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Sample records for eastern germany 1946-2002

  1. Dow agrees on pipeline in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-05-01

    The often fragile relationship between Dow Europe and eastern Germany strengthened this week with an agreement to build a feedstock pipeline from the Baltic Sea to the Buna BSL petrochemical complex at Boehlen. Dow recently agreed to go ahead with its 80% investment in the BSL venture following fears it might withdraw from the project because of European Commission cuts in the amount of state aid available. The multi-feedstock liquid pipeline is expected to transport naphtha, crude oil, and, possibly, liquid petroleum gas from Rostock on the Baltic to the Boehlen site. Besides Dow, the participants are BSL Olefinverbund and Elf subsidiary Mider. Dow is expected to contribute DM450 million toward the investment.

  2. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  3. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  4. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  5. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  6. Proposals in for Czech firms; cooperation likely with eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-10

    Two Western groups - Shell and a consortium made up of Agip, Conoco, and Total - have offered to buy the refining operations of Chemopetrol Litvinov and Kaucuk Kralupy, both in the Czech republic. Meanwhile, Amoco, Neste, and PCD are looking at the possibility of acquiring some of the plastics plants at Litvinov. Amoco is interested in the polypropylene operations, Neste in polyethylene, and PCD in both. The two Czech firms are included in the second wave of privatization, which will begin in midyear. So far, there have been no offers for the 80,000-m.t./year polystyrene and 60,000-m.t./year styrene butadiene rubber operations belonging to Kralupy, although Atochem representatives recently visited the plants. Litvinov is carrying out revamping operations at its core unit, a 12-year-old, 450,000-m.t./year ethylene plant. The plant, currently running at 400,000 m.t./year, supplies downstream plants, Neratovice, and sells on the export markets. An existing ethylene pipeline between Litvinov and Bohlen in eastern Germany, which used to supply an average 100,000 m.t./year of ethylene to Bohen in exchange for naphtha, is virtually unused. One proposal involves reactivating this exchange to secure ethylene feedstock for plants in eastern Germany. According to some sources, a preliminary decision has been made to shut down the 100,000-m.t./year ethylene plant at Leuna and possibly to expand the Bohlen cracker by 100,000 m.t./year, to 400,000 m.t./year by the late 1990s.

  7. Weather Effects on Crop Diseases in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradt, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1970s there are several long-term monitoring programmes for plant diseases and pests in Germany. Within the framework of a national research project, some otherwise confidential databases comprising 77 111 samples from numerous sites accross Eastern Germany could be accessed and analysed. The pest data covered leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in winter wheat, aphids (Aphididae, four genera) on wheat and other cereal crops, late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in potatoes, and pollen beetles (Brassicogethes aeneus) on rape. These data were complemented by daily weather observations from the German Weather Service (DWD). In a first step, Pearson correlations between weather variables and pest frequencies were calculated for seasonal time periods of different start months and durations and ordered into so-called correlograms. This revealed principal weather effects on disease spread - e. g. that wind is favourable for mildew throughout the year or that rape pollen beetles like it warm, but not during wintertime. Secondly, the pest frequency samples were found to resemble gamma distributions, and a generalised linear model was fitted to describe their parameter shift depending on end-of-winter temperatures for aphids on cereals. The method clearly shows potential for systematic pest risk assessments regarding climate change.

  8. The environmental magnetic fingerprint of periglacial loess in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Philipp; Hambach, Ulrich; Meszner, Sascha; Faust, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a comprehensive stratigraphic study of loess Eastern Germany, a detailed rock magnetic study was carried out of four last glacial/interglacial loess-palaeosol sequences. Magnetic susceptibility and laboratory-induced remanences have been determined to compare individual sections and to identify the specific rock magnetic characteristics of the Saxonian Loess Province. According to the model of pedogenic magnetic enhancement, an increasing neoformation of ferrimagnetic minerals in the course of pedogenesis was observed only in the uppermost Late Weichselian lithological units consisting of almost unweathered loess and indicating dryer climatic conditions. In contrast, the rock magnetic characteristics of the lower Middle and Early Weichselian units exhibit a significant destruction of primary magnetic minerals caused by such secondary processes as climatically controlled waterlogging and reworking. The main observation, an increasing ?fd with decreasing ? with stratigraphic depth, argues for a general magnetic depletion in conjunction with decreasing magnetic grain sizes caused by weathering of larger primary particles. The magnetic fingerprint of the Saxonian loess is characterised by prevailing magnetic depletion processes, which effectively rules out the application of the wind vigour model. Moreover, the observed magnetic characteristics differ significantly from that of other loess regions. Therefore, we propose a new magnetic facies model for more humid (Central European) loess provinces dominated by typical periglacial conditions, including widespread permafrost, which control the intense reworking and waterlogging (gleyification) processes.

  9. Transformation to a Market Economy and Changing Social Values in China, Russia, and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swader, Christopher Scott

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms driving changes in social values, or those values emphasizing relationships, intimate bonds, and families, in the new market economies of Russia, China, and Eastern Germany. It is hypothesized that tensions between social values and individualism, materialism, and calculative rationality have arisen as a…

  10. Host-Associated Absence of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Northern and Eastern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Saxenhofer, Moritz; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Binder, Florian; Cuypers, Fabian; Schlegel, Mathias; Röhrs, Susanne; Heckel, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Human hantavirus disease cases, caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), are mainly recorded in western and southern areas of Germany. This bank vole reservoir survey confirmed PUUV presence in these regions but its absence in northern and eastern regions. PUUV occurrence is associated with the presence of the Western bank vole phylogroup. PMID:27983499

  11. Cancer survival in Eastern and Western Germany after the fall of the iron curtain.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Gondos, Adam; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann

    2012-09-01

    Prior to the German reunification, cancer survival was much lower in East than in West Germany. We compare cancer survival between Eastern and Western Germany in the early twenty-first century, i.e. the second decade after the German reunification. Using data from 11 population-based cancer registries covering a population of 33 million people, 5-year age-standardized relative survival for the time period 2002-2006 was estimated for the 25 most common cancers using model-based period analysis. In 2002-2006, 5-year relative survival was very similar for most cancers, with differences below 3% units for 20 of 25 cancer sites. Larger, statistically significant survival advantages were seen for oral cavity, oesophagus, and gallbladder cancer and skin melanoma in the West and for leukemia in the East. Our study shows that within two decades after the assimilation of political and health care systems, the former major survival gap of cancer patients in Eastern Germany has been essentially overcome. This result is encouraging as it suggests that, even though economic conditions have remained difficult in Eastern Germany, comparable health care provision may nevertheless enable comparable levels of cancer survival within a relatively short period of time.

  12. Indoor viable mold spores--a comparison between two cities, Erfurt (eastern Germany) and Hamburg (western Germany).

    PubMed

    Koch, A; Heilemann, K J; Bischof, W; Heinrich, J; Wichmann, H E

    2000-02-01

    In eastern Germany, the prevalence of allergies is lower than in western Germany for both children and adults. Several reasons for this fact have been discussed, although it is still not completely understood. One purpose of the epidemiologic study "Indoor and genetic factors in asthma and allergy" (INGA) is to compare exposure to mold spores in two German cities. Therefore, 405 homes in Erfurt (east) and Hamburg (west) were visited twice by trained investigators between June 1995 and May 1997. Samples of settled dust were taken by vacuuming from the carpet in the living room. Sieved house dust was diluted and plated on DG18 agar. The analyses were carried out in duplicate in the same laboratory. No significant difference could be shown for the total and for single genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium) in concentration of spores of viable fungi in settled house dust between Erfurt and Hamburg. Seasonal variation of the mold picture, with highest values in August, could be identified both indoors and outdoors. Because outdoor concentration is the main influence on indoor concentration of mold spores from June to October, we recommend sampling from November to May to evaluate exposure to indoor mold spores.

  13. Vertical and horizontal variability of volatile organic compounds in homes in Eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P; Lörinci, G; Gebefügi, I L; Heinrich, J; Kettrup, A; Wichmann, H E

    1999-01-01

    A German study on Indoor Factors and Genetics in Asthma (INGA) will be conducted for 10 years in towns of Eastern and Western Germany. The study will include an indoor and outdoor exposure assessment of BTEX (BTEX=benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, ortho-xylene, and meta- plus para-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In a pilot study, which was conducted in Erfurt, a city in Eastern Germany, during the winter of 1994, vertical and horizontal variabilities of BTEX concentrations within the homes were examined in detail. Passive sampling was conducted in the living room (at 0.7, 1.2, and 2.0 m height), bedroom (2 m), kitchen (2 m), and outside the window of the living room, in 20 homes of randomly chosen adults. The 20 houses consisted often old concrete constructions ('Altneubauten'=OLD, constructed between 1960 and 1970) and ten new concrete constructions ('Neubauten'=NEW, constructed between 1970 and 1980). At each apartment, Organic Vapour Monitor (OVM) 3500 passive sampling devices (3M Company) were exposed for 7 days. After elution with carbon disulfide (CS2), the samples were analyzed with dual column gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). No significant differences between the median values of the weekly average air concentrations of the BTEX VOCs in the different heights of measurement in the living rooms could be detected. Kitchen and living room median BTEX concentrations were equal and both significantly higher than the bedroom concentrations (except benzene). The indoor BTEX air concentrations were significantly higher than the outdoor concentrations (except benzene). Significant differences in BTEX indoor concentrations between OLD and NEW buildings could not be detected (except toluene).

  14. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  15. [Effect of "Fit" dishwashing detergent from former Eastern Germany (GDR) on luminol luminescence].

    PubMed

    Heuser, Katrin; Oehmen, Martin; Nadine, Kühner; Benecke, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The forensic luminol test is used to screen large areas for the presence of blood. The heme-induced reduction of hydrogen peroxide is coupled to the oxidation of luminol resulting in luminescence. However, photographic documentation of the relatively weak and short-lived luminescence is difficult and luminol is now often replaced by other chemicals. In this study, we investigated reports from the Rostock police department that the addition of "Fit", a dishwashing detergent from former Eastern Germany, could both intensify and prolong the luminescence of luminol on blood stains. Even though this effect was reported only for the original composition of Fit but not the currently sold version, we found that both the old and the new version of Fit increase the brightness of the luminescence while decreasing its duration. This may be due to detergents in the dishwashing liquid, which permeabilize the plasma membrane of the erythrocytes, exposing the Fe3+ inside the cell and speeding up the entire reaction. We did not find any evidence of special ingredients in the old version of Fit that would cause both the increased brightness and prolonged duration of luminescence as reported by the Rostock PD.

  16. Multi-criteria assessment of socio-environmental aspects in shrinking cities. Experiences from eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schetke, Sophie Haase, Dagmar

    2008-10-15

    Demographic change and economic decline produce modified urban land use pattern and densities. Compared to the beginning of the 90s after the German reunification, nowadays massive housing and commercial vacancies followed by demolition and perforation come to pass in many cities of the former GDR. In consequence, a considerable surplus of urban brownfields has been created. Furthermore, the decline in the urban fabric affects social infrastructure and urban greenery of local neighbourhoods. Here, urban planning enters into 'uncharted territory' since it needs to assess the socio-environmental impact of shrinkage. In order to carry out such an evaluation quantitatively, a multi-criteria assessment scheme (MCA) was developed and applied. Firstly, we identified infrastructure and land use changes related to vacancy and demolition. Secondly, demolition scenarios for the coming 20 years were applied in order to give an idea for a long-term monitoring approach at the local district level. A multi-criteria indicator matrix quantifies the socio-environmental impact on both urban greenery and residents. Using it, we set demolition scenarios against urban 'quality of life' targets. Empirical evidence comes from Leipzig, in eastern Germany, a representative case study for urban shrinkage processes. The results show that shrinkage implies socio-environmental changes of residential livelihoods, however, does not simply increase or decrease the overall urban quality of life. The integrated assessment of all indicators identifies environmental and social opportunities, as well as the challenges a shrinking city is faced with.

  17. Sensitivity of Weichselian fluvial systems to climate change (Nochten mine, eastern Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasse, C.; Vandenberghe, J.; Van Huissteden, J.; Bohncke, S. J. P.; Bos, J. A. A.

    2003-10-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of fluvial system response to climate change during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Fluvial and aeolian successions have been studied in the opencast brown-coal mine Nochten in eastern Germany. An absolute chronology was established by luminescence and 14C-dating, enabling to demonstrate the relations between depositional units and changes in sedimentary environment over time with regional climatic and vegetational changes. It is concluded that the major climatic periods, coinciding with the oxygen isotope stages, are generally reflected in the fluvial sequence by distinct fluvial environments. Major climatic changes (oxygen isotope stage boundaries) have been preserved in the fluvial record as erosional bounding surfaces and by changes in fluvial style. Rapid climate changes like the Middle Pleniglacial Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles are in general not reflected in the fluvial succession. These cycles were too short or with too low amplitude to cause a strong vegetational response and related changes in water and sediment supply. It is emphasized that also the preservation potential of short-lived climatic warming events in 'high-energy' fluvial systems is low. Warming events may, however, have been preserved in lacustrine successions in former thermokarst lakes. A strong cooling event at ca 40 ka, leading to continuous permafrost conditions and changes in the water and sediment budget, was reflected in the fluvial archive by a change from sandy anabranching to braided river conditions.

  18. Soil carbon stabilization and turnover at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medinski, T.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (<53 µm), followed by determination of organic carbon and nitrogen by gas-chromatography. Soil samples were also analysed for the total C&N content, cold-water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, <53 µm) carbon fraction were observed between treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.

  19. Numerical simulations of the 12-13 August 2002 flooding event in eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zängl, G.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, high-resolution numerical simulations of the 12-13 August 2002 flooding event in eastern Germany are presented. The simulations are performed with the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model MM5 in a four-domain configuration with a finest horizontal resolution of 1 km. Sensitivity experiments are performed with coarser resolutions (3 and 9 km), with different cloud microphysical parametrizations and with a different date of initialization. Moreover, tests with 1 km resolution but the smoothed topography of the 9 km runs are conducted in order to isolate the contribution of the model topography to the differences between the 1 km runs and the 9 km runs. The results show that the high-resolution runs reproduce the observed structure of the precipitation field very well. In particular, the location of the rainfall maximum is correct to within 15 km. The quantitative agreement between model results and observations is fairly good in regions with light to moderate rain, but large amounts of precipitation tend to be underpredicted. For observed 36-hour rainfall accumulations exceeding 200 mm, the negative bias typically ranges between 15 and 30% with fairly little dependence on the microphysical parametrization. In the coarser-resolved runs, the bias at high precipitation amounts becomes even more pronounced, and it is found that this behaviour is not only due to the fact that a coarser resolution is associated with a smoother topography. This indicates a systematic deficiency in the microphysical parametrizations, limiting their ability to simulate heavy precipitation.

  20. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  1. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  2. Social Influences on Fertility: A Comparative Mixed Methods Study in Eastern and Western Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura; Keim, Sylvia; von der Lippe, Holger

    2007-01-01

    This article uses a mixed methods design to investigate the effects of social influence on family formation in a sample of eastern and western German young adults at an early stage of their family formation. Theoretical propositions on the importance of informal interaction for fertility and family behavior are still rarely supported by systematic…

  3. Trends in surveillance data of human Lyme borreliosis from six federal states in eastern Germany, 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Hendrik; Stark, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent vector-borne disease in Germany. For more than 10 years, data from mandatory notifications have been available from 6 federal states in the eastern part of Germany. A common case definition was applied. Clinical manifestations of erythema migrans, neuroborreliosis (radiculoneuritis, cranial neuritis, meningitis), and Lyme arthritis were notifiable. From 2009 to 2012, altogether 18,894 cases were notified. The overall incidence varied between 34.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 19.54 cases/100,000 persons in 2012. LB in eastern Germany showed a pronounced seasonality with a peak in August. Decreasing as well as increasing trends were observed in different federal states. Females predominated among all cases (55.3%). The age distribution was bimodal with incidence peaks in children 5-9 years old (32.4 cases/100,000 persons in 2011) and in adults aged 60-69 years (56.7 cases/100,000 persons in 2011). Erythema migrans affected 95.4% of the patients and acute neuroborreliosis 3.3%. Among the latter, the most common manifestation was radiculoneuritis (n=316). Neuritis cranialis was more common in children than in adults (p<0.01). The same was true for meningitis (p<0.01). Altogether 2.0% of the LB cases developed Lyme arthritis. LB has a significant disease burden in the study area. Different levels of under-ascertainment in the surveillance system could explain parts of the differences in the incidence. Furthermore, there may be discrepancies in disease awareness among patients and physicians. Changes in time and differences among geographical regions could result from variations in risk factors related to human behaviour (e.g., outdoor activity). Additionally, vector-related risk factors may have varied (e.g., landscape, climate). Public health strategies with a particular focus on the high-incidence age groups should promote daily checks for ticks and prompt removal of ticks after exposure to avoid infection

  4. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  5. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotope geochemical characterization of shallow ground waters and submarine ground water discharge in North-Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Böttcher, Gerd; Schwerdtfeger, Beate; Lipka, Marko; Westphal, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The evolution and hydrochemical composition of ground waters in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania (North-Eastern Germany) is controlled by different natural and anthropogenic factors. In the present study, the hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry (H, C, O, S) of shallow ground waters was investigated in 2014 and 2015. A mass balance approach is combined with physico-chemical modeling to define the mineral dissolution/precipitation potential as well as the processes taking place during the ground water development. The dissolved inorganic carbon system of the ground waters is controlled by the dissolution of biogenic carbon dioxide, the dissolution of (marine) carbonates and the oxidation of anthropogenically introduced DOC and at a few sites biogenic methane. The sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicates the substantial impact from the oxidation of sedimentary pyrite using oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptor. The combined results are the base for a quantitative reaction path analysis. The composition of ground water is discussed with respect to its role as a source for fresh waters forming SGD and in a re-wetting wetland area (Hütelmoor) at the southern Baltic Sea coast line. Acknowledgements: The SGD/Hütelmoor part of this study is supported by German Science Foundation during DFG research training group BALTIC TRANSCOAST.

  6. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-antibodies in free-living birds of prey from Eastern Westphalia, Germany.

    PubMed

    Büker, M; Picozzi, K; Kolb, S; Hatt, J-M

    2013-07-01

    Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is the most important arthropod-borne zoonosis-pathogen in the Northern hemisphere. Besides small mammals, birds, primarily Passeriformes and sea birds, play an important role in the transmission, distribution and maintenance of this disease. Previous studies on birds have focused mainly on the detection of Borrelia-infected ticks. However, the presence or absence of an infected tick cannot be taken as an indicator of the infective status of the avian host; to date this area of research has not been explored. In this study, serological analyses of blood collected from free-living birds of prey (n = 29) at the rehabilitation centre in Eastern Westphalia, Germany, highlights that birds of prey are also susceptible to B. burgdorferi and react immunologically to an infection. Increased antibody-levels could be found by using a modified Indirect Immunofluorescent-testing in two common buzzards, Buteo buteo, and two eagle owls, Bubo bubo. Further research regarding the serological diagnostics of B. burgdorferi within the avian host is required. In the future, it should be taken into account that birds of prey can be reservoirs for B. burgdorferi, as well as carriers of infected ticks; although at present their epidemiological importance is still to be confirmed.

  7. Factors affecting lead, cadmium, and arsenic levels in house dust in a smelter town in eastern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, I.; Heinrich, J. . Inst. fuer Epidemiologie); Lippold, U. )

    1999-07-01

    Hettstedt, a city in eastern Germany with a long history of mining and smelting of nonferrous ores, has several industrial sources of heavy metals. The indoor exposure to metals of children (5 to 14 years old) in the Hettstedt area was assessed by measuring the levels of lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in sedimented house dust. Factors which influence the dust loading rate and the surface loading rates of these contaminants in house dust were investigated. The geometric mean of the dust loading rate was 8.9 mg/m[sup 2] day. The geometric means of surface loading rates were 1.14, 0.024, and 0.023 [micro]g/m[sup 2] day for lead, cadmium, and arsenic, respectively. Factors that were significantly associated with surface loading rates included the city area of residence, automobile traffic near home, parent with occupational exposure to heavy metals, type of heating, housing characteristics, whether child's home is damp, number of persons living in the child's home,and parents' education. The most significant of these factors was the city area of residence, which reflects the distance from the metal sources; this factor accounted for about half of the variances explained by the regression models.

  8. The basal Lutetian Transgression on the Tethyan shelf of the European craton (Adelholzen beds, Eastern Alps, Germany).

    PubMed

    Egger, Hans; Briguglio, Antonino; Rögl, Fred; Darga, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The middle Eocene Adelholzen beds were deposited on the northern part of the Tethyan shelf of the European Plate. In the Eastern Alps, the Wimmern section near Teisendorf (Germany) is the only known outcrop exposing the basal unconformity of this sequence. The outcrop comprises an 8 m thick condensed transgressive shallow marine succession characterized by glauconite-rich weakly consolidated greensand and mudstone containing abundant larger benthic foraminifera. It spans the lower part of calcareous nannoplankton Zone NP15 (Sub-Zones NP15a and lower part of NP15b), planktonic foraminifera Sub-Zone E7b and Zone E8 partim and the upper part of shallow benthic Zone SBZ13. The landward migration of the paleo-shoreline was not an effect of flexural downbending of the European Plate but can be correlated to the major unconformity at the base of eustatic supercycle TA3. The onset of this sea-level rise was in the latest part of Biochron NP14b and almost coincided with the NP14b/NP15a-boundary.

  9. Soil compaction on an agricultural post-mining recultivation site in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krümmelbein, Julia; Raab, Thomas; Bens, Oliver; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Our study is concerned with the agricultural recultivation of post lignite mining areas in Lusatia, where Germany's largest lignite mining area is located. In this region mining leads to disturbances on a landscape level. Recultivation efforts attempt to regenerate post mining areas for various land use options. In this study, the agricultural recultivation is considered. The sandy to loamy substrate that is used for recultivation stems from depths of several meters and is free of soil organic matter. The substrate itself is unstructured when used to construct the sites. During site construction, the substrate is subject to strong mechanical stresses due to excavation, deposition and re-levelling. This practice leads to more or less serious soil compaction which can cause decreased yields of agricultural crops. Our experimental area has been heaped up and re-levelled in 2006/2007. On various subplots the extent of compaction, the effect of amelioration by deep loosening, differing organic soil additives and crop rotations which include deep rooting plants is studied. We compare results of the soil physical status-quo sampling (before the application of any recultivation measure, sample collection in 2007) with recent results (sample collection in 2010) to show the development of soil stability, soil structure and soil functions depending on the recultivation practice. The results of the first soil sampling (2007) revealed bulk density values between 1.3 and 1.9 g/cm³ but comparably low values of precompression stress. We found no correlation between bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability and for one soil depths a negative correlation between bulk density and precompression stress. We show the degree of compaction on different subplots after site construction and the persistence of recultivation measures such as deep loosening, deep-rooting plants (e.g. alfalfa and sweet clover) by investigating their effects on bulk density

  10. Diversity of SCCmec Elements in Staphylococcus aureus as Observed in South-Eastern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Monecke, Stefan; Jatzwauk, Lutz; Müller, Elke; Nitschke, Hedda; Pfohl, Katharina; Slickers, Peter; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    SCCmec elements are very important mobile genetic elements in Staphylococci that carry beta-lactam resistance genes mecA/mecC, recombinase genes and a variety of accessory genes. Twelve main types and a couple of variants have yet been described. In addition, there are also other SCC elements harbouring other markers. In order to subtype strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on variations within their SCCmec elements, 86 markers were selected from published SCC sequences for an assay based on multiplexed primer extension reactions followed by hybridisation to the specific probes. These included mecA/mecC, fusC, regulatory genes, recombinase genes, genes from ACME and heavy metal resistance loci as well as several genes of unknown function. Hybridisation patterns for published genome or SCC sequences were theoretically predicted. For validation of the microarray based assay and for stringent hybridisation protocol optimization, real hybridization experiments with fully sequenced reference strains were performed modifying protocols until yielded the results were in concordance to the theoretical predictions. Subsequently, 226 clinical isolates from two hospitals in the city of Dresden, Germany, were characterised in detail. Beside previously described types and subtypes, a wide variety of additional SCC types or subtypes and pseudoSCC elements were observed as well as numerous composite elements. Within the study collection, 61 different such elements have been identified. Since hybridisation cannot recognise the localisation of target genes, gene duplications or inversions, this is a rather conservative estimate. Interestingly, some widespread epidemic strains engulf distinct variants with different SCCmec subtypes. Notable examples are ST239-MRSA-III, CC5-, CC22-, CC30-, and CC45-MRSA-IV or CC398-MRSA-V. Conversely, identical SCC elements were observed in different strains with SCCmec IVa being spread among the highest number of Clonal Complexes

  11. Diversity of SCCmec Elements in Staphylococcus aureus as Observed in South-Eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Monecke, Stefan; Jatzwauk, Lutz; Müller, Elke; Nitschke, Hedda; Pfohl, Katharina; Slickers, Peter; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    SCCmec elements are very important mobile genetic elements in Staphylococci that carry beta-lactam resistance genes mecA/mecC, recombinase genes and a variety of accessory genes. Twelve main types and a couple of variants have yet been described. In addition, there are also other SCC elements harbouring other markers. In order to subtype strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) based on variations within their SCCmec elements, 86 markers were selected from published SCC sequences for an assay based on multiplexed primer extension reactions followed by hybridisation to the specific probes. These included mecA/mecC, fusC, regulatory genes, recombinase genes, genes from ACME and heavy metal resistance loci as well as several genes of unknown function. Hybridisation patterns for published genome or SCC sequences were theoretically predicted. For validation of the microarray based assay and for stringent hybridisation protocol optimization, real hybridization experiments with fully sequenced reference strains were performed modifying protocols until yielded the results were in concordance to the theoretical predictions. Subsequently, 226 clinical isolates from two hospitals in the city of Dresden, Germany, were characterised in detail. Beside previously described types and subtypes, a wide variety of additional SCC types or subtypes and pseudoSCC elements were observed as well as numerous composite elements. Within the study collection, 61 different such elements have been identified. Since hybridisation cannot recognise the localisation of target genes, gene duplications or inversions, this is a rather conservative estimate. Interestingly, some widespread epidemic strains engulf distinct variants with different SCCmec subtypes. Notable examples are ST239-MRSA-III, CC5-, CC22-, CC30-, and CC45-MRSA-IV or CC398-MRSA-V. Conversely, identical SCC elements were observed in different strains with SCCmec IVa being spread among the highest number of Clonal Complexes

  12. Seroprevalence study in forestry workers of a non-endemic region in eastern Germany reveals infections by Tula and Dobrava-Belgrade hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Hofmann, Jörg; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Ziller, Mario; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Friedrich, Robert; Niederstrasser, Olaf; Krüger, Detlev H; Groschup, Martin H; Petri, Eckhardt; Werdermann, Sandra; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2011-11-01

    Highly endemic and outbreak regions for human hantavirus infections are located in the southern, southeastern, and western parts of Germany. The dominant hantavirus is the bank vole transmitted Puumala virus (PUUV). In the eastern part of Germany, previous investigations revealed Tula virus (TULV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections in the respective rodent reservoirs. Here, we describe a seroprevalence study in forestry workers from Brandenburg, eastern Germany, using IgG ELISA and immunoblot tests based on recombinant TULV, DOBV, and PUUV antigens. Out of the 563 sera tested, 499 from male and 64 from female workers, we found 41 out of the 499 (8.2%) sera from men (mean age 47 years) and 10 out of 64 (15.6%) from the women (mean age 48 years) anti-hantavirus-positive. The majority of the 51 seropositive samples reacted exclusively in the TULV (n=22) and DOBV tests (n=17). Focus reduction neutralization assay investigations on selected sera confirmed the presence of TULV- and DOBV-specific antibodies in the forestry workers. These investigations demonstrated a potential health threat for forestry workers and also the average population in non-endemic geographical regions where TULV and DOBV are circulating in the corresponding reservoir hosts. The infections in this region might be frequently overlooked due to their unspecific and mild symptoms. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  13. Phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon export during peak flow periods in three small homogenous catchments in eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benning, R.; Schwärzel, K.; Feger, K. H.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict both an overall increase in temperature and alterations in annual precipitation regimes. For large parts of Central Europe, climate change is expected to result in an increase in winter precipitation and a decrease in summer precipitation. In addition, an increase in extreme conditions, such as heat waves, prolonged drought periods, and heavy rainfall events are predicted. This research examines the potential impacts of increased heavy rainfall events on matter export from small catchment areas, and how different vegetation cover and land management options effects these exports. In order to evaluate the export of matter from different land-use types in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, NE Germany, 50° 48'18.06" North, 13° 36'24.54" East), study sites were established in three small catchments with homogeneous land-use. These study areas are each sub-catchments of the Ammelsdorf catchment, which provides inflow to the Lehnmühle reservoir (a major water supply for the city of Dresden). Each sub catchment represents one of the three main land-use types in the catchment area of the reservoir: crops (winter oilseed rape, winter wheat), grasslands, and forests (primarily spruce). Since November 2009 the discharge from these sub catchments has been continuously measured and water quality was analyzed on a weekly basis. During peak flow events, discharge was collected using automatic water samplers, which allowed for high temporal resolution analysis of matter export during these periods to be made. During the 2010 and 2011 hydrological years, several heavy rainfall events occurred which have been evaluated. During a 110-hour long precipitation event (P = 170 mm) between 37 and 81 water samples per sub catchment were collected and analyzed. The resulting export of dissolved phosphorus (ortho-PO4-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the sub catchments during this event is provided in the results. In

  14. A recovery of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena) in the southern North Sea? A case study off Eastern Frisia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Frank; Laczny, Martin; Piper, Werner

    2006-09-01

    Detailed information on year-round distribution, seasonal abundance and inter-annual trends of a given species is essential for any conservation effort. However, for most odontocetes this knowledge is rather limited. Therefore, area-specific management or conservation plans are often difficult to argue for. This is also true for the harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena), although it is the most common cetacean species in the North Sea. Knowledge of the current status of local stocks as well as fine scale information on the temporal use of certain areas by the species is incomplete. One area of concern is the southern North Sea where the abundance of harbour porpoises has declined in the twentieth century. Recent studies using stranding data and observations from seabird surveys indicate a comeback of the species along the Dutch and Belgian coast. However, data on other regions of the southern North Sea is sparse. Between 2002 and 2004, we undertook 25 aerial line transect surveys (11,000 km on effort; altitude = 250 and 600 ft) in a 2,500 km2 coastal area off Eastern Frisia, Germany including a small portion of Dutch coastal waters. The data were g(0) corrected using a double platform approach and analysed with distance sampling software. A total of 426 harbour porpoises were sighted, including eight calves. Densities ranged between <0.1 and 1.62 individuals/km2 with peaks in February and July 2003 as well as February and May 2004. The results of our study show that harbour porpoises are present in the coastal part of the southern North Sea even during their reproductive period. However, they seem to appear in lower numbers and much more irregular than in other areas, for example off Northern Frisia. The results of this study support the recent findings that despite a decline in the mid-twentieth century, harbour porpoises are now at times quite abundant in the southern North Sea. The underlying factors of this ‘return’ should be investigated using a

  15. [High utilisers with affective and schizophrenic disorders in the psychiatric health care system: a comparison between Eastern and Western Germany].

    PubMed

    von Rad, Kathrin; Puschner, Bernd; Spießl, Hermann; Grempler, Julia; Janssen, Birgit; Becker, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald

    2014-10-01

    High utilisers of psychiatric services are defined as a group of patients showing a great amount of service use, especially inpatient care, consequently causing immense costs. There is a lack of studies investigating differences between East and West Germany. Service use and psychopathology were examined in 350 high utilisers receiving inpatient treatment in one East German and three West German psychiatric hospitals. Whereas current length of stay was higher in participants from West Germany, readmissions were more frequent in the East German participants who also exhibited higher psychopathology. Presumably, the deficient situation of outpatient health care in East Germany is compensated by increased stationary admission, consequently leading to a structural promotion of high utilisation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Perforated peptic ulcer: is there a difference between Eastern Europe and Germany? Copernicus Study Group and Acute Abdominal Pain Study Group.

