharp increase thereafter, corresponding well with the rapid industrialization of China in the last three decades. This may suggest that high-temperature thermal protocols are suitable for differentiating between soot and other carbon fractions. A similar soot(TOR) record was also obtained from Lake Taihu (~200 km away), suggesting a regional source of soot. The ratio of char(TOR) (low-temperature EC fraction measured by the IMPROVE_A TOR method, after correction for pyrolysis) to soot(TOR) in Lake Chaohu shows an overall decreasing trend, consistent with gradual changes in fuel use from wood burning to increasing fossil fuel combustions. Average higher char(TOR)/soot(TOR) was observed in Lake Taihu than in Lake Chaohu in the past 150 years, consistent with the longer and more extensive industrialization around the Taihu region.

  14. Consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents: a multi-national comparison of eleven countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Al Ani, M F; Al Subhi, L K; Bose, S

    2016-03-28

    Regional cross-country profile of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This study examines the prevalence and differences of consuming F&V ≥5 times/d among adolescents in eleven EMR countries, and also describes differences in the proportions of taking F&V ≥5 times/d by sex, age and BMI. The study included 26 328 school adolescents (13-15 years) with complete data on consumption of F&V, age, sex, weight and height taken from the Global School-based Student Health Survey conducted in the EMR between 2005 and 2009. Overall, only 19·4 % of adolescents reported consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. The highest prevalence was reported in Djibouti (40·4 %) and the lowest was reported in Pakistan (10·0 %). Statistically significant differences in prevalence were observed across countries (P<0·05). With the exception of Oman, Libya and Djibouti, significantly more males than females ate F&V ≥5 times/d. Proportion of students consuming F&V ≥5 times/d also varied significantly in all counties based on BMI (P<0·0001), with students within normal BMI having the highest frequency. A negative trend was observed between age and the prevalence of taking F&V ≥5 times/d in most of the eleven EMR countries but Jordan, Djibouti and Morocco. The prevalence of adequate intake of F&V was low in the eleven EMR countries. There is a need for interventions to increase the prevalence of adolescents consuming F&V ≥5 times/d. Interventions should take into consideration psychosocial, environmental and socio-environmental factors influencing F&V intake within countries.

  15. Functional diversity patterns of abyssal nematodes in the Eastern Mediterranean: A comparison between cold seeps and typical deep sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulou, V.; Keklikoglou, K.; Lampadariou, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial patterns in deep sea nematode biological trait composition and functional diversity were investigated between chemosynthetic and typical deep sea ecosystems as well as between different microhabitats within the chemosynthetic ecosystems, in the Eastern Mediterranean. The chemosynthetic ecosystems chosen were two mud volcanoes, Napoli at 1950 m depth and Amsterdam at 2040 m depth which are cold seeps characterized by high chemosynthetic activity and spatial heterogeneity. Typical deep sea ecosystems consisted of fine-grained silt-clay sediments which were collected from three areas located in the south Ionian Sea at 2765 to 2840 m depth, the southern Cretan margin at 1089 to 1998 m depth and the Levantine Sea at 3055 to 3870 m depth. A range of biological traits (9 traits; 31 categories) related to buccal morphology, tail shape, body size, body shape, life history strategy, sediment position, cuticle morphology, amphid shape and presence of somatic setae were combined to identify patterns in the functional composition of nematode assemblages between the two habitats, the two mud volcanoes (macroscale) and between the microhabitats within the mud volcanoes (microscale). Data on trait correspondence was provided by biological information on species and genera. A total of 170 nematode species were allocated in 67 different trait combinations, i.e. functional groups, based on taxonomic, morphological and behavioral characteristics. The Biological Trait Analysis (BTA) revealed significant differences between the mud volcanoes and the typical deep sea sediments indicating the presence of different biological functions in ecologically very different environments. Moreover, chemosynthetic activity and habitat heterogeneity within mud volcanoes enhance the presence of different biological and ecological functions in nematode assemblages of different microhabitats. Functional diversity and species richness patterns varied significantly across the different

  16. Distribution and Phylogenetic Comparisons of a Novel Mosquito Flavivirus Sequence Present in Culex tarsalis Mosquitoes from Western Canada with Viruses Isolated in California and Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Shaun; Bolling, Bethany G.; Blair, Carol D.; Brault, Aaron C.; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Armijos, M. Veronica; Clark, David C.; Calisher, Charles H.; Drebot, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, a new flavivirus genome sequence was identified in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes obtained in Alberta, Canada and was shown to be genetically related to but distinct from members of the insect-specific flaviviruses. Nonstructural protein 5–encoding sequences amplified from Cx. tarsalis pools from western Canada have shown a high similarity to genome sequences of novel flaviviruses isolated from mosquitoes in California and Colorado. Despite wide distribution of this virus, designated Calbertado virus, strains demonstrate a high degree of nonstructural protein 5 nucleotide (> 90%) and amino acid (> 97%) identity. The ecology and geographic range of Calbertado virus warrants further study because it may potentially influence transmission of mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including important human pathogens such as West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses. PMID:21734143

  17. Fish composition and assemblage structure in three Eastern English Channel macrotidal estuaries: A comparison with other French estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid; Laffargue, Pascal; Lesourd, Sandric; Lepage, Mario; Girardin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    This study has analysed for the first time fish composition and assemblage structures of three small macrotidal estuaries of the Eastern English Channel (EEC) and has explored the influences of 19 biotic and abiotic variables on the fish assemblages. Fish from Canche, Authie and Somme estuaries were collected during spring (June 2006 and May 2007) and autumn (September 2006) along the estuarine gradients using a 1.5 m beam trawl. Using identical sampling protocols, the study also analysed and compared for the first time taxonomic and functional aspects of the fish assemblages in 15 estuaries located along the Atlantic and English Channel coasts. SIMPER analysis showed high similarities in fish assemblages in the three EEC estuaries and during either spring or autumn periods. However, intra-estuary similarities were relatively low, indicating that fish assemblage structures (species richnesses or abundances) were more variable within the estuary (salinity gradient) than between estuaries and/or seasons (spring vs autumn). Although numerous environmental variables were included in the study, only 47% of the variability observed in the fish distribution was explained. Fish spatial variations in the EEC estuaries are mostly driven by abiotic variables as opposed to biological interactions. As indicated by CCA, salinity and muddy sediments were the two most important factors structuring the fish assemblages. The macrobenthos being very abundant in the EEC estuaries (580-1121 ind. m -2), the availability of potential prey is probably not a limiting factor in the utilization of estuaries by fish. Contrary to the majority of French estuaries dominated by estuarine species (ES), the fish assemblages of the EEC estuaries are clearly dominated by marine migrant (MM) species (65% on average) with high abundance of juveniles (mostly young-of-the-year). Cluster and SIMPROF's analyses distinguished the functional structure of the 15 estuarine fish assemblages into different

  18. A comparison of malaria prevalence, control and management strategies in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muriuki, John Muthii; Kitala, Philip; Muchemi, Gerald; Njeru, Ian; Karanja, Joan; Bett, Bernard

    2016-08-11

    This study was conducted in Bura irrigation scheme in Tana River County and the pastoral area in Ijara, Garissa County in the eastern Kenya to establish the knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria transmission, control and management, and determine malaria prevalence and the associated risk factors. A cross sectional survey design that involved 493 randomly selected people from 334 households was used between November and December 2013. All the randomly selected people were screened for malaria parasites using rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-Carestart™ malaria HRP2 (pf) kit. A questionnaire was administered to determine potential risk factors and perceptions on malaria exposure within a period of 2 months prior to the survey. Two logistic regression models were fitted to the data; one used the RDT results while the other used data from the questionnaire survey. Using RDT, the prevalence of malaria was 4.68 % (95 % CI: 1.48-7.88 %) and 0.31 % (-0.30 to 0.92 %) in irrigated and non-irrigated areas, respectively. From the questionnaires, 14.62 % (9.27-19.97 %) and 23.91 % (19.23-28.60 %) of the participants perceived to have had malaria in the irrigated and pastoral areas, respectively. The main malaria control measure was the use of bed nets: average of three nets per household in Bura irrigation scheme and one in Ijara. Artemether-lumefantrine was the main drug of choice mainly in the irrigated area while sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was likely to be used in the non-irrigated area. Households located >5 km from the nearest health facility had higher prevalence of Plasmodium infection than those located ≤5 km. The residents of Bura irrigation scheme were more likely to be infected compared to those living in the non-irrigated area of Ijara. However, those in the non-irrigated area were more likely to be treated or use over-the-counter medication for perceived malaria illnesses compared to those in the irrigated area. There is a need, therefore, to

  19. Characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) from Nunavik, Canada and comparison with Hia strains in other North American Arctic regions.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Raymond S W; Proulx, Jean-Francois; Hayden, Kristy; Shuel, Michelle; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Boisvert, Andree-Anne; Moore, Dorothy

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the microbiological characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenae serotype a (Hia) isolates from Nunavik (northern Quebec), Canada. The relationship between invasive Hia isolates from Nunavik, Nunavut, Canada, and Alaska, USA will be discussed. Twenty invasive Hia isolates were recovered from patients in Nunavik from 2010 to 2013 and characterized by biotype, multi-locus sequence typing, IS1016-bexA deletion, antibiotic susceptibility and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All 20 Hia isolates were biotype II, sequence type -23, did not have IS1016-bexA deletions and were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. PFGE showed only two patterns, with 19 isolates giving identical molecular fingerprints, and the remaining isolate gave a PFGE pattern >95% similar. One major clone of Hia appears to be causing invasive disease in Nunavik, Canada. Based on previous studies, Hia from Nunavut were also typed as ST-23, while invasive Hia isolates from Alaska belonged to either ST-23 or closely related STs. Thus invasive Hia in the North America Arctic belonged to the ST-23 clonal complex and lacked the IS1016-bexA partial deletion. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of agricultural management on selected soil properties in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain: A comparison between conventional and organic citrus orchards with drip and flood irrigation.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, M A; Cammeraat, L H; Cerdà, A

    2017-03-01

    The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other six were conventionally managed, and for each of these six study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots and the other three drip irrigated systems. The outcome of the studied parameters was that soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregate stability were higher for organic farms. Bulk density and pH were only significantly different for organic farms when drip irrigation was applied in comparison with flooded plots. C/N ratio did not vary significantly for the four treatments. Although there are some points of discussion, this research shows that a combination of different management decisions leads to improvement of a couple of soil quality parameters. Organic management practices were found to be beneficial for soil quality, compared to conventional management for soils with comparable textures and applied irrigation water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The October 2015 flash - floods in south eastern France: first discharge estimations and comparison with other flash-floods documented in the framework of the Hymex project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Lebouc, Laurent; Ayral, Pierre Alain; Brunet, Pascal; Delrieu, Guy; Douvinet, Johnny; Dramais, Guillaume; Javelle, Pierre; Johannet, Anne; Adamovic, Marko; Adnes, Cyriel; Cantet, Philippe; Chapuis, Margot; Coutouis, Adrien; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Gonzalez-Sosa, Enrique; Ruin, Isabelle; Saint-Martin, Clotilde; Shabou, Saif; Whilhelm, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    On the 3rd of October 2015, an outstanding hydrometeorological event hit the Mediterranean coast in the Alpes-Maritimes region in south-eastern France. Despite this rainstorm event was very short in time (approximatively 2 hours of intense rainfall), it caused a large rainfall accumulation reaching up to 180 mm. Intense flash floods were observed on all rivers of the affected area, including mostly small watersheds of less than 60 km². They caused 21 fatalities and particularly high damages because of the density of urban areas located in the downstream coastal part of the affected area. The towns of Mandelieu, Cannes, and Antibes were particularly affected. On several watersheds, the reported floods seem be the largest observed from human memory, and may therefore become reference events for flood risk prevention. A post event survey was organised in the framework of the Hymex project in order to document the characteristics of the floods which occurred in a large majority on ungauged rivers, and also destroyed some of the existing stream gauges. A total of 36 peak discharge values were estimated, enabling a detailed description of observed hydrological reactions. This dataset confirms the very large peak discharge values, which remain however significantly below the magnitude of other recent floods observed in other regions of France, and below the existing envelope curves. It may also be observed that the magnitude of this new event is relatively close to what was observed in june 2010 in the nearby Var region. These two events, both being among the largest observed locally from human memory, suggest that the position of the envelope curve should be lower in this eastern part of the French Mediterranean coast, if compared to the Cevennes region which fixes up to now the position of the envelope curve for the whole French territory. A rainfall-runoff analysis of this flood is now in progress to confirm that the runoff rates are not particularly high if compared

  2. Identification of benthic diatoms isolated from the eastern tidal flats of the Yellow Sea: Comparison between morphological and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    An, Sung Min; Choi, Dong Han; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Howon; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Benthic diatoms isolated from tidal flats in the west coast of Korea were identified through both traditional morphological method and molecular phylogenetic method for methodological comparison. For the molecular phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the 18S rRNA and the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit coding gene, rbcL. Further, the comparative analysis allowed for the assessment of the suitability as a genetic marker for identification of closely related benthic diatom species and as potential barcode gene. Based on the traditional morphological identification system, the 61 isolated strains were classified into 52 previously known taxa from 13 genera. However, 17 strains could not be classified as known species by morphological analyses, suggesting a hidden diversity of benthic diatoms. The Blast search on NCBI's Genebank indicated that the reference sequences for most of the species were absent for the benthic diatoms. Of the two genetic markers, the rbcL genes were more divergent than the 18S rRNA genes. Furthermore, a long branch attraction artefact was found in the 18S rRNA phylogeny. These results suggest that the rbcL gene is a more appropriate genetic marker for identification and classification of benthic diatoms. Considering their high diversity and simple shapes, and thus the difficulty associated with morphological classification of benthic diatoms, a molecular approach could provide a relatively easy and reliable classification system. However, this study suggests that more effort should be made to construct a reliable database containing polyphasic taxonomic data for diatom classification.

  3. Comparison of blood smear, antigen detection, and nested-PCR methods for screening refugees from regions where malaria is endemic after a malaria outbreak in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ndao, Momar; Bandyayera, Etienne; Kokoskin, Evelyne; Gyorkos, Theresa W; MacLean, J Dick; Ward, Brian J

    2004-06-01

    The importation of malaria into a region where it is not endemic raises many concerns, including the timely delivery of appropriate care, safety of the blood supply, and the risk of autochthonous transmission. There is presently no consensus on the best way to screen mobile populations for malaria. Between August 2000 and March 2001, 535 refugees arrived in Quebec, Canada, from Tanzanian camps. Within 4 weeks of resettlement of the first group of 224, the McGill University Centre for Tropical Diseases noted an outbreak of malaria across the province (15 cases over a 3-week period). This group (group 1) was traced and screened for malaria between 3 and 4 months after arrival in Canada. Subsequent groups of 106 and 205 refugees were screened immediately upon arrival in Canada (group 2) and immediately prior to their departure from refugee camps (group 3), respectively. A single EDTA-blood sample was obtained from 521 refugees for testing by thick and thin blood smears (groups 1 and 2), antigen detection (ICT Malaria Pf and OptiMAL; group 1 only), and nested PCR (all groups). Overall, 98 of 521 refugees were found to be infected (18.8%). The vast majority of infections (81 of 98) were caused by Plasmodium falciparum alone. Using PCR as the "gold standard," both microscopy (sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 100%) and antigen detection (ICT sensitivity, 37.5%; ICT specificity, 100%; OptiMAL sensitivity, 29.1%; OptiMAL specificity, 95.6%) performed poorly. None of the PCR-positive subjects were symptomatic at the time of testing, and only two had recently had symptoms compatible with malaria (with or without diagnosis and treatment). Active surveillance of migrants from regions of intense malaria transmission can reduce the risk of morbidity in the migrant population and mitigate against transmission to the host population. Our data demonstrate that PCR is, by far, the most powerful tool for such surveillance.

  4. SIM.T-K9.1: Canada/Peru bilateral comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers from 0.01 °C to 419.527 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. D.; Barrientos, A.; Guillen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Thermometry has organized Key Comparison 9 (CCT-K9) as an updated replacement for CCT-K3. A comparison of the fixed-point temperature standards of Peru with those of Canada was carried out following a protocol that closely resembles CCT-K9. The comparison was limited to the fixed points of tin and zinc, with NRC the pilot laboratory and the eventual link to CCT-K9 (currently, CCT-K9 remains a work in progress). The comparison protocol required INDECOPI to select, characterize, and transport (i.e. hand carry) the SPRTs to NRC. Following the measurements at NRC, the SPRTs were returned and re-measured at INDECOPI to close the loop and assess any changes that occurred in the SPRTs over the course of the measurements. The following degrees of equivalence, D, and expanded uncertainties, U (k = 2), were obtained via this comparison. T / °C DINDECOPI / mK U / mK 419.527 1.58 4.6 231.928 -2.12 3.9 SIM.T-K9.1 has demonstrated the compatibility of the fixed points of INDECOPI with those maintained by NRC within the combined uncertainties, and therefore serves to verify the intended calibration and measurement capabilities envisioned for INDECOPI, Peru. The results can be linked to NMIs globally following CCT-K9, with NRC as the linking participant. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Analysis and Comparison of the Temperature and Snowfall Conditions for the Winters of 2014/15 and 2015/16 at Three Ski Resorts in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Pedersen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Most ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada experienced extremely poor weather conditions during the winter of 2014/15. During this year, a persistent area of high pressure created "the Blob" in the North Pacific Ocean, which influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, for many ski resorts winter precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow, instead fell as rain on many occasions. In Western Canada, ski resorts saw an 18% decrease in skier visits in 2014/15 relative to the average of the previous 8 years. NOAA forecasts for the winter of 2015/16 suggested another mild winter because of a strong El Nino event. Despite this forecast, ski resorts in Western Canada experienced a very good ski season. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winters of 2014/15 and 2015/16 in detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Whistler-Blackcomb, Cypress Mountain, and Big White. The climatic characteristics of these 2 years were also compared to the winter of 2012/13, the most recent banner ski year in the last decade. Data for this study came from Snow-Forecast.com, a web-based company that creates tailor-made weather forecasts for ski resorts around the world using climate model output from NOAA. From Snow-Forecast.com, we mined archived hindcast data that was available at the daily level to analyze and compare mean air temperature and snowfall patterns from November 1 to March 31. Daily temperature data was plotted in a line graph for each year. To better clarify trends, we also graphed an 11-year running mean for the temperature data. Snowfall data was plotted in a cumulative line graph. The winter of 2014/15 was on average warmer by 3.9°C for Cypress, 5.4°C for Whistler, and 4.4°C for Big White than the winter of 2012/13. The winter of 2015/16 was on average 2.5°C, 3.6°C, and 3.6°C warmer than the winter of 2012/13, respectively. Snowfall

  6. The role of economic factors on women's risk for intimate partner violence: a cross-national comparison of Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth; Powers, Ráchael A

    2015-02-01

    National data from Canada and the United States are used to examine the connection between women's economic contributions to the family and their risk for physical and emotional abuse. Analyses show that American women are at a twofold greater risk; however, the relationship between economic variables and the risk of both physical violence and coercive control are more complex. Income serves to reduce the risk of both violence and coercive control for both Canadian and American women, whereas education serves as a clear protective factor for American women, but does not provide the same benefit for Canadian women.

  7. Comparison, cross-validation and consolidation of the results from two different geodynamic projects working in the eastern Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosious, B.; Dinter, G.; van der Hoeven, A.; Mocanu, V.; Nutto, M.; Schmitt, G.; Spakman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1995 several projects/programmes are working in the Vrancea-region in Romania with partly different intensions. First of all, the CERGOP project installed the CEGRN-network and performed GPS-measurements ('95,'96,'97,'99,'01), mainly to realise a geodetic reference frame for local geodynamic projects. In the framework of the Collaborative Research Center CRC461 "Strong Earthquakes" the Geodetic Institute of the University Karlsruhe (GIK) Densified the network up to 35 stations and carried out three GPS-campaigns ('97, '98 and '00). First results of this project were presented at the EGS-meeting 2001 in Nice. In 2002 a new geodynamic research project was initiated at the Delft Institute of Earth-Oriented Space Research (DEOS). In the context of this project, 4 permanent stations and 10 new campaign stations were installed, which leads to a common network of about 50 stations. In tight cooperation with the GIK and the University of Bucarest (Departement of Geophysics) the currently last GPS-campaign was successfully carried out in 2002. Now the great challenge and at the same time the great difficulty is a correct combination of all available GPS datasets particularly in consideration of station excentricities and variations of antenna- and receiver-types. Different evalutation strategies and software packages (Bernese-GPS-Software, GIPSY) were used to analyse the GPS data and to estimate the station velocities. Main focus of this joint-presentation is the comparison of the results from the German and Dutch geodynamic projects. The results of the two working groups are cross-validated and finally joined together in a most reasonable solution. Even if three-dimensional analysis is in work, the presentation is limited to the horizontal component.

  8. Life cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in eastern U.S. with comparison to solid strip wood flooring

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    Building products have come under increased scrutiny because of environmental impacts from their manufacture. Our study followed the life cycle inventory approach for prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern US and compared the results with those of solid strip wood flooring. Our study surveyed five engineered wood flooring manufacturers in the eastern US....

  9. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnosis of feline herpesvirus, Chlamydophila felis, and Mycoplasma spp. infection in cats with ocular disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Waldner, Cheryl L; Bauer, Bianca S; Wen, Xin; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2010-06-01

    This study assessed the value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for making a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus (FHV-1) infection, and for differentiating this from Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma spp. infection in a clinical setting in Canada. We compared the frequency of positive FHV-1 PCR test results from 48 clinical cases of ocular disease in cats suspected to be due to FHV-1 between 1 research and 2 commercial laboratories in Canada. We also compared PCR results for Chlamydophila felis and Mycoplasma spp. between the 2 commercial laboratories. The prevalence of FHV-1 infection in the cats ranged from 4% to 21%. The prevalence of Chlamydophila felis was 2% and 17% and the prevalence of Mycoplasma spp. was 11% and 27%. Agreement between FHV-1 culture and PCR results at the research laboratory was substantial (kappa = 0.76). There was slight agreement (kappa < 0.20) between the 3 laboratories for FHV-1 PCR and between the 2 commercial laboratories for both Chlamydophila felis (kappa = 0.2) and Mycoplasma spp. (kappa = 0.07) PCR.