    PubMed

    Sillakivi, T; Yang, Q; Peetsalu, A; Ohmann, C

    2000-08-01

    Ulcer surgery and the epidemiology of peptic ulcer perforation have changed considerably in recent decades. Within two prospective studies, 170 perforated peptic ulcer patients from 12 Eastern European centres and 37 patients from 11 German centres were analysed. The median age of patients was 43 years in the Copernicus study and 49 years in the MEDWIS study (P=n.s.), being higher for MEDWIS female patients (73 vs 53 years, respectively; P<0.05). Female patients made up 17% (29/170) of the Copernicus study and 35% (40/170) of the MEDWIS study (P<0.05). Twenty-three per cent (40/170) of patients in the Copernicus study and 54% (20/37) in the MEDWIS study had gastric ulcer perforation (P<0.001). The proportion of definitive operations was higher in Eastern Europe (41.1%; 67/163) than it was in Germany (16.1%; 5/31) (P<0.01). German patients experienced more general complications than Eastern European patients (35 vs 12%, respectively; P<0.01) and a higher mortality [13% (5/37) vs 2% (4/170), respectively; P<0.01]. Delayed admission > or =12 h and age > or =60 years remained predictors for complications in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The proportion of both women and gastric ulcers was higher among German patients, while Eastern European patients underwent more definitive operations. German patients experienced more general complications and a higher mortality. Complications were related to high age and delayed admission.

  17. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  18. Proceedings of the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

    Treesearch

    Gerard, tech. coord. Hertel; Gerard Hertel

    1988-01-01

    Includes 66 papers presented at the US/FRG research symposium: effects of atmospheric pollutants on the spruce-fir forests of the Eastern United States and the Federal Republic of Germany, which was held October 19-23, 1987, in Burlington, Vermont.

  19. Bartonella, Rodents, Fleas and Ticks: a Molecular Field Study on Host-Vector-Pathogen Associations in Saxony, Eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfeffer, Martin; Kiefer, Daniel; Kiefer, Matthias; Obiegala, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Bartonellae cause zoonotic diseases and are transmitted by arthropods. Rodents are reservoirs for most Bartonella spp. As the knowledge about Bartonella in rodents and their parasitizing ectoparasites is scarce in Germany, this study's objectives were to investigate Bartonella spp. in small mammals and in their ectoparasites. A total of 79 small mammals (seven species) were captured and their ectoparasites collected at seven sites around Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, in 2010 and 2011. Altogether, 79 spleen samples, 135 fleas (five species) and 365 ticks (three species) were investigated for Bartonella spp. by PCR targeting the ITS 16S-23S rRNA region. In total, 52 (65.8 %) small mammals, 73 (54.1 %) fleas and 51 (16.3 %) ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. Most small mammals were positive for uncultured Bartonella sp. (n = 29) followed by Bartonella grahamii (n = 12), Bartonella taylorii (n = 8) and Bartonella sp. N40 (n = 3). Likewise, most fleas were positive for uncultured Bartonella sp. (n = 45) followed by B. grahamii (n = 14), B. taylorii (n = 8), B. sp. N40 (n = 5) and Bartonella elizabethae (n = 2). Most ticks were positive for B. sp. (n = 19) followed by B. grahamii (n = 10), Bartonella chomelii (n = 3), B. taylorii (n = 2) and B. sp. N40 (n = 1). This study's results suggest that rodents and fleas may be reservoirs and vectors, respectively. Zoonotic B. grahamii and B. elizabethae were found in rodents and their fleas. Therefore, humans may contract Bartonella infection by contact to wild rodents. Ticks seem of minor importance in transmitting Bartonella spp. found in fleas and rodents. However, ticks might be vectors of B. chomelii.

  20. Seroprevalence study in forestry workers from eastern Germany using novel genotype 3- and rat hepatitis E virus-specific immunoglobulin G ELISAs.

    PubMed

    Dremsek, Paul; Wenzel, Jürgen J; Johne, Reimar; Ziller, Mario; Hofmann, Jörg; Groschup, Martin H; Werdermann, Sandra; Mohn, Ulrich; Dorn, Silvia; Motz, Manfred; Mertens, Marc; Jilg, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2012-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of an acute self-limiting hepatitis in humans. In industrialized countries, autochthonous cases are linked to zoonotic transmission from domestic pigs, wild boar and red deer. The main route of human infection presumably is consumption of contaminated meat. Farmers, slaughterers and veterinarians are expected to be risk groups as they work close to potentially infected animals. In this study, we tested four Escherichia coli-expressed segments of the capsid protein (CP) of a German wild boar-derived HEV genotype 3 strain for their diagnostic value in an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA. In an initial validation experiment, a carboxy-terminal CP segment spanning amino acid (aa) residues 326-608 outperformed the other segments harbouring aa residues 112-608, 326-660 and 112-335. Based on this segment, an indirect ELISA for detection of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in human sera was established and validated using a commercial line immunoassay as reference assay. A total of 563 sera from forestry workers of all forestry offices of Brandenburg, eastern Germany and 301 sera of blood donors from eastern Germany were surveyed using these assays. The commercial test revealed seroprevalence rates of 11% for blood donors and 18% for forestry workers. These rates are in line with data obtained by the in-house test (12 and 21%). Hence, the in-house test performed strikingly similar to the commercial test (sensitivity 0.9318, specificity 0.9542). An initial screening of forestry worker and blood donor sera with a corresponding CP segment of the recently discovered Norway rat-associated HEV revealed several strong positive sera exclusively in the forestry worker panel. Future investigations have to prove the performance of this novel IgG ELISA in large-scale seroepidemiological studies. In addition, the observed elevated seroprevalence in a forestry worker group has to be confirmed by studies on groups of forestry workers from other

  1. Religious individualization or secularization? Testing hypotheses of religious change--the case of Eastern and Western Germany.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Detlef; Pickel, Gert

    2007-12-01

    The individualization thesis advanced by sociologists of religion such as Grace Davie, Danièle Hervieu-Léger, Michael Krüggeler, Thomas Luckmann, Hubert Knoblauch, Wade Clark Roof, Wayne E. Baker, and others has become increasingly widespread especially in Europe within the sociology of religion. In contrast to the secularization theory it assumes that processes of modernization will not lead to a decline in the social significance of religion, but rather to a change in its social forms. According to the individualization theory, traditional and institutionalized forms of religiosity will be increasingly replaced by more subjective ones detached form church, individually chosen, and syncretistic in character. The article examines the empirical applicability of the individualization thesis on the basis of how religiosity and church affiliation have evolved in Germany over the past 50 years. It comes to the conclusion that the rise of individually determined non-church religiosity cannot compensate for the losses of institutionalized religiosity, since non-church religiosity remains rather marginal and is interwoven with traditional Christian religiosity. Religious individualization is only a component of the predominant secularization process.

  2. Lutetian to Priabonian organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from the northwestern Tethyan margin (Adelholzen Section, Eastern Alps, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Omar; Egger, Hans

    2015-04-01

    At the Adelholzen section (SE-Germany), a 13 m thick shallow marine Lutetian sequence (Adelholzen beds) comprising shallow benthic foraminifera Zones SBZ13 to SBZ15 (Briguglio in Gebhardt et al., 2013) is overlain by a 1 m thick brownish layer rich in glauconite and ferrigenous phosphate. This layer forms the top of the Adelholzen beds. It marks the onset of strong basin subsidence in the late Lutetian and is separated from the Priabonian by a stratigraphic gap comprising a major part of the Bartonian. The Priabonian marlstone (Stockletten) is 4 m thick at the Adelholzen section. It contains rich and high diverse planktonic foraminifera assemblages ("Globigerina marl") indicating bathyal conditions. Twenty eight samples from the Adelholzen beds and the Stockletten were processed for palynology at the Geological Survey of Austria following standard procedures. Palynological slides were examined for relative abundances of organic walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts). One-hundred organic-walled dinocyst species were identified at the Adelholzen section. Stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst taxa for the assignment of the Adelholzen beds to the Lutetian are Wilsonidium echinosuturatum, Dracodinium waipawaense, Wetzeliella articulata, Areoligera coronata, Cordosphaeridium cantharellus, Hystrichokolpoma pusillum and Aireiana spp. Stratigraphically important dinoflagellate cyst taxa for the assignment of the Stockletten to the Priabonian are Diphyes ficusoides, Distatodinium ellipticum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus, Rhombodinium longimanum, Rhombodinium perforatum, and Selenopemphix nephroides. Remarkable bioevents in the section are the abundant occurrences of Areoligera coronata and Cordosphaeridium gracile in the basal greensand. In the overlying marlstone and marly limestone Homotryblium tenuispinosum is the dominating species and the first specimens of Impagidinium dispertitum occur indicating open marine conditions.

  3. Multiple episodes of dolomitization and dolomite recrystallization during shallow burial in Upper Jurassic shelf carbonates: eastern Swabian Alb, southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, C.

    1998-10-01

    The Upper Jurassic of the eastern Swabian Alb is composed of oolitic platform sands with associated microbe-siliceous sponge mounds at the platform margins. They are surrounded by argillaceous or calcareous mudstones and marl-limestone alternations, deposited in adjacent marl basins. Partial to complete dolomitization is predominantly confined to the mound facies. Six types of dolomite, as well as one type of ankerite, document a complex diagenetic history during shallow burial with multiple episodes of dolomite formation and recrystallization. The earliest massive matrix dolomitization is Ca-rich, has slightly depleted oxygen isotope values relative to Late Jurassic seawater, and carbon isotopic values in equilibrium with Late Jurassic seawater. This initial massive matrix dolomitization occurred during latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous and is related to pressure dissolution during very shallow burial at temperatures of at least 50°C. Hydrologic conditions and mass-balance calculations indicate that burial compaction provided sufficient fluids for dolomitization. Mg is derived from negligibly modified seawater, that was expelled from the adjacent off-reef strata into the mound facies. Position of the mounds along the platform margins controlled the distribution of the shallow-burial dolomite. Covariant trends between textural modification, increasing stoichiometry, partial changes in trace element content (Mn, Fe, Sr) and depletion in stable isotopes as well as distinctive CL pattern illustrate two recrystallization phases of the precursor matrix dolomite during further burial at elevated temperatures. Strong Sr enrichment of the second phase of recrystallized dolomite is ascribed to Sr-rich meteoric waters descending from overlying aragonite-bearing reef limestones or evaporite-bearing peritidal carbonates. Late-stage coarsely crystalline dolomite cements occur as vug and fracture fillings and formed during burial. Ankerite, associated with sulphide and

  4. Geochemical variability and sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the mudstone- dominated Lower Cretaceous succession in the eastern Lower Saxony Basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thöle, Hauke; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Erbacher, Jochen; Bornemann, André; Luppold, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary rocks predominantly composed of silts and clays (mudstones) are currently a popular topic within industry and academia. Of particular interest is to better constrain the pervasive facies variability present within these rocks. Despite their apparent homogeneity at core and outcrop scale, mudstones can actually be highly heterogeneous when examined in detail. We used geochemical and palynofacies analyses to delineate the facies variability present within the mudstone-dominated Lower Cretaceous succession in the eastern Lower Saxony Basin (LSB). In addition, the data-set is used to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chemostratigraphy and palynofacies within apparently homogeneous mudstone successions. Our study is based on three scientific drill cores (Scharnhorst 3, Scharrel 10 and Frielingen 9) which were drilled during 2012-2014. Because of their close geographical location and similar palaeoenvironmental setting, these cored sections can be considered as one complete, 510-m-thick composite section covering the late Berriasian to earliest Aptian interval. All cores have been analysed for major and minor elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe) by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning analysis at 1 cm resolution. The resulting trends for each element were analysed in terms of facies variability and to capture relative shifts in shoreline trajectories. For example, elemental ratios indicative of coarser clastic input (e.g., Si/Al) are used to decipher proximal to distal trends within the studied sediments. In order to better understand the nature of geochemical variations, XRF core scanning analyses are compared with palynofacies results.

  5. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the Early to Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in eastern Bavaria (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; Böhme, M.; Rocholl, A.; Zwing, A.; Prieto, J.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Heissig, K.; Bachtadse, V.

    2008-02-01

    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study was carried out on middle Miocene fluvial successions of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (OSM) from the North Alpine Foreland Basin, in eastern Bavaria, Germany. The biostratigraphic investigations yielded six new localities thereby refining the OSM biostratigraphy for units C to E (sensu; Heissig, Actes du Congres BiochroM’97. Mem Trav EPHE, Inst Montpellier 21, 1997) and further improving biostratigraphic correlations between the different sections throughout eastern Bavaria. Radioisotopic ages of 14.55 ± 0.19 and 14.88 ± 0.11 Ma have been obtained for glass shards from the main bentonite horizon and the Ries impactite: two important stratigraphic marker beds used for confirming our magnetostratigraphic calibration to the Astronomical Tuned Neogene Time Scale (ATNTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). Paleomagnetic analysis was performed using alternating field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetization methods. The AF method revealed both normal and reverse polarities but proofs to yield unreliable ChRM directions for the Puttenhausen section. Using the biostratigraphic information and radioisotopic ages, the magnetostratigraphic records of the different sections are tentatively correlated to the Astronomical Tuned Neogene Time Scale (ATNTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the main bentonite horizon coincides to chron C5ADn, which is corroborated by its radioisotopic age of 14.55 Ma, whereas the new fossil locality Furth 460, belonging to OSM unit E, probably correlates to chron C5Bn.1r. The latter correlation agrees well with the Swiss Molasse locality Frohberg. Correlations of the older sections are not straightforward. The Brock horizon, which comprises limestone ejecta from the Ries impact, possibly correlates to C5ADr (14.581 14.784 Ma), implying that, although within error, the radioisotopic age

  6. Low prevalence of chronic hepatitis C, but high prevalence of elevated aminotransferases in a cohort of 2026 patients referred for orthopaedic surgery in the eastern part of Germany.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, J; Kaiser, T; Lobstein, S; Brand, F; Wojan, M; Stölzel, U; Liebert, U G; Mössner, J; Tillmann, H L

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in Germany is about 0.2 - 0.4 %. However, there seems to be regional differences between western and eastern states of the country. Thus, the present study analysed the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in a cohort of orthopaedic patients in Thuringia. Tests for antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) were performed on serum samples of 2026 patients (1183 females, 843 males) admitted for orthopaedic surgery to a university hospital in Thuringia. If anti-HCV was positive, serum was tested for HCV-RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For the sake of anonymity only age and gender were reported in all patients. In 1465 cases, values of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases were additionally available. The low HCV prevalence was confirmed in a second cohort of orthopaedic patients (n = 929, 599 females, 330 males) investigated at a university hospital in Saxonia. In the Thuringian cohort, anti-HCV was detectable in 12/2026 (0.6 %) individuals (10 females (0.85 %) and 2 males (0.24 %: p = 0.14 %). HCV-RNA was positive in 3/10 of anti-HCV positive females (0.15 % of the study cohort). HCV infection was already known in two cases. Anti-HCV positive patients seemed to be older than anti-HCV negative individuals (64.25 vs. 59.48 years; p = 0.17), as well as HCV-RNA positive cases compared to non-viraemic patients (66.3 vs. 63.6 years; p = 0.32). All HCV-RNA positive females had elevated ALT values. However, ALT and AST were also elevated in 18.2 % and 11.7 % of anti-HCV negative individuals. There was no significant difference between males and females (p = 0.32). In the Saxonian cohort none of 929 individuals were HCV positive. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C is low in the investigated cohorts of orthopaedic patients in Thuringia and Saxonia. However, elevation of aminotransferases occurs surprisingly often. The reasons for elevated aminotransferases and a reliable analysis of the HCV prevalence in

  7. Thick- and thin-skinned tectonics of the eastern border of the Leinetal Graben, Lower Saxony, Germany, as deduced from reflection seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, David C.; Musmann, Patrick; Wawerzinek, Britta; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Buness, Hermann; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    The Leinetal Graben in northern Germany is a N-S striking, intra-plate tectonic graben that, according to the youngest sediments within the graben, occurred post-Jurassic, probably late Cretaceous. We show, by interpreting two (1.8 and 3.2 km long), 2D, P-wave, reflection-seismic profiles which cross the eastern border faults of the Leinetal Graben, that the tectonic evolution began much earlier, probably in the Early Triassic. The profiles show information to a depth of approx. 1 km. Using two deep boreholes to calibrate the seismic, we interpreted the Mesozoic sedimentary layers down to Triassic Zechstein salt and the faults that affect these strata. We recognize two sets of faults: firstly steep, planar faults, that are closely clustered and terminate in the Zechstein salt, and secondly shallow faults that connect between two of the first set of faults and have very variable dip, depending on the lithology they cut at that point. These two systems represent thick- and thin-skinned tectonics, respectively. We envisage the late Triassic pro-Leinetal Graben structure as a salt down-building area or as the result of rafting of sandstone units on the salt layer. The system was later reactivated in the Late Cretaceous during intra-plate N-S compression and E-W extension. By restoring the deformation caused by the thin-skinned fault, we are able to determine the amount of area change in the hanging-wall caused by the fault, due to its undulating geometry. Area change is heterogeneous, but reaches 3-4% locally. This may well be sufficient to allow fluids to flow in the fault damage zone in these areas. It would also account for the different seismic appearance of the fault in the two profiles if fluids were heterogeneously distributed along it. This method of retro-deformation is entirely appropriate to determine the suitability of a brittle fault for, for instance, geothermal applications.

  8. Multi-decadal lake-level dynamics in north-eastern Germany as derived by a combination of gauging, proxy-data and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Knut; Heinrich, Ingo; Heine, Iris; Natkhin, Marco; Dannowski, Ralf; Lischeid, Gunnar; Schneider, Thomas; Henkel, Johanna; Küster, Mathias; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Bens, Oliver; Chmieleski, Jana

    2015-10-01

    In the glacially formed landscape of north-eastern Germany pronounced hydrological changes have been detected in recent decades, leading to the general question how lake levels and related groundwater levels perform in a long-term perspective, i.e. during the last c. 100 years. But long-term lake-level records are rare; most observations do not start before the late 20th century. Therefore, the potential of historic hydrological data, comprising drowned trees (as a geo-/bioarchive) and aerial as well as map imagery (as a document archive) was tested in order to derive discrete-time lake-level stands. These data are contrasted with lake-level simulations, obtaining a continuous-time series. Two small glacial lakes without connection to the stream network (i.e. closed lakes) were investigated in the Schorfheide area, c. 70 km north of Berlin. Both are dominantly fed by groundwater and precipitation but differ in their hydrogeological and catchment characteristics. For one lake a c. 40 year-long gauging record is available, showing high lake levels in the 1980s followed by a lowering of c. 3 m till the mid-2000s. In both lakes submerged in situ tree remains were discovered and dated by dendrochronology, revealing low lake levels during the first half of the 20th century. One lake was almost completely dry until c. 1960. Aerial photos provided data on lake levels since the 1930s which are corroborated by evidence of topographic mapping. Combining the empiric data with retrograde lake-level modelling, a well-proven lake-level record can be established for one lake that covers the last c. 90 years. The same general lake-level dynamics could be reconstructed by means of proxy data for the other lake. In both cases climate has been the dominant driver of lake-level dynamics. Comparisons with other multi-decadal lake-level records from the region show that these differ, depending on the hydrological lake type which modifies water feeding and water level. The results clearly

  9. Establishing a dynamic reconstruction of the Weichselian glaciation in north-eastern Germany by applying a process based approach for the interpretation of glacial landform ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Böse, Margot

    2013-04-01

    Throughout the last decades, an increasing number of numerical ages dating the glacigenic landform record of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) were published, in many cases spawning controversy as ages inferred from different dating methods often disagreed with each other and opposed the concepts of established age models primarily based on morphostratigraphical analyses. The two most commonly applied dating techniques for the dating of glacigenic deposits are optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and surface exposure dating (SED) of erratic boulders using cosmogenic nuclides. With respect to the interpretation of numerical ages inferred from these dating techniques, it needs to be stressed, that they must be interpreted with respect to the specific processes in landscape development which are actually dated. Even when applied to glacial sediments associated with the same ice marginal position, the resulting ages of the two methods are strongly dependent on the sampling position within the geomorphological and stratigraphical framework. As a result, they theoretically must not be identical. To demonstrate this, the glacial landscape record of north-eastern Germany shaped by the Weichselian glaciation serves as an excellent example. Comprising three morphostratigraphically defined main ice marginal positions (IMPs), the area has been subject of a significant number of dating studies throughout the last years, making a solid database of numerical ages based on OSL dating of glaciofluvial sediments, as well as SED of glacigenic boulders, available. Here the OSL ages were mainly derived from sandur sediments and therefore represent the timing of the process of sediment aggradation linked to meltwater discharge from an active ice margin. In contrast, the SED ages from erratic boulders determine the age of the final stabilisation of the sampled boulders at the landscape surface after the downmelting of stagnant ice, landscape transformation under periglacial

  10. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  11. Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany--Interpretation in the Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Katharina; Schunck, Reinhard; Razum, Oliver

    2015-12-15

    We analyzed changes in smoking by length of stay among immigrants in Germany and related them to the "smoking epidemic" model and the acculturation theory. We used data from a longitudinal survey (German Socio-economic Panel). Immigrants were identified by country of birth (Turkey: respondents n = 828, observations n = 3871; Eastern Europe: respondents n = 2009, observations n = 7202; non-immigrants: respondents n = 34,011, observations n = 140,701). Smoking status data was available for nine years between 1998 and 2012. Length of stay (LOS, in years) was used as proxy for acculturation. We calculated smoking prevalences, prevalence ratios and a random intercept multilevel logistic regression model. With each year spent in Germany, smoking prevalence increases among Turkish women (OR = 1.14 (95%CI = 1.06-1.21)) and slightly decreases among men. Recently immigrated Turkish women smoke less than non-immigrant women (0-5 years: SPR = 0.25 (95%CI = 0.10-0.57)); prevalences converge with increasing LOS (31+ years: SPR = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.06-1.48)). Among Eastern European immigrants no significant changes were apparent. Immigrants from Turkey "import" their smoking prevalence from a country which is in the earlier stages of the "smoking epidemic". With increasing LOS (thus, advancing acculturation), they "move" to the later stages. Anti-smoking interventions should consider different smoking attitudes in Turkey/Germany and need to discourage women from initiating smoking. Future research should also identify reasons for the possible differences between immigrant groups.

  12. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  13. [25 years after re-unification of Germany: An overview on Eastern German psychiatry. Part 2: Pluralistic approaches and the collapse in the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H

    2016-05-01

    This is the second part of a 2-part study of the history of psychiatry in East Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. This part primarily covers the 1970 s and 1980 s. Starting from the 1970 s, pluralistic views on and approaches to mental illness and its treatment gained ground, which was especially visible in psychotherapy. The exacerbating economic crisis of the 1970 s and 1980 s led to a steadily worsening collapse of the building infrastructure of clinics and any reformation that would have led to significant financial investment became impossible. Despite attempts from party and state, psychiatric institutions successfully resisted being systematically misused against their patients.In the discussion part, the study supports the notion that East German psychiatry was neither totally isolated nor communist in nature. Even though communism had an influence, it did not have a decisively modifying impact on psychiatry, so that one can characterize psychiatry in East Germany as a medical discipline with a certain specific typology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of poplar and black locust short rotation coppices on mine reclamation sites in Eastern Germany - Model development and application.

    PubMed

    Quinkenstein, A; Jochheim, H

    2016-03-01

    In the temperate zone short rotation coppice systems for the production of woody biomass (SRC) have gained great interest as they offer a pathway to both sustainable bioenergy production and the potential sequestration of CO2 within the biomass and the soil. This study used the carbon model SHORTCAR to assess the carbon cycle of a poplar (Populus suaveolens Fisch. x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray cv. Androscoggin) and a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SRC. The model was calibrated using data from established SRC plantations on reclaimed mine sites in northeast Germany and validated through the determination of uncertainty ranges of selected model parameters and a sensitivity analysis. In addition to a 'reference scenario', representing the actual site conditions, 7 hypothetical scenarios, which varied in climate conditions, rotation intervals, runtimes, and initial soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, were defined for each species. Estimates of carbon accumulation within the biomass, the litter layer, and the soil were compared to field data and previously published results. The model was sensitive to annual stem growth and initial soil organic carbon stocks. In the reference scenario net biome production for SRC on reclaimed sites in Lusatia, Germany amounted to 64.5 Mg C ha(-1) for R. pseudoacacia and 8.9 Mg C ha(-1) for poplar, over a period of 36 years. These results suggest a considerable potential of SRC for carbon sequestration at least on marginal sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to Assess Groundwater-Lake Exchange in an Acid Mine Lake in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausner, M. B.; Fleckenstein, J.; Neumann, C.; Tyler, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater flows through contaminated mine sites are a major concern in many parts of the world. In this study, a variety of instrumentation was used to locate and quantify groundwater inflows into an acid lake on an abandoned mine site in Brandenburg, Germany. While previously-installed piezometers and seepage meters had identified several points of groundwater influx into the lake, such techniques are spatially limited to the point of installation. To address this limitation, a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) was deployed across the lake bottom and in vertical profilers to confirm and expand the previously generated data sets. Fiber-optic DTS, a relatively new technology, provides the opportunity to measure temperature on very high spatial and temporal scales using Raman spectra scattering of pulsed light within a glass fiber. A 1000 meter cable was deployed spatially along the sediment-water interface to identify spatially scattered areas of groundwater inflow, while two high-resolution probes (which return temperature readings every 2.4 vertical cm) were installed vertically near existing seepage meters. Preliminary analysis of the vertical deployments showed substantial groundwater upwelling, confirming the results of previous seepage meter measurements which showed significant vertical flux into the lake. Ongoing analysis of the lateral deployment is expected to identify areas in which there are anomalies in the diurnal temperature cycle at the lake bottom; such anomalies may indicate groundwater influx into the lake. These areas will be used to locate future seepage meter and piezometer installations.

  16. First U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from Early-Middle Cambrian strata of the Torgau-Doberlug Syncline (eastern Germany) and palaeogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubaker, Atnisha; Hofmann, Mandy; Gärtner, Andreas; Linnemann, Ulf; Elicki, Olaf

    2017-02-01

    LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data from detrital zircons of the Ediacaran to Cambrian siliciclastic sequence of the Torgau-Doberlug Syncline (TDS, Saxo-Thuringia, Germany) are reported for the first time. The majority of 203 analysed zircon grains is Proterozoic with minor amount of Archean and Palaeozoic grains. The U-Pb ages fall into three groups: 2.8-2.4 Ga (3%), Neoarchean to earliest Palaeoproterozoic; 2.3-1.6 Ga (46%), early to late Palaeoproterozoic; 1.0-0.5 Ga (47%), Neoproterozoic to Cambrian. This age distribution is typical for the West African Craton as the source area and for Cadomian orogenic events in northwestern Gondwana. The samples show an age gap between 1.6 and 1.0 Ga, which is characteristic for West African provenance and diagnostic in distinguishing this unit from East Avalonia and Baltica. The dataset shows clusters of Palaeoproterozoic ages at 2.2-1.7 Ga, that is typical for western Gondwana, which was affected by abundant magmatic intrusions (ca. 2.2-1.8 Ga) during the Eburnean orogeny (West African craton). Neoarchean zircon ages (3%) point to recycling of magmatic rocks formed during the Liberian and Leonian orogenies. Ediacaran to earliest Cambrian rocks of the TDS originated in an active margin regime of the Gondwanan shelf. The following early Palaeozoic overstep sequence was deposited within rift settings that reflects instability of the West-Gondwanan shelf and the separation of terranes from Ordovician onward. The results of this study demonstrate distinct northwestern African provenance of the Cambrian siliciclastics of the TDS. Due to Th-U ratios from concordant zircon analysis, igneous origin from felsic melts is concluded as the source of these grains.

  17. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  18. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand.

  19. Land use history, floodplain development, and soil erosion in the vicinity of a millstone production center since the Iron Age in the Segbachtal near Mayen (eastern Eifel, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wenzel, Stefan; Schreg, Rainer; Fülling, Alexander; Engel, Max

    2015-04-01

    In Roman times, the stone and pottery production near Mayen in western Germany reached a very high intensity which would have satisfied the needs of a much wider area. The rate and volume of production was unprecedented and never reached the same level thereafter. The Segbach valley study site with an area of only a few square kilometres offers a very special geoarchaeological archive. The Roman land use structures were completely preserved under a 2 meter thick layer of sediment and are now partially exposed in a gully due to erosion. Pedological, sedimentological and geophysical studies at the colluvium and floodplain sediments as well as relict field structures showed that in the last 2500 years there has been a considerable human impact on both water and sediment budgets. This also had various implications on the further development of water courses, soils and relief. Evidence for the development of flood plain sediments can be traced as far back as the late La Tène period, the Roman Iron Age, and since the Middle Ages. On one particular south-facing slope we found evidence of recultivation measures on a former quarry tailing heap dating from the Middle Ages. This and other human construction activities and land uses lead to a significant change in erosion and sedimentation patterns. It is surprising that sedimentation in flood plains was largely absent during the Roman Iron Age despite intensive land use. Evidence shows that flash flood events with intensive accumulation of soil matter in flood plains only occurred during the High Middle Ages. Sediments from the late Middle ages and the Modern Times are largely missing. The research undertaken in Segbach valley not only offers new insights into specific local historical land uses and land use changes but also fundamental knowledge about the principles and impacts of long-term human-environment interactions.

  20. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108–119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19–38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166–184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one

  1. Eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-NO2-O3 triad above a spruce forest canopy in south-eastern Germany.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsokankunku, A.; Zhu, Z.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the diel variability of the eddy covariance fluxes of the NO-NO2-O3 triad above a spruce forest canopy at the "Weidenbrunnen" research site (Fichtelgebirge, Germany). Measurements were part of the EGER project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions), which focuses on the role of process interactions among the different scales of soil, in-canopy and atmospheric exchange processes of reactive and non-reactive trace gases and energy. The eddy covariance platform was at the top of a 32 m high tower (50˚ 08'31" N, 11˚ 52'1"E, elevation 755 m.a.s.l). The eddy covariance system consisted of a CSAT3 sonic anemometer and a high speed, high resolution NO-NO2two channel chemiluminescence analyzer (Ecophysics CLD 790 SR2). A solid-state blue-light photolytic converter was connected to the NO2 channel of the analyzer just behind the sample inlet. Ambient NO and NO2 mixing ratios were sampled via 52 m long tubes with the instrument itself located in a temperature-controlled container at the ground. The NO-NO2 analyzer was operated at 5 Hz. Additionally we measured eddy covariance fluxes of CO2 and H2O. An infrared absorption-based analyzer (LI-7000) was used to sample CO2 and H2O mixing ratios, and a fast solid-phase chemiluminescence ozone analyzer (GFAS) was deployed to measure O3 mixing ratios. All trace gas inlets were situated at 32.5 m, 20 cm below the path of the sonic anemometer. The 32m inlet of an independent NO, NO2, and O3 concentration profile measuring system was used as the calibration source for the fast ozone analyzer and the two channel NO-NO2chemiluminescence analyzer. Preliminary results show that NO and NO2advection plays a big role in the magnitude and direction of the fluxes at the site. The main source of the advection is a busy country road situated about 2 km west of the site. CO2 fluxes were also influenced by advection. Extended periods of stationarity usually occurred on Sundays when the amount of traffic was significantly

  2. [Labor migration in a unified Germany].

    PubMed

    Raffelhuschen, B

    1993-01-01

    "In this paper we illustrated future migration of labor within the old and new 'Lander' of unified Germany.... Our setting was a microbased general equilibrium model. It was shown that the diverging economic conditions within reunified Germany heavily distort the choice of location of German workers. If the transfer of capital and technology does not equalize the large discrepancies rapidly, net migration of eastern workers into the west of close to 12 percent of the eastern work force by 1993, and 16 percent by 1995, is to be expected." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  3. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  4. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    PubMed

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  5. The Implementation of Modern Information and Documentation Systems and Services with Special Reference to Information Needs in Eastern Africa. Advanced Postgraduate Training Course (3rd, Great Britain and the Federal Republic of Germany, June 22-August 1, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    The 7-week Advanced Postgraduate Training Course for Information Specialists from Eastern and Southern Africa described in this document was part of a long term training program designed to provide senior librarians, documentalists, and archivists with information on recent developments in methodology and technology in their special field of work.…

  6. Preliminary results from a study of natural slope failures triggered by the storm of November 3.5.1985, Germany Valley, West Virginia and Virginia: Chapter 4 in Landslides of eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Cron, Elizabeth D.; McGeehin, John P.

    1987-01-01

    During the first five days of November 1985, a low-pressure system in the Ohio River valley combined with a low-pressure system referred to as Tropical Storm Juan to produce heavy rainfall in the Potomac, James, and Rappahannock River basins. Severe flooding accompanied the rainfall; 43 lives were lost and the flood was estimated to be the most expensive natural disaster of 1985 in the United States (Scatena, 1986). The rainfall also triggered many slope failures. An especially large concentration of slope failures was associated with an area of moderate rainfall centered in the Germany Valley in Pendleton County, West Virginia (fig. 4.1A ). This report describes some preliminary results from our continuing research into the geological and meteorological controls on the distributions of slope failures in the Germany Valley area. The Germany Valley is the first major anticlinal valley in the Valley and Ridge province east of the Allegheny structural front (Diecchio, 1986). Our interest is focused on the portion from near Mouth of Seneca, West Virginia, in the Onego 7 .5-minute quadrangle, to near Mill Gap, Virginia, in the Mustoe 7.5-minute quadrangle (patterned in figs. 4.1 and 4.2). This area was a natural experiment for studying the effects of the storm because rainfall varied systematically from southwest to northeast along the valley, while bedrock lithology and structure are nearly constant. Furthermore, variation of rock types across the valley allows comparisons among lithologies at given levels of precipitation. The valley is floored by Ordovician carbonates of the Trenton, Black River, and St. Paul Groups and shales of the Martinsburg (Reedsville) Shale. The ridges are formed by sandstones of the Tuscarora and Oswego Sandstones, and the Juniata formation. The southwestern quarter of the valley is drained by Back Creek of the James River basin, and the remainder of the valley drains north and west to the North Fprk of the South Branch Potomac River.

  7. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  8. Teacher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viebahn, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Applies the concepts of idealism, individualism, and pragmatism from the Association for Teacher Education in Europe's scenario model to Germany's teacher education. Discusses the current German teacher training system's scholarly approach to idealism; notes organizational problems; examines the special psychological demands on students made by…

  9. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  10. Germany in Europe 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    The results of the 10-week National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Third-Level Institute for Secondary School Teachers of German, conducted by Stanford University in Bad Boll, Germany, are compiled in individual reports written in both German and English by the 25 participants. Emphasizing close contact with the residents in their working and home…

  11. Germany's Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupte, Pranay

    1984-01-01

    In wake of a recent recession, Turkish "guest workers" are beginning to feel less welcome in West Germany. Many have accepted government cash incentives to return to Turkey, but others have prospered and wish to stay. The Germans themselves are split over whether the Turks threaten job opportunities for native workers or provide crucial…

  12. [Tularemia in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  14. Labour Market Trends and Active Labour Market Policy in the Eastern German Transformation Process 1990-1997. IAB Labour Market Research Topics no. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Hans-Uwe; Blaschke, Dieter; Blien, Uwe; Brinkmann, Christian; Fuchs, Johann; Gutsche, Matthias; Moeller, Ulrich; Kuhl, Jurgen; Spitznagel, Eugen; Steckel, Werner; Wiedemann, Eberhard; Wolfinger, Claudia

    After German unification in 1990, more than 3 million jobs disappeared in eastern Germany and the obsolescence of eastern German capital stock became apparent. Further escalation of mass unemployment was successfully held in check; however, it soon became clear that labor market policies appropriate for western Germany were not, in and of…

  15. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  16. Eastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this SeaWiFS image of eastern Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Kodiak Island, Yukon and Tanana rivers are clearly visible. Also visible, but slightly hidden beneath the clouds, is a bloom in Bristol Bay. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. The Effects of Socio-Political Changes in Eastern Europe on Military Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostertag, Vesna

    Reunification of Germany, democratic changes in Eastern European countries, and new government policies of the Soviet Union will lead to the reduction of U.S. troops in West Germany. As a Department of Defense contractor providing associate degrees to soldiers in Europe, Central Texas College (CTC) will be severely affected by the troop…

  18. Energy R and D in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  19. [Prenatal care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Vetter, K; Goeckenjan, M

    2013-12-01

    Prenatal care in Germany is based on a nationwide standardized program of care for pregnant women. Besides support and health counseling, it comprises prevention or early detection of diseases or unfavorable circumstances with risks for mother and child. Prenatal care is regulated by law and structured by directives and standard procedures in maternity guidelines (Mutterschafts-Richtlinien). This includes information and counseling of future mothers on offers of psychosocial and medical assistance in normal pregnancies as well as in unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. Further aspects are clinical examinations and risk determinations for genetic variations or direct genetic analysis. During pregnancy, medical history, clinical examination, and blood testing are part of the sophisticated program, which includes at least three standardized sonographic examinations at 10, 20, and 30 weeks of gestation. The maternity passport allows a pregnant woman to carry the most relevant information on her pregnancy and her personal risks with her. For 45 years now, women in Germany are used to carrying their Mutterpass. Societal changes have influenced the central goals of maternity care: In the beginning, the mortality of mother and child had to be reduced. Today, maternal morbidity and impaired development of the child are the center of interest, with expansion to familial satisfaction. The reduction in the mortality and morbidity of both the mother and the child during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum can be attributed to prenatal care. Thus, investment in a program of nationwide structured prenatal care seems to be worthwhile-despite the lack of evidence concerning its effectiveness.

  20. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  1. Forensic entomology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Krettek, R; Niess, C; Zehner, R; Bratzke, H

    2000-09-11

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project 'Forensic Entomology' was started in Frankfurt/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is to establish FE in Germany as a firmly integrated component of the securing of evidence from human cadavers in cases of suspected homicide. For this purpose we developed a forensic insect collecting kit, and policemen are educated for greater acceptance and better application of FE. The scientific programme focuses on the investigation of the insect succession on cadavers in urban and rural habitats. This also includes new indicator groups (e.g. parasitic wasps) for a more precise calculation of the late post mortem interval. Recently a DNA-based reliable and fast identification method especially for the immature stages of necrophagous insects became part of the project. Preliminary results are reported and two case studies presented.

  2. [Liver transplantation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wolff, M; Kalff, J C; Schwarz, N T; Lauschke, H; Minor, T; Tolba, R H; Hirner, A

    2003-10-01

    As in other western countries the major challenge of liver transplantation in Germany is to expand the number of liver transplantations in respect to the increasing disparity of qualified patients on the waiting list and the still static availability of brain death donor organs. The problem of death on the waiting list has become overt since the German transplantation law has been installed, which has changed the former center-oriented to a patient-oriented allocation weighting waiting time over medical urgency criteria. The more liberal acceptance of so called marginal cadaveric donor livers will probably impair further improvements in the acute and long-term outcome of liver transplantation. This problem can be partially compensated by the use of novel surgical techniques, such as splitting a donor liver to be transplanted into two adult recipients or, more commonly and safe, into an adult and one child. Another alternative to increase the donor pool is living donor liver transplantation, which was first introduced for pediatric recipients but is now increasingly used in adults. In 2001, a constant number of 757 liver transplantations were performed in Germany, including 12.5 % living donor transplantations. Recently, general guidelines for the selection of patients with end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure have been published by the Bundesärztekammer. Additional developments have contributed to improve the results of liver replacement including individualized immunosuppression strategies and novel treatment options to avoid recurrent viral disease following transplantation.

  3. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  4. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  5. Foreign Language Teaching in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliesener, Ulrich; Tapia, Ivan, Ed.; Blochmann, Georg M., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of "Bildung und Wissenschaft" explains the importance of multilingualism in today's world, focusing on foreign language instruction in Germany. It examines the following issues: "Multilingualism in a Changing World"; "The Significance of Foreign Languages for Germany"; "Foreign Languages in…

  6. Update: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Nessa P.

    The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…

  7. Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans

    About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers…

  8. Phytomedicine research in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, H

    1999-01-01

    In Germany since 1980, more than 300 clinical studies have been carried out with standardized phytopharmaceuticals, including Crataegus, Silybum, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Sabal, Urtica, Kava-Kava, Allium sativum, Valeriana, Aesculus, Echinacea, and Viscum drugs. These studies assessed the efficacy of phytopharmaceuticals for the treatment of moderate or moderately severe diseases and prevention. Several comparative clinical trials showed that these phytopharmaceuticals had full therapeutic equivalence with chemotherapeutics and had the simultaneous advantage of being devoid of any adverse effects. The mechanism of action of herbal drugs and their extract preparations, which differ in many respects from that of synthetic drugs or mono substances, can be characterized as a polyvalent action and interpreted as additive or, in some cases, potentiating. Currently, a rationale for the observed reversal effects and optimal effects with very low doses after a long-term application has not been developed, but is under investigation by systematic research at the molecular level. PMID:10504142

  9. Eastern Borderlands in German Schoolbooks, 1890-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Continuities and changes in stories, poems and historical texts over several generations of German textbooks, from the final decades of the Kaiserreich through the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich, show how schools encouraged children to imagine Germany's eastern borderlands and to incorporate them into their sense of national belonging. The…

  10. Eastern Borderlands in German Schoolbooks, 1890-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Katharine

    2007-01-01

    Continuities and changes in stories, poems and historical texts over several generations of German textbooks, from the final decades of the Kaiserreich through the Weimar Republic to the Third Reich, show how schools encouraged children to imagine Germany's eastern borderlands and to incorporate them into their sense of national belonging. The…

  11. Injury mortality in East Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D E; Wildner, M; Bergmann, K E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of social changes in East Germany since 1989 on patterns of injury mortality. METHODS: Death certificate data regarding injuries from 1980 through 1995 and police data regarding traffic injuries in East Germany from 1980 through 1998 were compared with similar data from West Germany. RESULTS: The number of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths in East Germany increased dramatically between 1989 and 1991, whereas those in West Germany declined slightly. The increased mortality in the more rural East has especially involved young men driving automobiles on rural roads and has persisted since reunification of East and West Germany. Falls, other accidents, and suicides have shown no such effect. Homicide among East German men has increased but remains uncommon. CONCLUSIONS: Recent social changes in East Germany, including increased access to motor vehicles and decreased restrictions on personal freedom, have been associated with increased motor vehicle crashes and mortality, especially among young men and on rural roads. PMID:11076246

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1976-09-01

    The concept of cardiac reconditioning centers for the prevention and rehabilitation of coronary patients has been tremendously successful in Germany over the past 20 years. At least 40 such centers are located throughout the country. Physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work closely together in the various facets of the rehabilitation process. The financial backing for these facilities is primarily through governmental and regional insurance companies, whose officials are apparently convinced that in the long run supporting preventive measures is financially sound. Objective data supporting their convictions come from studies such as that of Brusis, who showed that such as that of 1,500 employees was diminished by nearly 70 percent during a two-year period after cardiac reconditioning, as compared to a similar time period before the rehabilitation experience. Subjective benefits, which are extremely difficult to quantitate in meaningful terms, were nonetheless expressed by nearly all the patients with whom I conversed. Perhaps they have experienced the same feelings that Mark Twain did when he observed that "all frets and worries and chafings sank to sleep in the presence of the benignant serenity of the Alps; the Great Spirit of the Mountains breathed his own peace upon their hurt minds and sore hearts and healed them."

  13. Occupational cancer in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Brüske-Hohlfeld, I

    1999-01-01

    As in probably mostly all other European countries, the incidence of occupational cancer in Germany increased steadily after World War II. In 1994 about 1,600 cases of occupational cancer were compensated--more than ever before. More than half of these cases were lung cancer, most caused either by asbestos (n=545) or by ionizing radiation ((italic)n(/italic)=306). Other frequent target organs of asbestos were the pleura and the peritoneum with 495 cases of mesotheliomas. Asbestos was the single most important risk factor for occupational cancer, causing more than 1000 deaths per year. All other malignant diseases, such as bladder cancer, leukemia, angiosarcoma of the liver, adenocarcinoma of the nose or nasal sinuses, and skin cancer, were comparatively rare. Although primary exposure to ionizing radiation in uranium ore mining occurred in the 1950s and attributable lung cancers seem to be on the decline, this is not true for asbestos, where the peak incidence in lung cancer and mesothelioma has not been reached yet. Images Figure 2 PMID:10350508

  14. Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was an estimated 61 million (including West Berlin) in 1986 and is in the process of declining gradually as a result of low birth rates. The infant mortality rate is 11/1000, while life expectancy is 73.4 years for women and 67.2 years for men. Of the work force of 27.6 million, 5.4% are engaged in agriculture, 41.6% work in industry and commerce, 10% are employed by the government, and 42.7% are in the service sector. The gross national product was US$898.8 billion in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6% and a per capita income of $10,680. The government is parliamentary and based on a democratic constitution emphasizing protection of individual liberty and divided power in a federal structure. Political life since the establishment of the FRG in 1949 has been characterized by remarkable stability and orderly succession. The FRG ranks among the most important economic powers in the world. The economy is largely export oriented, with 25-30% of the gross national product shipped abroad each year. Competition and free enterprise are fostered, but the state participates in the ownership and management of major sections of the economy, including public services. A major concern at present is the country's ability to adapt to new markets and to develop sophisticated technologies.

  15. [Asylum and immigration in Germany].

    PubMed

    Angenendt, S

    1994-01-01

    "Germany, which used to be one of the most tolerant countries in matters concerning asylum, has, since the eighties, been confronted by very large migratory flows. Immigration to [West Germany] consisted every year of hundreds of thousands of asylum-seekers, a similar number of...Germans from Russia, Kazakhstan, Romania and Poland, as well as a large number of East Germans. On May 26th 1993, the Bundestag adopted a new law making asylum and immigration to Germany increasingly difficult. The problem of immigration has not been resolved, however, as is shown by the situation in the East European countries, Germany's neighbours, who are suffering the consequences of the new asylum policy...." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    PubMed

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  17. [Specialized pain care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dietl, M; Korczak, D

    2013-04-01

    In order to characterize the pain care situation in Germany, a health technology assessment (HTA) was carried out on behalf of the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). An up to date literature search was conducted using the database Pubmed. Reviews and studies which describe the pain care in Germany were included. The Physicians' Health Insurance Associations conducted an additional database survey. Overall 12 studies were included and the results of the analysis showed that there is a lack of some 2,500 curative pain care institutions in Germany. There is also clear under use of inpatient and outpatient institutions in palliative care. The results prove the benefits of the interdisciplinary approach in pain care. Further development should strive to increase the provision of pain and palliative care. There is a great need for pain care research in order to concrete the needs.

  18. Damages of the Elbe flood 2002 in Germany - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.

    2003-04-01

    Current estimates put the losses of the August 2002 flooding in central and eastern Europe at around 15 billion, from which 9 billion occurred in Germany. That means this event is not only the most expensive flooding but, regarding the last decades, the most expensive natural hazard in Germany, too. Most of the losses - 6 billion - occurred in Saxony along the Elbe and his tributaries. Losses from infrastructure have amounted to more than 3 billion, losses from private property to more than 2 billion and losses from trade and industry to around 1.7 billion. Due to many affected commercial enterprises - nearly 10,000 in Germany - and the long duration of the flooding, losses from business interruption are important. The presentation will give an overview of the whole damage, the different damage types and will come to more detailed information about damage to private property and commercial enterprises. Some of the key factors for the amount of damage (e.g. water level, pollution with oil caused by unsecured tanks, flow velocity, warning time, duration of the flooding, shifting of riverbeds and erosion) are taken into account.

  19. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  20. Rickettsia felis in Fleas, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Just, Frank Thomas; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pradel, Ingrid; Passos, Lygia Maria Friche; Lengauer, Heidi; Hellmann, Klaus; Pfister, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Among 310 fleas collected from dogs and cats in Germany, Rickettsia felis was detected in all specimens (34) of Archaeopsylla erinacei (hedgehog flea) and in 9% (24/226) of Ctenocephalides felis felis (cat flea). R. helvetica was detected in 1 Ceratophyllus gallinae (hen flea). PMID:18680660

  1. English Teaching Profile (Provisional): Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in West Germany is outlined. The regions of West Berlin, Hesse, and North Rhine-Westphalia are highlighted. The role of English and English instruction in the country as a whole, English instruction in the educational system, the demand for and qualifications of English teachers, textbook selection and…

  2. Eastern American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert K.

    Identification of social and cultural commonalities among American Indians of the eastern U.S. reveal 4 geographical areas--(1) the eastern seaboard (the largest group in both number of distinct groups and population); (2) the inland area; (3) Louisiana (a combination of inland and seaboard characteristics); (4) the eastern Great Lakes area…

  3. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  4. Minorities in Germany after 1945. Discussion Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter, Lutz R.

    Members of minority groups in Germany were subjected to extreme forms of repression and in some cases extermination at the hands of the Nazis. Today, for many different reasons, members of minority groups are living in West Germany again. This paper presents the experience of minorities in West Germany since 1945 in light of the following factors:…

  5. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  6. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  7. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  8. [Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, E

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient rheumatologic treatment in Germany is managed by rheumatologists in private practice (n = 557), by authorized rheumatism outpatient centers (n = 116), by rheumatism centers according to §116b (n = 43) and by university outpatient departments. A total number of 975 rheumatologists were registered by the end of 2012 of whom approximately 830 were active in outpatient care. With this number of rheumatologists Germany is in the middle range in comparison to eight industrial nations including the USA. This number is not sufficient to provide adequate medical care and the consequences are too long waiting times for an appointment with a rheumatologist. Statistical data of the Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV, National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians) showed 688,000 general insurance patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As some 68.9 % of the population are in this insurance scheme there are some 770,000 RA patients in Germany (almost 1 % of the population). One way to improve rheumatology care in spite of the lack of rheumatologists could be special agreements with the general health insurance providers to improve cooperation and division of responsibilities between rheumatologists and general practitioners, to implement patient education, tighter control and treat to target in rheumatology care. Another way could be a new treatment level called "ambulant specialist care", with no budget for medical care and no budget for the number of patients treated and therefore the chance for rheumatologists to treat more patients and have a better income. To achieve that more young doctors receive approval as a specialist in rheumatology, more chairs of rheumatology at universities and a nationwide stipendium for training assistants are needed.

  9. [Prevalence of stalking in Germany].

    PubMed

    Dressing, Harald; Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter

    2005-03-01

    The present study aimed at gathering information on the lifetime prevalence and impact of stalking on victims in a German community. A postal survey was sent to 1000 men and 1000 women who were sampled randomly from the inhabitant register. The lifetime prevalence of being a stalking victim was at 11.6 %. Compared to non-victims, stalking victims scored significantly poorer on the WHO-5 well-being index. Stalking seems to be a relevant problem in Germany. Physicians have to become experts in this issue since victims frequently ask them for help.

  10. [Awards to Hajime Hoshi dedicated from Germany].

    PubMed

    Misawa, Miwa

    2006-01-01

    In the Hajime Hoshi Memorial Exhibit Hall of Hoshi University, many awards dedicated to H. Hoshi from Germany are displayed. Hoshi made a donation amounting to about 20 millions dollars to the distressed chemistry science community of Germany just after the 1st World War. The Hoshi fund gave the scientific society hope to recover, and deeply impressed and delighted the German people. The awards to Hoshi dedicated from Germany strongly reflect the hot spirit of Japan-Germany cultural exchange. The present study investigates the details of the awards.

  11. Managing Eastern Redceder

    Treesearch

    E.R. Ferguson; E.R. Lawson; W.R. Maple; C. Mesavage

    1968-01-01

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is the most widely distributed conifer of tree size in the Eastern United States (48). Its range also extends into southeastern Canada. The wood was once favored for domestic use and export because of its exceptional cutting qualities, durability, rich color, and aroma. It has now lost much of its...

  12. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  13. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  14. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  15. Club drug use in Germany.

    PubMed

    Soellner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the epidemiology of club drug use in Germany, including the use of 3,4-methylendioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) known as 'ecstasy' and related substances such as speed, amphetamines, hallucinogens, and cannabis is described on the basis of five different surveys. Two of them are representative household surveys to monitor the licit and illicit drug use behavior of the German population. The third one is a longitudinal study aimed at exploring comorbidity and posited risk and protective factors in adolescents and young adults with specific emphasis on substance use-related disorders. Since ecstasy seemed to be associated with a new music culture of the '90s called "techno," two studies investigating the relationship of using ecstasy and related substances in the techno party scene are additionally presented. The question of the clinical impact of using ecstasy and related substances is raised in terms of substance use-related and mental disorders associated with the use of ecstasy. Finally, the motivation for using and stopping the use of ecstasy is addressed. It is shown that ecstasy has reached the second place (after cannabis) in illegal drug preferences of adolescents and young adults in Germany. Evidence is found that ecstasy use as well as ecstasy use-related disorders such as "abuse" and "dependence" are of a transient, "youth-limited" nature.

  16. Oncological resource allocation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Michael; Kath, Roland; Gundermann, Christin

    2008-03-01

    Oncology is a resource-intensive medical discipline where, so far, effectiveness rather than efficiency of a treatment has stood in the foreground. The aim of our study was, therefore, to determine the resource allocation and to assess the efficiency of oncology in Germany for the period of 2002-2004. With the aid of the official German Health Report, the expenditures for health in 2004 and the gain in years of life according to ICD 10 disease categories were analyzed. Based on the incremental costs and years of life gained, the cost calculation per year of life gained was made. Malignant neoplasms appear in 5th place in health expenditures at a cost of 15 billion 1. With costs per year of life gained of 140,750 1, malignant neoplasms range ahead of respiratory diseases (52,500 1)digestive diseases (27,455 1), and injuries (14,538 1). Costs involving malignant neoplasm per year of life gained range between 39,000 1(malignancies of the lip, oral cavity, and the pharynx), and 126,000 1(digestive organ cancer). In Germany, oncology incurs higher costs per year of life gained as compared to several other diseases. Also, in malignant neoplasm considerable differences can be observed regarding resource allocation and efficiency. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Seismic risk mapping for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, S.; Grünthal, G.; Wahlström, R.; Stempniewski, L.; Zschau, J.

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and map the seismic risk for Germany, restricted to the expected losses of damage to residential buildings. There are several earthquake prone regions in the country which have produced Mw magnitudes above 6 and up to 6.7 corresponding to observed ground shaking intensity up to VIII-IX (EMS-98). Combined with the fact that some of the earthquake prone areas are densely populated and highly industrialized and where therefore the hazard coincides with high concentration of exposed assets, the damaging implications from earthquakes must be taken seriously. In this study a methodology is presented and pursued to calculate the seismic risk from (1) intensity based probabilistic seismic hazard, (2) vulnerability composition models, which are based on the distribution of residential buildings of various structural types in representative communities and (3) the distribution of assets in terms of replacement costs for residential buildings. The estimates of the risk are treated as primary economic losses due to structural damage to residential buildings. The obtained results are presented as maps of the damage and risk distributions. For a probability level of 90% non-exceedence in 50 years (corresponding to a mean return period of 475 years) the mean damage ratio is up to 20% and the risk up to hundreds of millions of euro in the most endangered communities. The developed models have been calibrated with observed data from several damaging earthquakes in Germany and the nearby area in the past 30 years.

  18. Occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in northeast Germany.

    PubMed

    Fastner, Jutta; Rücker, Jacqueline; Stüken, Anke; Preussel, Karina; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Chorus, Ingrid; Köhler, Antje; Wiedner, Claudia

    2007-02-01

    The frequent occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in the (sub)tropics has been largely associated with cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales of tropical origin, in particular Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. C. raciborskii is currently observed to spread northwards into temperate climatic zones. In addition, further cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales typically inhabiting water bodies in temperate regions are being identified as CYN-producers. Therefore, data on the distribution of CYN in temperate regions are necessary for a first assessment of potential risks due to CYN in water used for drinking and recreation. A total of 127 lakes situated in the north-eastern part of Germany were investigated in 2004 for the presence of the toxin CYN and the phytoplankton composition. The toxin could be detected in half of the lakes (n = 63) and in half of 165 samples (n = 88). Concentrations reached up to 73.2 microg CYN/g DW. CYN thus proved more widely distributed than previously demonstrated. The analyses of phytoplankton data suggest Aphanizomenon sp. and Anabaena sp. as important CYN producers in Germany, and confirm recent findings of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as CYN-producing species frequently inhabiting water bodies in temperate climatic regions. The data shown here suggest that CYN may be an important cyanobacterial toxin in German water bodies and that further data are needed to assess this.

  19. Antidepressant sales and regional variations of suicide mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Blüml, Victor; Helbich, Marco; Mayr, Michael; Turnwald, Roland; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Lewitzka, Ute; Hartung, Sebastian; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2017-04-01

    Suicides account for over one million deaths per year worldwide with depression among the most important risk factors. Epidemiological research into the relationship between antidepressant utilization and suicide mortality has shown heterogeneous and contradictory results. Different methodological approaches and limitations could at least partially explain varying results. This is the first study assessing the association of suicide mortality and antidepressant sales across Germany using complex statistical approaches in order to control for possible confounding factors including spatial dependency of data. German suicide counts were analyzed on a district level (n = 402) utilizing ecological Poisson regressions within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Due to significant spatial effects between adjacent districts spatial models were calculated in addition to a baseline non-spatial model. Models were adjusted for several confounders including socioeconomic variables, quality of psychosocial care, and depression prevalence. Separate analyses were performed for Eastern and Western Germany and for different classes of antidepressants (SSRIs and TCAs). Overall antidepressant sales were significantly negatively associated with suicide mortality in the non-spatial baseline model, while after adjusting for spatially structured and unstructured effects the association turned out to be insignificant. In sub-analyses, analogue results were found for SSRIs and TCAs separately. Suicide risk shows a distinct heterogeneous pattern with a pronounced relative risk in Southeast Germany. In conclusion, the results reflect the heterogeneous findings of previous studies on the association between suicide mortality and antidepressant sales and point to the complexity of this hypothesized link. Furthermore, the findings support tailored suicide preventive efforts within high risk areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Why Study Germany and Europe Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Provides 10 reasons why the study of Germany and the European Community should be taught in U.S. social studies. Argues that the cultural interrelationships between the United States and Germany are historically significant. Contends that the experiences of post-World War II German reconstruction and the reunification after the Cold War can serve…

  1. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition.

  2. The Economic Development of Postwar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinan, Desmond

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the economic restoration of West Germany through the Marshall Plan following World War II. Traces the development of the European Community from the Schuman Declaration of 1950 to the present. Contends that Germany's economy must remain closely tied to a united Europe in the post-Cold War international system. (CFR)

  3. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  4. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  5. 2 x Germany; 2 x Political Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhauer, Gebhard

    1991-01-01

    Describes textbooks of both East and West Germany from 1949-56, 1957-62, 1963-69, and 1970 on. Discusses a shift in West German texts from intense antagonism during the Cold War to a more critical comparison by the 1980s. Compares East German text development that increased in hostility over time, viewing West Germany as a negative alternative to…

  6. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  7. [Health and justice in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  8. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Lower Limb Amputation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Knut; Berg, Christian; Santosa, Frans; Malyar, Nasser; Reinecke, Holger

    2017-02-24

    Declining amputation rates have been reported in multiple countries in recent years. It is not yet known whether amputation rates have declined in Germany as well. On the basis of DRG (diagnosis-related group) data, we received a list from the German Federal Statistical Office of all major and minor amputations documented in German hospitals from 2005 to 2014. Changes over this period were studied with linear regression. The absolute number of amputations per year in Germany rose slightly from 55 689 in 2005 to 57 637 (+3.5%) in 2014. After the exclusion of cases in which the main diagnosis was trauma, intoxication, musculoskeletal disease, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, or neoplasia, the corresponding numbers were 48 043 in 2005 and 48 561 in 2014 (+1.1%). The age-adjusted rate of major amputations per 100 000 persons per year fell from 23.3 to 16.1 (-30.9%), while the rate of minor amputations rose from 35.0 to 43.9 (+25.4%). The percentage of major amputations that took place in patients with diabetes mellitus as the main diagnosis or a side diagnosis declined from 70.2% to 63.7%. For all of these changes, p <0.0001. From 2005 to 2014, the major amputation rate fell by 30.9% while the minor amputation rate rose by 25.4%. The goal of lowering amputation rates still further will be best served not only by applying the recognized preventive measures in patients with foot lesions, but also by further research into the causes of the recent changes in amputation numbers. Prospective registries will be needed.

  10. Urban shrinkage in Germany and the USA: a comparison of transformation patterns and local strategies.

    PubMed

    Wiechmann, Thorsten; Pallagst, Karina M

    2012-01-01

    Many American and European cities have to deal with demographic and economic trajectories leading to urban shrinkage. According to official data, 13% of urban regions in the US and 54% of those in the EU have lost population in recent years. However, the extent and spatial distribution of declining populations differ significantly between Europe and the US. In Germany, the situation is driven by falling birth rates and the effects of German reunification. In the US, shrinkage is basically related to long-term industrial transformation. But the challenges of shrinking cities seldom appeared on the agendas of politicians and urban planners until recently. This article provides a critical overview of the development paths and local strategies of four shrinking cities: Schwedt and Dresden in eastern Germany; Youngstown and Pittsburgh in the US. A typology of urban growth and shrinkage, from economic and demographic perspectives, enables four types of city to be differentiated and the differences between the US and eastern Germany to be discussed. The article suggests that a new transatlantic debate on policy and planning strategies for restructuring shrinking cities is needed to overcome the dominant growth orientation that in most cases intensifies the negative consequences of shrinkage.

  11. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  12. Changing health inequalities in east and west Germany since unification.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The unification of Germany in 1990 brought about substantial social and economic changes in its eastern part, with new uncertainties and, despite increasing overall income, rising inequality. This paper explores the potential impact on health of these changes during the 1990s, looking specifically at income-related health inequalities in east and west Germany and its modulation by psychosocial factors. We used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) for the years 1992 and 1997, including individuals aged 25+. We investigated changes in self-perceived health in the two parts of Germany and its socio-economic and psychosocial determinants. Analyses estimated odds ratios of less than good health using logistic regression. In 1992, 47% of east Germans rated their health worse than good compared with 54% in the west. By 1997, the east-west gap in self-rated health had disappeared, with the prevalence of poor health increasing to 56% in both parts. Income and education were important determinants of health in east and west, with, in the age-sex-adjusted model, those having available less than 60% of median equivalent income being at increased risk of poor health in 1992 (OR(east) 2.39, 1.45-3.94; OR(west) 2.04, 1.65-2.52). Addition of education reduced the strength of this relationship only slightly. In the west, income-related health inequalities widened between 1992 and 1997 yet the initially stronger gradient declined in the east, despite an overall increase in income inequality (OR(east) 1.63, 1.04-2.56; OR(west) 2.65, 2.19-3.21). The impact of education remained stable. Psychosocial variables were important determinants, mediating the effects of income, with leisure-cultural social involvement exerting the strongest effect in both east and west.The results show that, unlike in the west, the overall increase in income inequality in east Germany between 1992 and 1997 was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in income-related health inequalities. This

  13. Cost comparison analysis: pentaerythrithyl tetranitrate (PETN) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) prescribed to diabetic patients in primary care practices in Germany.