  10. THE ROLE OF DEFAMILIALIZATION IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTNERSHIP AND SELF-RATED HEALTH: A CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISON OF CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES

    PubMed Central

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; Clouston, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Partnered individuals live longer, healthier lives. It has been hypothesized that both social causation (partnership benefits) and health selection may explain this association. Since much of this literature is focused in the U.S., comparative studies of the potential impact of policy on the causation and selection components of this association have been scant. Using comparable data from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we test the selective and causal relationships evident during entrance into partnership. We use fixed change-point analysis with multilevel models (MLM) to fit trajectories of change in both Canada and the U.S. to understand the role of both health selection and partnership benefits. In Canada, partnership benefits were evident, while health selection was only marginally significant. In the US, health selection was prominent in both men and women, but partnership benefits were not significant. We argue that the differences in the extent of defamilialization of social policy between the two countries may impact the way and extent to which people choose partners and benefit from those partnerships. PMID:22800920

  11. Comparisons of disparities and risks of HIV infection in black and other men who have sex with men in Canada, UK, and USA: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Millett, Gregorio A; Peterson, John L; Flores, Stephen A; Hart, Trevor A; Jeffries, William L; Wilson, Patrick A; Rourke, Sean B; Heilig, Charles M; Elford, Jonathan; Fenton, Kevin A; Remis, Robert S

    2012-07-28

    We did a meta-analysis to assess factors associated with disparities in HIV infection in black men who have sex with men (MSM) in Canada, the UK, and the USA. We searched Embase, Medline, Google Scholar, and online conference proceedings from Jan 1, 1981, to Dec 31, 2011, for racial comparative studies with quantitative outcomes associated with HIV risk or HIV infection. Key words and Medical Subject Headings (US National Library of Medicine) relevant to race were cross-referenced with citations pertinent to homosexuality in Canada, the UK, and the USA. Data were aggregated across studies for every outcome of interest to estimate overall effect sizes, which were converted into summary ORs for 106,148 black MSM relative to 581,577 other MSM. We analysed seven studies from Canada, 13 from the UK, and 174 from the USA. In every country, black MSM were as likely to engage similarly in serodiscordant unprotected sex as other MSM. Black MSM in Canada and the USA were less likely than other MSM to have a history of substance use (odds ratio, OR, 0·53, 95% CI 0·38-0·75, for Canada and 0·67, 0·50-0·92, for the USA). Black MSM in the UK (1·86, 1·58-2·18) and the USA (3·00, 2·06-4·40) were more likely to be HIV positive than were other MSM, but HIV-positive black MSM in each country were less likely (22% in the UK and 60% in the USA) to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) than other HIV-positive MSM. US HIV-positive black MSM were also less likely to have health insurance, have a high CD4 count, adhere to cART, or be virally suppressed than were other US HIV-positive MSM. Notably, despite a two-fold greater odds of having any structural barrier that increases HIV risk (eg, unemployment, low income, previous incarceration, or less education) compared with other US MSM, US black MSM were more likely to report any preventive behaviour against HIV infection (1·39, 1·23-1·57). For outcomes associated with HIV infection, disparities were greatest for

  12. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    Cyclones originating over the tropical Atlantic may undergo the process of extratropical transition as they move northeastward along the coast of North America. Interaction with eastward-moving mid-latitude cyclones or frontal systems can result in the formation of spatially larger, more powerful storms, marked by frontal characteristics, changes (either increases or decreases) in wind speed and track velocity, and less predictable tracks coupled with increased precipitation and potential for storm surge. Of the 330 tropical cyclones formed over the North Atlantic from 1991 to 2011, 134 (40.6%) underwent partial or total extratropical transition. The dynamics and threats of extratropical transitions have not been extensively studied. Consequently, forecasters refer to approaching storms as "hurricanes," although they are frequently extratropical in character by the time they reach New York and New England, and almost always have undergone partial or complete transition before making landfall in Atlantic Canada. In rare instances, extratropical transitions may continue to progress eastwards across the North Atlantic. In a typical summer-autumn, Atlantic Canada is impacted by 5 to 7 storms of tropical origin. Due to variations in track and interaction to form extratropical transitions, the number of summer and early autumn storm events in Atlantic Canada is not linked to the total number of hurricanes in any specific year. Overall tropical cyclone frequency in the North Atlantic cannot be directly correlated with temperature variations, or with the frequency or magnitude of summer and early autumn storms in Atlantic Canada. Extratropical transition "Igor" directly impacted more than 40,000 km2 of eastern Newfoundland on 20-22 September 2010. Current estimates of damage to human property exceed 165 million, and one human life was lost. River flooding resulted from rainfall in excess of 150 mm/24 h in several locations, with peak stream flow locally exceeding 600 m3/s

  13. Canada Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a net exporter of most energy commodities and a significant producer of crude oil and other liquids from oil sands, natural gas, and hydroelectricity. Energy exports to the United States account for the vast majority of Canada's total energy exports. However, because of economic and other considerations, Canada is developing ways to diversify its trading partners, especially by expanding ties with emerging markets in Asia.

  14. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of long-term captive and recently wild-caught Eastern brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) indicate venom does not change due to captivity.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Ryan J R; Sridharan, Sindhuja; Dunstan, Nathan L; Mirtschin, Peter J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-07-20

    Snake venom is a highly variable phenotypic character, and its variation and rapid evolution are important because of human health implications. Because much snake antivenom is produced from captive animals, understanding the effects of captivity on venom composition is important. Here, we have evaluated toxin profiles from six long-term (LT) captive and six recently wild-caught (RC) eastern brown snakes, Pseudonaja textilis, utilizing gel electrophoresis, HPLC-MS, and shotgun proteomics. We identified proteins belonging to the three-finger toxins, group C prothrombin activators, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, and phospholipases A2, among others. Although crude venom HPLC analysis showed LT snakes to be higher in some small molecular weight toxins, presence/absence patterns showed no correlation with time in captivity. Shotgun proteomics indicated the presence of similar toxin families among individuals but with variation in protein species. Although no venom sample contained all the phospholipase A2 subunits that form the textilotoxin, all did contain both prothrombin activator subunits. This study indicates that captivity has limited effects on venom composition, that venom variation is high, and that venom composition may be correlated to geographic distribution. Through proteomic comparisons, we show that protein variation within LT and RC groups of snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) is high, thereby resulting in no discernible differences in venom composition between groups. We utilize complementary techniques to characterize the venom proteomes of 12 individual snakes from our study area, and indicate that individuals captured close to one another have more similar venom gel electrophoresis patterns than those captured at more distant locations. These data are important for understanding natural variation in and potential effects of captivity on venom composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of atmospheric PM2.5-bounded mercury species and their correlation with bromine and iodine at coastal urban and island sites in the eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Na; Duan, Lian; Xiu, Guangli; Zhao, Mengfei; Qian, Guanlei

    2017-01-01

    A year-long observation of PM2.5-bounded mercury (PBM) and its species was conducted at a urban site (Shanghai, Xuhui; XH) and an island site (Shengsi, SS) in eastern China from September 2014 to August 2015. The seasonal variation of mercury species including hydrochloric soluble particle-phase mercury (HPM), element soluble particle-phase mercury (EPM) and residual soluble particle-phase mercury (RPM), as well as particulate halogen (Br, I) were determined. Annual average concentration of PBM at urban was 0.32 ± 0.13 ng·m- 3, and was 0.22 ± 0.18 ng·m- 3 at island, which might be attributed to anthropogenic sources. Include more results here, such as EPM, RPM, and with comparison like ;The speciated mercury in PM2.5 was found to be HPM > RPM > EPM at the urban site, while RPM > HPM > EPM at island site, respectively.; The speciated mercury in PM2.5 showed distinct different concentrations between the two sites. HPM concentration is the highest at urban, but RPM showed the largest fraction at island. Higher mass contents of all PM2.5-bounded mercury species were found at island site than those at urban site, which indicated atmospheric mercury is more easily scavenged by particles at ocean atmosphere. Additionally, the correlation between bromine and mercury was stronger at urban site than that at island site, while iodine had the stronger correlation with mercury at island site than that urban site. These results showed marine aerosols played an important role to the transport of mercury.

  17. A comparison of spring larval fish assemblages in the Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) between the early 1980s and late 2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lu; Dower, John F.; McKinnell, Skip M.; Pepin, Pierre; Pakhomov, Evgeny A.; Hunt, Brian P. V.

    2015-11-01

    The concentration and composition of the larval fish assemblage in the Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) has changed between the early 1980s (1980 and 1981) and the late 2000s (2007, 2009 and 2010). During both periods, the spring larval fish assemblages were dominated by pelagic species: Clupea pallasi (Pacific herring), Merluccius productus (Pacific hake), Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue) and Theragra chalcogramma (walleye Pollock). The average concentration of Merluccius productus, Theragra chalcogramma, Leuroglossus schmidti, and Sebastes spp. declined between the early 1980s and the late 2000s; in contrast, the absolute concentration and proportion of Pleuronectidae and several demersal fish taxa increased in the spring larval assemblage. Examination of the associations between larval fish assemblages and environmental fluctuations suggests that large-scale climate processes are potential contributors to variations in overall larval concentrations of the dominant taxa and assemblage composition in the Strait of Georgia.

  18. Carabid assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a rotation of three different crops in southern Alberta, Canada: a comparison of sustainable and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, S; Cárcamo, H A; Larney, F J; Spence, J R

    2008-10-01

    Carabids were sampled in 2000 (pretreatment year) and 2003-2005 in experimental plots in southern Alberta, Canada, after a rotation of beans, wheat, and potato under sustainable and conventional farming practices. Each phase of the rotation was present in every year. Crop type had a stronger effect than sustainable treatment on carabid-expected species richness, diversity, and species composition. However, carabid activity density was consistently higher in plots under sustainable treatments than those maintained conventionally. Potato plots, which were sprayed with insecticide for pest control, showed a significantly lower carabid activity density than the other crops. These results support other studies showing the beneficial effect of sustainable farming on activity density of carabid beetles.

  19. The elevated risk for non-lethal post-separation violence in Canada: a comparison of separated, divorced, and married women.

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Douglas A; Chan, Ko Ling; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Ristock, Janice; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Santos, Susy C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to shed light on the potentially differing dynamics of violence against separated and divorced women by their ex-husbands and violence against married women by their current husbands. Using a nationally representative sample of 7,369 heterosexual women from Cycle 13 of Statistics Canada's General Social Survey, available risk markers were examined in the context of a nested ecological framework. Separated women reported nine times the prevalence of violence and divorced women reported about four times the prevalence of violence compared with married women. The strongest predictors of violence against married women, namely, patriarchal domination, sexual jealousy, and possessiveness, were not significant predictors of violence against separated and divorced women. This suggested that post-separation violence is a complex phenomenon the dynamics of which can be affected by much more than domination and ownership.

  20. Organochlorines and mercury in waterfowl harvested in Canada.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Malone, Brian J

    2006-03-01

    Samples of breast muscle from 32 species of waterfowl collected from 123 sites across Canada were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBz), chlordane-related compounds (CHL), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), DDT, mirex, dieldrin, PCBs and mercury. SigmaDDT, SigmaCBz and SigmaPCB were the compounds most frequently found above trace levels. SigmaHCH and SigmaMirex were detected the least often. Mercury was detected in all of the mergansers, over 50% of dabbling, bay and sea ducks, and in less than 2% of the geese analysed. The highest levels of contaminants were generally found in birds feeding at higher trophic levels such as sea ducks and mergansers. With the exception of a few samples of mergansers and long-tailed ducks from eastern Canada, which contained SigmaPCB concentrations of 1.0-2.4 mg kg(-1), SigmaPCB levels were less than 1 mg kg(-1) wet weight. Only one merganser from eastern Canada had a SigmaDDT concentration (2.6 mg kg(-1) ww) which was greater than 1 mg kg(-1) ww. The highest SigmaCHL (0.10 mg kg(-1) ww) was also found in mergansers from eastern Canada. Levels of total mercury in breast muscle were either low (< 1 mg kg(-1) ww) or below detection limits with the exception of a few samples of mergansers from eastern Canada which contained mercury concentrations of 1.0-1.5 mg kg(-1) ww. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and mercury levels found in samples of breast muscle of ducks and geese analysed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these waterfowl were safe to eat.