    PubMed

    Icks, A; Haastert, B; Rathmann, W; Schröder-Bernhardi, D; Giani, G

    2007-09-01

    Both pentaerythrithyltetranitrate (Pentalong, PETN) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) are commonly used in the therapy of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, little is known about the therapeutic patterns in diabetic patients and no comparative data are available regarding the prescription costs of these two substances. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to compare the costs for PETN and ISDN therapy in diabetic patients in primary care. All continuously treated patients aged > or = 40 years with diabetes (anti-diabetic agents) and IHD or angina pectoris (ICD codes) and newly started on PETN or ISDN therapy (index date) in the period 2000-2005 were selected from a database containing data from 400 practices throughout Germany (Disease Analyzer, IMS Health). Prescriptions costs for PETN and ISDN, as well as costs for cardiovascular comedication, were determined for the period 183 days before and after the index date, and that changes in costs after the index date were calculated. Differences in costs between the two groups were evaluated using multivariate regression, adjusting for age, sex and comorbidity. Patients in Eastern (n = 137, age 71 +/- 10 years, 55% male) and Western Germany (n = 212, age 73 +/- 9 years, 50% male) were analyzed separately since there is a longer history of PETN use in Eastern Germany. Significantly more patients were treated with PETN in Eastern Germany (61 vs. 11%, p < 0.05). The patient groups treated with PETN and ISDN differed with respect to sex and comorbidity. PETN therapy was more expensive than ISDN therapy in both German regions (adjusted cost differences were 10 and 17 Euro). However, when comedication was taken into account, a smaller cost increase after the index date was observed in the PETN group than in the ISDN group (non-significant cost savings of 43 and 52 Euro after adjustment for Western and Eastern Germany, respectively). PETN therapy tends to produce a saving in costs compared to ISDN therapy in diabetic

  14. Climate suitability for the transmission of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sassnau, R; Daugschies, A; Lendner, M; Genchi, C

    2014-09-15

    Recently concerns are increasing that dirofilarial nematodes may spread from endemic areas in southern, eastern and central Europe to countries in northern regions of Europe. The increasing number of autochthonous cases of canine Dirofilaria repens infections in Germany indicates that worms of this genus may invade new areas, and climate change may be a key factor in this scenario. Thus analysis of long term development of regional temperature is a pivotal factor in risk analysis related to transmission of these worms. Such information is important for suggestions of counteracting strategies, such as definition of periods of increased transmission risk and, consequently, time slots most suited for preventative measures. In this study, mean daily temperature data from 34 geographical clustered weather stations representing all parts of Germany were analyzed. It is concluded that the increasing trend for average daily temperatures observed in the period from 1984 to 2013 has led to climatic conditions that allow the completion of dirofilarial life cycles in large parts of Germany between May and October. Autochthonous infection with D. repens is already established in some regions and targeted diagnosis and medical prophylaxis is advisable for dogs assumedly exposed during risk of transmission periods. It appears likely that global warming will support further spread of D. repens. Furthermore for the population of dogs the spread of the more pathogenic species D. immitis in hitherto non-endemic Germany is a potential risk if mean temperatures rise to a level suitable for parasite development in the abundant vector mosquitoes during the warmer seasons.

  15. Tularaemia seroprevalence of captured and wild animals in Germany: the fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a biological indicator.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, A; Schulze, C; Kutzer, P; Probst, C; Hlinak, A; Ochs, A; Grunow, R

    2013-04-01

    A total of 2475 animals from Germany, both captive and wild, were tested for antibodies against Francisella tularensis to obtain more knowledge about the presence of this pathogen in Germany. An indirect and a competitive ELISA served as screening methods, positive and inconclusive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Of the zoo animals sampled between 1992 and 2007 (n = 1122), three (0·3%) were seropositive. The seroconversion of a hippopotamus in Berlin Zoo was documented. From 1353 serum samples of wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and wild boars (Sus scrofa), collected between 2005 and 2009 in the federal state of Brandenburg (surrounding Berlin), a total of 101 (7·5%) tested positive for antibodies to F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate a higher seroprevalence of F. tularensis in wildlife in eastern Germany than commonly assumed. Furthermore, we found foxes and raccoon dogs to be biological indicators for tularaemia.

  16. [Familial prostate carcinoma in Germany].

    PubMed

    Paiss, T; Herkommer, K; Chab, A; Häussler, J; Vogel, W; Gschwend, J E; Hautmann, R E

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that hereditary forms account for approximately 10% of all prostate cancers. The identification of several susceptibility loci harboring predisposing genes indicates the genetic heterogeneity of prostate cancer. The conflicting results of different linkage analyses may be explained by a varying contribution of each locus within different family collections and reflect differences of allele frequencies across different populations. In the present study we recorded the incidence of familial prostate cancer in Germany and performed descriptive analysis of the epidemiological data. In spite of a significant ascertainment bias, only 19% of all prostate cancers were familial. In 94% of families there were three affected relatives at most. Large prostate cancer families with at least five affected persons were rare (2%). Descriptive analysis revealed that only 42% of all pedigrees followed an autosomal-dominant pattern of transmission; the other pedigrees showed an X-chromosomal or recessive mode of inheritance. These data confirm the genetic heterogeneity of hereditary prostate cancer and imply that previously published epidemiological data cannot be transferred to the German population.

  17. Imported furuncular myiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Robert, Leon; Yelton, John

    2002-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic infestation of human and other vertebrate tissues by fly larvae of primarily two species: Dermatobia hominis (human botfly, t6rsalo, or berne) in Mexico and South and Central America and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly or mango fly) in Africa. Cuterebra species (rabbit and rodent botflies) are also rarely reported to cause furuncular myiasis only within the United States. Although these species inhabit different geographic regions and have different life cycles, their clinical presentations can be similar. We describe a case of "imported" human botfly (D. hominis) furuncular myiasis in a U.S. Army soldier stationed in Germany. We review the life cycles of human botflies and key aspects of their clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, and various therapeutic modalities. Most physicians may never encounter myiasis and attribute a patient's complaints to an insect bite or skin infection that will heal without treatment. However, the diagnosis of furuncular myiasis should be considered by remembering the basic elements of this condition: recent travel history to the tropics and a sterile, persistent furuncle with sensations of movement and pain.

  18. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground.

  19. Trauma care in India and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oestern, Hans-Joerg; Garg, Bhavuk; Kotwal, Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Road traffic accidents are among the leading causes of death worldwide in individuals younger than 45 years. In both India and Germany, there has been an increase in registered motor vehicles over the last decades. However, while the number of traffic accident victims steadily dropped in Germany, there has been a sustained increase in India. We analyze this considering the sustained differences in rescue and trauma system status. We compared India and Germany in terms of (1) vehicular infrastructure and causes of road traffic accident-related trauma, (2) burden of trauma, and (3) current trauma care and prevention, and (4) based on these observations, we suggested how India and other countries can enhance trauma care and prevention. Data for Germany were obtained from federal statistical databases, German Automobile Club, and German Trauma Registry. Data from India were available from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. We also performed a standardized literature search of PubMed for India and Germany using the following key words: "road traffic accidents", "prevention", "prehospital trauma care", "trauma system", "trauma registry", "trauma centers", and "development of vehicles." The total number of registered motor vehicles increased 473-fold in India and 100-fold in Germany from 1951 to 2011. The number of road traffic deaths increased in both countries until 1970, but thereafter decreased in Germany (3606 in 2012) while continuing to increase in India (142,485 in 2011). The differences between Germany and India relate to the relative sizes and populations of the countries (1:9 and 1:15, respectively), and differences in prevention and prehospital care (nationwide versus big cities) and hospital trauma systems (nationwide versus exceptional). Improvement requires attention to three major issues: (1) prevention through infrastructure, traffic laws, mandatory licensing; (2) establishment of a prehospital care system; and (3) establishment of regional

  20. Pushing the limit: forensic nursing in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrea; Gage-Lindner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Violence remains a public health challenge and the nursing profession accepts this challenge by expanding its field. Although countries such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada have employed forensic nurses for decades in different capacities, Germany has yet to follow their lead. This report discusses the German health care and legal systems and challenges Germany to develop an innovative, cost-efficient, and competent profession of forensic nursing.

  1. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  2. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  3. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  4. Forecasting supply and demand in nursing professions: impacts of occupational flexibility and employment structure in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In light of Germany's ageing society, demand for nursing professionals is expected to increase in the coming years. This will pose a challenge for policy makers to increase the supply of nursing professionals. Methodology To portray the different possible developments in the supply of nursing professionals, we projected the supply of formally trained nurses and the potential supply of persons who are able to work in a nursing profession. This potential supply of nursing professionals was calculated on the basis of empirical information on occupational mobility provided by the German Microcensus 2005 (Labour Force Survey). We also calculated how the supply of full-time equivalents (FTEs) will develop if current employment structures develop in the direction of employment behaviour in nursing professions in eastern and western Germany. We then compared these different supply scenarios with two demand projections ('status quo' and 'compression of morbidity' scenarios) from Germany's Federal Statistical Office. Results Our results show that, even as early as 2005, meeting demand for FTEs in nursing professions was not arithmetically possible when only persons with formal qualification in a nursing profession were taken into account on the supply side. When additional semi-skilled nursing professionals are included in the calculation, a shortage of labour in nursing professions can be expected in 2018 when the employment structure for all nursing professionals remains the same as the employment structure seen in Germany in 2005 (demand: 'status quo scenario'). Furthermore, given an employment structure as in eastern Germany, where more nursing professionals work on a full-time basis with longer working hours, a theoretical shortage of nursing professionals could be delayed until 2024. Conclusions Our analysis of occupational flexibility in the nursing field indicates that additional potential supply could be generated by especially training more young people

  5. One Germany, Two Identities? Challenges to Political Education in Germany Following Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussmuth, Hans

    After a discussion of the circumstances that led to the unification of the two German states, this paper then evaluates the challenges to political education in Germany after unification. Beginning with the focus by the media and politics on the effects of East German political changes on the two German states, the revolution in East Germany and…

  6. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  7. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry

    2006-01-01

    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  8. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  9. Earth - Eastern Australia Coast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-02-28

    This false color image of the Eastern Coast of Australia was obtained by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft at about 3:00 p.m. PST, Dec. 8, 1990, at a range of more than 35,000 miles. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00121

  10. Who gets dipyrone (metamizole) in Germany? Prescribing by age, sex and region.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, F; Meinecke, P; Freitag, M H; Glaeske, G; Schulze, J; Schmiemann, G

    2015-06-01

    Metamizole (dipyrone) is an analgesic that has been the focus of considerable controversy regarding its safety. Because of potentially life-threatening blood disorders such as agranulocytosis, it has been withdrawn in many countries but not in Germany, where prescribing even increased over recent years. We aimed to evaluate prescribing of metamizole in Germany with respect to age, sex and regional variations. Using data of a statutory health insurance, we analysed a cohort of 1·7 million persons who were insured at least 1 day in each quarter of 2009. Outcome of interest was the outpatient prescription prevalence, for example the proportion of persons receiving at least one prescription of metamizole. A total of 6·8% received metamizole with a higher prescribing prevalence in females (7·8% vs. 6·0%). The prevalence increased with age up to 26·7% in persons ≥85 years (men: 21·1%; and women: 30·4%). We found large regional variations with higher prevalences in the northern part of Germany. Most of the prescriptions were issued by general practitioners (78·9%). 58·3% were liquid oral formulations with considerable regional variations ranging between 32·3% in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and 67·3% in North Rhine-Westphalia. Overall, liquid oral forms are much more often prescribed in the western than in the eastern part of Germany. Metamizole - a drug with a relatively narrow indication - is often prescribed in Germany with relevant differences by age, sex and region. Qualitative studies should clarify reasons for this. Further quantitative research should investigate small-area variations, indications and treatment durations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of disease management programs on women with breast cancer in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Louis; Hadji, Peyman; Albert, Ute-Susann; Kalder, Matthias; Kostev, Karel

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of disease management programs (DMPs) on adherence in women with breast cancer (BC) in Germany. Data on 4915 BC patients [1874 DMP and 3041 standard care (SC)] who started hormone therapy between 2008 and 2013 in 234 gynecological practices in Germany were analyzed retrospectively. The primary outcome measure was the rate of discontinuation of hormone therapy within 3 years of the start of treatment. Discontinuation of therapy was defined as a period of at least 90 days without treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model was created to determine the effect of DMPs on the risk of discontinuation. Region (western vs. eastern Germany), patient age, and concomitant diagnoses (depression, osteoporosis, thrombosis, and diabetes) were included as covariates. There was a significant difference between DMPs and SC in terms of age (63 ± 12 years vs. 64 ± 12 years, p value = 0.0012) and region (79.2% of patients living in western Germany vs. 88.6%, p value < 0.0001), but not initial therapy (51.8% vs. 52%, p value = 0.8696). Depression was also more common in patients in DMPs than those in SC (26.8% vs. 17.3%, p value < 0.0001). Within 3 years of therapy initiation, 32.7% of DMP patients and 39.6% of SC patients had discontinued their treatment (p < 0.001). Women with BC who were enrolled in a DMP had a lower risk of discontinuing therapy (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85-0.98, p value = 0.0092). This risk was also slightly higher in western Germany (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.24, p value = 0.0143). Involvement in DMPs has a positive impact on the adherence of BC patients.

  12. [Diabetic co-morbidities: prevalences in Germany].

    PubMed

    Heller, T; Blum, M; Spraul, M; Wolf, G; Müller, U A

    2014-04-01

    In some patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular complications in retina, kidney and nerves. Concerning missing data from Germany cited prevalence in German educational books and guidelines arise from other countries. This review demonstrates the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. The largest investigation in Germany is the Disease-Management-Programm Nordrhein with more than 450.000 surveyed DM  patients. These researches show good comparability with most analyses respective to the prevalence of diabetic comorbidities in Germany. Patients with DM2 have a mean Hba1c of 7 % and patients with DM1 of 7.9 %. In patients with DM2 the prevalence of retinopathy is 11 %, nephropathy 10 % and neuropathy 20 %. Co-morbidities are more commonin patients with long diabetes duration and high HbA1c. In patients with DM1 the prevalence of retinopathy is 25 %, of nephropathy 15 % and neuropathy 27 %. The prevalence of diabetic co-morbidities in primary care in Germany is considerably lower as mentioned in educational books or guidelines. This positive development is reasonable through a better quality of care, nationwide early detection examinations and training programmes.

  13. How many wolves (Canis lupus) fit into Germany? The role of assumptions in predictive rule-based habitat models for habitat generalists.

    PubMed

    Fechter, Dominik; Storch, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Due to legislative protection, many species, including large carnivores, are currently recolonizing Europe. To address the impending human-wildlife conflicts in advance, predictive habitat models can be used to determine potentially suitable habitat and areas likely to be recolonized. As field data are often limited, quantitative rule based models or the extrapolation of results from other studies are often the techniques of choice. Using the wolf (Canis lupus) in Germany as a model for habitat generalists, we developed a habitat model based on the location and extent of twelve existing wolf home ranges in Eastern Germany, current knowledge on wolf biology, different habitat modeling techniques and various input data to analyze ten different input parameter sets and address the following questions: (1) How do a priori assumptions and different input data or habitat modeling techniques affect the abundance and distribution of potentially suitable wolf habitat and the number of wolf packs in Germany? (2) In a synthesis across input parameter sets, what areas are predicted to be most suitable? (3) Are existing wolf pack home ranges in Eastern Germany consistent with current knowledge on wolf biology and habitat relationships? Our results indicate that depending on which assumptions on habitat relationships are applied in the model and which modeling techniques are chosen, the amount of potentially suitable habitat estimated varies greatly. Depending on a priori assumptions, Germany could accommodate between 154 and 1769 wolf packs. The locations of the existing wolf pack home ranges in Eastern Germany indicate that wolves are able to adapt to areas densely populated by humans, but are limited to areas with low road densities. Our analysis suggests that predictive habitat maps in general, should be interpreted with caution and illustrates the risk for habitat modelers to concentrate on only one selection of habitat factors or modeling technique.

  14. How Many Wolves (Canis lupus) Fit into Germany? The Role of Assumptions in Predictive Rule-Based Habitat Models for Habitat Generalists

    PubMed Central

    Fechter, Dominik; Storch, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Due to legislative protection, many species, including large carnivores, are currently recolonizing Europe. To address the impending human-wildlife conflicts in advance, predictive habitat models can be used to determine potentially suitable habitat and areas likely to be recolonized. As field data are often limited, quantitative rule based models or the extrapolation of results from other studies are often the techniques of choice. Using the wolf (Canis lupus) in Germany as a model for habitat generalists, we developed a habitat model based on the location and extent of twelve existing wolf home ranges in Eastern Germany, current knowledge on wolf biology, different habitat modeling techniques and various input data to analyze ten different input parameter sets and address the following questions: (1) How do a priori assumptions and different input data or habitat modeling techniques affect the abundance and distribution of potentially suitable wolf habitat and the number of wolf packs in Germany? (2) In a synthesis across input parameter sets, what areas are predicted to be most suitable? (3) Are existing wolf pack home ranges in Eastern Germany consistent with current knowledge on wolf biology and habitat relationships? Our results indicate that depending on which assumptions on habitat relationships are applied in the model and which modeling techniques are chosen, the amount of potentially suitable habitat estimated varies greatly. Depending on a priori assumptions, Germany could accommodate between 154 and 1769 wolf packs. The locations of the existing wolf pack home ranges in Eastern Germany indicate that wolves are able to adapt to areas densely populated by humans, but are limited to areas with low road densities. Our analysis suggests that predictive habitat maps in general, should be interpreted with caution and illustrates the risk for habitat modelers to concentrate on only one selection of habitat factors or modeling technique. PMID:25029506

  15. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  17. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? Recent trends in order-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, the TFR of East Germany had overtaken that of the West. We explore why fertility in East Germany is higher than in West Germany, despite unfavorable economic circumstances in the East. We address this and related questions by (a) presenting an account of the persisting East/West differences in attitudes toward and constraints on childbearing, (b) conducting an order-specific fertility analysis of recent fertility trends, and (c) projecting completed fertility for the recent East and west German cohorts. In addition to using the Human Fertility Database, perinatal statistics allow us to calculate a tempo-corrected TFR for East and West Germany.

  18. Sexuality, sexual behaviour and contraception in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Starke, K; Visser, A P

    1994-07-01

    Social factors may influence sexual health and its related behaviour. The political changes in East Germany have revealed a positive attitude towards sexuality and the use of family planning methods. A study on sexual behaviour and the use of contraceptives was undertaken recently, at the end of the old regime and the beginning of the new one. The survey was performed among 3103 male and female respondents (pupils, students and workers) of between 16 and 48 years of age. The results show a decreased number of stable partner relationships among young people, however, love and sexuality are considered to be central values. Before the age of 19 years, the majority of girls (80%) and boys (68%) had had sexual intercourse for the first time, a rate which has not changed during the last decade. There is a tendency to postpone having a first child. Modern contraception is widely accepted and used. There is a growing number of condom users, however, the pill is still the most popular method. Family planning is much more advanced than in the other countries of Eastern Europe. Sex education and counselling should sustain this situation.

  19. Orientation of megalithic monuments in Germany and the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, C.; Ferrer, L.

    The Western Group of the Trichterbecherkultur (TRB Culture) built the megalithic monuments in Northwest Germany and The Netherlands. These monuments include different types of megaliths belonging to the TRB-West group, among which the most common are Passage Graves. We have obtained data for 163 monuments in this area in three campaigns. The present study completes two previous communications at SEAC meetings. We consider that the measured sample is largely competed and therefore we attempt a full analysis of the data. We have measured the orientation of the chamber and passages (where possible) for the Passage Graves, and for the so-called Langebetten. The general orientation of the chamber of the Passage Graves is east west, with another concentration of monuments at azimuths around 70 degrees. The passage is always located to the southern or eastern sides of the chamber. Possible astronomical explanations involving the Sun and the Moon are attempted. We find a preference towards lunar orientations. The general orientation of the Langebetten is similar to the Passage Graves although a preference to significant positions of the Sun and Moon is detected. Finally we perform a comparison with data from the literature of other TRB groups and give a tentative explanation for the evolution of the megaliths and their orientation.

  20. Heavy metals in aquatic bryophytes from the Ore mountains (Germany).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A

    2002-07-01

    Concentration of the metals Ni, Cr, Co, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ba, Al, and V as well as the macronutrients Ca, Mg, and K were measured in water and in the aquatic bryophytes Platyhypnidium riparioides, Scapania sp., and Fontinalis antipyretica sampled from streams in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains, eastern Germany). These plants, as used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the examined streams, contained elevated levels of all the investigated metals except Sr. The highest levels of Cd (195 mg/kg), Cu (233 mg/kg), Zn (22500 mg/kg), Pb (595 mg/kg), and Co (140 mg/kg) seriously exceed background values. In recent years input of pollutants has decreased in the Erzgebirge area and the deposition can now be addressed as being comparable to that of rural areas without major local or regional influences. This investigation indicates that the studied aquatic mosses reflect part of the pollutant loadings released in the past in the Erzgebirge area of which remnants are still present in the environment. Two models describing the con-centrations of Fe and Zn in aquatic bryophytes in relation to concentrations of some elements in water are presented.

  1. Eastern diamondback rattlesnake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-13

    An eastern diamondback rattlesnake slithers through the grass near the NASA News Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The diamondback is Florida's largest venomous snake and may exceed six feet in length. It lives throughout Florida in a variety of dry habitats, such as pinelands, scrub and golf courses. Kennedy shares a boundary with the Merritt Island Wildlife Nature Refuge, which is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  2. Eastern diamondback rattlesnake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-13

    An eastern diamondback rattlesnake warms in the sun near the NASA News Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The diamondback is Florida's largest venomous snake and may exceed six feet in length. It lives throughout Florida in a variety of dry habitats, such as pinelands, scrub and golf courses. Kennedy shares a boundary with the Merritt Island Wildlife Nature Refuge, which is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  3. Increasing use of radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer in the USA and Germany: a comparative population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hager, B; Kraywinkel, K; Keck, B; Katalinic, A; Meyer, M; Zeissig, S R; Scheufele, R; Wirth, M P; Huber, J

    2017-03-01

    Current guidelines do not recommend a preferred treatment modality for locally advanced prostate cancer. The aim of the study was to compare treatment patterns found in the USA and Germany and to analyze possible trends over time. We compared 'Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results' (SEER) data (USA) with reports from four German federal epidemiological cancer registries (Eastern Germany, Bavaria, Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein), both from 2004 to 2012. We defined locally advanced prostate cancer as clinical stage T3 or T4. Exclusion criteria were metastatic disease and age over 79 years. We identified 9127 (USA) and 11 051 (Germany) patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. The share was 2.1% in the USA compared with 6.0% in Germany (P<0.001). In the United States, the utilization of radiotherapy (RT) and radical prostatectomy (RP) was comparably high with 42.0% (RT) and 42.8% (RP). In Germany, the major treatment option was RP with 36.7% followed by RT with 22.1%. During the study period, the use of RP increased in both countries (USA P=0.001 and Germany P=0.003), whereas RT numbers declined (USA P=0.003 and Germany P=0.002). The share of adjuvant RT (aRT) was similar in both countries (USA 21.7% vs Germany 20.7%). We found distinctive differences in treating locally advanced prostate cancer between USA and Germany, but similar trends over time. In the last decade, a growing number of patients underwent RP as a possible first step within a multimodal concept.

  4. The Joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria - Five Decades of Successful Activities.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Ritz, Eberhard; Lang, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place. Practical issues of clinical nephrology, in particular renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), were covered since 1971 by a specific Working Group. In 1994 the Advisory Board (Kuratorium) of the Society of Nephrology was founded as a result of an initiative of Peter Weidmann (Bern). Its main goals were Update Seminars in Nephrology and Hypertensionin Eastern Europe, in part together with the Joint Action of Nephrology and an Eastern European ScholarshipProgram. Despite the prosperous work of this European society within nearly five decades in Germany a national society was founded as well, which combined all activities of nephrology in one organization. The German Society of Nephrology was founded in 2009.

  5. [Hot spot: epidemiology of measles and rubella in Germany and the WHO European region].

    PubMed

    Matysiak-Klose, D

    2013-09-01

    The elimination of measles and rubella by 2015 is an important goal set by the World Health Organization European Region (WHO/Europa). Since 1991, the incidence of measles in WHO/Europa declined owing to routine childhood vaccination and supplementary immunization activities in the region. However, in many countries of Western Europe elimination of measles and rubella remains a challenge, and every year there are outbreaks with partly long-lasting transmission chains and dissemination of the virus internationally. In Germany, outbreaks occur because of the high proportion of susceptible individuals in specific population groups. In 2011, over 1,600 cases were reported (19.7 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, data from the Robert Koch Institute) whereas in 2012 only 167 cases were reported to the Robert Koch Institute (2 per 1,000,000 inhabitants). It is unclear whether the declining trend will continue in the following years due to improved vaccination coverage or whether number of cases will rise again because of the accumulation of susceptible groups. In Germany, there are currently no representative, country-wide data on rubella; however, data from the eastern federal states provide important epidemiological insights. Outbreaks are seldom reported, but statutory notification of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome was implemented in March 2013. As a result, it will be possible to better assess the epidemiology of rubella in Germany, although a considerable underreporting of rubella cases is anticipated.

  6. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  7. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  8. Gifted Education and Talent Support in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christian; Müller, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents' associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children,…

  9. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease.

  10. Germany Looks Towards U.S. Bicentennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Information Center, New York, NY.

    This bulletin discusses and describes four projects constituting Germany's contribution to the American Bicentennial: (1) the establishment of the John J. McCloy Foundation for German-American exchange, (2) the permanent endowment of the Theodor Heuss chair at the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science at the New School for Social…

  11. Salmonella Agona Outbreak from Contaminated Aniseed, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schrauder, Annette; Alpers, Katharina; Werber, Dirk; Frank, Christina; Prager, Rita; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Broll, Susanne; Feil, Fabian; Roggentin, Peter; Bockemühl, Jochen; Tschäpe, Helmut; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    A nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona caused by aniseed-containing herbal tea occurred from October 2002 through July 2003 among infants in Germany. Consumers should adhere strictly to brewing instructions, although in exceptional cases this precaution may not be protective, particularly when preparing tea for vulnerable age groups. PMID:16022796

  12. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  13. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  14. Playscapes of Germany--A Quick Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2006-01-01

    While playgrounds in many parts of the world are limited to "fixed" equipment and surfacing, certain progressive countries have made a point to rise above this dull standard and create playscapes filled with sculpture, gardens, and wild elements of the natural world. This article talks about the playscapes of Germany as leader in the…

  15. Higher Education in Germany: Problems and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The contribution focuses on the process of merging the East German system of higher education with that of West Germany in the context of German unification in 1990/91. The impact of German unification on East German higher education is described as consisting of five basic measures: (a) de-politicisation; (b) reorganisation and evaluation of…

  16. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  17. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  18. Growing Up in Germany: A National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krappmann, Lothar

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes a Federal Ministry of Youth report on the conditions under which children grow up in Germany. Notes manifold problems that children face under today's living conditions. Presents recommendations and suggestions for providing a network of measures, relationships, and institutions to support children's development and education in family,…

  19. Germany Provides Higher Education without the Frills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, tuition is low because state governments shoulder a much higher percentage of university budgets than in the United States. As a result, most German universities provide far fewer amenities and services, and require their professors to teach longer hours to larger numbers of students than their American counterparts. Because they are…

  20. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1919, No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, I. L.

    1919-01-01

    The development of education in Germany during the past two years must necessarily remain obscure until the sources of direct information are again opened up. From extracts and references here and there the educational situation does not appear to have been very happy, and, if reports such as the ones cited in this bulletin may be trusted, the…

  1. The Scope of Sexual Victimization in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kury, Helmut; Chouaf, Silvia; Obergfell-Fuchs, Joachim; Woessner, Gunda

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sexual victimization of 309 female students in Germany. The results indicate that the majority of the subjects have been victims of minor offenses and that a minority of subjects was severely victimized. As to the relation of victim and perpetrator, the milder offenses are more likely to be committed by strangers. In…

  2. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  3. Americans for Germany in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Blair R.

    The pro-German American newspaper "The Fatherland," published shortly before the United States entered the First World War (1914-1917), displayed a failure of public relations in terms of defining and offering themes likely to convince a target audience to side with Germany. By looking at a public relations campaign undertaken by the…

  4. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  5. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  6. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  7. Becoming Adults in England and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen, Ed.; Heinz, Walter R., Ed.

    A comparison study of the school-to-work transitions of young people aged 16-19 in Germany and England was followed up several years later when the former subjects were in their early twenties. Research was conducted through interviews, case studies, and studies of labor market trends. The analysis of the transition of the young people studied…

  8. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  9. Recent developments: West Germany and Namibia

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear power industry in West Germany and Namibia are reviewed. The basic structure of the West German nuclear fuel industry following the Nukem ownership changes is discussed. The nationalization of the South West Africa People`s Organization (SWAPO) is described.

  10. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  11. School-to-Work Transition in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauner, Felix

    1997-01-01

    Of four models for school-to-work transition (direct, deregulated, regulated overlapping, and shifted), Germany's dual vocational training system is a regulated overlapping system that offers learners a smooth bridge from the role of pupil to that of qualified skilled worker. (SK)

  12. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  13. Upper Middle Pleistocene climate and landscape development of Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, B.

    2009-04-01

    and the margin of a 286 m deep channel, subglacially eroded during the Elsterian, have recently been investigated by 9 counter flash or cored drillings (Stephan et al., in press). Studies focussed on the uppermost 50 m, made up of a series of approximately 9 m thick fluviatile sediments ("Leck-Folge") with intercalations of organic sand layers and a gyttja band, up to 1.5 m thick. This sequence is overlain by several metres of mainly decalcified groundmoraine, that, itself, is overlain by glaciofluvial and periglacial sediments. The palynological investigations of the gyttja reveal a floral development of interglacial character ("Leck-Thermomer"). Compared to other Middle Pleistocene warm periods in North Germany, correlations of the Leck-Thermomer with the Holsteinian and with the warm periods of the Reinsdorf and Wacken (Dömnitz) interglacials are precluded or appear rather implausible. The Leck-Thermomer is most likely a correlative of the marine oxigen isotope stage 7 c (MIS 7). Stephan, H.-J., Urban, B., Lüttig, G., Menke, B. und M. Sierralta: Palynologische, petrographische und geochronologische Untersuchungen der Leck-Warmzeit (spätes Mittelpleistozän) und ihrer begleitenden Sedimente.- [Palynological, petrographical, and geochronological investigations of deposits of the "Leck-Thermomer" and accompanying sediments].- Geologisches Jahrbuch, in press. Thieme, H., 1997. Lower Paleolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385, 807-810. Urban, B. 1995. Palynological evidence of younger Middle Pleistocene Interglacials (Holsteinian, Reinsdorf, Schöningen) in the Schöningen open cast lignite mine (eastern Lower Saxony/Germany). Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 52, 175-186. Urban, B. 2006. Interglacial pollen records from Schöningen, north Germany.- In: THE CLIMATE OF PAST INTERGLACIALS. Sirocko, F., Litt, T., Claussen, M., Sanchez-Goni, M.F. (eds.), Springer Verlag; in press.

  14. Implications of Germany’s Declining Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    security policy, defense spending is an important indicator. This thesis demonstrates that Germany’s defense expenditure seems to be inconsistent with its...Germany’s declining defense spending , it examines the reasons for and effects of Germany’s shrinking defense budget and suggests solutions for coping...Germany does not reverse the trend of declining defense spending it will probably decrease its political significance in Europe and in the world.

  15. The State of Reproductive Medicine in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, K.; Strowitzki, T.; Kentenich, H.