  1. Density, destinations or both? A comparison of measures of walkability in relation to transportation behaviors, obesity and diabetes in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Richard H; Creatore, Maria I; Weyman, Jonathan T; Fazli, Ghazal; Matheson, Flora I; Gozdyra, Peter; Moineddin, Rahim; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; Shriqui, Vered Kaufman; Booth, Gillian L

    2014-01-01

    The design of suburban communities encourages car dependency and discourages walking, characteristics that have been implicated in the rise of obesity. Walkability measures have been developed to capture these features of urban built environments. Our objective was to examine the individual and combined associations of residential density and the presence of walkable destinations, two of the most commonly used and potentially modifiable components of walkability measures, with transportation, overweight, obesity, and diabetes. We examined associations between a previously published walkability measure and transportation behaviors and health outcomes in Toronto, Canada, a city of 2.6 million people in 2011. Data sources included the Canada census, a transportation survey, a national health survey and a validated administrative diabetes database. We depicted interactions between residential density and the availability of walkable destinations graphically and examined them statistically using general linear modeling. Individuals living in more walkable areas were more than twice as likely to walk, bicycle or use public transit and were significantly less likely to drive or own a vehicle compared with those living in less walkable areas. Individuals in less walkable areas were up to one-third more likely to be obese or to have diabetes. Residential density and the availability of walkable destinations were each significantly associated with transportation and health outcomes. The combination of high levels of both measures was associated with the highest levels of walking or bicycling (p<0.0001) and public transit use (p<0.0026) and the lowest levels of automobile trips (p<0.0001), and diabetes prevalence (p<0.0001). We conclude that both residential density and the availability of walkable destinations are good measures of urban walkability and can be recommended for use by policy-makers, planners and public health officials. In our setting, the combination of both

  2. Comparison of mercury and zinc profiles in peat and lake sediment archives with historical changes in emissions from the Flin Flon metal smelter, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Outridge, P M; Rausch, N; Percival, J B; Shotyk, W; McNeely, R

    2011-01-01

    The copper-zinc smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba, was historically the largest single Hg point-source in Canada, as well as a major source of Zn. Although emissions were reported by industry to have declined significantly since the late 1980s, these reductions have never been independently verified. Here, the histories of Hg and Zn deposition over the past century or more were determined at five lake sediment and three peat study sites in the surrounding region. At sites spanning the range from heavy to minor pollution, lake sediment Hg and Zn concentration and flux profiles increased significantly in the early 1930s after the smelter opened. Two of the three peat archives were wholly or partially compromised by either physical disturbances or biogeochemical transitions which reduced their effectiveness as atmospheric metal deposition recorders. But the remaining peat records, including a detailed recent 20 yr record at a moderately polluted site, appeared to show that substantive reductions in metal levels had occurred after the late 1980s, coincident with the reported emission reductions. However, the lake sediment results, taken at face value, contradicted the peat results in that no major declines in metal concentrations or fluxes occurred over recent decades. Mercury and Zn fluxes have in fact increased substantially since 1988 in most lakes. We suggest that this discrepancy may be explained by catchment soil saturation by historically deposited metals which are now mobilizing and leaching into lakes, as has been reported from other smelter polluted systems in Canada, whereas the upper sections of the peat cores reflected recent declines in atmospheric deposition. However, further research including instrumented wet and dry deposition measurements and catchment/lake mass balance studies is recommended to test this hypothesis, and to provide definitive data on current atmospheric metal deposition rates in the area.

  3. A Comparison of Particle and Organic Carbon Fluxes to the Deep Canada Basin Between 2004-2005 and 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinton, T. I.; Hwang, J.; Manganini, S. J.; Griffith, D.; Krishfield, R. A.; Honjo, S.

    2008-12-01

    Two of the most blatant impacts of climate change in the Arctic are destabilization of permafrost soils, and a reduction in sea-ice cover, altering carbon cycling both on land and in the ocean. In particular, higher terrestrial carbon fluxes to the ocean, and both enhanced and an offshore extension of marine productivity, are anticipated. However, the fate of this carbon (i.e., remineralization versus burial) in the Arctic Ocean, as well as the extent to which the deep basin waters and underlying sediments will sequester carbon in the face of rapidly changing sea-ice, hydrographic and biogeochemical conditions, remain unknown. Answers to these questions are crucial to our understanding of whether the Arctic will serve as a net carbon dioxide source or sink to the atmosphere, and how pelagic ecosystems will respond to these perturbations. In this study, we compare the flux of particulate carbon and associated elements to the deep Arctic Ocean from a bottom-tethered sediment trap deployed at 3000m in the southwest Canada Basin during 2004-2005 and 2007-2008. Particle fluxes and compositions are compared in the context of different seasonal sea-ice and hydrographic conditions between these deployment periods. Overall particle fluxes during the 2004-5 deployment were extremely low, and mass flux variations were temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary productivity in overlying surface waters. Moreover, geochemical analyses showed that the sinking particulate matter was characterized by aged organic carbon and abundant lithogenic material, which together suggest that the majority of the particulate organic carbon entering the deep Canada Basin was supplied from the surrounding margins (Hwang et al. 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L11607). These data will be compared with particle fluxes during the 2007-2008 year when summer sea ice was less extensive.

  4. Density, Destinations or Both? A Comparison of Measures of Walkability in Relation to Transportation Behaviors, Obesity and Diabetes in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Glazier, Richard H.; Creatore, Maria I.; Weyman, Jonathan T.; Fazli, Ghazal; Matheson, Flora I.; Gozdyra, Peter; Moineddin, Rahim; Shriqui, Vered Kaufman; Booth, Gillian L.

    2014-01-01

    The design of suburban communities encourages car dependency and discourages walking, characteristics that have been implicated in the rise of obesity. Walkability measures have been developed to capture these features of urban built environments. Our objective was to examine the individual and combined associations of residential density and the presence of walkable destinations, two of the most commonly used and potentially modifiable components of walkability measures, with transportation, overweight, obesity, and diabetes. We examined associations between a previously published walkability measure and transportation behaviors and health outcomes in Toronto, Canada, a city of 2.6 million people in 2011. Data sources included the Canada census, a transportation survey, a national health survey and a validated administrative diabetes database. We depicted interactions between residential density and the availability of walkable destinations graphically and examined them statistically using general linear modeling. Individuals living in more walkable areas were more than twice as likely to walk, bicycle or use public transit and were significantly less likely to drive or own a vehicle compared with those living in less walkable areas. Individuals in less walkable areas were up to one-third more likely to be obese or to have diabetes. Residential density and the availability of walkable destinations were each significantly associated with transportation and health outcomes. The combination of high levels of both measures was associated with the highest levels of walking or bicycling (p<0.0001) and public transit use (p<0.0026) and the lowest levels of automobile trips (p<0.0001), and diabetes prevalence (p<0.0001). We conclude that both residential density and the availability of walkable destinations are good measures of urban walkability and can be recommended for use by policy-makers, planners and public health officials. In our setting, the combination of both

  5. Comparison of self-reported signs of facial ageing among Caucasian women in Australia versus those in the USA, the UK and Canada.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Greg J; Armour, Katherine S; Kolodziejczyk, Julia K; Santangelo, Samantha; Gallagher, Conor J

    2017-04-10

    Australians are more exposed to higher solar UV radiation levels that accelerate signs of facial ageing than individuals who live in temperate northern countries. The severity and course of self-reported facial ageing among fair-skinned Australian women were compared with those living in Canada, the UK and the USA. Women voluntarily recruited into a proprietary opt-in survey panel completed an internet-based questionnaire about their facial ageing. Participants aged 18-75 years compared their features against photonumeric rating scales depicting degrees of severity for forehead, crow's feet and glabellar lines, tear troughs, midface volume loss, nasolabial folds, oral commissures and perioral lines. Data from Caucasian and Asian women with Fitzpatrick skin types I-III were analysed by linear regression for the impact of country (Australia versus Canada, the UK and the USA) on ageing severity for each feature, after controlling for age and race. Among 1472 women, Australians reported higher rates of change and significantly more severe facial lines (P ≤ 0.040) and volume-related features like tear troughs and nasolabial folds (P ≤ 0.03) than women from the other countries. More Australians also reported moderate to severe ageing for all features one to two decades earlier than US women. Australian women reported more severe signs of facial ageing sooner than other women and volume-related changes up to 20 years earlier than those in the USA, which may suggest that environmental factors also impact volume-related ageing. These findings have implications for managing their facial aesthetic concerns. © 2017 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  7. Canada: The Neglected Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutan, Gerard F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Canada as a neglected area of political study. Suggests the inclusion of Canada in the comparative politics curriculum because it offers rich comparative opportunities with its cultural pluralism, parliamentary system, and authentic federalism. Lists associations and funding sources for Canadian studies and recommends several textbooks.…

  8. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  9. Gaseous oxidized mercury dry deposition measurements in the southwestern USA: a comparison between Texas, eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners area.

    PubMed

    Sather, Mark E; Mukerjee, Shaibal; Allen, Kara L; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Ketcher, Philip; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m(2)h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m(2)h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  10. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Mark E.; Allen, Kara L.; Smith, Luther; Mathew, Johnson; Jackson, Clarence; Callison, Ryan; Scrapper, Larry; Hathcoat, April; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Brunette, Robert; Karlstrom, Jason; Van der Jagt, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area. PMID:24955412

  11. Geodynamics of the Eastern Pacific Region, Caribbean and Scotia Arcs. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Cabre, R.

    1983-01-01

    This book analyze the geodynamic phenomena related to the interaction of the eastern Pacific with the Americas between Canada and the Antarctic peninsula. Studies include the Cordilleran arcs and Juan de Fuca plate.

  12. A comparison of correlation-length estimation methods for the objective analysis of surface pollutants at Environment and Climate Change Canada.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Richard; Deshaies-Jacques, Martin; Gasset, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    improvement of the objective analysis of surface pollutants at Environment and Climate Change Canada (formerly known as Environment Canada). Objective analyses are essentially surface maps of air pollutants that are obtained by combining observations with an air quality model output, and are thought to provide a complete and more accurate representation of the air quality. The highlight of this study is an analysis of methods to estimate the model (or background) error correlation length-scale. The error statistics are an important and critical component to the analysis scheme.

  13. Je voyage au Canada (Travelling to Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Normand

    Designed for use in a bilingual program, this basic French reader centers around a trip to Canada. It contains reading selections, two short poems, the words and music of a song entitled "La cigale et la fourmi," and several oral and written exercises. (PMP)

  14. Comparison between weather radar and rain gauges data of precipitations that triggered debris flows in the Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Martino; Gregoretti, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    High intensity and short duration (usually 15-30 minutes) rainfalls are able to generate sudden and abundant runoff in rocky cliffs that can entrain large quantities of sediments and originate debris flow phenomena. A rain gauge network has been set up in two different areas of Dolomites (North Eastern Italian Alps) far each other about 15 km: Fiames (Cortina d'Ampezzo) and Rovina di Cancia (Borca di Cadore). The first network is composed of 9 rain gauges in an area of 1 km2, while the second is composed of 6 rain gauges in an area of 2 km2. In both the areas, the rain gauges are positioned both upstream and downstream the initiation areas of the occurring debris flows. Another single rain gauge is positioned close to the initiation area of Rudavoi debris flow (Auronzo di Cadore) and is far about 5 km from the Fiames rain gauges network. All the rain gauges sample precipitation depth at 5 minutes intervals. In the years 2009-2015 records of rainfalls that triggered 22 debris flows were taken. In most cases, the recorded rainfalls show an higher variability both along distance (200-500 m) and along altitude (200-600 m). Precipitation data recorded by the rain gauges are then compared with those estimated by means of a C-Band weather radar about 70 km away from there, to verify the possible interchangeability of the two measurement systems. Rainfall depths estimated by radar are provided with the temporal interval of the rain gauges (5 minutes) but with a different spatial scale (500 x 500 m raster resolution). To avoid the observation scale gap between the different techniques, in addition to standard comparisons between point gauge and radar rainfall measures, mean areal precipitations were derived from rain gauge network and compared with radar data. Results seem to demonstrate that radar tends to underestimate precipitation evaluated from rain gauges network, both on different measurement scales and on mean spatial data. On average, underestimation regards both

  15. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  16. Geochemistry of hypabyssal kimberlites from Lac de Gras, Canada: Comparisons to a global database and applications to the parent magma problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Pearson, D. G.; Tappe, S.; Nowell, G. M.; Dowall, D. P.