    2012-01-01

    In the 1960s and 70s, Germany played a leading role in the field of gynaecological endocrinology, which was reflected by the scientific activity of German universities during this period. More recently, however, a dramatic change occurred, resulting in a decreasing number of publications in this field. This has undoubtedly contributed to the marginal scientific position of Germany in gynaecological endocrinology today. This change is reflected by the decreasing number of university centres carrying out active scientific research in the fields of gynaecological endocrinology, reproductive medicine and andrology. Universities now lack mid- and upper-level faculty staff, as interesting and senior positions in the field of reproductive medicine, andrology and reproductive medicine no longer exist. Moreover, in 1991 the German embryo protection law came into force, which severely curtailed scientific research and blocked scientific efforts in this area. German scientists and, of course, childless couples were cut off from scientific advances, e.g. the possibility of single embryo transfer. Germanyʼs scientific position in the fields of gynaecological endocrinology, reproductive medicine and andrology needs to be strengthened. The creation of appropriate structures in German universities is therefore necessary. These would include important cooperations with private medical practices, which currently account for about 75 % of patient care. The lines of communication between the groups representing reproductive medicine in Germany need to be greatly improved. Moreover, we suggest that an important step would be the development of a general human embryology and fertilisation act which would allow German couples to benefit from the global advances in the field of reproductive technology. Germany must stop its policy of scientific obstruction and permit scientific progress in this field in German universities. PMID:28435169

  16. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  17. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  18. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any...

  19. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  20. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  1. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  2. Participation in preventive health check-ups among 19,351 women in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schülein, Stefanie; Taylor, Katherine J; Schriefer, Dirk; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2017-06-01

    In Germany, a biennial preventive health check-up has been available for individuals aged 35 and older since 1989. The check-up includes identification of cardiovascular disease risk factors and examinations for diabetes mellitus type 2 and kidney disease. Participation in preventive health check-ups among 19,351 women aged 35 to 74 in Germany in 2004 was investigated. Logistic regression was performed to examine associations between participation and age, marital status, education, socio-economic status (SES) and region of residence. In total, 53.4% of women attended at least every two years, 23.4% attended irregularly and 23.2% never attended. In adjusted models, single, divorced, separated or widowed women were less likely to have a preventive health check-up at least every two years compared to married women (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.71), while women in eastern Germany were less likely to participate (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86) than women in western Germany. Education showed no association with having a preventive health check-up at least every two years; however, women with low SES were less likely to participate compared to those with high SES (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.92). About half of eligible women reported participating in health check-ups at least every two years, with participation varying according to socio-demographic characteristics. Women who are less likely to participate may benefit from receiving invitation letters within the framework of an organised programme. The benefits of general health checks, however, need to be evaluated.

  3. The Challenge to Soviet Interests in Eastern Europe, Romania, Hungary, East Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    particular in the growth of samizdat literature, much of which was openly on sale at a "samizdat boutique " run by Laszlo Rajk (son of the former Interior...samizdat boutique , the enactment in September 1983 of a decree increasing the fines for printing and distributing samizdat, the arrest of Gabor Demsky...elements" and the command structure was revamped under Soviet supervision. Moreover, the definitional role of the army was changed. Greater emphasis was

  4. Economic, Educational, and IQ Gains in Eastern Germany 1990-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2012-01-01

    Lynn and Vanhanen (2012) have convincingly established that national IQs correlate positively with GDP, education, and many other social and economic factors. The direction of causality remains debatable. The present study re-examines data from military psychological assessments of the German federal army that show strong IQ gains of 0.5 IQ point…

  5. Health-Related Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, Communication and Social Status in School Children in Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Fahland, Ruth A.; Franze, Marco; Splieth, Christian; Thyrian, Jochen Rene; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kohlmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing health literacy is a keystone in health promotion. Yet, most studies on health literacy are limited to functional literacy levels. Furthermore, little evidence is available from children. Based on Nutbeam's outcome model for health promotion, this study aims (i) to elaborate a set of short scales to measure important health literacy…

  6. Meeting the Challenge: Between Depopulation and New Industrialization. Innovations in VET in Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasch, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heavy investments in the economic development of East German industry, the region still faces immanent structural challenges that affect the provision of vocational education and training (VET), in particular apprenticeships, and the availability of a well skilled workforce. In this article the situation of the economy as well as new…

  7. Economic, Educational, and IQ Gains in Eastern Germany 1990-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2012-01-01

    Lynn and Vanhanen (2012) have convincingly established that national IQs correlate positively with GDP, education, and many other social and economic factors. The direction of causality remains debatable. The present study re-examines data from military psychological assessments of the German federal army that show strong IQ gains of 0.5 IQ point…

  8. Health-Related Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, Communication and Social Status in School Children in Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Fahland, Ruth A.; Franze, Marco; Splieth, Christian; Thyrian, Jochen Rene; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kohlmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing health literacy is a keystone in health promotion. Yet, most studies on health literacy are limited to functional literacy levels. Furthermore, little evidence is available from children. Based on Nutbeam's outcome model for health promotion, this study aims (i) to elaborate a set of short scales to measure important health literacy…

  9. Meeting the Challenge: Between Depopulation and New Industrialization. Innovations in VET in Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasch, Antje

    2012-01-01

    Despite the heavy investments in the economic development of East German industry, the region still faces immanent structural challenges that affect the provision of vocational education and training (VET), in particular apprenticeships, and the availability of a well skilled workforce. In this article the situation of the economy as well as new…

  10. Net Ecosystem Exchange and Net Biome Productivity of different land use in eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünwald, Thomas; Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The carbon (CO2-C) budgets of a managed forest (spruce), grassland and a cropland (crop rotation) have been determined and compared. The sites are part of the Tharandt cluster which features low intersite variability in climate due to the small distances between the sites. This allows the comparison of management effects on the carbon budget of different land use among other things. At the forest site, continuous CO2 flux measurements are available from 1997 to 2008, the common observation period of the grassland and cropland sites was 2005 to 2008. With regard to annual net ecosystem exchange NEE (based on eddy covariance flux measurements), the forest showed the highest net sink (-698 g C m-2 (1999) to -444 g C m-2 (2003)). In contrast the grassland and cropland sites were significantly lower sinks in terms of NEE (-177 g C m-2 (2004) to -62 g C m-2 (2005) and -115 g C m-2 (2005) to -32 g C m-2 (2007 and 2008), respectively). To quantify the net biome productivity (NBP) carbon exports due to thinning or harvest as well as carbon imports due to organic fertilisation are considered besides NEE. Carbon exports and imports change the carbon budget in terms of NBP. At the forest site only the 2002 NBP is a carbon source (+221 g C m-2) due to the thinning in April 2002 when around 43 m3 ha-1 solid wood was removed from the ecosystem. After the thinning the annual NEE is reduced by around 100 g C m-2 until 2007. The grassland NBP alternated between carbon source and sink (+25 g C m-2 (2008) to -28 g C m-2 (2006)) indicating the carbon balance was approximately neutral. Low NEE and NBP values at the grassland site were a consequence of carbon export due to several cuts per year. The NBP of the cropland ecosystem was mainly influenced by the crop type (winter or spring crop) and the application of organic fertiliser (manure) resulting in carbon budgets between +484 g C m-2 (2007) and -89 g C m-2 (2006). The different timing and length of the growing season of winter and spring crops result in different intra-annual patterns of NEE as well as lower annual net CO2 sinks for the spring crops. In addition to the calculation of annual carbon budgets, alternative accounting periods were utilised at the arable site and were described as "crop period" between the harvest of the preceding crop and the harvest of the crop associated with the crop period. For the full rotation covered by the crop site (around four years), the Tharandt cluster sites showed a NBP sink (spruce), neutral effect (grass) and a source (crop), respectively. Key words: Carbon budget, net ecosystem exchange, net biome productivity, land use, management effect

  11. Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous samples from Germany and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Umer; Schulze, Stefanie; Slawik, Christian; Böhme, Alexander; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemicals in the environment is important to control their fate and to protect human health, flora, and fauna. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected frequently in different environmental compartments during the last 15 years and have drawn much attention because of their environmental persistence, omnipresence, and bioaccumulation potential. Water is an important source of their transport. In the present study, distributions of PFAAs in river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and tap water from eastern part of Germany and western part of Kenya were investigated. Eleven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sum of mean concentrations of eight PFAAs detected in drinking tap water from Leipzig was 11.5 ng L(-1), dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 6.2 ng L(-1)). Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs detected in Pleiße/White Elster, Saale, and Elbe (Germany) were 24.8, 54.3, and 26.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Annual flux of PFAAs from River Saale was estimated to be 164 ± 23 kg a(-1). The effluent of WWTP in Halle was found to contain four times higher levels of PFAAs than river water and was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with 32 times higher concentration than the riverine level. It advocates that WWTPs are the point source of contaminating water bodies with PFAAs, and short-chain PFAAs are substituting long-chain homologues. Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs in Sosiani (Kenya) in samples from sparsely populated and densely populated areas were 58.8 and 109.4 ng L(-1), respectively, indicating that population directly affected the emissions of PFAAs to surface waters. The discussion includes thorough review and comparison of recently published literature reporting occurrence of PFAAs in aqueous matrices. Graphical abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous

  12. Eastern Europe scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Hafele, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Russian situation is key to Eastern Europe if present trends continue. Its strategy for the establishment of the nuclear fuel cycle was conceived decades ago when the former USSR still existed. It was based on the fuel recycle with attention given to the requirements of the military. The former Warsaw Pact Countries (WPC) were not meant to have independent fuel cycles, and their irradiated fuel elements were scheduled to go back to Russian territory. In 1976 a fuel cycle center was built at Mayak/Chelyabinsk, centered on the RT-1 plant with a nominal capacity of 400 tonnes/yr plant for the reprocessing of spent fuel from VVER-440 reactors, fast reactors (BN-350 and BN-600) icebreaker and submarine transport units, research reactors, and other power units. The plan provided for the reprocessing of spent fuel from the WPC all having VVER-440 reactors. All together, 3000 tonnes of spent fuel have been processed there. Nuclear waste went to vitrification. A new reprocessing facility is under construction in the neighborhood of Krasnoyarsk 26, the RT-2 plant. It is scheduled to operate after 2005, and its design capacity is 1500 tonne/yr. A storage for 6000 tonnes of spent fuel from VVER-1000 reactors is in operation since 1985. A second mixed-oxide plant for VVER-1000 reactors is under consideration. Now, there are no fuel cycle facilities in the newly independent countries. The fuel cycle problems in Eastern Europe and Russia are discussed.

  13. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    PubMed

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  14. Aedes albopictus breeding in southern Germany, 2014.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Kampen, Helge

    2015-03-01

    Larvae, pupae and eggs of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus were found in Freiburg, southern Germany, after submission of an adult mosquito specimen from that area to the 'Mückenatlas', a German instrument of passive mosquito surveillance. While previously collected Ae. albopictus in Germany were trapped on, or close to, service stations on motorways, suggesting introduction by vehicles from southern Europe, these new specimens were out of flight distance from the motorway on the one hand and indicate local reproduction on the other. The findings call for a thorough active and passive surveillance in exposed geographic regions such as the relatively warm German Upper Rhine Valley to prevent Ae. albopictus from establishing.

  15. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes.

  16. Ebola Risk Perception in Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rübsamen, Nicole; Castell, Stefanie; Horn, Johannes; Karch, André; Ott, Jördis J.; Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Zoch, Beate; Krause, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks have occurred during the past 5 decades, but none has affected European countries like the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. We used an online questionnaire to investigate risk perceptions in Germany during this epidemic peak. Our questionnaire covered risk perceptions, knowledge about transmission routes, media use, reactions to the outbreak, attitudes toward measures to prevent the spread of EVD and vaccination against EVD, and willingness to volunteer for aid missions. Of 974 participants, 29% indicated that they worried about EVD, 4% correctly stated virus transmission routes, and 75% incorrectly rated airborne transmission and transmission by asymptomatic patients as possible. Many indicated that if a patient were flown to Germany for treatment in a nearby hospital, they would adapt preventive behavior. Although most participants were not worried about EVD at the current stage of the epidemic, misperceptions regarding transmission were common and could trigger inappropriate behavior changes. PMID:25989020

  17. New developments in preventive detention in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinböck, Herbert R

    2009-09-01

    The present review focuses on forensic psychiatric aspects of new developments in preventive detention in Germany. After a short introduction to the history of preventive detention in Germany and its enacting in 1933, a survey is given about both main pathways in German penal code, penalty because of guilt after an offence by healthy prisoners and prevention because of dangerousness in healthy prisoners as well as in psychiatric ill persons having mentally ill offenders. Then, there are given a few examples of new developments of security laws: retroactive preventive detention, reservation of preventive detention, subsequent preventive detention, and its extension to young persons. The consequences in the practice of forensic psychiatry and their reflection in recent psychiatric literature are described and discussed. There is a broad consent between German forensic psychiatrists that the described changes in criminal law and the increasing application of preventive detention will intensify antiliberal tendencies not only within jurisdiction but also within forensic and general psychiatry.

  18. Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Anja M; Hofstetter, Iris; Seibold, Erik; Kaysser, Philip; Eckert, Juergen; Neubauer, Heinrich; Splettstoesser, Wolf D

    2010-02-01

    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2-154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares.

  19. Bioethics in Germany: debates and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lanzerath, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    In Germany the public awareness on ethical problems of the application of medicine and life sciences on human beings is very high. It can be observed that German Society is rather sensitive concerning bioethical issues. Politics supports this attitude. Many articles in professional journals as well as in newspapers cover bioethical issues. Conferences and workshops on a professional and an educational level deal with topics on ethics of life sciences and ethics in general. Moreover, in the case of bioethics many different disciplines contribute with relevant considerations to the process of opinion and judgment formation. This paper summarizes the main ethical and legal debates on bioethical issues in Germany, specifies the focus of leading German centres of bioethics and biolaw, and explains the tasks, services and networking of the German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences (DRZE) which was founded by the Federal Government.

  20. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Employment Opportunities for Family Members in Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-24

    community wives clubs in Germany. The tables in Appendix 2 provide statistical information on the world - wide distribution of DOD active duty military...fewer local nationals would create a skills imbalance that would be unacceptable? 4. Could we cope with the political repercussions from the unions...Could we cope with the political repercussions from the unions/ works councils if we decided to employ more family members and fewer LN’s? Should we

  2. One Germany - A New Soviet Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-12

    Research and Analysis Establishment, 1984. 60. Remnick , David . "If Perestroika Collapses, Soviets Could Still Muddle Through." The Washington Post, 4...GERMANY - A NEW SOVIET STRATEGY ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Robert B. Clarke, AD Colonel David T. Twining Project Advisor...I could make them. At the same time, the credibility of most well documented books and journal articles prepared as recently as two years ago by some

  3. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed.

  4. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  5. Forest industries of eastern Washington.

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Wall; Donald R. Gedney; Robert B. Forster

    1966-01-01

    A sawmill, built in 1872, marked the beginning of the forest industry in eastern Washington -- almost half a century after the emergence of the lumber industry in western Washington. Since then, this industry has increased in importance to eastern Washington's economy, now furnishing about one-fifth of the total manufacturing employment and wages paid—in...

  6. Energy potential of geothermal energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.

    2000-06-01

    The use of terrestrial heat could fulfill certain energy demands. For the evaluation of the possibilities in the energy system of Germany, the available potentials are one of the most important criteria. Within this context, in the past only the available resources and the reserves have been discussed. But these data have hardly practical relevance for the energy-political and energy-economic discussions, since they do not consider the conditions in the corresponding energy system. In this article, therefore, explanations additional to the overall existing amount of heat in underground portions are shown, which could be used also from a technical point of view. In addition, the demand-side restrictions are considered and the share of the available heat is pointed out which can be used within the energy system of Germany. The explanations show that consideration of the demand side is necessary to make relevant statements. The investigations also make clear that terrestrial heat will never be able to cover more than just a part of the energy demand for warmth in Germany.

  7. [Telemedicine in Germany. Status, Barriers, Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Brauns, H-J; Loos, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine as a subject has reached politics, doctors and patients, but it has still not been able to make the leap from research, development, and testing into real practice. This is generally because of the great barriers to implementation, mainly the lack of telematics infrastructure and of payment regulations in Germany. Telemedicine projects are mainly isolated applications and it has not been possible to integrate them in to nationwide regular health services. Other challenges along the path to standard care include that research-based small-medium enterprise (SME) companies usually face high barriers hindering access to this market, because it is imposible for them to finance all the required evidence-based studies to verify the medical benefits and the econimic efficiency. Additionally, a high market nontransparency is noted. However, the signs of progress are visible, e.g., the E-health initiative of the German government or recent legislative initiatives. However, long processes are observed that do not facilitate the use of telemedicine. Although some federal states, e.g., North Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and Saxony, show exemplary activities, there are still many white areas on the telemedicine map of Germany. The road to standard care will be long, but is not unattainable. The reasons for supporting telemedicine are still strong. The future development of telemedicine applications will contribute to sustainable and high-quality patient care in Germany.

  8. Germany sees profits collapse as doldrums persist

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-02-10

    Traditionally the strongman of Europe, Germany's chemical sector had a miserable time in 1992, as profits skidded 30%. Further declines in production and sales for the first half of 1993 are predicted by industry association VCI (Frankfurt). Output, usually spurred after the summer break, dropped drastically in the fourth quarter. Developments are alarming, says Wolfgang Hilger, president of the VCI and chairman of Hoechst (Frankfurt). Production in the 11 western states rose 1% in 1992, but chemical industry sales fell. In the second half of the year, the high value of the Germany mark - against the US dollar, sterling, lira, and peseta - compounded difficulties already experienced as a result of overcapacity and lower prices. Hilger says overall prices declined 2% last year. Meanwhile, costs for labor and environmental protection continued to increase. VCI figures show a decline in many sectors. In western Germany, organic base chemical production was down 4%, and, while organic chemical production rose 3%, prices were 8% lower, giving unsatisfactory results. Similarly, plastics production was up 0.5% at midyear, but weak prices hurt earnings.

  9. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  10. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study’s objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus. PMID:27015596

  11. Prevalence and Genotype Allocation of Pathogenic Leptospira Species in Small Mammals from Various Habitat Types in Germany.

    PubMed

    Obiegala, Anna; Woll, Dietlinde; Karnath, Carolin; Silaghi, Cornelia; Schex, Susanne; Eßbauer, Sandra; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Small mammals serve as most important reservoirs for Leptospira spp., the causative agents of Leptospirosis, which is one of the most neglected and widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide. The knowledge about Leptospira spp. occurring in small mammals from Germany is scarce. Thus, this study's objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Leptospira spp. and the inherent sequence types in small mammals from three different study sites: a forest in southern Germany (site B1); a National Park in south-eastern Germany (site B2) and a renaturalised area, in eastern Germany (site S) where small mammals were captured. DNA was extracted from kidneys of small mammals and tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by duplex and conventional PCRs. For 14 positive samples, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Altogether, 1213 small mammals were captured: 216 at site B1, 456 at site B2 and 541 at site S belonging to following species: Sorex (S.) araneus, S. coronatus, Apodemus (A.) flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus (Mi.) arvalis, Crocidura russula, Arvicola terrestris, A. agrarius, Mustela nivalis, Talpa europaea, and Mi. agrestis. DNA of Leptospira spp. was detected in 6% of all small mammals. At site B1, 25 small mammals (11.6%), at site B2, 15 small mammals (3.3%) and at site S, 33 small mammals (6.1%) were positive for Leptospira spp. Overall, 54 of the positive samples were further determined as L. kirschneri, nine as L. interrogans and four as L. borgpetersenii while five real-time PCR-positive samples could not be further determined by conventional PCR. MLST results revealed focal occurrence of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri sequence type (ST) 117 while L. kirschneri ST 110 was present in small mammals at all three sites. Further, this study provides evidence for a particular host association of L. borgpetersenii to mice of the genus Apodemus.

  12. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Eastern Iowa, Northwestern Illinois

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-10-250 (May-June 1973) --- A vertical view of eastern Iowa and northwestern Illinois, as photographed from Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Davenport, Burlington and Muscatine, Iowa; and Rock Island and Moline, Illinois can be delineated on opposite sides of the Mississippi River. The Iowa River and tributaries of it can also be delineated. This photograph was taken with one of six lenses of the Itek-furnished Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment S190-A mounted in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA) of the space station. A six-inch lens, using 70mm medium speed Ektachrome (SO-356) film, was used. Agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Interior; the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior's Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  15. Epidemiology of reported Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Germany, 2001-2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yersiniosis is the third most common zoonotic bacterial disease in Germany and the European Union. Sequelae of Yersinia enterocolitica infections, such as reactive arthritis, have been reported. Consumption of pork and its products, especially eaten raw or undercooked, is an important risk factor of yersiniosis. Infection with Y. enterocolitica is notifiable through the national surveillance system for infectious diseases in Germany and several thousands of cases are being reported each year. We present recent data on the epidemiology of reported yersiniosis in Germany. Methods Surveillance data on yersiniosis, accessed through the national level database (SurvNet), were analyzed with regard to time trends, demographical and geographical distribution, serotypes, and hospitalization, for the time period 2001-2008. Results A total of 47,627 cases of yersiniosis were reported. The mean annual incidence of yersiniosis was 7.2/100,000 population. A downward trend in the number of reportable cases has occurred since 2002. Almost all Y. enterocolitica infections were reported as single cases, i.e., with no apparent links to other cases. The number of reported infections showed substantially less seasonal variation than in other zoonotic enteric diseases. The incidence was highest in children under five years (58/100,000 population), in particular in one-year-old children (108/100,000 population). Almost 97% of infections were acquired domestically. High incidences occurred in the eastern German federal states Thuringia, Saxony, and Saxony-Anhalt. Differences in incidences across federal states were driven primarily by incidence differences in children under five years. Hospitalization was reported for 17% of cases, the proportion being highest among teenagers. Almost 90% of Y. enterocolitica strains were diagnosed as serotype O:3, which is the serotype most frequently isolated from pigs. Conclusions Yersiniosis is a zoonotic foodborne disease of relevance to

  16. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  17. Respiratory high-dependency units in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B

    1999-10-01

    In Germany, there is a well-established scene being engaged in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV), but only a minority of centres for home mechanical ventilation simultaneously run a respiratory high-dependency unit (RHDU). There are no standardized concepts, and RHDU do not have official government recognition. However, due to the increased usage of NIMV in both intensive care units and RHDU, and the cost pressure in the health system, the current atmosphere is open for a co-operative strategy and gives respiratory medicine a unique opportunity to acquire a new profile. Therefore, both nursing and medical staff must receive training in NIMV-associated strategies.

  18. [Foreign labor in a reunited Germany].

    PubMed

    Blaschke, J

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses migration into Germany, primarily since World War II, with a focus on the impact on the German labor market. The radical changes that came about in the late 1980s as a result of granting political asylum to third-world refugees and of the readmittance of persons of German descent who wanted to repatriate are then assessed. Following reunification, the author foresees new trends in migration into the country and predicts some of their effects. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)

  19. Epidemiology of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brimil, Nadia; Barthell, Elisabeth; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kuhn, Melanie; Lütticken, Rudolf; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause severe pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis in neonates and remains one of the most prevalent causes of invasive neonatal infections. Maternal transmission of S. agalactiae during delivery can be prevented by prenatal screening and peripartal antibiotic prophylaxis. Implementation of CDC guidelines for group B streptococci (GBS) disease prevention resulted in a significant decline of invasive neonatal S. agalactiae infections in the USA. Similar national guidelines were issued in 2000 for Germany. However, the epidemiology of S. agalactiae colonization in Germany has not been investigated for more than 15 years and the impact these guidelines will have is therefore unknown. To assess colonization rates in Germany, we cultured vaginal and rectal swabs for S. agalactiae from pregnant and non-pregnant adult patients in the region of Aachen and Munich. Swabs were cultivated in selective broth medium for 24h and subsequently plated on blood agar plates according to the CDC recommendations. Colonies negative for catalase and pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase were further differentiated by the CAMP test and a DNA probe specific for S. agalactiae. Rectal or vaginal colonization of S. agalactiae was found in 34 (16%) of 210 pregnant patients and in 41 (16%) of 250 non-pregnant women. S. agalactiae was found only in rectal swabs in 4% of pregnant and non-pregnant patients. For further characterization of the strains capsular serotypes and major surface protein antigens were determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and PCR. Among the 75 different patient isolates serotype III was the most prevalent with 21 (28%) isolates, followed by 16 (21%) isolates of serotype II, 13 (17%) isolates of serotype Ia, 12 (16%) of serotype V, 11 (15%) of serotype Ib and only 2 (3%) isolates of serotype IV. The vast majority of all strains harbored genes for the major surface protein antigens, the alpha-C-protein or alpha-C-protein like antigens like Alp2-4, epsilon and

  20. [Jewish veterinarians in Germany, 1918-1945].

    PubMed

    Möllers, G; Schaffer, J

    2005-10-01

    In 1998 there were only twelve Jewish veterinarians known who practised in Germany between 1918 and 1945. 133 of them have now been found. Most of the Jewish veterinarians had their roots in merchant families and were general practitioners in the countryside. To be "Jewish" did not concern until 1933. Compared with the other medical professionals like human medical professionals (10,9 %), in 1933 the number of Jewish veterinarians was low (1,6 %, whole German Jewish population 0,77 %). Right with the beginning of the National Socialistic rule Jewish veterinarians were exposed to different forms of harassment. Soon after, on April 7th 1933, with the so-called Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums (BBG; law for the restoration of civil service), the prosecution took on an official quality. The Reichstierärztekammer (Chamber of veterinary service) was very eager to Aryanize the German veterinary service. The BBG made the Jewish veterinarians who worked in public positions lose their jobs with the single exception of those who had the status of a so-called "Frontkämpfer" (a soldier who fought at the frontline during World War I). Many of the Jewish veterinarians who were still in Germany in November 1938 were arrested after the pogrom of November 9/10th and kept in concentration camps and prisons for about one month. The few students of veterinary medicine who already had started their studies in 1933 still could make their exams in Germany, but they did not get a licence. On January 31st 1939 all Jewish veterinarians in Germany lost their licence. 55 Jewish vets managed to emigrate in time. Nineteen German Jewish Veterinarians died in concentration camps and ghettos. Two are known to have committed suicide. Until 1997, there was no act of appreciation or rehabilitation of German Jewish veterinarians. In 2003 the degrees of two Jewish veterinarians, Hermann Cussel and Paul Stern, were renewed posthumously by the Hanover School of Veterinary Medicine

  1. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  2. Surveys of new and rare microfungi in the Düsseltal (North Rhine-Westphalia)--Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kricke, R

    2005-01-01

    In the years 2003 and 2004 we have observed an about 70 hectare large area in the Düsseltal, the eastern part of the Neandertal in North Rhine-Westphalia. There we collected on trees, bushes and herbs and found about 150 microfungi of which some are new for Germany or the entire world. E.g.: Pseudocercospora populigena N. ALE-AGHA, U. BRAUN & G.B. FEIGE on Populus berolinensis; Vialaea insculpta (FR.) SACC. on Ilex aquifolium L.; Passalora amelopsidis (PECK.) U. BRAUN on Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) PLANCH.: Pleiochaeta setosa (KIRCHN.) HUGHES on Genista angelica L.; Cercospora mercurialis PASS. on Mercurialis perennis L. (new for NRW); Pleurocytospora vestita PETRAK on Ribes aureum PURSH.; Gonatobotrys simplex CORDA on Lolium perenne L.; Phomatospora berckleyi SACC. on Dactylis glomerata L. and so on. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha.

  3. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  4. Fires in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired August 1, 2010 Intense fires continued to burn in the boreal forests of eastern Siberia on August 1, 2010. The fires are outlined in red in this image, acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. The fires span the borders of Russia’s Chukotskiy, Magadan, and Koryakskiy provinces. Burning in coniferous (evergreen) forests, the fires blanketed northeastern Siberia with thick brown smoke. The smoke hugs the ground near the fires, filling valleys, and soars over clouds farther away from the flames. On August 1, the smoke flowed north from the fires and over the Arctic Ocean. A wide view of the Arctic shows the smoke crossing the Bering Strait and clouding skies over northern Alaska. This image is available in additional resolutions from the MODIS Rapid Response Team here: rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/?2010213-0801/Russia.... To view more images from this event go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=44561 NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. Caption by Holli Riebeek Instrument: Aqua - MODIS NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  5. Haze over eastern China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-26

    On October 17, 2015, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of a thick haze hanging over eastern China. In the north, the large city of Beijing is completely obscured from view, as is much of the landscape. The haze thins slightly over the Bohai Sea. Further south, sediment pours into the East China Sea near the city of Shanghai. Heavy haze is common in this region, and tends to worsen in October through January, when cold, heavy air traps pollutants near the surface of the Earth. It is likely that this scene was caused by such a temperature inversion. Normally, air is warmest near the surface of the Earth. But sometimes a mass of warm air will move the cooler air, so the atmosphere actually warms with the altitude. Cool air does not have energy to rise through the warm air, vertical circulation slows and air becomes trapped near the surface. Any pollution that is emitted into the cooler air will also get trapped, increasing low-level air pollution and haze. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  6. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  7. Haze over eastern China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On October 17, 2015, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image of a thick haze hanging over eastern China. In the north, the large city of Beijing is completely obscured from view, as is much of the landscape. The haze thins slightly over the Bohai Sea. Further south, sediment pours into the East China Sea near the city of Shanghai. Heavy haze is common in this region, and tends to worsen in October through January, when cold, heavy air traps pollutants near the surface of the Earth. It is likely that this scene was caused by such a temperature inversion. Normally, air is warmest near the surface of the Earth. But sometimes a mass of warm air will move the cooler air, so the atmosphere actually warms with the altitude. Cool air does not have energy to rise through the warm air, vertical circulation slows and air becomes trapped near the surface. Any pollution that is emitted into the cooler air will also get trapped, increasing low-level air pollution and haze. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  8. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  9. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  10. Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    Robert Rabaglia; Daniel Twardus

    1990-01-01

    The eastern tent caterpillar is often mistaken for the gypsy moth. Though they are similar in appearance, they differ in habits. The fully grown eastern tent caterpillar is about 2 inches long, black with a white stripe along the middle of the back and a row of pale blue oval spots on each side. It is sparsely covered with fine light brown hairs. The gypsy moth...

  11. [The use of neuromuscular monitoring in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Hofmockel, R; Geldner, G; Diefenbach, C; Ulm, K; Blobner, M

    2003-06-01

    As there are no reliable epidemiological data for the use of muscle relaxants in Germany,we conducted a mailing study. The aim of the study was to compare the use of muscle relaxants between German anaesthesia departments. In the present part of the presentation we focused on neuromuscular monitoring (NMM) and management of residual paralysis. A total number of 2,996 questionnaires were sent to all registered anaesthesiological facilities in Germany and the return was 68.6% (2054 questionnaires). In 574 of the returned questionnaires (28%) the regular use of NMM was confirmed. Intraoperative monitoring of neuromuscular block and assessment of neuromuscular recovery were the most frequent applications of NMM, i.e. 25% and 18% of returned questionnaires, respectively. Clinical signs, however, are still the most popular way to estimate the degree of neuromuscular blockade. Moreover, routine reversal at the end of surgery with a neostigmin/atropine mixture was not practiced in 75% of the anaesthesia departments. This survey revealed that NMM is still very rarely used in daily clinical practice. Especially the seldom use of NMM to assess residual paralysis has to be improved.

  12. Status of wind energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K.

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Environmental medicine in Germany--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hans Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In this review I describe the development of environmental medicine as a specialized field of clinical medicine in Germany. New scientific societies were founded, based on traditions of public hygiene and occupational medicine, as a reaction to environmental issues concerning human health. Environmental medicine issues were also addressed by independent "critical" physicians. The first institutions to accept patients were centers for environmental medicine affiliated with research institutions and/or with the public health service. Medical professional organizations, particularly the German General Medical Council, described the need for and formulated conditions for additional qualification for doctors in environmental medicine, including a 200-hr course. This course and a qualifying exam were passed by about 3,000 doctors, mainly from the public health service and from occupational medicine. Unfortunately, few general physicians in primary outpatient care were similarly trained. To date, no representative study has been conducted on environmental patients, but I include in this review a typical list of patients' complaints. I also summarize research activities typical for environmental medicine in Germany. Present problems concern accounting systems and, for example, diagnosis and treatment of patients with multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). A coordinated research program on MCS has been started. PMID:11834469

  14. Investigating an Airborne Tularemia Outbreak, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Iris; Seibold, Erik; Kaysser, Philip; Eckert, Juergen; Neubauer, Heinrich; Splettstoesser, Wolf D.

    2010-01-01

    In November 2005, an outbreak of tularemia occurred among 39 participants in a hare hunt in Hesse, Germany. Previously reported tularemia outbreaks in Germany dated back to the 1950s. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among participants and investigated the environment to identify risk factors for infection. Ten participants had serologic evidence of acute Francisella tularensis infection; 1 other participant died before laboratory confirmation was obtained. Presence within 5 meters of the place where disemboweled hares were rinsed with a water hose was the risk factor most strongly associated with infection (risk ratio 22.1; 95% confidence interval 13.2–154.3). Swabs taken at the game chamber and water samples were PCR negative for F. tularensis. Eleven of 14 hare parts showed low-level concentrations of F. tularensis, compatible with cross-contamination. More than half of case-patients may have acquired infection through inhalation of aerosolized droplets containing F. tularensis generated during rinsing of infected hares. PMID:20113553

  15. International Heliophysical Year in Germany: Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Jansen, F.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Klecker, B.; Warmuth, A.; Staack, O.; Thomas, E.; Heber-Novkinic, I.

    2007-05-01

    Heliophysics has a long standing tradition in Germany. Observations of the Sun have been carried out for centuries. Since the launch of the space mission AZUR in 1965 German researchers were and are part in many important heliophysical missions like Helios, Ulysses, SOHO and recently Stereo. The community welcomes the United Nation initiative and supports their activities. The German IHY Outreach and Education program is based on a number of events. Several institutions will take part in the world-wide open doors day. A major effort is an exhibition, which has been developed by German researchers and can be seen at the computer fair CEBIT and in ten Planetaria all over Germany. We are part of the activity Space Weather and Europe- Educational tool with the Sun, which is funded by the European Union. A Special Issue of the German Physik Journal will bring heliophysical research closer to the public. All material will be available via our webpage www.ihy2007.de

  16. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  17. The historiography of homoeopathy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Homoeopathy originated in Germany. The same applies, by the way, to many other branches of alternative medicine, e.g. mesmerism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, anthroposophical medicine. This historical fact provides more than just an excuse to start with a survey of the historiography of homeopathy in German-speaking countries. The first part of the paper focuses on 19th-century attempts at a history of homoeopathy, reflecting the wish to establish a corporate identity among the adherents of the new art of healing. Early examples are books by prominent homoeopathic doctors on the origins and recent history of homoeopathy in German lands. A look at their motives will give us a notion of the response of the fringe medicine to a wide ranger of attacks of orthodox physicians and medical historians who saw progress in the field of the new "scientific" medicine only and who shared the values and ideologies of the medical establishment. The second part of the paper - which covers the period from the turn of the century to the end of World War II - examines the first attempts by professional medical historians as well as amateurs to write about the rise and fall of homeopathy in Germany. The third part is then centred on recent medical historiography on this subject.

  18. Evaluation of domino liver transplantations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Fabian Johannes; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J; Becker, Thomas; Braun, Felix; Pascher, Andreas; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schmidt, Jan; Nadalin, Silvio; Otto, Gerd; Barreiros, Ana Paula

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective multicenter study has been conducted to evaluate domino liver transplantations (DLTs) in Germany. The study provides insight into survival and features having an impact on the assessment of neuropathy after DLT. In addition, a neurologic follow-up program with a scheme to estimate the likelihood of de novo amyloidosis is presented. A series of 61 DLTs at seven transplant centers in Germany was enrolled. The mean age of domino recipients at the time of transplantation was 58 years, 46 of them being men, and 15 being women. The median follow-up was 46 months. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of domino recipients was 81.6%, 70.8% and 68.8%, respectively. Causes of death were primarily not related to familial amyloidosis. The main indication of DLT was hepatocellular carcinoma. Two of the reported domino recipients developed symptoms and signs of de novo amyloidosis within 10 years after transplantation. A total of 30 domino graft recipients (49.18%) presented with diabetes post transplantation. In conclusion, an advanced follow-up program is crucial to evaluate the risk of transmitting familial amyloidosis by DLT and to establish more strict selection criteria for domino recipients. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Germany and America: Crisis of confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    The paper examines the deterioration in German-American relations. The reasons for this downturn in German-American relations are quite simple. Washington views the Persian Gulf crisis as a defining moment in European-American relations and in the creation of a new world order. It is also the first diplomatic test of a unified Germany and a new German-American relationship. It is a test that Germany is thus far seen as having failed for three reasons. First, from the outset many Americans sensed that Germans did not comprehend what this crisis meant for the United States. A second and, in many ways, more worrying factor was the growing sense that the Germans were not being good Europeans. The third and most serious American concern, however, was the unsettling appearance of a very selective German definition of collective defense and common security. The result has been a crisis of confidence in the performance of the German political elite that goes beyond the problems in German-American relations during the early 1980s and the INF debate.

  20. Syphilis surveillance and trends of the syphilis epidemic in Germany since the mid-90s.

    PubMed

    Marcus, U; Bremer, V; Hamouda, O

    2004-12-01

    Recent surveillance reports from Europe and the United States show an increase in syphilis cases. Accurate epidemiological information about the distribution of syphilis is important for targeting screening and intervention programmes. The German syphilis notification system changed in 2001 from physician to laboratory-based reporting, which is complemented by a newly introduced sexually transmitted infection (STI) sentinel system. After reaching an all time low during the 1990s, syphilis notifications have increased significantly since 2001, coinciding with the introduction of the new reporting system. However, the increased reported incidence is reflecting a true rise in the number of cases and is not predominantly determined by more underreporting through the previous reporting system. The increase reflects syphilis outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM). The first of these outbreaks was observed in Hamburg in 1997. In 2003, incidence in men was ten times higher than in women. An estimated 75% of syphilis cases are currently diagnosed among MSM. A high proportion (according to sentinel data, up to 50%) of MSM diagnosed with syphilis are HIV positive. The continuously high number of syphilis cases diagnosed among heterosexuals in Germany in recent years compared with other western European countries may reflect the higher population movement between Germany and syphilis high incidence regions in south-east and eastern Europe.

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning of the uranium mill and processing plant at Seelingstaedt, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Barnekow, Ulf; Bauroth, Matthias; Paul, Michael

    2007-07-01

    In Eastern Germany uranium mining lasted from 1946 till 1990 including a production of in total 220,000 t of uranium. The Seelingstaedt Uranium Mill and Processing Plant, located in Thuringia, Germany, was one of two large uranium mills owned by Wismut. The mill was erected by 1960 and covered an area of 93 ha. From 1961 till 1991 a total of about 110 million t of different types of uranium ores were milled and processed at the Seelingstaedt mill. The mill produced ca. 110,000 t of uranium (in yellow cake). Demolition of the buildings and industrial facilities of the Seelingstaedt mill and processing plant site are nearly completed. The site is being decommissioned with respect to after-use aiming at afforestation and grasslands allowing for a stable plant succession. Decommissioning includes excavation and relocation of contaminated materials, reshaping of the site and construction of ditches for granting a stable surface runoff as well construction of access and maintenance roads. About 85% of the demolition and relocation works have been completed till to date. Last decommissioning works shall be completed by 2015. The present paper presents experiences made and progress achieved till to date. (authors)

  2. Mental health care use among children and adolescents in Germany: results of the longitudinal BELLA study.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Birte; Klasen, Fionna; Schön, Gerhard; Voss, Catharina; Hölling, Heike; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Data on mental health care use of children and adolescents in Germany is scarce. This study investigates the degree of mental health care use, its trajectories and influencing factors among children and adolescents in Germany, using longitudinal data of the BELLA study. The BELLA study is the mental health module of the representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS). Baseline data of N = 2,863 participants aged 7-17 years were collected between 2003 and 2006. The study sample was followed up in three additional measurement points, assessing general mental health problems and impairment, specific mental health problems, and mental health care use. In the current study, we analysed data from the first three measurement points. At baseline, 5.9 % of all participants used mental health care in the past 12 months. Among those with general mental health problems, 29.5 % sought professional help. Only a minority of participants reporting mental health care use at baseline also sought help at the following two measurement points. Analysing a random intercept only model, mental health care use was found to be more likely among participants living in larger communities as well as in the Eastern part of Germany, among those participants with impairment of mental health problems, and signs of externalizing problems. Our results indicate a temporary character of mental health care use. Participants' impairment was identified to be the strongest predictor of mental health care use.

  3. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a history of substitution

  4. The Educational System of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenman, Paul S.

    The history, administration, and structure of education in the Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, are described. In general, administration is centralized at the state level. Each state issues its own course of study, conducts secondary level examinations, revises curriculum, and approves textbooks. Building and equipment maintenance…

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for...

  6. Education and Youth Employment in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dohnanyi, Klaus

    The education/employment situation of young people in West Germany is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary industrialized societies. To place problems of West German youth in a broader context, it is necessary to consider socioeconomic developments in West Germany since…

  7. National Student Governance in Germany: The Case of fzs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungblut, Jens; Weber, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organizational development of freier zusammenschluss von studentInnenschaften (fzs), the national union of students in Germany from its foundation until 2010. It situates it within the variety of student organizations acting on behalf of students within the multi-level system of higher education governance in Germany.…

  8. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  9. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  10. Multicultural Education in Germany: Historical Development and Current Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Gerd R.

    Multicultural education in Germany has been profoundly affected by history and the consequences and burdens of war. As Germany has always understood itself to be a monocultural country, there was initially little room for unpopular multicultural approaches to school organization and curriculum. Depending on the political orientation of state…

  11. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  12. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans…

  13. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  14. Concerted actions for an interoperable health telematics platform in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sembritzki, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    In Germany many commitments have been made to build a telematics infrastructure. The Centre for Telematics in Healthcare first published the concept for such a platform in 2001. This concept is introduced amongst others and information is given about the actions and initiatives of the last two years in Germany.

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Veterinary Clinics, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Weiss, Reinhard; van der Reijden, Tanny; van den Broek, Peterhans; Baljer, Georg; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2011-01-01

    An increase in prevalence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. in hospitalized animals was observed at the Justus-Liebig-University (Germany). Genotypic analysis of 56 isolates during 2000–2008 showed 3 clusters that corresponded to European clones I–III. Results indicate spread of genotypically related strains within and among veterinary clinics in Germany. PMID:21888812

  16. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  17. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  18. The Search for Specialists and Managers. Staff Shortage in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Despite its high unemployment level, Germany is experiencing a shortage of specialists and managers. Germany's need for highly qualified information technology (IT) workers and engineers is particularly great. Approximately 10,000 posts for computer scientists and IT specialists remained vacant in 1998. Because of the shortage of such specialists,…

  19. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... direct benefit of the United States Forces are authorized to be acquired duty-free by the Contractor in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense...

  20. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  1. An American Social Worker in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    This report resulted from a 14-day Study Tour for American Experts in Youth Work arranged and financed by the Federal Republic of Germany Ministry for Youth, Family and Health which provided American youth workers with an opportunity to study the youth services structure and culture of West Germany. The structure of the West German Ministry for…

  2. OECD Review of Career Guidance Policies. Germany: Country Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Germany's career guidance system and policies were evaluated. Data were collected through meetings with policymakers and guidance practitioners in the public and private sectors, an analysis of data from a national questionnaire, and a review of pertinent documentation. The evaluation focused on the following areas: reviewing the role of Germany's…

  3. The Changing Family in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohn, Charlotte; Luscher, Kurt

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent developments in the family in West Germany. Examines family demographics; provides an overview of the main institutional forces, laws, and family policy; and refers to the organizational aspects of demography. Describes trend in Germany of shrinking household size and increasing share of one-person households. Describes statistics…

  4. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S.…

  5. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  6. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia).

  7. Arboreal spiders in eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Mallis, Rachael E; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-12-01

    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] is a foundation species in forests of eastern North America that plays a key role in ecosystem function. It is highly susceptible to the exotic invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is causing widespread hemlock mortality. We surveyed the spider communities of eastern hemlock and deciduous canopies over 2 yr, collecting over 4,000 spiders from 21 families. We found that eastern hemlock canopies harbored a more abundant, rich, and diverse spider community than did deciduous canopies. Five spider families were present in our hemlock collections that were absent from the deciduous collections, including Mysmenidae, Theridiosomatidae, Mimetidae, Lycosidae, and Agelenidae. In hemlock canopies there were 4× the number of web builders, consisting primarily of the Tetragnathidae and Araneidae, than active hunters, consisting primarily of the Anyphaenidae and the Salticidae. Ours is the first in depth study of the spider community in eastern hemlock. Spider abundance in hemlock canopies suggest that they may play a role regulating herbivore populations, and could possibly affect the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, either through direct consumption of the adelgids themselves or through interactions with classical biological control agents.

  8. The covariance of air quality conditions in six cities in Southern Germany - The role of meteorology.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzed air quality in six cities in Southern Germany (Ulm, Augsburg, Konstanz, Freiburg, Stuttgart and Munich), in conjunction with the prevailing synoptic conditions. Air quality was estimated through the calculation of a daily Air Stress Index (ASI) constituted by five independent components, each one expressing the contribution of one of the five main pollutants (PM10, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO) to the total air stress. As it was deduced from ASI components, PM10 from combustion sources and photochemically produced tropospheric O3 are the most hazardous pollutants at the studied sites, throughout cold and warm periods respectively, yet PM10 contribute substantially to the overall air stress during both seasons. The influence of anticyclonic high pressure systems, leading to atmospheric stagnation, was associated with increased ASI values, mainly due to the entrapment of PM10. Moderate air stress was generally estimated in all cities however a cleaner atmosphere was detected principally in Freiburg when North Europe was dominated by low pressure systems. Daily events of notably escalated ASI values were further analyzed with backward air mass trajectories. Throughout cold period, ASI episodes were commonly related to eastern airflows carrying exogenous PM10 originated from eastern continental Europe. During warm period, ASI episodes were connected to the arrival of regionally circulated air parcels reflecting lack of dispersion and accumulation of pollutants in accordance with the synoptic analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating the prevalence of nonpaternity in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael; Musch, Jochen; Enczmann, Juergen; Fischer, Johannes

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of nonpaternity in human societies is difficult to establish. To obtain a current and fairly unbiased estimate of the nonpaternity rate in Germany, we analysed a dataset consisting of 971 children and their parents in whom human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing had been carried out in the context of bone marrow transplantation. In this sample, nine exclusions (0.93%) could be identified on the basis of more than 300 HLA-haplotypes defined by four HLA genes. Given this number of exclusions, a maximum likelihood estimate of the nonpaternity rate in the population of 0.94% was obtained with asymptotic 95% confidence limits of 0.33% and 1.55%, respectively. This result is in accordance with recent surveys as well as findings from Switzerland for a comparable sample, and it suggests that earlier estimates of the nonpaternity rate which were often in excess of 10% may have been largely exaggerated.

  10. Ejecta of the Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the light which may be shed by the ejecta surrounding the 26-km diameter Ries Crater in West Germany on the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Event. Moldavites represent early high speed ejecta originating at the projectile-target interface. Bunte breccia reflects the major excavation and ejection phase, comprising more than 90 percent of all ejecta beyond the rim crest. Suevite is deposited last, and is derived from the deepest target stratum. Using various scaling laws that relate the bolide's kinetic energy to crater geometry or volume, and assuming a 25 km/sec impact velocity, a 1-2 km projectile diameter is obtained for a stony object. Geochemical studies reveal that projectile dissemination is heterogeneous, and that maximum extraterrestrial contamination modeled as a C1 chondrite is 0.004 wt pct. Observations from this and other terrestrial craters show that tektites and microtectites provide the sole evidence for widespread impact deposits.

  11. First detection of Hyalomma rufipes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Nava, Santiago; Bestehorn, Malena; Dobler, Gerhard; Wölfel, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Hyalomma rufipes, a two-host tick, is the most widespread Hyalomma species in Africa. In December 2015, an ixodid tick male with an unusual morphology was detected on a horse in a stable near Mainz in the Federal State Rhineland-Palatine. For identification purposes, the tick was preserved in alcohol and sent to our laboratory. The morphology of the tick showed specific characteristics of H. rufipes. The 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Germany was identical to the corresponding 16S rDNA sequence of H. rufipes from Tanzania, and they both were closely related to Hyalomma marginatum. The tick was tested with a real-time PCR for rickettsiae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus with negative results.

  12. [Chronic pain. Epidemiology and management in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M

    2004-05-01

    At least 5 million patients with chronic and severely debilitating pain exist among the adult population in Germany, i.e. 8% of this population. Various biological and psychosocial risk factors contribute to the continuing chronicity of pain, resulting in enormous direct and indirect costs totalling an estimated 38 billion euro annually. The introduction of a medical specialty for pain treatment in 1998 has not appreciably affected the quality of outpatient pain management. In contrast, more recent approaches of multimodal treatment, including medical, psychological and behavioral components, have shown a significant and lasting effect in patients with a high incidence of workplace incapacitation and sick leave. In particular, the GRIP pilot project (Göttingen Intensive Back Project) has resulted in an increased rate (to 200%) of return to the workplace and in a decrease in health system expenses to 50% of the pretreatment level.

  13. Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany.

    PubMed

    Thieme, H

    1997-02-27

    Little is known about the organic component of Lower and Middle Palaeolithic technologies, particular with respect to wooden tools. Here I describe some wooden throwing spears about 400,000 years old that were discovered in 1995 at the Pleistocene site at Schöningen, Germany. They are thought to be the oldest complete hunting weapons so far discovered to have been used by humans. Found in association with stone tools and the butchered remains of more than ten horses, the spears strongly suggest that systematic hunting, involving foresight, planning and the use of appropriate technology, was part of the behavioural repertoire of pre-modern hominids. The use of sophisticated spears as early as the Middle Pleistocene may mean that many current theories on early human behaviour and culture must be revised.

  14. Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945.

    PubMed

    Defalque, Ray J; Wright, Amos J

    2011-04-01

    Methamphetamine was synthesized in Germany in 1937 and commercially released in 1938. It became a popular stimulant for tired night workers and a recreational drug for young people until mid-1941 when it became a controlled substance. It was abused by the armed forces during World War II when it was distributed by some commanding officers (occasionally over the objections of the units' physicians) to prevent or treat the fatigue of exhausted troops and thus allow them to survive, despite the strict restrictions issued by the Army Inspectorate. There is no evidence for the claim that the use of Pervitin was encouraged by the Nazi government to create a "superman." In fact the Health Leader L. Conti strongly discouraged its use.

  15. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schütt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the ‘TMF – Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research’, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of “research registers”. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  16. River habitat monitoring and assessment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Ulrich; Binder, Walter; Hölzl, Konrad

    2007-04-01

    Whereas assessing the biological and chemical quality of water is a standard environmental procedure in many countries, the use of habitat survey methods that assess the ecomorphological quality of rivers is relatively new. In Europe, the EC Water Framework Directive requires such assessment from all EU Member States. In Germany, the first river habitat assessments were introduced in the late 1990 s. Each federal state develops its own river habitat map using the 'On-site Survey' and/or the 'Overview Survey'. The assessment describes the difference of the actual condition from a previously defined reference condition. In practice, a defined 'potential for restoration', a more realistic condition, makes restoration activities much easier and more successful. In Germany, the first River Habitat Map 2001 was published in 2002. The survey covered 33,000 km of river length, which equates to 10% of all rivers. A wide range from 'Undisturbed' (class 1) to 'Totally Disturbed' (class 7) river units exists; 77% of them are 'Clearly Disturbed' (class 4) or in worse condition. These result reflects extensive anthropogenic impact on the environment in general, but also past intense technical river 'improvements' that focused on the protection of settlements and traffic routes from flooding, better shipping conditions, the use of water power, and drainage of floodplains for agriculture and urban development. For comparability of survey results between EU Member States, a harmonization of national survey methods is in progress. A crucial point here is the definition of the reference condition for each river (near-natural conditions), since it influences the survey results.

  17. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  18. Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in Germany: an ecological analysis in 200 districts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Maier, Werner; Nennecke, Alice; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-06-15

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail. © 2013 UICC.

  19. Regional and socio-economic differences in food, nutrient and supplement intake in school-age children in Germany: results from the GINIplus and the LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Standl, Marie; Buyken, Anette; Rzehak, Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Borte, Michael; Herbarth, Olf; Lehmann, Irina; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    To describe regional differences between eastern and western Germany with regard to food, nutrient and supplement intake in 9-12-year-old children, and analyse its association with parental education and equivalent income. Data were obtained from the 10-year follow-up of the two prospective birth cohort studies - GINIplus and LISAplus. Data on food consumption and supplement intake were collected using an FFQ, which had been designed for the specific study population. Information on parental educational level and equivalent income was derived from questionnaires. Logistic regression modelling was used to analyse the effect of parental education, equivalent income and region on food intake, after adjusting for potential confounders. Germany. A total of 3435 children aged 9-12 years. Substantial regional differences in food intake were observed between eastern and western Germany. Intakes of bread, butter, eggs, pasta, vegetables/salad and fruit showed a significant direct relationship with the level of parental education after adjusting for potential confounders, whereas intakes of margarine, meat products, pizza, desserts and soft drinks were inversely associated with parental education. Equivalent income had a weaker influence on the child's food intake. Nutritional education programmes for school-age children should therefore account for regional differences and parental education.

  20. The Weichselian phases of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet in northeast Germany revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, Margot; Hardt, Jacob; Christopher, Lüthgens

    2017-04-01

    Frankfurt ice marginal position in northeast Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 154, 85-99. Lüthgens, C., Böse, M., 2011: Chronology of Weichselian main ice marginal positions in north-eastern Germany. E&G - Quaternary Science Journal 60, 236-247.

  1. Science, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Peter

    2016-09-01

    This essay considers some of the major theological differences between Eastern and Western traditions of Christianity and puts forward proposals about how these might be related to the divergent trajectories of the formal study of nature in these two cultural contexts. A key difference lies in the “other-worldly” orientation of Eastern Orthodoxy and its emphasis on deification, which contrast sharply with ideas of original sin and fall–redemption theology in the West. These latter ideas came to play a significant role in the rise of Western science, with the sciences being understood as part of a practical redemptive exercise that could help alleviate the material consequences of original sin.

  2. Uranium production in Eastern Europe and its environmental impact: A literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    A survey of the unclassified literature was made to determine the location, technology, throughput, and environmental status of the uranium mines and mills that have historically made up uranium production capability in Eastern Europe. Included in that survey were the following countries: the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), now part of a reunited Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. Until recently, uranium was being produced in five of these six countries (Poland stopped production 20 years ago). The production began directly after World War II in support of weapons production in the Soviet Union. Eastern Europe has produced about two-thirds of the total Soviet uranium inventory historically, or about 330,000 metric tonnes of uranium (NM) [730 million pounds of uranium (MlbU)l out of a total of about 490,000 MTU (1090 NlbU).

  3. An annotated bibliography of eastern redcedar.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt; Ronald J. Piva

    1995-01-01

    Presents a listing of 719 citations related to eastern redcedar through September 1994. Major eastern redcedar subject headings include: physiology, nursery propagation, regeneration / planting, pests, weather-related factors, control, products, wildlife relationship, and ecological relationships.

  4. Eastern hemlock: a market perspective

    Treesearch

    Theodore Howard; Paul Sendak; Claudia Codrescu

    2000-01-01

    Although it is an important component of the northern forest, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is a secondary species in its regions' markets. In this paper, we examine the markets for hemlock, analyze price trends for stumpage, and suggest implications of market forces for management of forests containing hemlock. The...

  5. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  6. Fall management of eastern gamagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Most extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG recommend avoiding harvest within 6 weeks of first frost. Using this guid...

  7. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  8. Eastern New Mexico University. Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannozzi, Maria

    This report describes efforts by Eastern New Mexico University (ENMU) to recast its mission more narrowly while at the same time reducing the sense of remoteness and disconnection, as well as geographic isolation, between the main campus and its branch campuses. In the early 1980s, ENMU suffered from mission drift, in part as a result of its…

  9. Forest statistics of eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    The Forest Survey Organization. Central States Forest Experiment Station

    1952-01-01

    The Forest Survey is conducted in the various regions by the forest experiment stations of the Forest Service. In Kentucky the project is directed by the Central States Forest Experiment Station with headquarters in Columbus, Ohio. This Survey Release presents the more significant preliminary statistics on the forest area and timber volume for the Eastern Kentucky...

  10. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  11. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  12. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  13. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  14. Genetic Improvement of Eastern Cottonwood

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Farmer; Carl A. Mohn

    1970-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartt.) genetics research has moved during the past decade from formal statements of its promise to long-term formal tests of commercially promising material. Much of this research has been conducted in the Lower Mississippi Valley. wh.ere cottonwood has major commercial importance. but there have been...

  15. First record of Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Werner, Doreen; Zielke, Dorothee E; Kampen, Helge

    2016-03-01

    Within the framework of a national mosquito monitoring programme, a mosquito specimen collected in mid-2015 in southern Germany was identified as Aedes koreicus, a non-endemic species originating from East Asia. After the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, which is already established in Germany and widely distributed, and the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which is increasingly often introduced from southern Europe, A. koreicus is the third demonstrated invasive mosquito species in Germany supposed to have significant vector potential for disease agents.

  16. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  17. Impact of Pruning Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana)

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt; Tom D. Wardle

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, eastern redcedar has been the most rapidly expanding tree resource in the Great Plains from Oklahoma to South Dakota, primarily in rangelands and pastures. Based on these increases and potential management-related problems, eastern redcedar is perceived as a threat to the rangeland resource. Pruning eastern redcedar can allow for increased herbaceous...

  18. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  19. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    The Early Toarcian Posidonia Shale is a proven hydrocarbon source rock which was deposited in a shallow epicontinental basin. In southern Germany, Tethyan warm-water influences from the south led to carbonate sedimentation, whereas cold-water influxes from the north controlled siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwestern parts of Germany and the Netherlands. Restricted sea-floor circulation and organic matter preservation are considered to be the consequence of an oceanic anoxic event. In contrast, non-marine conditions led to sedimentation of coarser grained sediments under progressively terrestrial conditions in northeastern Germany The present-day distribution of Posidonia Shale in northern Germany is restricted to the centres of rift basins that formed in the Late Jurassic (e.g., Lower Saxony Basin and Dogger Troughs like the West and East Holstein Troughs) as a result of erosion on the basin margins and bounding highs. The source rock characteristics are in part dependent on grain size as the Posidonia Shale in eastern Germany is referred to as a mixed to non-source rock facies. In the study area, the TOC content and the organic matter quality vary vertically and laterally, likely as a consequence of a rising sea level during the Toarcian. Here we present and compare data of whole Posidonia Shale sections, investigating these variations and highlighting the variability of Posidonia Shale depositional system. During all phases of burial, gas was generated in the Posidonia Shale. Low sedimentation rates led to diffusion of early diagenetically formed biogenic methane. Isochronously formed diagenetic carbonates tightened the matrix and increased brittleness. Thermogenic gas generation occurred in wide areas of Lower Saxony as well as in Schleswig Holstein. Biogenic methane gas can still be formed today in Posidonia Shale at shallow depth in areas which were covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Submicrometric interparticle pores predominate in immature samples. At

  20. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  1. Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, M

    1997-11-01

    Early in 1993, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS, Salzgitter) together with the Federal Environmental Office (UBA, Berlin) established an overall UV monitoring network for the continuous measurement of spectrally resolved UV radiation. Every 6 min the solar UV spectrum is measured by a Bentham DM 150 double monochromator system in a wavelength ranging from 290 to 450 nm. Every night, UV data are automatically transferred via modem to the reference station in Munich where they are quality controlled and then stored in a host computer. Human health assessment of the exposure is documented in 1/2 h MED (minimal erythemal dose) values. The selected sites of Zingst (1 m, 54 degrees N, Baltic Sea), Offenbach (110 m, 50 degrees N, Rhine rift valley), Schauinsland (1205 m, 48 degrees N, Black Forest) and Neuherberg (493 m, 48 degrees N, Munich) provide a good overview of the UV radiation situation in Germany and therefore an ideal supplement to more detailed biological effect research, especially of comparison measurements with biosensors under environmental conditions. Preliminary investigations have already been started.

  2. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on.

  3. Expected and preferred retirement age in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hess, Moritz

    2016-04-28

    Over the last 10 years the German pension system has undergone several reforms including the abandonment of early retirement policies and an increase in the statutory retirement age. Consequently, the average retirement age has increased and future retiree cohorts have adjusted the retirement expectations and preferences as to when they would like to retire. This study was carried out to examine discrepancies between the expected and the preferred retirement age of older workers in Germany and to investigate how these discrepancies differ between groups of older workers. Based on data from the survey "Employment after retirement", the expected and preferred retirement ages of 1500 workers aged 55 years and older were compared. Regression analyses were used to investigate the influence of educational level and professional position on deviances between the expected and preferred retirement ages. On average older workers would like to retire 1.75 years earlier than they actually expect to. The deviance is significantly larger for employees with a lower professional position, lower income and lower educational level. The discrepancy between expected and preferred retirement ages, in particular for older workers in vulnerable labor market positions, indicates a potential social inequality regarding the choice of retirement timing. This must be acknowledged when considering further reforms of the German pension system.

  4. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  5. Early retirement and mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühntopf, Stephan; Tivig, Thusnelda

    2012-02-01

    Differences in mortality by retirement age have an important impact on the financing of pension insurance, yet no clear-cut results for Germany exist so far. We calculate mortality rates by retirement age from microdata on all German old-age pensioners and 1.84 million deceases. The life expectancies and survival probabilities at age 65 are estimated for population subgroups according to creditable periods because of disease and pension income. Early-retired men who reach the age of 65 years live significantly longer the later early retirement occurs; the life expectancy at age 65 ranges from 13 to 17.8 years. For each retirement age, mortality of men is higher the more periods of disease are credited in the pension insurance system. For a given length of credited periods of disease, mortality of early retirees decreases with the retirement age. 'Healthy worker selection effects' operating in the labour market may contribute to these results. The 'work longer, live longer'-result is found for each pension income quintile, which resolves the J-curve pattern found in the literature. The mortality of female old-age pensioners varies little with retirement age.

  6. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  7. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term.

  8. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  9. [The history of insurance medicine in Germany].

    PubMed

    Raestrup, O

    2002-09-01

    Necessity for insurance was recognized even in ancient and medieval times. In modern times, mathematical and statistical research into mortality ratios, led to the start up of insurance companies. Medical advice was needed. Family doctors, medical advisers and chief physicians of the insurance companies became essential for insurance medicine. The "numerical method" and improved tarif systems were used to investigate the survival rates of people in poor health. In Germany, extensive statistical analysis of medical records was performed in a central data management office (Mitteilungsstelle für Sonderwagnisse). The Dr. Karl-Wilder-Foundation of the German insurance companies subsidized research into causality of diseases, course and prognosis affecting life expectancy. In health insurance publications on historical insurance medical work are rare. In accident insurance medicine, concrete conception of terms started especially after the second world war. Insurance medical knowledge was promoted in the department for insurance medicine of the German Association for Insurance Science (Deutscher Verein für Versicherungswissenschaft). Scientific publication started in 1886. Collaboration with related disciplines such as traumatology, forensic medicine and biostatistic was beneficial and should be extended in the future.