    2009-11-01

    We present 104 whole-rock geochemical analyses of hypabyssal kimberlite from the Lac de Gras field. Screens using Yb versus Al 2O 3 and ln Si/Al versus ln Mg/Yb effectively discriminate crustally contaminated samples. The remaining "non-contaminated" kimberlites samples have variable (5 to 50%) entrainment of cratonic peridotite. It is problematic to effectively screen for small amounts (< 5%) of digested crust in samples with higher (> 20%) contents of peridotite contamination. We utilize the Lac de Gras data suite to calculate, by two different methods, parent magma compositions and identify two (and potentially three) geochemically distinct parent magma types. The Lac de Gras parent magma compositions are compared to those calculated from other localities in Canada, Greenland, South Africa and Russia. Together, these calculated parent magmas define a range, albeit limited, of viable, yet distinct, kimberlite parent magma compositions. Geochemically, kimberlite parent magmas have high volatile contents (H 2O and CO 2), high MgO, and low SiO 2, Al 2O 3 and alkalis, with K > Na and Na + K/Al < 1. It is difficult to reconcile differences between various calculated kimberlite parent magma compositions from different cratonic areas as merely due to the effects of craton specific lithospheric mantle contamination, indicating the intra- and inter-cratonic variation of parent magma compositions reflect differing source region characteristics and/or partial melting regimes.

  17. Gendered motivational processes affecting high school mathematics participation, educational aspirations, and career plans: a comparison of samples from Australia, Canada, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen M G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Morris, Zoe A; Durik, Amanda M; Keating, Daniel P; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-11-01

    In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United States (Ns = 358, 471, 418, respectively) in Grades 9/10 at Time 1 and Grades 11/12 at Time 2. The 3 samples came from suburban middle to upper-middle socioeconomic backgrounds, primarily of Anglo-European descent. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed stereotypic gender differences in educational and occupational outcomes only among the Australian sample. Multigroup structural equation models identified latent mean differences where male adolescents held higher intrinsic value for math in the Australian sample and higher ability/success expectancy in both North American samples. Ability/success expectancy was a key predictor in the North American samples, in contrast to intrinsic value in the Australian sample. Attainment/utility ("importance") values were more important for female adolescents' career choices, except in the Australian sample. Findings are interpreted in relation to gender socialization practices, degree and type of early choice, and specialization across settings. Implications are discussed for long-term math engagement and career selection for female and male adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. An international comparison of women's health issues in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore: the CIDA-SEAGEP Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2004-11-19

    This was an international study of women's health issues, based on an Official Study Tour in Southeast Asia (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore) and Canada. The objectives of the study were to identify and compare current gaps in surveillance, research, and programs and policies, and to predict trends of women's health issues in developing countries based on the experience of developed countries. Key informant interviews (senior government officials, university researchers, and local experts), self-administered questionnaires, courtesy calls, and literature searches were used to collect data. The participating countries identified women's health as an important issue, especially for reproductive health (developing countries) and senior's health (developed countries). Cancer, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, diabetes, poverty, social support, caring role for family, and informing, educating, and empowering people about women's health issues were the main concerns. Based on this study, 17 recommendations were made on surveillance, research, and programs and policies. A number of forthcoming changes in women''s health patterns in developing countries were also predicted.

  19. Comparison of the environmental effects on variation in yearly litter decay and soil respiration rates over four years in forested and harvested sites across Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Thompson, E.; Cameron, A.; Pare', D.; Lavigne, M.; Amiro, B.; Smyth, C.; Black, A.; Barr, A.; Margolis, H.

    2008-12-01

    Soil respiration includes CO2 respired by plant roots and by soil biota decomposing plant detritus. Detrital C stocks and fluxes are being studied at 16 sites at 7 stations of the Fluxnet Canada Research Network, including paired mature and clearcut forest sites at 5 upland stations (BC, SK, ON, QC, NB). All sites were instrumented for in situ measurements of soil moisture and temperature and many sites also included coincident measurements of soil respiration by chambers. Cumulative litter decay was measured using surface placed litterbags with one of four standard material types (aspen leaves -AL, black spruce needles BS, Douglas fir needles DF and birch wood sticks BW). Six replicate plots were located at each site, each plot contained sufficient numbers of surface litterbags of each material type to allow for four annual collections (2004 - 2007). As well unconfined birch chopsticks were placed at three depths down the soil profile (surface, 5cm, 15cm) and replaced annually to examine interannual variability of decay. After four years cumulative decay, litter rank by %mass remaining had AL

  20. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  1. A comparison of the South China Sea and Canada Basin: two small marginal ocean basins with hyper-extended margins and central zones of sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Both the South China Sea and Canada Basin preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterized by broad COT zones with hyper-extended continental crust. We have investigated the nature of strain accommodation in the regions immediately adjacent to the oceanic spreading centres in these two basins using 2-D backstripping subsidence reconstructions, coupled with forward modelling constrained by estimates of upper crustal extensional faulting. Modelling is better constrained in the South China Sea but our results for the Beaufort Sea are analogous. Depth-dependent extension is required to explain the great depth of both basins because only modest upper crustal faulting is observed. A weak lower crust in the presence of high heat flow is suggested for both basins. Extension in the COT may continue even after sea-floor spreading has ceased. The analogous results for the two basins considered are discussed in terms of (1) constraining the timing and distribution of crustal thinning along the respective continental margins, (2) defining the processes leading to hyper-extension of continental crust in the respective tectonic settings and (3) illuminating the processes that control hyper-extension in these basins and more generally.

  2. Ethics committees for biomedical research in some African emerging countries: which establishment for which independence? A comparison with the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Rwabihama, Jean-Paul; Girre, Catherine; Duguet, Anne-Marie

    2010-04-01

    The conduct of medical research led by Northern countries in developing countries raises ethical questions. The assessment of research protocols has to be twofold, with a first reading in the country of origin and a second one in the country where the research takes place. This reading should benefit from an independent local ethical review of protocols. Consequently, ethics committees for medical research are evolving in Africa. To investigate the process of establishing ethics committees and their independence. Descriptive study of 25 African countries and two North American countries. Data were recorded by questionnaire and interviews. Two visits of ethics committee meetings were conducted on the ground: over a period of 3 months in Kigali (Rwanda) and 2 months in Washington DC (USA). 22 countries participated in this study, 20 from Africa and two from North America. The response rate was 80%. 75% of local African committees developed into national ethics committees. During the last 5 years, these national committees have grown on a structural level. The circumstances of creation and the general context of underdevelopment remain the major challenges in Africa. Their independence could not be ensured without continuous training and efficient funding mechanisms. Institutional ethics committees are well established in USA and in Canada, whereas ethics committees in North America are weakened by the institutional affiliation of their members. The process of establishing ethics committees could affect their functioning and compromise their independence in some African countries and in North America.

  3. An international comparison of the association among literacy, education, and health across the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Norway, and Bermuda: implications for health disparities.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between education and health is well-established, but theoretical pathways are not fully understood. Economic resources, stress, and health behaviors partially explain how education influences health, but further study is needed. Previous studies show that health literacy mediates the education-health relationship, as do general literacy skills. However, little is known whether such mediation effects are consistent across different societies. This study analyzed data from the International Assessment of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey conducted in Canada, the United States, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and Bermuda to investigate the mediation effects of literacy on the education-health relationship and the degree of such mediation in different cultural contexts. Results showed that literacy skills mediated the effect of education on health in all study locations, but the degree of mediation varied. This mediation effect was particularly strong in Bermuda. This study also found that different types of literacy skills are more or less important in each study location. For example, numeracy skills in the United States and prose (reading) literacy skills in Italy were stronger predictors of health than were other literacy skills. These findings suggest a new direction for addressing health disparities: focusing on relevant types of literacy skills.

  4. A comparison of three-dimensional electrical conductivity models of several epithermal/porphyry type deposits in Western Canada, derived from ZTEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, J.; Lee, B.; Abbassi, B.; Liu, L.; Unsworth, M. J.; Richards, J. P.; Cheng, L.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian Cordillera is host to numerous porphyry deposits which supply a substantial amount of the world's Cu, Mo and Au. With most near-surface mineralized systems already discovered, and in some cases mined, further exploration requires the development of geophysical deep-penetrating methods that can rapidly detect and characterize possible targets. The airborne Z-axis Tipper Electromagnetic (ZTEM) method with a penetration depth down to two kilometers is designed to image the electrical conductivity structure of the subsurface. The electrical response of mineral alterations associated with porphyry mineralization has shown to be more enigmatic than other deposit types. Therefore, the ZTEM data sets over three known Ag-Au epithermal/Cu-porphyry style deposits in British Columbia, Canada are analysed together with available geological information. In detail, we compare three-dimensional (3-D) models of electrical conductivity of the deposits, which were derived by the inversion of airborne ZTEM data and, where available, supported by ground MT data. The models are validated by petrophysical measurements and complemented by other geophysical models and geological evidence from borehole data.

  5. Reconstructing source polybrominated diphenyl ether congener patterns from semipermeable membrane devices in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada: comparison to commercial mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2002-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were placed in the Fraser River near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, between August 6 and September 30, 1996. This location is near a large urban and industrial region (population 2,000,000) and is expected to be representative of other large, modern cities. After exposure to the ambient water column, SPMD samples were analyzed for a suite of 36 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners plus all homologue groups from mono- through hexa-brominated. Observed congener patterns differed significantly from that of the commercial penta- and octa-BDE mixtures. A reconstruction approach was developed based on an aquatic transport model and utilizing published octanol-water partition coefficients, calculated SPMD uptake rates, and predicted water concentrations by using the EcoFate multimedia mass balance aquatic simulation model for the 13 major PBDE congeners. In combination, composite technical mixtures were created by combining commercial penta-BDE mixtures (Bromkal 70-SDE and Great Lakes Chemicals DE-71) with commercial octa-BDE mixtures (Bromkal 79-8DE and Great Lakes Chemicals DE-79) in their relative 2000 North American production volumes. The reconstructed SPMD patterns more closely approximated the composite technical mixtures and suggest that PBDEs in such an industrial region arise primarily from penta- and octa-BDE source mixtures.