  10. [Psychiatric Emergencies in Psychiatric Hospitals in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Beuys, David; Hamann, Johannes; Messer, Thomas; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Psychiatric hospitals are confronted with high rates of psychiatric emergencies. There are, however, only few investigations that focus on psychiatric emergency care in German psychiatric hospitals, their supply structures and diagnostic and treatment standards. The aim of the survey was a systematic acquisition of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in treating psychiatric emergencies in German psychiatric hospitals. Methods: We conducted a survey in psychiatric hospitals throughout Germany. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the structures of supply and diagnostic and therapeutic standards treating psychiatric emergencies. Results: 42 % of all admissions to German psychiatric hospitals were emergency admissions. More than 60 % of the patients in psychiatric emergency ambulances had to receive inpatient treatment. As standard procedures for medical clearing in psychiatric emergencies physical examination, measurement of heart rate and blood pressure and conducting certain laboratory tests and breath alcohol were named. The most common psychopharmacological agents for emergency situations were diazepam, lorazepam, haloperidol and zuclopenthixol. Conclusion: Diagnosing and treating psychiatric emergencies need more standardisation. More specific data is required to generate diagnostic and therapeutic standards. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Estimating the Number of Buildings in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnisch, M.; Ultsch, A.

    The debate on sustainable development has lead to the view of buildings as flows (mass, energy, money and information) or capitals. In this context buildings are considered as the largest physical, economical, social and cultural capital of a society. In Germany many institutions record different kind of data about buildings. Unfortunately there are just a few basic statistics about the amount of buildings. Collection of data is very complicated, often expensive and the handling of missing data is one of the biggest handicaps. With the exception of data about residential buildings and particularly monuments, it is an unsolved problem to determine the total number of buildings. Thus the main issue of this article is the description of an appropriate estimation procedure. This procedure relies on 12,430 communes and refers to data from the Cadaster of Real Estates and the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR). The estimation is based on statistical data from well-known and easily accessible institutions. The number of buildings is estimated for communes with missing data. Using methods from the, so called, Urban Data Mining approach, unsuspected relationships are found in the urban data. These relationships are valuable for the estimation. The quality of the estimation is analyzed by training and test data sets. Information optimization leads to the conclusion that 20% of the communes hold 80% of all buildings. For an improvement of the estimation it is essential to refine the amount and quality of data in the larger communes.

  12. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  13. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.

  14. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  15. Decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Brennecke, P.; Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following aspects of decommissioning and dismantling strategies in the federal republic of germany: legal requirements, nuclear installations to be decommissioned, reactor dismantling techniques, and radioactive waste management.

  16. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  17. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  18. Isolation of sindbis virus from a hooded crow in Germany.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Martin; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Müller, Kerstin; Granzow, Harald; Jöst, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus that causes clinical symptoms, including arthritis, rash, and fever during acute human infections. In Europe, SINV outbreaks are largely restricted to northern Europe. Intrigued by the isolation of SINV from mosquitoes in southwestern Germany in 2009, we initiated a passive arbovirus-monitoring program in birds and analyzed a total of 685 samples. By this approach, we were able to detect a SINV in a Hooded Crow in Germany for the first time. It was possible to isolate SINV virus in cell cultures and even to visualize virus particles by electron microscopy. After the determination of the complete SINV genome sequence, the phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to SINV genotype I sequences previously obtained from mosquitoes in Germany and Scandinavia. This first report on the isolation of viable SINV indicates the potential involvement of crows in an enzootic circulation of SINV in Germany and Central Europe.

  19. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  20. Springer--Germany's Most Remorselessly Criticized Publishing Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the success of West Germany's publishing giant, Axel Springer Verlag, can be attributed to the technical excellence of its products and to the fact that these products reflect the mainstream of German thought. (FL)

  1. Extraterrestrial research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This German program for basic extraterrestrial research is an essential, successful, and worldwide recognized part of the space program and has the same attributes for basic research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers all major scientific disciplines.

  2. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  3. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Zimbal, A; Busch, F; Eichelberger, A; Engelhardt, J; Figel, M; Frasch, G; Günther, K; Jordan, M; Martini, E; Haninger, T; Rimpler, A; Seifert, R

    2014-12-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples.

  4. [Continuing Medical Education in Germany - mandatory and voluntary obligations].

    PubMed

    Böthin, Elke

    2013-01-01

    After 1945 the common medical training infrastructure was broken up into two different political systems. While in the Federal Republic of Germany the structure was based on physicians' self-governance, in the German Democratic Republic medical professional structures were organised by the government. After the unification of the two German states, which took place on October 3, 1990, the centralistic structure was replaced by the system of physician self-governance. Before January 1, 2004, continuing medical education (CME) in West Germany relied on a system of voluntary obligations. In East Germany, though, professional CMEs were compulsory; they were called "obligatorische periphere Fortbildung." Based on 15 expert interviews on the topic of "CME in Germany", the different circumstances and conditions were analysed taking account of the historical background. Only selected professionals with experience in both German states (one with a federal, the other with a centralistic system), were chosen for the survey. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  6. Safety features of future LWR in Germany - regulatory view

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Weil, L.

    1997-12-01

    The present state of advances in safety considerations regarding future PWR and BWR in the Federal Republic of Germany is described from the regulatory point of view. The role of deterministic and, in particular, probabilistic methods to be applied in the design process is explained. A further topic is the special situation of the ongoing harmonization process between France and Germany concerning safety objectives and requirements for future pressurized water reactors especially the EPR project. 11 refs.

  7. Area Handbook Series: East Germany: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    Germany, 192-93, teaching of political reliability, 240. 211-15 241; and the Third World , 241 foreign trade, xxiii, 136, 147-54; Asian French Revolution...Toward the Third World , ch. 4). To be sure, in extending this aid East Germany has gained political recognition from other countries as well as access to...capitals, culminated in World War I. Weltpolitik (global politics ), which included the establishment of overseas colonies and the development of

  8. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  9. A case of autochthonous human Dirofilaria infection, Germany, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Tappe, D; Plauth, M; Bauer, T; Muntau, B; Dießel, L; Tannich, E; Herrmann-Trost, P

    2014-05-01

    In March 2014, an infection with the nematode Dirofilaria repens was diagnosed in a German citizen in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. The patient had developed an itching subcutaneous nodule containing a female worm, which was identified as D. repens by 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Autochthonous human D. repens infections have not been described in Germany so far, but this finding is consistent with the recent detection of D. repens in mosquitoes from east Germany.

  10. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1)…

  11. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  12. Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Monika; Kräplin, Anja; Braun, Barbara; Kraus, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. [A report on clinical PET activities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, M; Kubota, K; Itoh, M; Sasaki, H; Moser, E

    1999-09-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedure using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. To promote clinical use of PET, sociomedical evaluation is necessary. In this paper, sociomedical situations concerning clinical use of PET in Germany is reported. Some comparisons are made between Japan and this country putting emphases on several points such as 1) number of cyclotron and PET facilities, 2) social restriction to transportation of radioisotopes, 3) activities of satellite PET facilities, and 4) clinical indications for PET studies. Number of cyclotron was larger in Japan (29) than in Germany (17), but number of PET facilities was larger in Germany (47) than in Japan (29). The reason seems that in Germany transportation and buying of radioisotopes is less restricted. Hence, more than half of PET facilities in Germany are "satellite facilities" which do not have their own cyclotrons. Radioisotope distribution seems to serve as a backbone of "satellite concept." Additionally in Germany, list of clinical indications for PET study is almost completed and now is widely in applied to most cases. To promote clinical use of PET in Japan, the German system might serve as an important socioeconomic model in Europe instead of the United States.

  14. Monitoring of climate change in Germany - data, products and services of Germany's National Climate Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, F.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Penda, E.; Mächel, H.; Zimmermann, K.; Kaiser-Weiss, A.; Deutschländer, T.

    2013-08-01

    Germany's national meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) is the responsible authority for monitoring climate change in Germany. To fulfill this task it operates the National Climate Data Centre ("Nationales KlimaDatenZentrum, NKDZ"). The historical and current instrumental measurements and visual observations of DWD's station network are archived, quality-controlled and used to provide aggregated products, as for example daily and monthly means or climate normals. Gridded data are generated and used to derive time series of national and regional averages. Phenological observations and radiosonde data are also part of the data base. In recent years, additional historical data have been digitized to expand the data base. The products are used for informing the public, e.g. as an element of the German climate atlas (http://www.deutscher-klimaatlas.de). One major recent activity was the provision of information for the new climatological reference interval 1981-2010 and an updated climatological analysis based on the newly digitized data.

  15. Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage). Finally, the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was calculated and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Material and methods: Calculations were based on data as published by the Federal Institute of Statistics or on request, if needed. The latest data were provided for 2013. Results: The total number of the aforementioned diseases (stratified by ICD-10) decreased from 142,574 (in 2000) to 87,624 in 2013 (38.5%). Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, was performed in a total of 833,896 patients between 2006 and 2013 in Germany. The yearly number decreased continually from 120,993 in 2006 to 84,332 procedures in 2013 (30.3%). The most significant decrease was registered in patients younger than 20 years of age for this time period: 70.92 per 10,000 in 2010 to 58.68 per 10,000 in 2013. If all age groups were included, the rate decreased from 13.34 per 10,000 to 10.90 per 10,000. In contrast, an increasing number of tonsillotomies was observed between 2007 (4,659 procedures) and 2013 (11,493). The cumulated number of procedures was 59,049. A constant number of 15,000 cases with peritonsillar abscess were diagnosed per year in Germany (19 patients per 100,000). The prevalence increased significantly at an age of 15 years and there was a preponderance of female patients below that age. Compared to the

  16. [One decade of HPV vaccination in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schneede, P

    2017-06-01

    As a worldwide very common sexually transmitted infection (STI), HPV causes millions of genital warts every year and is responsible for 5% of all cancers in men and women. With strong empirical evidence for both vaccine safety and efficacy, the HPV vaccines proved to protect against these HPV-related conditions over the last decade. But current HPV vaccination coverage is suboptimal in many countries. Even in Germany the absence of a school-based immunization program and the recommendation of a publicly funded girls-only HPV vaccination strategy are the main reasons for a female coverage rate under 40%, which does not achieve herd immunity for the boys. Therefore, the German immunization program urgently needs revision to fight an increasing number of young Germans missing out on the most important development in cancer prevention. Gender-neutral bundling of the HPV vaccine to other routinely recommended vaccines for preteens at one visit will have many advantages at the same time: Lowering the age of HPV vaccination to 9-12 years will improve the cost-effectiveness because a two-dose vaccination schedule is established on this score. Time-consuming and redundant explanations of the attending physician as well as parent's discussion on feeling stigmatized by the STI nature of HPV could be avoided in a combined vaccination setting. By expanding the HPV vaccination to boys, the resulting gender-neutral vaccination program can be cost-effective if all HPV-related diseases which can be prevented by vaccination are considered.

  17. Risk factors for AA amyloidosis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Lohse, Peter; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Ho, Anthony D; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2015-03-01

    To identify risk factors for serum amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in patients living in Germany. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from 71 patients with AA amyloidosis. SAA1 genotypes were analyzed in 231 individuals. Control groups comprised 45 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 age-matched patients without any inflammatory disease. The most frequent underlying diseases of AA amyloidosis were familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (n = 24, 34%) and inflammatory rheumatic diseases (n = 30, 42%). Patients without any known underlying disease (n = 11, 16%) were considered as having idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Patients with FMF were significantly younger at disease onset and younger at diagnosis of AA amyloidosis compared with patients with rheumatic diseases. Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were older than patients with definite rheumatic diseases. Patients with FMF and high penetrance MEFV gene mutations had a relative risk of 1.73 for AA amyloidosis. Patients with FMF or a rheumatic disease and the SAA1 α/α genotype had a relative risk of 4.86 and 2.53, respectively, for developing an AA amyloidosis. The prevalence of this risk genotype was 36% in German patients without an inflammatory disease, 92% in German patients with AA amyloidosis and 100% in German patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Risk factors for AA amyloidosis are the presence of a hereditary autoinflammatory or chronic rheumatic disease, elevated C-reactive protein and SAA serum levels, a long delay of a sufficient therapy, an advanced age and the SAA1α/α genotype.

  18. Children of Hippocrates: doctors in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Boozer, J S

    1980-07-01

    One of the more unexplored yet frightening aspects of the Nazi years in Germany, 1933-45, is the conduct of the doctors during those years. Many of them abandoned the traditional guiding norms for the practice of medicine, archaically expressed in the Hippocratic oath, and proposed, carried out, and cooperated with medical experiments without the consent of subjects and with little promise of any contribution to medical science. Many also participated in research and other medical activities, such as euthanasia and mass sterilization, whose purposes had nothing to do with a contribution to medical knowledge that would eventually save or improve life, but were simply for the manipulation and killing of persons. These activities quickly fell under the control of Nazi ideology, with no protest on the basis of the norms of medical practice by societies of medical doctors and psychiatrists, and with little, albeit costly, protest by individuals. A brief survey of what the Medical case and the Auschwitz trial revealed about the conduct of the doctors raises the question of the status and effectiveness of a professional standard like the Hippocratic oath against the power of the state. This, in turn, raises the question about the basis of the rights of man outside of what is enacted and secured by a nation-state. In facing this question, an appeal is made for the nurture of care about human rights, among professional groups with transnational identities as well as among individuals and voluntary nonprofessional associations among the general citizenry. Finally, a claim is made for specific kinds of social-political responsibilities of doctors in modern society.

  19. Building A Middle Eastern Alliance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-12

    implementation of NATO model to METO by reviewing NATO and suggesting some applications . Thesis This paper proposes building a Middle Eastern alliance to...ranging from terror activity and insurgency to a full- scale conventional war. The US contribution to the alliance may also include extending its...and alliance history is no different. NATO was founded to oppose a Soviet threat. The threat is long gone but NATO is still extremely relevant and

  20. Eastern Europe: Please stand by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougan, D. L.; Hoagland, J.; Koehler, J.; Marshall, T.; Sekulow, E.

    1990-05-01

    The objectives of the Task Force on Telecommunications and Broadcasting in Eastern Europe are: (1) to assess and evaluate the current infrastructure, policies, and plans for telecommunications and broadcasting; (2) to make recommendations to the Department of State for short and long-term U.S. private sector involvement and initiatives; and (3) to share with key host country leaders perspectives and expertise of senior U.S. corporate leaders on potential opportunities and obstacles of telecommunications and broadcasting in economic development.

  1. Military Spending in Eastern Europe,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    on defense (the sums are less than the corresponding expenditures by the republics) or whether they involve military spending above and beyond that...certain military expenditures on personnel are included in budgetary categories other than defense spending . Transportation of soldiers to their first... expenditures and forces and military spending decisions in Eastern Europe. iii L SUMMARY Although the Soviet Union is the most threatening potential

  2. Prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among children in united Germany: a descriptive comparison.

    PubMed Central

    von Mutius, E.; Fritzsch, C.; Weiland, S. K.; Röll, G.; Magnussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among children in Munich, western Germany, and Leipzig, eastern Germany, where environmental exposure, particularly air concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter, and living conditions have differed over the past 45 years. DESIGN--Prevalence surveys among school-children aged 9-11 years in Leipzig and Munich. Self completion of written questionnaire by the children's parents and lung function measurements. SUBJECTS--1051 children in Leipzig and 5030 in Munich. SETTING--Primary schools. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Reported lifetime prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness assessed by cold air inhalation challenge. RESULTS--The lifetime prevalence of asthma diagnosed by a doctor was 7.3% (72) in Leipzig and 9.3% (435) in Munich; prevalence of wheezing were 20% (191) and 17% (786) respectively. The prevalence of diagnosed bronchitis was higher in Leipzig than Munich (30.9% (303) v 15.9% (739); p < 0.01). A significant drop in forced expiratory volume (> 9%) after cold air challenge was measured in 6.4% (57) of children in Leipzig and in 7.7% (345) of those in Munich. Hay fever (2.4% (24) v 8.6% (410); p < 0.01) and typical symptoms of rhinitis (16.6% (171) v 19.7% (961); p < 0.05) were reported less often in Leipzig than in Munich. CONCLUSIONS--No significant differences were seen in the lifetime prevalence of asthma, wheezing, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between children in Leipzig and Munich. The lifetime prevalence of bronchitis was higher in Leipzig than in Munich. The lower prevalence rates of allergic disorders in Leipzig could point toward aetiological factors that are associated with Western lifestyle and living conditions. PMID:1486303

  3. Impact of rotavirus vaccination in regions with low and moderate vaccine uptake in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Koch, Judith; an der Heiden, Matthias; Oberle, Doris; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Wichmann, Ole

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, routine RV-vaccination is not adopted into the national immunization schedule as of 2012. Because RV-vaccines were already on the market since 2006, in 2010 a moderate (58%) and low (22%) vaccine uptake was observed in the 5 eastern federal states (EFS) and the 11 western federal states (WFS), respectively. To assess the impact of RV-vaccination, we compared the incidence rates (IR) of RV-related hospitalizations before (2004‒2006) and in seasons after (2008/09–2010/11) RV-vaccine introduction in Germany by utilizing data from the national mandatory disease reporting system. In the EFS, the IR was significantly reduced in age-groups < 18 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 24 mo in 2009/10–2010/11. In the WFS an IR-reduction was observed only in age-groups < 12 mo in 2008/09 and in age-groups < 18 mo in 2009/10–2010/11. Overall IR-reduction in age-groups < 24 mo comparing 2008–11 with 2004–06 was 36% and 25% in EFS and WFS, respectively. In addition, we computed IR-ratios (IRR) in the seasons after mid-2006 with negative binomial regression. The effect of vaccination was independent from the geographic region. Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in RV-related hospitalizations in the age-groups 6–23 mo. Most prominently, vaccination of 50% of infants led to an estimated decrease in age group 6–11 mo by 42%. No significant reduction was observed in age-groups ≥ 24 mo. In conclusion, in the German setting with low to moderate vaccine uptake, RV-related hospitalization incidence decreased substantially depending on the achieved vaccination coverage, but only in the first two years of life. PMID:22960495

  4. Current status of allergy prevalence in Germany: Position paper of the Environmental Medicine Commission of the Robert Koch Institute.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Heinrich, Joachim; Niemann, Hildegard

    resulted in an alignment of prevalence rates in East and West Germany. In contrast to adults, there was no longer a discernible difference in the prevalence of asthma, hay fever, and allergic sensitization in children between the western and eastern German federal states. In international comparisons with prevalence data from other studies, the participating German centers are in the lower third of the distribution of frequency for both children and adults.

  5. [Feeding of dogs and cats in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Dillitzer, N; Sauter-Louis, C; Kienzle, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological data on the feeding of dogs and cats in Germany. A total of 865 dog owners and 243 cat owners were interviewed using standardised questionnaires about their animals (age, sex, weight, body condition, health) and feeding, including treats, additional supplements and reasons for food changes, together with data on the pet owners (age, sex, education, profession). The interviews took place in the waiting rooms of veterinarians, in dog schools, animal shelters and public parks as well as via the internet. Body condition scoring (BCS, scale 1-9) was performed separately by the pet owners and the interviewer. The mean age of dogs was 4.8 years and of cats 6.8 years. The dogs' body weight ranged from 2.2kg (Pomeranian dog) to 95kg (Saint Bernard). The cats had a body weight from 2 to 11kg. Approximately 52% of dogs and cats were overweight (BCS6-9). Differences existed between the assessment by the owner and the interviewer. Many owners underestimated the body condition, in particular, moderate overweight was not recognised (BCS6-7). Commercial food was exclusively used by 58% of dog and 90% of cat owners, while 35% and 10%, respectively, combined these with additional feed. Nearly 8% of dog and <1% of cat owners fed their pets with home-made diets. Elderly (>7 years) and sick dogs received home-made diets more often. Older pet owners (≥ 46 years) fed their pets home-made diets more frequently. The education and profession of owners did not affect the percentage of home-made diets. There was no effect of the type of diet on BCS. Owners with a lower education as well as housewives and pensioners more often had overweight pets. Older owners and working owners gave treats less frequently. However, 95% of dogs and 65% of cats received treats. Being overweight is the biggest dietary problem. In comparison to previous studies, the number of overweight pets has increased. Pet owners should be advised early on excess weight

  6. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  7. Intake of intense sweeteners in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bär, A; Biermann, C

    1992-03-01

    The dietary intake of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin was evaluated in Germany (FRG) in 1988/89. In the first part of the study the sweetener intake was evaluated in a representative sample of the population. Complete 24-h records of the amount and type of all foods and drinks consumed were obtained from 2,291 individuals. The total daily intake was calculated for each person from the sweetener content of each product and was expressed in mg/kg body weight (bw). 35.9% of the participants ingested one or more sweeteners on the examination day. Cyclamate and saccharin were the prominent sweeteners because aspartame was at that time permitted only under special regulatory exemption, and products containing acesulfame were not yet available. For users of intense sweeteners the mean intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.15, 2.62, and 0.250 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. At the 90th percentile of intake, i.e., for the heavy consumer, the ingestion of cyclamate and saccharin was about 2.5 times higher. Persons who adhered to a diet (diabetes, weight control) did not ingest sweeteners in substantially higher amounts. Tabletop sweeteners and beverages were the most important sources of sweeteners, and they contributed more than 80% of the total intake. Consumption of sweeteners in excess of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) was rarely observed (saccharin: one person, cyclamate: 16 persons). In the second part of the study, the sweetener intake was further evaluated during a 7-day period in those subjects who in the 1-day study ingested any of the sweeteners in excess of 75% of the ADI. Complete 7-day food records were available from 40 out of the 41 subjects who fulfilled this criterium. In this selected subgroup in which 19 subjects were less than 19 years old, the mean daily intakes of aspartame, cyclamate, and saccharin were 0.13, 4.53, and 0.42 mg/kg body weight (bw), respectively. These levels correspond to 0.33, 41 and 17% of the corresponding ADI

  8. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a "natural oil" like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  9. Volcanic and geochemical evolution of the Carboniferous Teplice Rhyolite, Central-European Variscides (Germany and Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, Raymundo; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Rapprich, Vladislav; Lapp, Manuel; Schulz, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The Altenberg-Teplice Volcanic Complex (ATVC; 325 Ma) represents one of the earliest magmatic centers of the Late- to Post-tectonic period of the Variscan orogeny in Central Europe. The ca. 35×18 km ATVC is located in the Erzgebirge/Krušné hory (Germany/Czech Republic) and hosts two principal extrusive units: (1) an initial volcanosedimentary succession preserved in the Schönfeld-Altenberg Depression Complex (Walther et al., in press) and (2) a thick volcanic pile produced during the peak eruptive stage, known as the Teplice Rhyolite (TR). The TR represents mainly a caldera-fill sequence (Benek, 1991), whose volcanic and geochemical evolution has not been fully defined. Seven petrotypes have been mapped in the TR on the Czech side (Jiránek et al., 1987). To the north, on German territory, Lobin (1986) distinguished eight petrotypes. The TR is dominated by thick sheets of welded and non-welded crystal clast-rich (< 45 %) ignimbrites, which are intercalated with rhyolitic lava-dome complexes. The ATVC has been intruded by late high-volume granite porphyritic melts and several plutons associated, in parts, with Sn-, Li mineralization. Two important drillings expose over 600 m of TR volcanics. Samples from (1) the Mi-4 borehole (Mikulov, Czech Republic) have been geochemically evaluated and a vertical reverse chemical zoning (Zr, Rb) was identified and interpreted in terms of a continuous eruption (Breiter et al., 2001). In (2) the well 2112-87 near Schmiedeberg in Germany, ignimbrites are separated by two rhyolitic, lithophysae-bearing lava units, suggesting a multistage caldera evolution. In the South of the ATVC out- and subcrops reveal a caldera outflow facies. In Czech Republic, ignimbrites prevail with a single belt of late-stage rhyolitic lavas on the eastern margin. We present sixty new whole-rock and mineral chemical data (biotite) to define the geochemical evolution, the composition and the chemical character of the TR rocks. Currently, Nd-Sr isotopes

  10. Early Paleozoic (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) acritarchs from the metasedimentary Baden-Baden-Gaggenau zone (Schwarzwald, SW Germany).

    PubMed

    Montenari, M; Servais, T

    2000-12-01

    The metasediments of the low-grade metamorphosed Baden-Baden-Gaggenau zone of the northern Schwarzwald (southwestern Germany) have been analyzed palynologically. From 133 samples representing different metasedimentary units, only three samples of the upper part of the Traischbach Serie provide extremely poorly-preserved palynomorphs. The assemblage consists of the galeate acritarch genera Caldariola, Cymatiogaleaand Stelliferidium, as well as specimens of diacromorph and polygonomorph acritarchs. Although determinations are difficult at the generic level and essentially impossible at the specific level, the assemblage can be attributed to an interval between the Late Cambrian and Early Ordovician. This is the first biostratigraphical age assignment for the metasediments of the Baden-Baden-Gaggenau zone, which can possibly be correlated with the Villé Unit of the northern Vosges Mountains (eastern France).

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern cottontail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is the most widely distributed cottontail in North America (Chapman et al. 1982). The species is considered to be a generalist that occupies a variety of habitats from southern Canada southward into South America (Chapman et al. 1980). The eastern cottontail's range overlaps that of six other species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and six species of hares (Lepus spp.). Eastern cottontails have been widely transplanted and are believed to be expanding their range northward, particularly in the Northeast (Chapman et al. 1982). The eastern cottontail has been successfully introduced into portions of Oregon and Washington which are outside of the species' natural range (Chapman and Morgan 1973). The eastern cottontail is primarily nocturnal and is a principal game species in the eastern United States.

  12. Does underutilization of prenatal care explain the excess risk for stillbirth among women with migration background in Germany?

    PubMed

    Reime, Birgit; Lindwedel, Ulrike; Ertl, Karin M; Jacob, Carina; Schücking, Beate; Wenzlaff, Paul

    2009-01-01

    To explore the role of utilization of prenatal care on the risk for stillbirth among women with migration background in Germany by comparing stillbirth rates of women from different origins characterized by adequate and inadequate utilization of prenatal care to German women with adequate utilization of care. Retrospective cohort study. Lower Saxony, Germany. Singletons born in 1990, 1995 and 1999 (n = 182,444). We analyzed perinatal data collected by obstetricians and midwives prospectively during pregnancy and after birth. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was applied. Chi-squared tests and bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Stillbirth rates. In crude analyses, inadequate utilization of prenatal care (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.52, 2.28), and origin from Central and Eastern Europe (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.63, 2.58), the Mediterranean (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.38, 2.65), the Middle East (OR = 2.63, 95% CI 2.24, 3.09) and other countries (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89) were related to stillbirths. After adjustment for age, parity, smoking, inter-pregnancy interval, employment status and year of observation, compared to Germans with adequate utilization of prenatal care, women with adequate utilization of care from Central and Eastern Europe (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.33, 2.29) and the Middle East (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.64, 2.39) and women with inadequate utilization of prenatal care from the Mediterranean (OR = 3.00, 95% CI 1.71, 5.26) were at higher risk for stillbirths. There are inconsistent relation patterns between stillbirth, area of origin and utilization of prenatal care. Among women from the Mediterranean, increasing utilization of prenatal care may result in lower stillbirth rates.

  13. Different survival outcomes after curative R0-resection for Eastern Asian and European gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Woo; Joo, Jungnam; Yoon, Hong Man; Eom, Bang Wool; Ryu, Keun Won; Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong Cherl; Schuhmacher, Christoph; Siewert, Joerg Ruediger; Reim, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several retrospective analyses on patients who underwent gastric cancer (GC) surgery revealed different survival outcomes between Eastern (Korean, Japanese) and Western (USA, Europe) countries due to potential ethnical and biological differences. This study investigates treatment outcomes between specialized institution for GC in Korea and Germany. The prospectively documented databases of the Gastric Cancer Center of the National Cancer Center, Korea (NCCK) and the Department of Surgery of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Germany were screened for patients who underwent primary surgical resection for GC between 2002 and 2008. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ2 testing, and 2 cohorts were matched using a propensity score matching (PSM) method. Patients’ survival was estimated using Kaplan–Meier method, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used for comparison. Three thousand seven hundred ninety-five patients were included in the final analysis, 3542 from Korea and 253 from Germany. Baseline characteristics revealed statistically significant differences for age, tumor location, pT stage, grading, lymphatic vessel infiltration (LVI), comorbidities, number of dissected lymph nodes (LN), postoperative complications, lymph-node ratio stage, and application of adjuvant chemotherapy. After PSM, 171 patients in TUM were matched to NCCK patients, and baseline characteristics for both cohorts were well balanced. Patients in Korea had significantly longer survival than those in Germany both before and after PSM. When the analysis was performed for each UICC stage separately, same trend was found over all UICC stages before PSM. However, significant difference in survival was observed only for UICC I after PSM. This analysis demonstrates different survival outcomes after surgical treatment of GC on different continents in specialized centers after balancing of baseline characteristics by PSM. PMID:27428238

  14. A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky's disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, G; Freuling, C; Denzin, N; Schaarschmidt, U; Nieper, H; Hlinak, A; Burkhardt, S; Klopries, M; Dedek, J; Hoffmann, L; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Müller, T

    2012-02-01

    Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102,387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62,766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented.

  15. [Dental education in Germany: new concepts for the dental curriculum].

    PubMed

    Hugger, A; Hugger, S; Kordass, B

    2011-09-01

    In Germany, the dental curriculum is still based on dental licensing regulations ("Approbations-/Prüfungsordnung für Zahnärzte") from 1955. Essential changes of the dental licensing regulations have not been made for over 50 years-unlike the medical licensing regulations in Germany. Teaching and learning concepts have, nevertheless, changed considerably in medical and dental education over time. The present study delivers an analysis about reform initiatives in dental education in Germany and introduces examples of innovative projects. To be able to establish long-term and broad reforms in dental education, new licensing regulations for dentists are required. This should create a contemporary framework for education, which assigns resources and enables occupational profile development at specific locations. Thereby, compatibility with the medical curriculum has to be guaranteed just as required adaptations of admission and curricular capacity regulations for dentistry.

  16. Tobacco industry influence on science and scientists in Germany.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Thilo; Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German trade organization. An extensive network of scientists and scientific institutions with tobacco industry links was developed. Science was distorted in 5 ways: suppression, dilution, distraction, concealment, and manipulation. The extent of tobacco industry influence over the scientific establishment in Germany is profound. The industry introduced serious bias that probably influenced scientific and public opinion in Germany. This influence likely undermined efforts to control tobacco use.

  17. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  18. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  19. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2013-04-01

    will enable the researchers to calculate the European carbon fluxes with a resolution of 10 km. The ICOS-D Atmospheric Observational Network for Germany, when fully established, will comprise 9 atmospheric sites. In the Ocean Program, volunteer observing ships (VOS) plying regular routes in the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea will be instrumented to make autonomous observations of physical and biochemical parameters (temperature, salinity) and sea surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). In addition, two ocean observatories at the Cape Verde Islands and Svalbard ('Hausgarten') will be part of the long-term research infrastructure. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will provide continuous measurements of trace gas fluxes between ecosystems and the atmosphere. The measurements will be conducted in forests, grasslands, croplands and wetlands and will partly build on sites that have been run for a decade or more in the framework of EU-projects such as CarboEuropeIP. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Program will be designed in 5 - 6 clusters. A cluster is a group of sites at close range but under different land use. This will ensure high representativeness for climate, soils properties and regional land use criteria. The CAL will provide calibration gases for the entire network in order to minimize offsets and calibration uncertainties between the measurements at different stations. It will further provide a centralized analysis of grab samples taken within the whole ICOS RI network for additional trace gases and isotope ratios, including radiocarbon which provides an independent method to quantify regional fossil fuel emissions.

  20. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  1. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  2. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  3. West Germany: Bitter pills--a wasted opportunity?

    PubMed

    Lorenz, W

    1984-05-19

    Controversy in West Germany over the book Bittere Pillen has drawn attention to the need of physicians and patients for simple, straightforward drug information. The book, which provides information about the effects and economics of more than 2,000 prescription drugs available in West Germany and Austria, has sold very well despite criticism that its approach is unsystematic, impressionistic, incomplete, out-of-date, and misleading. Lorenz, a physician, sees Bittere Pillen as answering a need, albeit imperfectly, and asks why doctors did not write the book first.

  4. [Malaria importation into Germany in 1989/90].

    PubMed

    Zastrow, K D; Dieckmann, S; Schöneberg, I

    1993-11-01

    Malaria was in 1989/90 the most important imported disease in Germany. Most of all cases were imported by German tourists (about 75%). Africa was the most prominently represented geographic region (about 75%). Kenia and Ghana represented there the biggest share. About 33% of all patients had not done a sufficient prophylaxis against malaria. An adequate prophylaxis against malaria taking into consideration the recommendations for medicaments for different geographical areas is imperative before the number of importations of malaria into Germany can be reduced.

  5. Increased prevalence of Trichinella spp., northeastern Germany, 2008.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-06-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety.

  6. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  7. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    PubMed

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  8. Increased Prevalence of Trichinella spp., Northeastern Germany, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Balicka-Ramisz, Aleksandra; Nöckler, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a Trichinella spp. outbreak occurred on a small family-owned pig farm in Mecklenburg–Western Pomerania in northeastern Germany. To obtain epidemiologic information on this outbreak, we determined that after 2005 the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in wild boars has increased in this region of Germany. We discuss the potential role of the raccoon dog in the increase in Trichinella spp. prevalence in the sylvatic cycle in this region. We believe that this increase could pose a threat to pigs kept in back yard conditions, and we provide recommendations to ensure public health safety. PMID:20507743

  9. Fluorescent matter in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Part 1: method of measurement and near-surface distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determann, S.; Reuter, R.; Wagner, P.; Willkomm, R.

    1994-04-01

    Fluorescence spectra of organic matter in seawater were measured during the cruise ANT-VIII/7 of R.V. Polarsterm through the South and North Atlantic from Capetown (RSA) to Bremerhaven (Germany). The data are calibrated by normalization to the water Raman scatter band which allows their quantification without the need of fluorescence standards. Spectral structures are found which can be related to tryptophan and tyrosine-like substances, and to gelbstoff. Their distribution in the eastern Atlantic is discussed and compared with other hydrographic parameters.

  10. [Ten years after German unification--current behavioural and emotional problems of adolescents in Germany].

    PubMed

    von Widdern, Susanne; Hässler, Frank; von Widdern, Olrik; Richter, Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems based on Youth Self-Report (YSR) were investigated in an empirical sample of 371 students at the age of 13 until 18 years from common secondary and vocational schools in Rostock (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) in 2000/2001. Considering syndromes in comparison with other german and international empirical studies, internalizing and externalizing problems show high prevalence for both girls and boys. Nearly every fifth student judges themselves as within clinical range for psychiatric problems. Girls reported significant more internalizing problems (social withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxious/depressed). An interaction effect by age and sex for aggressive and delinquent behaviour was found with highest prevalence for boys at age 15/16. The frequency of internalizing problems and attention problems increases with adolescent's age. Low adolescent's education level, parental divorce and big size of siblings were associated with externalizing problems, whereas unemployment of the father was associated with depressive and social problems. Delinquent behaviour and attention problems are the most important predictors for negative school outcome like comparatively bad school achievement and low reading ability. The results suppose a possible increase in psychosocial problems of juvenile persons in eastern Germany one decade after German Unification, indicated the necessity of higher supply for preventive and therapeutic programs.

  11. Seroepizootiology of selected infectious disease agents in free-living birds of prey in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schettler, E; Langgemach, T; Sömmer, P; Streich, J; Frölich, K

    2001-01-01

    Four hundred forty-eight blood plasma samples from free-living birds of prey from Berlin and the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany were tested for antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), falcon herpesvirus (FHV), owl herpesvirus (OHV), and Chlamydia psittaci. Antibodies to NDV were detected in 6 (2%) of 346 tested diurnal birds of prey, whereas none of the owls (n = 55) was positive. The positive samples originated from two common buzzards (Buteo buteo), three ospreys (Pandion haliactus) and one marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus). Titers varied between 1:8 and 1:32. Of 253 birds of prey one osprey (<1%) tested positive for antibodies to FHV with low titer of 1:6. This is the first detection of antibodies against FHV in an osprey. Furthermore, antibodies against OHV could be found in one tawny owl (Strix aluco) and one common buzzard (2 of 253, 1%) with low titers of 1:6. Of 422 birds of prey 267 (63%) tested positive for antibodies to Chlamydia psittaci with titers varying between 1:5 and 1:256 which reflects the ubiquitous occurrence of Chlamydia psittaci in these birds of prey.

  12. Local transmission of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Magnis, Johannes; Naucke, Thorsten J; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the first assumed locally transmitted case of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in a dog living in southern Germany. A 4-year-old male golden retriever from the town of Bühl in north eastern Baden-Württemberg, about 10 km from the German-French border, showed one sided lacrimation for over 2 weeks. Despite the application of antibiotics, there was no improvement, and the dog additionally showed blepharospasmus, epiphora and red conjunctivas. A deepened eye inspection revealed five whitish filiform parasites that were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1, 605 bp) from one specimen revealed a novel haplotype, which differs by 1.3% from the only one (haplotype 1) identified in Europe so far. Since the infected dog had never been abroad with the exception of two daytrips to the close Alsace region in France, the transmission of T. callipaeda most probably was domestic. With the presence of end hosts and Phortica flies nourishing on lachrymal secretions acting as intermediate hosts and an increasing number of dogs travelling to and coming from endemic regions in the South, the establishment of T. callipaeda in large parts of Europe cannot be excluded.

  13. Signatures of climate and weather regimes in runoff of the Middle Elbe near Dresden, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, P.; Behrendt, H.

    2009-04-01

    To follow the traces that climate variability and change may have left in archives of terrestrial runoff, empirical modal structures are explored of observed streamflow and related climate and weather time series of the instrumental period. Here the signals are presented and discussed which may be found when using a strategy of two techniques of time series analysis in combination: matching pursuit (MP) and functional streamflow disaggregation (FSD). Hydrologic target of the study is the long daily record of Middle Elbe discharge at a gauging station near Dresden, Germany (period of interest: 1870-1997). At the regional scale, annual frequencies of occurence of the leading five grosswetterlagen (i.e., weather regimes) for Europe are analyzed, together with annual Central European surface air temperature, German precipitation, and sea level pressure at the two action centers of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Azores high and Iceland low. Tropic/subtropical links via the NAO and Eastern Pacific sea surface temperatures to the Southern Oscillation, as well as more direct connections to Asian monsoon dynamics, are confirmed and demonstrated in terms of the purely empirical, yet non-probabilistic, uncalibrated functional (i.e., dynamic) signal relationships found.

  14. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    PubMed

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  15. The Soviet Economic Dilemma of Eastern Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    terms of trade, overinvestment, the hard currency debt crisis , and problems in adopting and diffusing new technologies. At times Soviet policies have...Surpluses with Eastern Europe ........... 31 10. Soviet Trade Surpluses with East European Countries in Crisis ...trade until 1979, and then again in 1981 dur- ing the Polish crisis . Moreover, Soviet terms of trade with Eastern Europe have improved very rapidly

  16. Reduction in Force in Rural Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, R. L.; And Others

    This paper examines factors related to the reduction of certified school personnel in Eastern Kentucky rural school districts. The economy of Eastern Kentucky has relied heavily on the coal industry, which during the past several years has suffered losses resulting in job layoffs and closure of companies. Economic distress caused a declining…

  17. Reduction in Force in Rural Eastern Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, R. L.; And Others

    This paper examines factors related to the reduction of certified school personnel in Eastern Kentucky rural school districts. The economy of Eastern Kentucky has relied heavily on the coal industry, which during the past several years has suffered losses resulting in job layoffs and closure of companies. Economic distress caused a declining…

  18. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  19. Utilization options for decadent eastern hemlock timber

    Treesearch

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is a non-native pest that is decimating the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) population in the forests of the eastern United States. Nearly one third of the area inhabited by native hemlocks in the Central Hardwoods region is infested with the insect. Once a tree is heavily infected, it is estimated that tree...

  20. Silvical characteristics of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)

    Treesearch

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), as its common and scientific names imply, is a native of the eastern United States and adjacent Canada. It is one of the four North American species of this genus. The genus name means "yew-leaved" and is of Japanese origin. In 1763 the species was named Pinus canadensis...

  1. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings

    Treesearch

    Kerry O. Britton

    1998-01-01

    Invasive exotic pest plants, diseases, and insects, have had a dramatic impact on the health and composition of the Eastern forests for many decades. Chestnut blight was discovered in the United States in 1904. Since then, it has virtually destroyed the chestnut population, which once occupied 25 percent of the eastern forest. In the 1860's, the gypsy moth was...

  2. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  3. Eastern Kentucky Teacher and Administrative Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sam; Ballestero, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to survey selected Eastern Kentucky Principals (Elementary, Middle, and High School) to collect data about stress in public schools. A stress survey (Appendix C) was sent to randomly selected elementary, middle, and high school principals located in the Eastern Kentucky region serviced by Morehead State University…

  4. Building Guderian’s Duck: Germany’s Response to the Eastern Front Antitank Crisis, 1941 to 1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and there was little prospect of either improving upon the metallurgical quality of the plate or providing additional thickness without incurring...1942, as well as the improved versions of 1943 and 1944. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18...killer against both the T-34 threat of 1941 and 1942, as well as the improved versions of 1943 and 1944. iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This project

  5. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States...-1127 concerning certain lightweight thermal paper (``LWTP'') from Germany. For further information... Commission determined that a domestic industry was threatened with material injury by reason of imports of...

  6. Germany and Europe Since World War II: Resources for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James F., Ed.; Metcalf, Fay, Ed.

    Designed as a resource for teachers to help high school students understand the new Germany, six background papers and nine lessons provide information on the difficult transition from the Third Reich to defeat and military occupation, on the establishment of two successor states, and on revolution and reunification. The six background papers…

  7. Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klandt, Heinz; Volkmann, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association…

  8. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  9. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.

  10. Germany in Europe, 1945-92: A Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Large, David Clay

    1993-01-01

    Presents a historical review of German relations with European nations from the end of World War II until 1992. Claims that Chancellor Willy Brandt's efforts to improve East-West relations set the stage for German reunification. Contends that Germany's role in a united Europe has yet to be determined. (CFR)

  11. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  12. The Acceptance of the Social Market Economy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…

  13. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  14. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    PubMed

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-07-20

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  15. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  16. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  17. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  18. Multiple Synchronous Outbreaks of Puumala Virus, Germany, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Jakob; Hofmann, Jorg; Enders, Martin; Tewald, Friedemann; Oehme, Rainer M.; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M.; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Schlegel, Mathias; Essbauer, Sandra; Osterberg, Anja; Jacob, Jens; Reil, Daniela; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate 2,017 cases of hantavirus disease in Germany, we compared 38 new patient-derived Puumala virus RNA sequences identified in 2010 with bank vole–derived small segment RNA sequences. The epidemic process was driven by outbreaks of 6 Puumala virus clades comprising strains of human and vole origin. Each clade corresponded to a different outbreak region. PMID:22932394

  19. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  20. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  1. Does Distance Determine Who Attends a University in Germany?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of distance to the nearest university in the demand for higher education in Germany. Distance could matter due to transaction costs or due to neighborhood effects. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) combined with a database on university postal codes to estimate a discrete choice model of the demand for…

  2. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  3. The Life Expectancy of People with Intellectual Disabilities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieckmann, Friedrich; Giovis, Christos; Offergeld, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study presents age group-specific mortality rates and the average life expectancy of people with intellectual disabilities in Germany. Method: For two samples from Westphalia-Lippe and Baden-Wuerttemberg, person-related data for the years 2007-2009 were analysed. Age group-specific mortality rates were estimated by exponential…

  4. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    PubMed

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  6. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  7. Hammer and Compass: Introducing East Germany. An Anthology with Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This anthology introduces students of German to the life of the people of East Germany. The three-part text describes interrelated cultural and political activities which are characteristic of the republic. Part One explores basic communistic philosophy, "a new myth", particularly through commentary on Walter Ulbricht's "Universe,…

  8. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  9. Education in Germany since Unification. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to education in Germany since its unification. The papers include: "The Legacy of Unification" (David Phillips); "Change and Continuity in Education After the 'Wende'" (E. J. Neather); "A Study of Teachers' Perceptions in Brandenburg 'Gesamtschulen'" (Stephanie…

  10. Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

  11. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available.

  12. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  13. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  14. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  15. Novel Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Norway Rats, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Johne, Reimar; Heckel, Gerald; Plenge-Bönig, Anita; Kindler, Eveline; Maresch, Christina; Reetz, Jochen; Schielke, Anika

    2010-01-01

    Human hepatitis E virus infections may be caused by zoonotic transmission of virus genotypes 3 and 4. To determine whether rodents are a reservoir, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E–like virus from 2 Norway rats in Germany. The sequence suggests a separate genotype for this hepatotropic virus. PMID:20735931

  16. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  17. Home Education in Germany: An Overview of the Contemporary Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the situation of home education in Germany. The first results from a predominantly qualitative research project are presented. This combines participant observation, content analysis and qualitative interviews for a thorough sociological analysis of the German home education movement. Compulsory school attendance…

  18. Respite Care Services for the Family in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadler, Johannes B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an overall network of respite care services in the Federal Republic of Germany, the need for respite care services, efforts of a national organization called Lebenshilfe, evolution of the concept of respite care, and future tasks. (Author/JDD)

  19. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  20. Searching for Their Own Identity: Young People in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen; Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the definition of "young people" and asserts there is no clear-cut social description of this group with societal expectations differing from culture to culture. The article analyzes the changes affecting the lives of "youth" in Germany and assesses their social attitudes and values. The contents include…

  1. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  2. 22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. HISTORIC VIEW OF EARLY TEST STAND IN GERMANY PERHAPS THE ENGINE IS FOR THE VFR'S (VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT) 4 STICK REPULSOR. ENGINE IN PHOTOS IS BEING TANKED WITH LOX (NOTICE THE FROST FORMING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK BEHIND THE LADDER. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. Responses of England, Germany and Switzerland to Declining School Enrolments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalski, Catherine

    Results of interviews with educators in England, Germany, and Switzerland are combined with statistical data in this study of the effects of declining enrollment and the development of multicultural programs in those countries. In all three countries, the author encountered a prevailing resistance to program change in the face of declining…

  4. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  5. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  6. Developing Core Skills--Lessons from Germany and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons-Wood, David; Lange, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of core skills efforts in Germany and Sweden shows that both use vocational training to foster core skills and key competencies, but they try to integrate it with existing structures rather than make radical long-term changes. Employers play a crucial role but need substantial incentives. (SK)

  7. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  8. Exchange Internships with Germany: How It Can Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Willard

    A member of the faculty of Concordia College (Moorhead, Minnesota) recounts his experience with developing local internship opportunities for German business students in exchange for internship opportunities in Germany for his international business students. The faculty member had to develop a list of potential companies, in an area of small to…

  9. Bachelor-Master Programmes in the Netherlands and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lub, Anneke; van der Wende, Marijk; Witte, Johanna

    2003-01-01

    This article compares the results of the implementation of the new bachelor-master system in the Netherlands and Germany. The Bologna Process presents the common European context for this reform process. However, the respective national contexts differ, and so do the actual implementation processes and the emerging outcomes. For each of the two…

  10. A Matter of Comparative Music Education? Community Music in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    In German music education, the term "community music" is almost unknown. There could be various reasons for this fact such as a lack of community music activities in Germany, terminological problems concerning the German translation, or an appropriate explanation of the term "community music." This paper will discuss some of…

  11. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  12. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  13. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  14. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  15. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  16. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  17. "Who Photographs Us?" The Workers' Photography Movement in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Karin B.; Hardt, Hanno

    In a discussion of the attempts of the organized workers' photography movement in Weimar Germany to redirect the use of photographs in everyday life, this paper analyzes photographs published in the "Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung," (AIZ) a large and successful picture magazine that emphasized a left-wing, humanitarian approach. The paper…

  18. The New Technology in Political Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Siegfried

    Debate in West Germany among technicians, economists, politicians, and educators about technological advancement and the use of computers focuses on the need to be informed about the consequences of the technological revolution. Some concerns are that computer use will lead to social isolation, a growing bureaucracy and authoritarian power…

  19. Searching for Telecollaboration in Secondary Geography Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies on telecollaboration for educational purposes focus on language-related aspects. Therefore, a qualitative explorative research project was set up at the RuhrUniversity Bochum, Germany, dealing with telecollaboration from the perspective of a non-language discipline; it is based on the approach of transferring…

  20. International Workforce Development Perspectives: Germany and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaal, John

    2007-01-01

    Across the globe, it is no secret to people involved with career and technical education (CTE) that the German apprenticeship system is looked upon as the "gold standard" of workforce development training. In this article, the author compares the responses of subject matter experts (SMEs) in Germany and the United States, two of the…

  1. Differential risk for Lyme disease along hiking trail, Germany.

    PubMed

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer

    2011-09-01

    To estimate relative risk for exposure to ticks infected with Lyme disease-causing spirochetes in different land-use types along a trail in Germany, we compared tick density and spirochete prevalence on ruminant pasture with that on meadow and fallow land. Risk was significantly lower on pasture than on meadow and fallow land.

  2. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  3. Income and Life Satisfaction after Marital Disruption in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Hans-Jurgen; Brockel, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Divorce in Germany and in many other countries is often instigated by the wife, even though marital disruption has much more negative economic consequences for women than for men. Both observations, however, are not necessarily a contradiction. Women may gain something that makes up for the economic loss. On the one hand, using data on income and…

  4. Comparing Empirically Historical Awareness in East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Bodo von; Lehmann, Rainer H.

    A study compared the historical awareness of 2,000 East and West German children in the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades. Because of differing school systems and the general design of the study, researchers analyzed ninth grade data. The study was conducted during the disintegration and reunification of Germany. Students from the two regions…

  5. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  6. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  7. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schlottau, Kore; Jenckel, Maria; van den Brand, Judith; Fast, Christine; Herden, Christiane; Höper, Dirk; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Thielebein, Jens; Mensing, Niels; Diender, Bert; Hoffmann, Donata; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Koopmans, Marion; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We screened squirrels in Germany and the Netherlands for the novel zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1). The detection of VSBV-1 in 11 squirrels indicates a considerable risk for transmission to humans handling those animals. Therefore, squirrels in contact with humans should routinely be tested for VSBV-1. PMID:28221112

  8. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  9. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada.

    PubMed

    von Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health "to a strong degree," 35.3% that weather had "some influence on their health" (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32% of the

  10. Predicting the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royden, L.

    2011-12-01

    From ~30 Ma onwards, the evolution of the Mediterranean region has been dominated by the rapid migration of thin-skinned thrust-belts. Thrust belt migration has been accommodated by the opening of "back arc type" basins within the upper plate of the thrust belts. Migration of these thrust belts is associated with the migration of subduction systems where subduction and thrusting are driven largely by negative slab buoyancy. Where the subducting slab has large negative buoyancy, thrust belt migration is commonly rapid. Where buoyant continental lithosphere enters the subduction system, subduction ceases quickly. Hence the large-scale tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean basin is largely pre-conditioned by its paleogeography. This can be quantitatively illustrated for the Hellenic subduction system where the post Eocene evolution of the Hellenic thrust belt can be ascribed to the buoyancy of the lithosphere subducted. Entry of the Ionian oceanic lithosphere into a slow-moving trench at 10-15 Ma explains the increase in subduction rate along the central part of the trench, to ~35 mm/yr at present, while subduction rates along strike to the northeast, where continental/transitional crust is subducted, remain less than ~10 mm/yr. Using quantitative modeling of the Hellenic subduction system in post Eocene time, it is possible to approximate how this thrust belt, and the active subduction belt of the eastern Mediterranean, will evolve over the next 10 m.y. This exercise suggests that the large-scale evolution of the eastern Mediterranean basin will be strikingly similar to that of the western Mediterranean basin from 20-0 Ma. This highlights the common dynamic mechanism that shapes the large scale deformation and morphology of the Mediterranean basin.

  11. [Surgical research in Germany. Organization, quality and international competitiveness].

    PubMed

    Menger, M D; Laschke, M W

    2012-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany is performed within surgical clinics by individual working groups or in surgical research divisions. Additionally, a few independent institutes and departments of surgical research have been established at medical faculties. The number of these institutions, however, is too small. To increase productivity in surgical research, structural changes are necessary, including additional establishment of further institutes and professorships. The quality of clinical research in surgery in Germany is critically discussed. International comparison shows that Germany has a low ranking with respect to the number of clinical studies published in leading surgical journals. However, there has been some improvement in the quality of clinical studies performed in surgical departments during the last 15 years. The establishment of the study center of the German Society of Surgery shows that excellent clinical studies with adequate numbers of patients can also be performed in Germany and can be published in leading journals. Accordingly, there is need to distribute the structures and the competence necessary to perform clinical studies in a standardized manner to all surgical departments involved in clinical research. The experimental surgical research in Germany is not adequately visible, although over the last 10 years the most relevant publications from institutions for surgical research have been placed in journals with a mean impact factor of 8. This may be due to the fact that 85% of these top publications are published in non-surgical journals. The aim for the future must therefore be to increase the impact factor and, thus, the attractiveness of surgical journals. This may be achieved by publishing the highest quality results from experimental surgical research not in non-surgical but in surgical journals.

  12. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  13. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  14. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  15. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314...

  16. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and...

  17. East Germany's System of State Planning Faces a Thorough Free Market Shake-up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latka-Johring, Sigrid

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties of educational reform in what was formerly East Germany. Describes the educational system in East Germany as uniform and military in nature. Criticizes the one-sidedness of socialist education and its politicalization. Compares classroom atmospheres before and after the Germanies were united. (DK)

  18. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping... order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011... September 15, 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as the...

  19. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The... bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30, 2007...

  20. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  1. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  2. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  3. Learning for the Working World: Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlicht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the past, present, and future of vocational training (VT) in the Federal Republic of Germany. The following topics are discussed: place of VT among the various institutions constituting Germany's education system; Germany's dual system of on-the-job and school VT (historical development, training regulations,…

  4. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  5. Seismic tomography and azimuthal anisotropy for the Southern and Eastern Alps from ambient noise cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Zigone, Dimitri; Kolinsky, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray-EASI Working Group

    2016-04-01

    The eastern part of the Alpine chain is considered as an area of complex tectonics and lithospheric structure. Having a relatively dense network of stations in this region provides an opportunity to study the crustal and lithospheric velocity structure using ambient-noise correlations methods. We used continuous data recorded during 2014 at 50 permanent stations located in Austria, Germany, northern Italy, and Slovenia, along with data from 8 temporary stations of the Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) profile. Cross correlation of ambient noise are performed in order to estimate the Green's functions of surface waves propagating between station pairs. Dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves are constructed between 2 and 30 seconds and are then inverted to obtain group velocity maps at different frequency (depth) levels. We present here a new crustal-lithospheric velocity model for the Southern and Eastern Alps, which reveals clear spatial velocity variation and contrasts, associated with major faults, deformed and damaged zones. In this study, we also assess the azimuthal anisotropy from the group velocity measurements. The new finding together with the previous results from SKS splitting and receiver function provides 3D images of anisotropy at scales ranging from crust to upper mantle. This allows us to discuss the strain field and deformation pattern within both shallow and lithospheric-asthenospheric depth, in relation with the most prominent tectonic processes in the region, such as eastward extrusion of the ALCAPA block (Eastern Alps, Western Carpathian, and Pannonian Basin).

  6. Germany Since Unification. Workshop Leader's Manual. An Introduction to Social Studies Instructional Resource Materials for Teaching about Germany Since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    This manual is designed to offer support for the instructional resources guides on "Germany since Unification." It provides the basis for a full-day inservice training session on the use of those materials. The format can be modified to meet the needs of leaders, audiences, and time frames. Using the materials developed by teachers and…

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  8. Herpes zoster in Germany: Quantifying the burden of disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by a reactivation of the varicella-zoster-virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥ 50 years. Vaccines have been licensed or are under development that can protect against HZ and its main complication postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). In Germany, the burden of disease caused by HZ is not well known. To support the decision making process related to a potential vaccination recommendation, we estimated annual HZ disease burden in people aged ≥ 50 years in Germany by utilizing various data sources. Methods We assessed for 2007 and 2008 HZ-outpatient incidence (number of cases per 1,000 person-years, PY) by utilizing the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (ASHIP) database, which contains nationwide routine outpatient data. For the same time period annual number of HZ-inpatients and HZ-associated deaths were identified by using the Federal Health Monitoring System (FHM). PHN-incidence and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) caused by HZ were calculated by multiplying number of identified HZ-patients with upper and lower limit estimates for proportion of HZ-cases developing PHN and HZ-related QALY, respectively. Results For the study period we identified an annual average of 306,511 HZ-outpatients aged 50+, resulting in a HZ-incidence of 9.6/1,000 PY. A total 14,249 HZ-associated inpatients and 66 deaths were reported in both years on average. HZ-incidence increased by age from 6.21 in people 50-54 years to 13.19 per 1,000 PY in people aged ≥ 90 years. Females were significantly more frequently affected than males in terms of outpatient HZ-incidence (11.12 vs. 7.8 per 1,000 PY), inpatient HZ-incidence (0.51 vs. 0.38 per 1,000 PY) and mortality (0.29 vs. 0.10 per 100,000 PY). PHN-incidence was estimated to range between 0.43 and 1.33 per 1,000 PY. Based on these figures, there were between 3,065 to 24,094 QALYs lost due to HZ in persons aged ≥ 50 years in Germany per annum. Conclusion Our study

  9. Dust Shrouds the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On October 18, 2002, a large dust plume extended across countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Information on the horizontal and vertical extent of the dust are provided by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The left-hand panel portrays the scene as viewed by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Here only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, which is a view from MISR's most steeply forward-looking camera. In addition, this perspective makes shadows cast by clouds onto the dust layer more apparent, providing a visual clue that the dust is at a lower altitude than these clouds.

    The right-hand panel is an elevation field derived from automated MISR stereoscopic processing, in which the heights of clouds and certain parts of the dust plume are retrieved. Because the stereoscopic approach makes use of features within the images that exhibit spatial contrast, heights for much of the dust plume (as well as the ocean surface) could not be retrieved, and these areas are shown in dark gray. Clouds within the image area are situated between about 2 and 5.5 kilometers above sea level, and the dust is located below most of the cloud, at heights of about 1.5 kilometers or less. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is at a near-surface altitude, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. The highest clouds in this scene appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous regions are displayed in light blue and green.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15072. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 827 kilometers, and utilize data from

  10. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Aaron; Townsend, Aaron; Palchak, David; Novacheck, Joshua; King, Jack; Barrows, Clayton; Ibanez, Eduardo; O'Connell, Matthew; Jordan, Gary; Roberts, Billy; Draxl, Caroline; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  11. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  12. Integrating tree-ring and wine data from the Palatinate (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring growth of conifer trees originating from central European low mountain ranges often reveal indistinct growth-climate relationships. Temperature variations can play a crucial role, whereas water availability can also control the annual growth and become the main dominating factor. The low mountain range Pfälzerwald in the Palatinate region represents the largest contiguous forested area in Germany and features at its most eastern limitation a unique ecological setting due to its sandy soils and reduced water availability. In addition, its north-south orientation and associated lee-effects due to predominating westerlies together with altitudinal differences of more than 300 m lead to higher temperatures, lower precipitation amounts, and, as a forest management consequence, to a proportion of up to 80 % of pine trees. Despite these exceptional ecological and climatological prerequisites, calibrating tree-ring width data from 487 Pinus sylvestris core samples against regional meteorological stations (1950-2011) and gridded data (1901-2011) confirm alternating climate control mechanisms. Comparison with drought-related indices (scPDSI), combining precipitation and temperature, unfolds highest correlations with May-July conditions (r=0.34, p<0.05), however, lacking temporal robustness in the early 20th century. The vegetation outside the forested areas in the plain can be characterized as agricultural croplands with vineyards, representing one of the largest wine-growing regions in Germany. We collected and analyzed a 24 datasets of 57 consecutive years (1959-2015) of must sugar content, acidity, alcohol content, and sugar-free extracts in Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, and Silvaner wines, originating from 15 wineries adjoining the forested area into the plain. Correlation of Riesling must sugar content against regional April-August temperature data reveals a highly significant signal (r=0.73, p<0.01; high-pass filtered r=0.49, p<0.01). Sugar-free extract

  13. Digital mapping of loess in Northwest Germany based on satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bianca

    2010-05-01

    Loess maps of various scales are important input data for advanced investigations of spatial loess properties such as variation in grain size, thickness and facies or study of loess provenance. Many representations of loess distribution in Northwest Germany are based on geological maps. Mostly these maps were created at the beginning of the last century. During this time especially thin loess covers were not incorporated in favour of underlying hard rocks or other Quaternary deposits. Due to the change in mapping policy at the end of the last century much more of the unconsolidated rocks, particularly with regard to loess, were displayed on the revised or updated maps. In this study the analysis of optical remote sensing data, ranging from visible light to the infrared, was tested to create a more realistic map of the loess distribution in Northwest Germany. The investigation area includes the loess along the northern loess boundary between Helmstedt and Minden and extends to Kassel and Goettingen in the South. Here, in southern Lower Saxony, northern Hesse and eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, loess and loess derivates are widely distributed apart from river beds, valley flanks, steep slopes and higher mountain ranges. The thickness of the loess cover, that is of Weichselian, sporadic of Saalian or Elsterian age, varies between few centimetres and about 20 m. The hard rocks of the study area were influenced by tectonic and halokinetic processes resulting in a complex and small-scale pattern of folds, depressions, horsts and grabens. Satellite images of the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors, recorded between 1985 and 2008, were used for this study. After radiometric calibration and atmospheric and geometric correction of every dataset, coniferous forest, water and areas of high urbanization were masked. Then a synthetic file was made up of all remaining pixels, preferring the pixel, displaying the purest soil or bare rock. Various digital mapping techniques e.g. band

  14. Co-operation with eastern European countries taking ENAC as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    1994-12-31

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between these companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties.

  15. Attenuation Tomography in Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, C. A.; Phillips, W. S.; Hartse, H. E.; Steck, L. K.; Begnaud, M. L.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2006-12-01

    We are using catalog amplitude parameters to derive a 2D function that maps laterally-varying attenuation features for eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. Our information is from the Michigan State University (MSU) Siberia database, compiled through cooperative efforts of MSU, Russian network operators and Los Alamos researchers. The database also includes information from teleseismic bulletins, such as those provided by the International Seismological Centre, U.S. Geological Survey and Alaska Earthquake Information Center. For Siberia we have ~242,000 S and Sg amplitude readings and ~140,000 P and Pg amplitude readings for source-to-receiver distances in the local to regional range (0 to 15 degrees). In Kamchatka, ~155,000 S amplitude measurements and 85,000 P amplitudes are reported. We derive the 2D attenuation mapping using tomographic methods. The results of our inversion will be compared with known tectonic features in northeastern Russia and with velocity perturbation features derived for the region in previous work.

  16. Social Epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

  17. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-03

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  18. LIMITATIONS TO EASTERN REDCEDAR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive woody plant species are degrading the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems throughout the world. A species of particular concern in Great Plains grasslands is eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), which has rapidly spread due to fire suppression and intenti...

  19. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  20. Morbidity pattern among refugees in Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bisrat, F; Berhane, Y; Mamo, A; Asefa, E

    1995-11-01

    The population of refugees in eastern Africa and the health problems affecting them are enormous. This study was conducted to document the morbidity pattern among refugees in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted to document the morbidity pattern among refugees in eastern Ethiopia. The study utilized a descriptive cross sectional design. Data were collected using a uniform format from all refugee camps in the eastern Ethiopia. Respiratory tract infection and diarrhoeal diseases were identified to be the major causes of morbidity, accounting for 31.8% and 27.3% respectively in children under five years, and for 34.9% and 8.5% respectively in the other age groups. The findings were consistent with other studies done in refugee populations elsewhere. Universality of the problems was noted and a coordinated multidisciplinary approach is recommended to alleviate the health problems of refugees.