  6. Consistency of priorities for quality improvement for nursing homes in Italy and Canada: A comparison of optimization models of resident satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barsanti, Sara; Walker, Kevin; Seghieri, Chiara; Rosa, Antonella; Wodchis, Walter P

    2017-08-01

    The paper seeks to identify aspects of care that may be easily modified to yield a desired level of improvement in residents' overall satisfaction with nursing homes, comparing data across Canada and Italy. Using a structured questionnaire, 681 and 1116 nursing home residents were surveyed in Ontario in 2009 and in Tuscany in 2012, respectively. Fourteen items were common to the surveys, including willingness to recommend (WTR), which was used as the dependent variable and measure of global satisfaction. The other analogous items were entered as covariates in ordinal logistic regression models predicting residents' WTR in each jurisdiction separately. Regression coefficients were then incorporated into a constrained nonlinear optimization problem selecting the most efficient combination of predictors necessary to increase WTR by as much as 15%. Staff-related aspects of care were selected first in the optimization models of each jurisdiction. In Ontario, to improve WTR the primary focus should be on staff relationships with residents, while in Tuscany it was the technical skill and knowledge of staff that was selected first by the optimization model. Different optimization solutions might mean that the strategies required to improve global satisfaction in one jurisdiction could be different than those for the other jurisdictions. The optimization model employed provides a novel solution for prioritizing areas of focus for quality improvement for nursing homes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. "It's not that simple": A collaborative comparison of sea ice environments, their uses, observed changes, and adaptations in Barrow, Alaska, USA, and Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gearheard, Shari; Matumeak, Warren; Angutikjuaq, Ilkoo; Maslanik, James; Huntington, Henry P; Leavitt, Joe; Kagak, Darlene Matumeak; Tigullaraq, Geela; Barry, Roger G

    2006-06-01

    The Arctic environment, including sea ice, is changing. The impacts of these changes to Inuit and Iñupiat ways of life vary from place to place, yet there are common themes as well. The study reported here involved an exchange of hunters, Elders, and others from Barrow, Alaska, USA, and Clyde River, Nunavut, Canada, as members of a larger research team that also included visiting scientists. Although the physical environments of Barrow and Clyde River are strikingly different, the uses of the marine environment by residents, including sea ice, had many common elements. In both locations, too, extensive changes have been observed in recent years, forcing local residents to respond in a variety of ways. Although generally in agreement or complementary to one another, scientific and indigenous knowledge of sea ice often reflect different perspectives and emphases. Making generalizations about impacts and responses is challenging and should therefore be approached with caution. Technology provides some potential assistance in adapting to changing sea ice, but by itself, it is insufficient and can sometimes have undesirable consequences. Reliable knowledge that can be applied under changing conditions is essential. Collaborative research and firsthand experience are critical to generating such new knowledge.

  8. Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg

  9. Canada and veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2009-08-07

    A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres for research in veterinary parasitology, and major current research had been presented at a World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology Conference in Canada in 1987, and was published. The present paper updates the information on the above topics for the 22 years since this conference was last held in Canada.

  10. [Fellowship in Canada: instructions].

    PubMed

    Le Ray, C; Wavrant, S; Hudon, L; Audibert, F

    2009-04-01

    In North America, postdoctoral fellowships are proposed to physicians and surgeons after their residency to obtain an expertise in a specific domain of their speciality. In obstetrics and gynecology, three fellowship programs are accredited by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: maternal fetal medicine, gynaecological oncology and reproductive endocrinology and infertility. A two-year fellowship in Canada provides a great professional and personal experience. We present here the organization of these programs and the conditions to be admitted in a fellowship program in Canada.

  11. Comparison of recent sedimentation patterns in Mondsee and Hallstätter See (Upper Austria) and implications for palaeoflood reconstructions in the Eastern European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterbach, Stefan; Kämpf, Lucas; Swierczynski, Tina; Tjallingii, Rik; Brauer, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall-triggered flood events represent one of the most serious societal and economic threats in Central Europe. Nevertheless, the thorough assessment of this hazard is still limited by the restricted knowledge about the long-term spatio-temporal recurrence patterns and complex climatic trigger mechanisms of extreme flood events. As instrumental and documentary flood time series rarely exceed a few hundred years, long and precisely dated palaeoflood records from natural archives, e.g. lake sediments, offer an excellent opportunity to gain important information about long-term flood dynamics. This can improve the understanding of flood occurrence under different climatic boundary conditions as well as flood-generating processes and thus allow a more reliable assessment of future flood scenarios. However, the spatial coverage of lake sediment palaeoflood records across Europe is still limited and individual lakes are very heterogeneous in their sedimentological response and sensitivity to flooding. It therefore remains questionable whether single lake sediment palaeoflood records are representative on a larger spatial scale. Investigating adjacent lakes in terms of their individual flood response can therefore (1) help to improve the understanding of key hydro-climatological variables and lake internal processes, both controlling flood layer deposition, and (2) allow to assess the completeness and representativeness of single palaeoflood records, particularly with regard to different flood seasonality. Here we present first data from a project aiming at establishing a new palaeoflood record for the Eastern Alps by investigating the sediments of Hallstätter See in the Calcareous Alps of Upper Austria. These are compared with results from adjacent Mondsee (ca. 35 km to the northwest), located at the northern fringe of the Calcareous Alps. The recent sediments from these two lakes have been investigated with respect to their reflection of large flood events by using

  12. Comparison of Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and weighing-lysimeter evapotranspiration for two sparse-canopy sites in eastern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomlinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report compares evapotranspiration estimated with the Bowen-ratio and eddy-correlation methods with evapotranspiration measured by weighing lysimeters for two sparse-canopy sites in eastern Washington. The sites are located in a grassland area (grass lysimeter site) and a sagbrush- covered area (sage lysimeter site) on the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve in Benton County, Washington. Lysimeter data were collected at the sites from August 1990 to November 1994. Bowen-ratio data were collected for varying periods from May 1993 to November 1994. Additional Bowen-ratio data without interchanging air- temperature and vapor-pressure sensors to remove sensor bias (fixed-sensor system) were collected from October 1993 to June 1994. Eddy-correlation data were collected at the grass lysimeter site from March to April 1994, and at the sage lysimeter site from April to May 1994. The comparisons of evapotranspiration determined by the various methods differed considerably, depending on the periods of record being compared and the sites being analyzed. The year 1993 was very wet, with about 50 percent more precipitation than average; 1994 was a very dry year, with only about half the average precipitation. The study showed that on an annual basis, at least in 1994, Bowen-ratio evapotranspiration closely matched lysimeter evapotranspiration. In 1993, Bowen-ratio and lysimeter evapotranspiration comparisons were variable. Evapotranspiration estimated with the Bowen-ratio method averaged 5 percent more than evapotranspiration measured by lysimeters at the grass lysimeter site from October 1993 to November 1994, and 3 percent less than lysimeters at the sage lysimeter site from November 1993 to October 1994. From March 24 to April 5, 1994, at the grass lysimeter site, the Bowen-ratio method estimated 11 percent less, the Bowen-ratio method utilizing the fixed sensor system about 7 percent more, and the eddy-correlation method about 28 percent less evapotranspiration than the

  13. Potential sources and processes affecting speciated atmospheric mercury at Kejimkujik National Park, Canada: comparison of receptor models and data treatment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Liao, Yanyin; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2017-01-01

    Source apportionment analysis was conducted with positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods using concentrations of speciated mercury (Hg), i.e., gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and other air pollutants collected at Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. The results were largely consistent between the 2 years for both methods. The same four source factors were identified in each year using PMF method. In both years, factor photochemistry and re-emission had the largest contributions to atmospheric Hg, while the contributions of combustion emission and industrial sulfur varied slightly between the 2 years. Four components were extracted with air pollutants only in each year using PCA method. Consistencies between the results of PMF and PCA include (1) most or all PMF factors overlapped with PCA components, (2) both methods suggest strong impact of photochemistry but little association between ambient Hg and sea salt, and (3) shifting of PMF source profiles and source contributions from one year to another was echoed in PCA. Inclusion of meteorological parameters led to identification of an additional component, Hg wet deposition in PCA, while it did not affect the identification of other components. The PMF model performance was comparable in 2009 and 2010. Among the three Hg forms, the agreements between model-reproduced and observed annual mean concentrations were excellent for GEM, very good for PBM, and acceptable for GOM. However, on a daily basis, the agreement was very good for GEM but poor for GOM and PBM. Sensitivity tests suggest that increasing sample size by imputation is not effective in improving model performance, while reducing the fraction of concentrations below method detection limit, by either scaling GOM and PBM to higher concentrations or combining them to reactive mercury, is effective. Most of the data

  14. A land use regression model for ambient ultrafine particles in Montreal, Canada: A comparison of linear regression and a machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Weichenthal, Scott; Ryswyk, Keith Van; Goldstein, Alon; Bagg, Scott; Shekkarizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Existing evidence suggests that ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) (<0.1µm) may contribute to acute cardiorespiratory morbidity. However, few studies have examined the long-term health effects of these pollutants owing in part to a need for exposure surfaces that can be applied in large population-based studies. To address this need, we developed a land use regression model for UFPs in Montreal, Canada using mobile monitoring data collected from 414 road segments during the summer and winter months between 2011 and 2012. Two different approaches were examined for model development including standard multivariable linear regression and a machine learning approach (kernel-based regularized least squares (KRLS)) that learns the functional form of covariate impacts on ambient UFP concentrations from the data. The final models included parameters for population density, ambient temperature and wind speed, land use parameters (park space and open space), length of local roads and rail, and estimated annual average NOx emissions from traffic. The final multivariable linear regression model explained 62% of the spatial variation in ambient UFP concentrations whereas the KRLS model explained 79% of the variance. The KRLS model performed slightly better than the linear regression model when evaluated using an external dataset (R(2)=0.58 vs. 0.55) or a cross-validation procedure (R(2)=0.67 vs. 0.60). In general, our findings suggest that the KRLS approach may offer modest improvements in predictive performance compared to standard multivariable linear regression models used to estimate spatial variations in ambient UFPs. However, differences in predictive performance were not statistically significant when evaluated using the cross-validation procedure.

  15. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-11

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on August 4, 2005.

  16. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  17. A cross-national perspective on cost of illness: a comparison of studies from The Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Polder, Johan J; Meerding, Willem Jan; Bonneux, Luc; van der Maas, Paul J

    2005-09-01

    All Western health systems are in search of efficiency. Cost of illness (COI) studies can contribute to the efficiency debate by elucidating the relation between health expenditure and health status and population demography. Since the purpose of COI data being summarized in the OECD Health Data publications is to facilitate cross-national comparisons, it is important to assess the comparability. We compared COI data from six countries at macrolevel of total health expenditure and disaggregated the data from four countries to sectors such as hospitals, drugs, health professionals, and residential care. Although the distribution of health expenditure over major diseases showed similar patterns in all countries, overall comparability was bad. We conclude that the current scope of COI studies is bound to national levels because health care systems dominate the magnitude and distribution of health expenditure. Cross-national comparisons may be possible if data and methods are standardized, and COI estimates are made for a common comparable package.

  18. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Papp, Zsuzsanna; Clark, Robert G; Parmley, E Jane; Leighton, Frederick A; Waldner, Cheryl; Soos, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species) were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis) were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  19. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  20. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  1. Canada: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Little, J; Potter, B; Allanson, J; Caulfield, T; Carroll, J C; Wilson, B

    2009-01-01

    Canada has a diverse population of 32 million people and a universal, publicly funded health care system provided through provincial and territorial health insurance plans. Public health activities are resourced at provincial/territorial level with strategic coordination from national bodies. Canada has one of the longest-standing genetics professional specialty organizations and is one of the few countries offering master's level training designed specifically for genetic counselors. Prenatal screening is offered as part of routine clinical prenatal services with variable uptake. Surveillance of the effect of prenatal screening and diagnosis on the birth prevalence of congenital anomalies is limited by gaps and variations in surveillance systems. Newborn screening programs vary between provinces and territories in terms of organization and conditions screened for. The last decade has witnessed a four-fold increase in requests for genetic testing, especially for late onset diseases. Tests are performed in provincial laboratories or outside Canada. There is wide variation in participation in laboratory quality assurance schemes, and there are few regulatory frameworks in Canada that are directly relevant to genetics testing services or population genetics. Health technology assessment in Canada is conducted by a diverse range of organizations, several of which have produced reports related to genetics. Several large-scale population cohort studies are underway or planned, with initiatives to harmonize their conduct and the management of ethical issues, both within Canada and with similar projects in other countries.

  2. Neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome: cross-country comparison using hospital administrative data in England, the USA, Western Australia and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Davies, Hilary; Gilbert, Ruth; Johnson, Kathryn; Petersen, Irene; Nazareth, Irwin; O'Donnell, Melissa; Guttmann, Astrid; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    We determined trends over time in the prevalence of neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome (NWS) in England compared with that reported in the USA, Western (W) Australia and Ontario, Canada. We also examined variation in prevalence of NWS according to maternal age, birth weight and across the English NHS by hospital trusts. Retrospective study using national hospital administrative data (Hospital Episode Statistics) for the NHS in England between 1997 and 2011. NWS was identified using international classification of disease codes in hospital admission records. We searched the research literature and contacted researchers to identify studies reporting trends in the prevalence of NWS. Prevalence of NWS by calendar year per 1000 live births for each country/state. For births in England, prevalence by maternal age group and birth weight group. Prevalence by NHS trust and region at birth, and funnel plot to show outlying English NHS hospital trusts (>3 SD of mean prevalence). Mean prevalence rates of recorded NWS increased in all four countries. Rates stabilised in England and W. Australia from the early 2000s and rose steeply in the USA and Ontario during the late 2000s. The most recent prevalence rates were 2.7/1000 live births in England (2011; 1544 cases); 2.7/1000 in W. Australia (2009); 3.6/1000 in the USA (2009) and 5.1/1000 in Ontario (2011). The highest prevalence in England was among babies born to mothers aged 25-34 years at delivery and among babies born with low birth weight (1500-2500 g). In England in 2011, 8.6% of hospital trusts had a recorded prevalence outside 3 SD of the overall average (7% above, 1% below). The North East region of England had the highest recorded prevalence of NWS. Although recorded NWS is stable in England and W. Australia, rising rates in the USA and Ontario may reflect better recognition and/or increased use of prescribed opiate analgesics and highlight the need for surveillance. The extent to which different prevalence rates by

  3. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    PubMed

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can potentially

  4. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls

    PubMed Central

    Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. IMPORTANCE Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants

  5. Outcome comparison of very preterm infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand and in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sadia; Shah, Prakesh S; Ye, Xiang Y; Darlow, Brian A; Lee, Shoo K; Lui, Kei

    2015-09-01

    To compare risk-adjusted neonatal intensive care unit outcomes between regions of similar population demography and health-care systems in Australia-New Zealand and Canada to generate meaningful hypothesis for outcome improvements. Retrospective study of data from preterm infants (<32 weeks gestational age) cared for in 29 ANZNN (Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network) and 26 Canadian Neonatal Network (CNN) intensive care unit admitted between 2005 and 2007. Moribund infants or those with major congenital malformation were excluded. The 9995 ANZNN infants had a higher gestational age (29 vs. 28 weeks, P < 0.0001), lower rate of outborn status (13.2% vs. 19.1%, P < 0.0001) and Apgar score <7 at 5 min (14.8% vs. 21.6%, P < 0.0001) than their 7141 CNN counterparts. After adjustment, ANZNN and CNN infants had a similar likelihood of survival (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.01 (0.88, 1.16)), but ANZNN infants were at lower risk of severe retinopathy (AOR 0.71 (0.61, 0.83)), severe ultrasound neurological injury (AOR 0.68 (0.59, 0.78)), necrotising enterocolitis (AOR 0.65 (0.56, 0.76)), chronic lung disease (AOR 0.67 (0.62, 0.73)) and late-onset sepsis (AOR 0.83 (0.76, 0.91)). ANZNN infants were at a higher risk of pulmonary air leak (AOR 1.20 (1.01, 1.42)), early-onset sepsis (AOR 1.33 (1.02, 1.74)). More ANZNN infants received any respiratory support (AOR 1.27 (1.14, 1.41)) and continuous positive airway pressure as sole respiratory support (AOR 2.50 (2.27, 2.70)). Despite similarities in settings, ANZNN infants fared better in most measures. Outcome disparities may be related to differences in tertiary service provision, referral and clinical practices. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Economic evaluation of nivolumab for the treatment of second-line advanced squamous NSCLC in Canada: a comparison of modeling approaches to estimate and extrapolate survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Goeree, Ron; Villeneuve, Julie; Goeree, Jeff; Penrod, John R; Orsini, Lucinda; Tahami Monfared, Amir Abbas

    2016-06-01

    Background Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in the world and is associated with significant mortality. Nivolumab demonstrated statistically significant improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for patients with advanced squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were previously treated. The cost-effectiveness of nivolumab has not been assessed in Canada. A contentious component of projecting long-term cost and outcomes in cancer relates to the modeling approach adopted, with the two most common approaches being partitioned survival (PS) and Markov models. The objectives of this analysis were to estimate the cost-utility of nivolumab and to compare the results using these alternative modeling approaches. Methods Both PS and Markov models were developed using docetaxel and erlotinib as comparators. A three-health state model was used consisting of progression-free, progressed disease, and death. Disease progression and time to progression were estimated by identifying best-fitting survival curves from the clinical trial data for PFS and OS. Expected costs and health outcomes were calculated by combining health-state occupancy with medical resource use and quality-of-life assigned to each of the three health states. The health outcomes included in the model were survival and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs). Results Nivolumab was found to have the highest expected per-patient cost, but also improved per-patient life years (LYs) and QALYs. Nivolumab cost an additional $151,560 and $140,601 per QALY gained compared to docetaxel and erlotinib, respectively, using a PS model approach. The cost-utility estimates using a Markov model were very similar ($152,229 and $141,838, respectively, per QALY gained). Conclusions Nivolumab was found to involve a trade-off between improved patient survival and QALYs, and increased cost. It was found that the use of a PS or Markov model produced very similar estimates of expected cost

  7. Outborns or Inborns: Where Are the Differences? A Comparison Study of Very Preterm Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Infants Cared for in Australia and New Zealand and in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Sadia; Shah, Prakesh S; Ye, Xiang Y; Darlow, Brian A; Lee, Shoo K; Lui, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm infants born outside tertiary centers are at higher risks of adverse outcomes than inborn infants. Regionalization of perinatal care has been introduced worldwide to improve outcomes. To compare the risk-adjusted outcomes of both inborn and outborn infants cared for in tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand and in Canada. Deidentified data of infants <32 weeks' gestational age from the 29 Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network units (ANZNN; n = 9,893) and 26 Canadian Neonatal Network units (CNN; n = 7,133) between 2005 and 2007 were analyzed for predischarge adverse outcomes. ANZNN had lower rates of outborns compared to CNN (13 vs. 19%), particularly of late admissions (>2 days of age; 5.8 vs. 22.2% of outborns) who had high morbidity rates. After adjusting for confounding variables including gestation, ANZNN inborn infants had lower odds of chronic lung disease [CLD; 17.0 vs. 23.3%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.64-0.77], severe neurological injuries on ultrasound (SNI; 4.1 vs. 6.7%; AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.53-0.73), severe retinopathy (5.6 vs. 7%; AOR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59-0.84) and necrotizing enterocolitis (3.5 vs. 5.4%; AOR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), but no difference in mortality odds. After excluding the late outborn admissions, ANZNN outborns had lower odds of SNI (AOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.32-0.58) and CLD (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49-0.81) than CNN. ANZNN inborn and early admitted outborn infants had lower odds of neonatal morbidities than their CNN counterparts. However, compared to ANZNN, the higher CNN rates of outborns and their late admissions are likely related to the differences in regionalization and referral practices, and may explain differences in outcomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Considering species richness and rarity when selecting optimal survey traps: comparison of semiochecmial baited flight intercept traps for Cerambycidae in eastern North America

    Treesearch

    Kevin J. Dodds; Jeremy D. Allison; Daniel R. Miller; Ryan P. Hanavan; Jon. Sweeney

    2015-01-01

    1.) We compared standard multiple-funnel, modified multiple-funnel, intercept panel and canopy malaise (SLAM) traps with top and bottom collecting cups for their effectiveness (species richness, rarity, abundance) at capturing Cerambycidae in eastern North America. 2.) Experiments were conducted in New York, Louisiana, Massachusetts and Georgia in 2011 and 2012. A...

  9. Ring Shake in Eastern Hemlock: Frequency and Relationship to Tree Attributes

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Paul E. Sendak; David L. Sonderman; David L. Sonderman

    2000-01-01

    Ring shake is a barrier to improved utilization of eastern hemlock, an important component of the total softwood timber resource in the Eastern United States and Canada. Ring shake is the lengthwise separation of wood that occurs between and parallel to growth rings, diminishing lumber yields and values. Evaluating the potential for ring shake is essential to improving...

  10. Ring shake in eastern hemlock: frequency and relationship to tree attributes

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Paul E. Sendak; David L. Sonderman

    2000-01-01

    Ring shake is a barrier to improved utilization of eastern hemlock, an important component of the total softwood timber resource in the Eastern United States and Canada. Ring shake is the lengthwise separation of wood that occurs between and parallel to growth rings, diminishing lumber yields and values. Evaluating the potential for ring shake is essential to improving...

  11. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  12. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  13. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  14. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  15. Canadian Universities Go West to Fill Eastern Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchard, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The booming, oil-rich economy of Alberta, Canada, has left universities on the eastern side of the country scrambling for students, as families and recent high-school graduates move westward to seek their fortunes. Peter D. Halpin, executive director of the Association of Atlantic Universities, says that, "The Alberta economy has been an…

  16. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Treesearch

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  17. Calculating Mean Length of Utterance for Eastern Canadian Inuktitut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Shanley E. M.; Dench, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Although virtually all Inuit children in eastern Arctic Canada learn Inuktitut as their native language, there is a critical lack of tools to assess their level of language ability. This article investigates how mean length of utterance (MLU), a widely-used assessment measure in English and other languages, can be best applied in Inuktitut. The…

  18. Calculating Mean Length of Utterance for Eastern Canadian Inuktitut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Shanley E. M.; Dench, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Although virtually all Inuit children in eastern Arctic Canada learn Inuktitut as their native language, there is a critical lack of tools to assess their level of language ability. This article investigates how mean length of utterance (MLU), a widely-used assessment measure in English and other languages, can be best applied in Inuktitut. The…

  19. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  20. Needs Assessment of International Students at Eastern Oregon State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Mamoud Taha; Jordan-Domschot, Theresa

    The purpose of the research project was to assess the needs, satisfaction, and concerns of international students attending Eastern Oregon State College. The international student population consisted of students from Micronesia, Netherlands, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran, Japan, Thailand, Zimbabwe, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria, China,…

  1. Site response in the eastern United States: A comparison of Vs30 measurements with estimates from horizontal:vertical spectral ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; Williams, Robert; Gee, Lind

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake damage is often increased due to local ground-motion amplification caused by soft soils, thick basin sediments, topographic effects, and liquefaction. A critical factor contributing to the assessment of seismic hazard is detailed information on local site response. In order to address and quantify the site response at seismograph stations in the eastern United States, we investigate the regional spatial variation of horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) using ambient noise recorded at permanent regional and national network stations as well as temporary seismic stations deployed in order to record aftershocks of the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake. We compare the HVSR peak frequency to surface measurements of the shear-wave seismic velocity to 30 m depth (Vs30) at 21 seismograph stations in the eastern United States and find that HVSR peak frequency increases with increasing Vs30. We use this relationship to estimate the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program soil class at 218 ANSS (Advanced National Seismic System), GSN (Global Seismographic Network), and RSN (Regional Seismograph Networks) locations in the eastern United States, and suggest that this seismic station–based HVSR proxy could potentially be used to calibrate other site response characterization methods commonly used to estimate shaking hazard.

  2. Different Ecological Niches for Ticks of Public Health Significance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Arsenault, Julie; Badcock, Jacqueline; Cheng, Angela; Edsall, Jim; Goltz, Jim; Kennedy, Joe; Lindsay, L. Robbin; Pelcat, Yann; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a growing public health concern as their incidence and range have increased in recent decades. Lyme disease is an emerging infectious disease in Canada due to northward expansion of the geographic range of Ixodes scapularis, the principal tick vector for the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi, into central and eastern Canada. In this study the geographical distributions of Ixodid ticks, including I. scapularis, and environmental factors associated with their occurrence were investigated in New Brunswick, Canada, where few I. scapularis populations have been found to date. Density of host-seeking ticks was evaluated by drag sampling of woodland habitats in a total of 159 sites. Ixodes scapularis ticks (n = 5) were found on four sites, Ixodes muris (n = 1) on one site and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (n = 243) on 41 sites. One of four adult I. scapularis ticks collected was PCR-positive for B. burgdorferi. No environmental variables were significantly associated with the presence of I. scapularis although comparisons with surveillance data in neighbouring provinces (Québec and Nova Scotia) suggested that temperature conditions may be too cold for I. scapularis (< 2800 annual degree days above 0°C [DD > 0°C]) across much of New Brunswick. In contrast, the presence of H. leporispalustris, which is a competent vector of tularaemia, was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with specific ranges of mean DD > 0°C, mean annual precipitation, percentage of clay in site soil, elevation and season in a multivariable logistic regression model. With the exception of some localized areas, temperature conditions and deer density may be too low for the establishment of I. scapularis and Lyme disease risk areas in New Brunswick, while environmental conditions were suitable for H. leporispalustris at many sites. These findings indicate differing ecological niches for two tick species of public health significance. PMID:26131550

  3. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  4. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc... Company, LLC, Pennzoil-Quaker State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co....

  5. Comparison of the Effects of Telephone Suicide Prevention Help by Volunteers and Professional Paid Staff: Results from Studies in the USA and Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Daigle, Marc; Bardon, Cécile; Chagnon, François; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Campbell, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Research since the 1960s has consistently found that lay volunteers are better at helping suicidal callers than professionals. Yet, professional degrees are increasingly becoming requirements for helpline workers. In our first study, we conducted post hoc comparisons of U.S. helplines with all professional paid staff, all lay volunteers, and a mix of both, using silent monitoring and standardized assessments of 1,431 calls. The volunteer centers more often conducted risk assessments, had more empathy, were more respectful of callers, and had significantly better call outcome ratings. A second study of five Quebec suicide prevention centers used silent monitoring to compare telephone help in 1,206 calls answered by 90 volunteers and 39 paid staff. Results indicate no significant differences between the volunteers and paid employees on outcome variables. However, volunteers and paid staff with over 140 hours of call experience had significantly better outcomes. Unlike the United States, Quebec paid employees were not required to have advanced professional degrees. We conclude from these results and previous research that there is no justification for requiring that suicide prevention helpline workers be mental health professionals. In fact, the evidence to date indicates that professionals may be less effective in providing telephone help to suicidal individuals when compared to trained lay volunteers. © 2016 The Authors. Suicide and LifeThreatening Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Suicidology.

  6. Onchocerciasis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Seah, S K

    1974-03-16

    The first two cases of onchocerciasis seen in Canada are reported. The patients had come from West Africa to study in Canada several months prior to admission to hospital. The presenting symptom in each case was intense pruritus. One of the patients had early ocular involvement. The diagnosis was made by means of microscopic examination of a skin snip. The subcutaneous nodule excised from one of the patients showed the adult Onchocerca volvulus. Both patients also had urinary schistosomiasis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and public health aspects of onchocerciasis are discussed.

  7. Onchocerciasis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seah, S. K. K.

    1974-01-01

    The first two cases of onchocerciasis seen in Canada are reported. The patients had come from West Africa to study in Canada several months prior to admission to hospital. The presenting symptom in each case was intense pruritus. One of the patients had early ocular involvement. The diagnosis was made by means of microscopic examination of a skin snip. The subcutaneous nodule excised from one of the patients showed the adult Onchocerca volvulus. Both patients also had urinary schistosomiasis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment and public health aspects of onchocerciasis are discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4817212

  8. Switchgrass biomass and chemical composition for biofuel in eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Madakadze, I.C.; Stewart, K.; Peterson, P.R.; Coulman, B.E.; Smith, D.L.

    1999-08-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is one of several warm-season grasses that have been identified as potential biomass crops in North America. A two-year field study was conducted, on a free-draining sandy clay loam (St. Bernard, Typic Hapludalf), to characterize the growth and evaluate changes in biomass accumulation and composition of switchgrass at Montreal, QC. Three cultivars, Cave-in-Rock, Pathfinder, and Sunburst, were grown in solid stands in a randomized complete block design. Canopy height, dry matter (DM) accumulation and chemical composition were monitored biweekly throughout the growing season. Average maximum canopy heights were 192.5 cm for Cave-in-Rock, 169.9 for Pathfinder, and 177.8 for Sunburst. The respective end-of-season DM yields were 12.2, 11.5, and 10.6 Mg/ha. Biomass production among cultivars appeared to be related to time of maturation. Nitrogen concentration of DM decreased curvilinearly from 25 g/kg at the beginning of the season to 5 g/kg DM at season's end. Both acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations increased to a maximum early in the season, after which no changes were detected. The average maximum values of ADF and NDF were, respectively, 647.6 and 849.0 g/kg DM for Cave-in-Rock, 669.1 and 865.2 for Pathfinder, and 661.8 and 860.9 for Sunburst. Changes in canopy height, DM accumulation, and chemical composition could all be described by predictive regression equations. These results indicate that switchgrass has potential as a biomass crop in a short-season environment.

  9. Rowan Gorilla I rigged up, heads for eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Designed to operate in very hostile offshore environments, the first of the Rowan Gorilla class of self-elevating drilling rigs has been towed to its drilling assignment offshore Nova Scotia. About 40% larger than other jackups, these rigs can operate in 300 ft of water, drilling holes as deep as 30,000 ft. They also feature unique high-pressure and solids control systems that are expected to improve drilling procedures and efficiencies. A quantitative formation pressure evaluation program for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41 handheld calculator computes formation pressures by three independent methods - the corrected d exponent, Bourgoyne and Young, and normalized penetration rate techniques for abnormal pressure detection and computation. Based on empirically derived drilling rate equations, each of the methods can be calculated separately, without being dependent on or influenced by the results or stored data from the other two subprograms. The quantitative interpretation procedure involves establishing a normal drilling rate trend and calculating the pore pressure from the magnitude of the drilling rate trend or plotting parameter increases above the trend line. Mobil's quick, accurate program could aid drilling operators in selecting the casing point, minimizing differential sticking, maintaining the proper mud weights to avoid kicks and lost circulation, and maximizing penetration rates.

  10. Chronology of a Small Glacier in Eastern British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bray, J R

    1964-04-17

    The age of trees growing on the moraines of a small, high-altitude glacier in the Canadian Rockies suggests that the date of the maximum post-Pleistocene ice advance was around A.D. 1714, with another later advance about 1832. These two dates are synchronous with the two major periods of recent ice advance in the area.

  11. Comparison of Methods to Identify Pathogens and Associated Virulence Functional Genes in Biosolids from Two Different Wastewater Treatment Facilities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Luke; Elias, Miria; Xiang, Shurong; Madey, Ewa; Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian; Beaudette, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of treated municipal wastewater residues (biosolids) as fertilizers is an attractive, inexpensive option for growers and farmers. Various regulatory bodies typically employ indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella) to assess the adequacy and efficiency of the wastewater treatment process in reducing pathogen loads in the final product. Molecular detection approaches can offer some advantages over culture-based methods as they can simultaneously detect a wider microbial species range, including non-cultivable microorganisms. However, they cannot directly assess the viability of the pathogens. Here, we used bacterial enumeration methods together with molecular methods including qPCR, 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare pre- and post-treatment biosolids from two Canadian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Our results show that an anaerobic digestion WWTP was unsuccessful at reducing the live indicator organism load (coliforms, generic E. coli and Salmonella) below acceptable regulatory criteria, while biosolids from a dewatering/pelletization WWTP met these criteria. DNA from other pathogens was detected by the molecular methods, but these species were considered less abundant. Clostridium DNA increased significantly following anaerobic digestion treatments. In addition to pathogen DNA, genes related to virulence and antibiotic resistance were identified in treated biosolids. Shotgun metagenomics revealed the widest range of pathogen DNA and, among the approaches used here, was the only approach that could access functional gene information in treated biosolids. Overall, our results highlight the potential usefulness of amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics as complementary screening methods that could be used in parallel with culture-based methods, although more detailed comparisons across a wider range of sites would be needed. PMID:27089040

  12. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Zsuzsanna; Clark, Robert G.; Parmley, E. Jane; Leighton, Frederick A.; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada’s Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species) were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis) were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl. PMID:28475626

  13. The Vegetation Drought Response Index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) to Monitor Agricultural Drought: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, T.; Wardlow, B.; Brown, J. F.; Champagne, C.; Hadwen, T. A.; Demisse, G. B.; Bayissa, Y. A.

    2016-12-01

    Drought is complex natural hazard that manifests in different forms, monitoring can be improved by integrating various types of information that is timely and region-specific to identify where and when droughts are occurring. To help decision makers reduce the impacts of drought, it is important to improve monitoring tools that provide relevant and timely information in support of drought mitigation decisions. The Vegetation Drought Response Index for Canada (VegDRI-Canada) has recently been developed for Canada extending the initial VegDRI concept developed for the continental United States to a broader trans-national extent. VegDRI-Canada models are similar to those developed for the United States integrating satellite observations of vegetation status, climate data, and biophysical information on land use and land cover, soil characteristics, and other environmental factors. Collectively, these different types of data are integrated into the VegDRI-Canada to isolate the effects of drought on vegetation. Twenty three weekly VegDRI-Canada models were built for the growing season (April-September) through the weekly analysis of these data using a regression tree-based data mining approach. A 15-year time series of VegDRI-Canada results (2000 to 2014) was produced using this models and the output was validated by randomly selecting 20% of the historical data (withheld for validation) across the growing season ranged from 0.6 and 0.77. A case study was conducted to assessthe VegDRI-Canada over the Prairie Region of Canada for two drought and one non-drought year for three growing season periods (early-, mid- and late season). A comparison of the VegDRI-Canada map with the Canadian Drought Monitor (CDM) showed that the VegDRI-Canada maps depicted key spatial drought severity patterns during the two targeted drought years consistent with the CDM. The relationship between the VegDRI-Canada values and canola yields was assessed and showed tet VegDRI-Canada values had a

  14. Comparison of the estimated prevalence of mood and/or anxiety disorders in Canada between self-report and administrative data.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, S; Vanderloo, S; McRae, L; Onysko, J; Patten, S B; Pelletier, L

    2016-08-01

    administrative data sources. While the administrative data-based prevalences remained relatively stable, the self-reported prevalences increased over time. These observations may reflect positive societal changes in the perceptions of mental health (declining stigma) and/or increasing mental health literacy. Additional research using non-ecological data is required to further our understanding of the observed findings and trends, including a data linkage exercise permitting a comparison of prevalence estimates and population characteristics from these two data sources both separately and merged.

  15. Acid precipitation in Canada

    Treesearch

    P. W. Summers; D. M. Whelpdale

    1976-01-01

    The total annual emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in Canada are estimated to be 7.2 x 106 tons and 1.4 x 106 tons, respectively. These figures represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the estimated worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the Canadian SO2 emissions come from...

  16. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  17. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on